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Published by Pelangi, 2021-03-05 03:53:36

Module & More Kimia Tg 4

eBook M&M 2021 Kimia Tg4

Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 6 Asid, Bes dan Garam 

Eksperimen 6.9 Ujian Anion

Anion Tests

Tujuan/ Aim: anion.
Untuk mengenal pasti anion yang hadir di dalam larutan garam akueus

To identify the anion that presents in an aqueous salt solution

Pernyataan masalah / Problem statement:
Bagaimanakah jenis anion yang hadir di dalam larutan dikenal pasti?

How to identify the anion that presents in a solution?

Hipotesis / Hypothesis:

Anion yang hadir dapat dikenal pasti melalui pemerhatian daripada ujian kimia

The anion present can be identified through observations from anion chemical tests .

Pemboleh ubah / Variables : Jenis anion yang hadir di dalam larutan akueus TP 1
(a) Dimanipulasikan: TP 1
Types of anions present in the aqueous solutions
Manipulated:

(b) Bergerak balas: Pemerhatian Isi padu larutan garam akueus

Responding: Observations Volume of aqueous salt solutions

(c) Dimalarkan:

Fixed:

Bahan / Material: BAB 6
Asid nitrik, HNO3 2.0 mol dm–3, larutan argentum nitrat, AgNO3 0.1 mol dm–3, asid hidroklorik, HCl 2.0 mol dm–3,
larutan barium klorida, BaCl2 1.0 mol dm–3, asid sulfurik, H2SO4 1.0 mol dm–3, larutan ferum(II) sulfat, FeSO4 1.0
mol dm–3, asid sulfurik pekat, H2SO4, air kapur, air suling

2.0 mol dm–3 nitric acid, HNO3, 0.1 mol dm–3 silver nitrate solution, AgNO3 2.0 mol dm–3 hydrochloric acid, HCl, 1.0 mol dm–3 barium
chloride solution, BaCl2, 1.0 mol dm–3 sulphuric acid, H2SO4, 1.0 mol dm–3 iron(II) sulphate solution, FeSO4, concentrated sulphuric
acid, H2SO4, limewater, distilled water

Radas / Apparatus:
Tabung uji, rak tabung uji, penyumbat getah dengan salur penghantar, penitis, pemegang tabung uji, silinder
penyukat 10 cm3, spatula

Test tubes, test tube rack, rubber stopper with delivery tube, dropper, test tube holder, measuring cylinder 10 cm3, spatula

Ujian anion Prosedur Pemerhatian Inferens
Anion test Procedure Observation Inference

(a) Ion karbonat, CO32– 1. 2 cm3 larutan karbonat – Pembuakan gas Gas yang terhasil ialah
Carbonate ion, CO32– Bubbles of gas karbon dioksida .
dimasukkan ke dalam
– Air kapur menjadi Gas produced is
tabung uji. carbon dioxide
2 cm3 carbonate solution is put keruh . .

Ion karbonat into a test tube. Limewater becomes
Carbonate ion 2. 2 cm3 HCl ditambahkan. Gas
Air kapur cloudy .
+ Limewater dilalukan ke dalam air kapur.
Asid cair 2 cm3 HCl is added. Gas is
Dilute acid
passed into limewater.

Persamaan ion / Ionic equation:

CO32– + 2H+ → CO2 + H2O

143

  Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 6 Asid, Bes dan Garam

(b) Ion klorida, Cl– 1. 2 cm3 larutan klorida Mendakan Argentum kloridh
Chloride ion, Cl– putih Silver chloride
dimasukkan ke dalam White
Larutan argentum nitrat Ion klorida
Silver nitrate solution tabung uji. precipitate
2 cm3 chloride solution is put hadir.
Ion klorida Chloride ion
Chloride ion into a test tube.
presents.
+ 2. 2 cm3 HNO3 ditambahkan.
asid nitrik cair 2 cm3 of HNO3 is added.
dilute nitric acid 3. 2 cm3 larutan argentum
Persamaan ion / Ionic equation:
Ag+ + Cl– → AgCl nitrat ditambahkan.
(c) Ion sulfat, SO42– 2 cm3 silver nitrate solution is
Sulphate ion, SO42–
added.
Larutan barium klorida/
Larutan barium nitrat 1. 2 cm3 larutan sulfat Mendakan Barium sulfat
Barium chloride solution/ putih Barium sulphate
Barium nitrate solution dimasukkan ke dalam White

Ion sulfat + asid hidroklorik cair/ tabung uji. precipitate
asid nitrik cair 2 cm3 sulphate solution is put
Sulphate ion + dilute hydrochloric acid/ Ion sulfat ion
dilute nitric acid into a test tube. wujud.
Persamaan ion / Ionic equation:
Ba2+ + SO42– → BaSO4 2. 2 cm3 HCl ditambahkan. Sulphate
2 cm3 HCl is added. presents.
(d) Ion nitrat, NO3–
Nitrate ion, NO3– 3. 2 cm3 larutan barium

Asid sulfurik pekat klorida ditambahkan.
Concentrated 2 cm3 barium chloride solution
sulphuric acid
Ion nitrat + asid sulfurik cair is added.
+ larutan ferum(II) sulfat
Nitrate ion + dilute sulphuric acid 1. 2 cm3 larutan nitrat Cincin perang Ion nitrat
+ iron(II) sulphate solution hadir.
dimasukkan ke dalam terbentuk. ion
Brown Nitrate
tabung uji. is presents.
2 cm3 nitrate solution is put ring

BAB 6 into a test tube. formed.

2. 2 cm3 H2SO4 ditambahkan.
2 cm3 H2SO4 is added.
3. 2 cm3 larutan ferum(II)

sulfat ditambahkan.

Campuran digoncangkan.
2 cm3 iron(II) sulphate solution

is added. The mixture is
shaken.

4. H2SO4 pekat dimasukkan
setitis demi setitis.

Concentrated H2SO4 is added
drop by drop.

Perbincangan / Discussion:

1. Anion ialah ion negatif . / Anions are negative ions.

2. Anion boleh dikenal pasti dengan menjalankan tindak balas berikut:

Anion can be identified by carrying out the following reactions:

(a) Tindak balas dengan asid . / Reaction with asid .

(b) Tindak balas dengan larutan bahan kimia.

Reaction with solution of chemical substances

144

Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 6 Asid, Bes dan Garam 

Keputusan / Results:

Anion yang hadir dapat dikenal pasti melalui pemerhatian daripada ujian kimia anion.

The anions present can be identified through observations  from the anion chemical tests.

B Ujian kation
Cation tests

Dua jenis reagen yang biasa digunakan untuk mengenal pasti kation ialah larutan natrium hidroksida dan

larutan ammonia . TP 2

Two types of reagent that commonly used to identify the cations are sodium hydroxide solution and ammonia solution.

(a) Larutan natrium hidroksida, NaOH

Sodium hydroxide solution, NaOH

Tambah sedikit larutan NaOH

Add little NaOH solution

Ca2+ (i) Pb2+ Zn2+ (ii) Mg2+ (iii) Al3+ NH4+

BAB 6

(iv) Cu2+ Fe3+ (v) Fe2+
Zn2+ (vi)
Tambah larutan Al3+ (ZAP)
NaOH berlebihan Pb2+ (vii)

Add excess NaOH Mg2+
solution Ca2+ (viii)



145

  Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 6 Asid, Bes dan Garam

(b) Larutan ammonia, NH4

Ammonia solution, NH4

Tambah sedikit larutan ammonia

Add little ammonia solution

(iii) Ca2+ NH4+

Pb2+ (i) Zn2+ Mg2+ (ii) Al3+

Cu2+ (iv) Fe3+ (v) Fe2+

BAB 6 Tambah larutan Zn2+
ammonia berlebihan Mg2+ (vi)
Al3+ (MAP)
Add excess ammonia Pb2+ (vii)
solution



Eksperimen 6.10 Ujian Kation yang Hadir di dalam Larutan Akueus
Cation Tests that Present in Aqueous Solution

Tujuan / Aim: kation.
Untuk mengenal pasti kation yang hadir di dalam larutan akueus

To identify the cation present in aqueous solution

Pernyataan masalah / Problem statement:
Bagaimanakah kation yang hadir di dalam larutan dapat dikenal pasti?

How to identify the cations that are present in the solution?

Hipotesis / Hypothesis: TP 2

Jenis kation yang hadir boleh dikenal pasti melalui pemerhatian daripada ujian kimia

Type of cation presents can be identified through observations from cation chemical tests .

146

Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 6 Asid, Bes dan Garam 

Pemboleh ubah / Variables : Jenis kation yang hadir di dalam larutan akueus TP 1
(a) Dimanipulasikan:
Types of cations present in the aqueous solutions
Manipulated:

(b) Bergerak balas: Pemerhatian Isi padu larutan garam akueus TP 1

Responding: Observations Volume of aqueous salt solutions

(c) Dimalarkan:

Fixed:

Bahan / Materials:

Larutan natrium hidroksida 2.0 mol dm–3, larutan ammonia 2.0 mol dm–3, larutan kation 1.0 mol dm–3 kalsium

nitrat, magnesium nitrat, zink nitrat, aluminium nitrat, plumbum(II) nitrat, ferum(II) sulfat, ferum(III) klorida,

kuprum(II) sulfat, ammonia klorida, kertas litmus merah

2.0 mol dm–3 sodium hydroxide solution, 2.0 mol dm–3 ammonia solution, cation solutions 1.0 mol dm–3 calcium nitrate, magnesium
nitrate, zinc nitrate, aluminium nitrate, lead(II) nitrate, iron(II) sulphate, iron(III) chloride, copper(II) sulphate, ammonium chloride,
red litmus paper

Radas / Apparatus:

Tabung uji, rak tabung uji, penitis, pemegang tabung uji, silinder penyukat 10 cm3, penunu Bunsen

Test tubes, test tube rack, droppers, test tube holder, measuring cylinder 10 cm3, Bunsen burner

Prosedur / Procedure:

1. 2 cm3 larutan kation kalsium nitrat dituangkan ke dalam tabung uji.

2 cm3 calcium nitrate solution is poured into a test tube.

2. Larutan natrium hidroksida ditambahkan sehingga berlebihan.

Sodium hydroxide solution is added until excess.

3. Pemerhatian direkodkan.

The observation is recorded.

4. Langkah 1 ke 3 diulang dengan larutan kation yang lain.

Steps 1 to 3 are repeated with other cation solutions.

5. Langkah 1 ke 4 diulang dengan larutan ammonia.

Steps 1 to 4 are repeated with ammonia solution.

Keputusan / Result: BAB 6

Pemerhatian
Observation

Larutan kation Kation Sedikit larutan Larutan natrium Sedikit larutan Larutan ammonia
Cation solution Cation natrium hidroksida berlebihan
hidroksida ammonia
Kalsium nitrat Ca2+ Small amount of Small amount of Excess of ammonia
Calcium nitrate Mg2+ sodium hydroxide berlebihan ammonia solution solution
Magnesium nitrat Zn2+ Excess of sodium
Magnesium nitrate solution hydroxide solution Tiada mendakan
Zink nitrat Al3+ No precipitate
Zinc nitrate Mendakan putih Tidak larut Tiada mendakan
White precipitate Insoluble No precipitate Tidak larut
Aluminium nitrat Insoluble
Aluminium nitrate Mendakan putih Tidak larut Mendakan putih
White precipitate Insoluble White precipitate Larutan tidak
berwarna
Mendakan putih Larutan tidak Mendakan putih Colourless solution
White precipitate White precipitate
berwarna Tidak larut
Mendakan putih Colourless solution Insoluble
White precipitate
Larutan tidak Mendakan putih
White precipitate
berwarna
Colourless solution

147

  Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 6 Asid, Bes dan Garam

Plumbum(II) nitrat Pb2+ Mendakan putih Larutan tidak Mendakan putih Tidak larut
Lead(II) nitrate White precipitate berwarna White precipitate Insoluble
Colourless solution
Ferum(II) sulfat Fe2+ Mendakan hijau Mendakan hijau Tidak larut
Iron(II) sulphate Fe3+ Green precipitate Tidak larut Green precipitate Insoluble
Cu2+ Insoluble
Ferum(III) klorida NH4+ Mendakan perang Mendakan perang Tidak larut
Iron(III) chloride Brown precipitate Tidak larut Brown precipitate Insoluble
Insoluble
Kuprum(II) sulfat Mendakan biru Mendakan biru Larutan biru tua
Copper(II) sulphate Blue precipitate Tidak larut Blue precipitate Dark blue solution
Insoluble
Ammonia klorida Tiada mendakan Tiada mendakan
Ammonium chloride No precipitate No precipitate

Perbincangan / Discussion:

1. Kation ialah ion positif . / Cations are positive ions.

2. Larutan natrium hidrosida dan larutan ammonia boleh digunakan untuk mengenal pasti kation kecuali

ion NH4+. solution can be used to identify cations except NH4+ ion.

Sodium hydroxide and ammonia

3. Jenis kation yang hadir dapat dikenal pasti melalui pemerhatian daripada ujian kimia kation.

Type of cation presents can be identified through observations from cation chemical tests.

Keputusan / Results:

Jenis kation yang hadir dapat dikenal pasti melalui pemerhatian daripada ujian kimia kation.

Types cation present can be identified through observations  from cation chemical tests.

Eksperimen 6.11 Ujian Pengesahan Kation
Cation Comfirmatory Tests

BAB 6 Tujuan / Aim:
Untuk mengesahkan kation Pb2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, NH4+ yang hadir di dalam larutan akueus

To confirm the cations Pb2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, NH4+ present in aqueous solutions

Pernyataan masalah / Problem statement: TP 2
Bagaimanakah kehadiran kation Pb2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, NH4+ di dalam larutan dapat ditentusahkan?

How to confirm the presence of cations Pb2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, NH4+ in the solution?

Hipotesis / Hypothesis:
Kation Pb2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, NH4+ yang hadir boleh disahkan melalui pemerhatian dari ujian kimia kation.

Cations Pb2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, NH4+ present can be confirmed through observations from cation chemical tests.

Pemboleh ubah / Variables : Kation hadir TP 1
(a) Dimanipulasikan:
Cations present
Manipulated:

(b) Bergerak balas: Pemerhatian

Responding: Observations

(c) Dimalarkan: Isi padu larutan garam akueus TP 1

Fixed: Volume of solution aqueous salt solutions

148

Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 6 Asid, Bes dan Garam 

Bahan / Materials:
Larutan plumbum (II) nitrat, larutan ferum(II) sulfat, larutan ferum(III) klorida, larutan ammonium klorida, larutan
kalium iodida, larutan kalium heksasianoferat(III), kalium heksasianoferat(II), kalium tiosianat, reagent Nessler, air
suling

Lead(II) nitrate solution, iron(II) sulphate solution, iron(III) chloride solution,ammonium chloride solution, potassium iodide solution,
potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution, potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) solution, potassium thiocyanate, Nessler reagent, distilled
water

Radas / Apparatus:
Tabung uji, tabung didih, rak tabung uji, penitis, pemegang tabung uji, silinder penyukat 10 cm3, penunu Bunsen

Test tubes, boiling tube, test tube rack, droppers, test tube holder, measuring cylinder 10 cm3, Bunsen burner

Prosedur Pemerhatian Inferens
Procedure Observation Inference
Ion Pb2+ hadir
(a) 1. 1 cm3 larutan kalium iodida ditambahkan diikuti dengan Mendakan kuning Pb2+ ion presents
Yellow precipitate
3 cm3 air suling Ion Fe2+ hadir
1 cm3 potassium iodide solution is added followed by 3 cm3 Fe2+ ion presents

distilled water.

2. Campuran dipanaskan sehingga mendakan larut membentuk

larutan tak berwarna. Kemudian, larutan tersebut disejukkan.
The mixture is heated until the precipitate dissolves forming

colourless solution. Then, it is cooled.

(b) 2 cm3 larutan kalium heksasianoferat(III) ditambahkan Mendakan biru tua
2 cm3 potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution is added Dark blue precipitate

(c) 2 cm3 larutan kalium heksasianoferat(II) ditambahkan Mendakan biru tua Ion Fe3+ hadir
2 cm3 potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) solution is added Dark blue precipitate Fe3+ ion presents

(d) 2 cm3 larutan kalium tiosianat ditambahkan Larutan merah darah Ion Fe3+ hadir
2 cm3 potassium thiocyanate solution is added Blood red solution Fe2+ ion presents

(e) 2 cm3 reagen Nessler ditambahkan Mendakan perang Ion NH4+ hadir
2 cm3 Nessler reagent is added Brown precipitate NH4+ ion presents

Prosedur / Procedure:

1. Ion plumbum(II) boleh disahkan apabila bertindak balas dengan larutan kalium iodida. BAB 6

Lead(II) ion can be confirmed when reacts with potassium iodide solution.

2. Ion ammonia boleh disahkan apabila bertindak balas dengan reagen Nesslar.

Ammonia ion can be confirmed when reacts with Nesslar reagent.

3. Ion ferum(III) boleh disahkan apabila bertindak balas dengan larutan kalium heksasianoferat(II) dan

larutan kalium tiosianat.

Iron(III) ion can be confirmed when reacts with potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) and potassium thiocyanate
solution.

4. Ion ferum(II) boleh disahkan apabila bertindak balas dengan larutan kalium heksasianoferat(III).

Iron(II) ion can be confirmed when reacts with potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution.

Keputusan / Results:

Kation yang hadir dapat ditentusahkan melalui pemerhatian daripada ujian kimia kation.

The presence of cations can be confirmed through observations from cation  chemical tests.

149

  Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 6 Asid, Bes dan Garam

PRAKTIS SPM 16

Soalan Objektif 5. Reagen manakah sesuai digunakan untuk

1. Antara yang berikut, yang manakah garam mengesahkan kehadiran ion plumbum(II) dalam
terlarutkan? larutan?
Which reagent is suitable to be used to confirm the presence of
2 019 Which of the following is a soluble salt? lead(II) ion in a solution?
A Kalsium karbonat C Barium sulfat
Calcium carbonate Barium sulphate A Larutan kalium heksasianoferat(II)
B Plumbum(II) klorida D Ammonium nitrat Potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) solution
Lead(II) chloride Ammonium nitrate
B Larutan kalium heksasianoferat(III)
2. Bahan manakah adalah satu asid diprotik? Potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution
Which substance is a diprotic acid?
C Larutan kalium klorida
Potassium chloride solution

2019 A Asid sulfurik C Asid fosforik 6. Pernyataan manakah benar tentang ga ram?
Wich statement is true about salt?
Sulphuric acid Phosphoric acid
A Semua garam larut dalam air
B Asid etanoik D Asid nitrik All salts dissolve in water
B Semua garam nitrat larut dalam air
Ethanoic acid Nitric acid All nitrate salts dissolve in water
C Semua garam adalah sebatian kovalen
3. Bahan manakah meneutralkan suatu larutan dengan All salts are covalent compound
nilai pH 12? D Semua garam karbonat terurai apabila

Which substance neutralises a solution with the pH value of dipanaskan dengan kuat
12? All carbonate salts decompose when heated strongly

I Larutan kalium klorida

Potassium chloride solution

II Air suling

Distilled water 7. Antara yang berikut, yang manakah benar tentang
suatu alkali kuat?
III Asid hidroklorik
Which of the following is true about a strong alkali?
Hydrochloric acid A Rasa masam
Sour taste
IV Asid nitrik B Mempunyai kepekatan ion hidrogen yang tinggi
Has a high concentration of hydrogen ions
BAB 6 Nitric acid C Mengion separa dalam air
Ionises partially in water
A I dan II C II dan IV D Menunjukkan warna ungu di dalam penunjuk
universal
I and II II and IV Shows purple colour in universal indicator

B I dan III D III dan IV

I and III III and IV

4. Jadual menunjukkan nilai pH empat larutan asid yang 8. Pemanasan oksida P menghasilkan suatu hasil tindak
mempunyai kepekatan yang sama.

Table shows the pH values of four acidic solution that has the
same concentration.

Larutan P Q R S balas yang berwarna perang semasa panas dan
berwarna kuning semasa sejuk. Apakah P?
Solution

Nilai pH 1 3 5 6 Heating of P oxide produces a product which is brown when

pH value hot but yellow when cold. What is P?

Larutan asid manakah mempunyai darjah pengionan A Magnesium C Argentum

yang paling tinggi? Magnesium Silver

Which acidic solution has the highest degree of dissociation? B Plumbum D Zink

A P C R Lead Zinc

B Q D S

150

Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 6 Asid, Bes dan Garam 

9. Cuka mengandungi CH3COOH. Berapakah kemolaran II Tambah larutan Mendakan putih
cuka dengan kepekatan 40 g dm–3? natrium hidroksida larut dalam larutan
sehingga berlebihan natrium hidroksida
2 018 Vinegar contains CH3COOH. What is the molarity of vinegar Add sodium hydroxide berlebihan
with concentration 40 g dm–3 ? solution until in excess White precipitate
dissolves in excess
[Jisim molekul relatif CH3COOH = 60 // Molecular sodium hydroxide
relative mass CH3COOH = 60] solution
A 0.67 g dm–3
B 1.50 g dm–3 Tambah asid nitrik Mendakan putih
C 1.33 g dm–3 III cair dan larutan terbentuk
D 3.00 g dm–3

10. Jadual menunjukkan pemerhatian bagi tiga ujian ke argentum nitrat White precipitate formed
atas larutan garam Y.
Add dilute nitric acid
Table shows the observations in three tests on solution Y. and silver nitrate solution

Set Ujian Pemerhatian Rajah / Diagram 1
Set Test Observation
Apakah Y?
I Tambah larutan Mendakan putih What is Y ?
natrium hidroksida larut dalam larutan
sehingga berlebihan natrium hidroksida A Aluminium nitrat C Zink klorida
Add sodium hydroxide berlebihan Aluminium nitrate Zinc chloride
solution until in excess White precipitate B Aluminium korida D Zink nitrat
Aluminium chloride Zinc nitrate

dissolves in excess
sodium hydroxide
solution

Soalan Struktur

Bahagian A

1. Jadual menunjukkan maklumat tentang asid P dan asid Q. Asid Q / Acid Q BAB 6
Table shows the information about acids P and Q. pH 1

Asid P / Acid P Asid diprotik
pH 5 Diprotic acid
Digunakan dalam akumulator asid plumbum
Asid monoprotik Use in lead-acid accumulator
Monoprotic acid

Digunakan dalam pembuatan jeruk buah
Use in making fruit pickles

(a) Nyatakan maksud asid. [1 markah / mark]
State the meaning of acid. [2 markah / marks]

Bahan kimia yang mengion di dalam air menghasilkan ion hidrogen.
Chemical substance that ionises in water to produce hydrogen ions.

(b) Nyatakan nama bagi asid itu.
State the names of the acids
Asid / Acid P : Asid etanoik / Ethanoic acid
Asid / Acid Q : Asid sulfurik / Sulphuric acid


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  Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 6 Asid, Bes dan Garam

(c) Kedua-dua asid mempunyai kepekatan yang sama. Jelaskan mengapa nilai pH bagi kedua-duanya asid adalah
berbeza.

Both acids has the same concentration. Explain why the pH values of both acids are different.

Asid P adalah asid lemah / mengion separa dalam air. // Acid P is a weak acid / ionises partially in water

Asid Q adalah asid kuat / mengion lengkap dalam air // Acid Q is a strong acid / ionises completely in water
[2 markah / marks]
(d) Apabila 0.5 mol serbuk zink ditambah ke dalam asid Q yang berlebihan, pembuakan berlaku.
When 0.5 mole zinc powder is added to excess acid Q, effervescence occurs.

(i) Tulis persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas ini.
Write a chemical equation for this reaction.

Zn + H2SO4  9: ZnSO4 + H2 [1 markah / mark]
[2 markah / marks]

(ii) Hitungkan isi padu gas yang terhasil pada keadaan bilik?
Calculate the volume of the gas produced at room condition?

Zn  : H2 Maka isi padu H2 = 0.5 × 24
0.5  :  0.5 So volume of H2 = 12.0 dm3


(iii) Huraikan satu ujian kimia bagi mengenal pasti gas yang terhasil.
Describe a chemical test to identify the gas produced.

Masukkan kayu uji bernyala ke dalam gas di dalam tabung uji. Bunyi ‘pop’ terhasil.

Put in a lighted wooden splinter into the gas in a test-tube. ‘Pop’ sound produced. [2 markah / marks]


BAB 6 2. Rajah 1 menunjukkan stalaktit dan stalagmit dalam gua batu kapur.
Diagram 1 shows stalactites and stalagmites in a limestone cavern.
2 019 Stalaktit dan stalagmit adalah batu kapur, CaCO3.
Stalactites and stalagmites are limestone, CaCO3.

(a) Nyatakan keterlarutan batu kapur, CaCO3 dalam air.
State the solubilty of limestone, CaCO3 in water.

Tidak larut / Insoluble

[1 markah / mark]

(b) Gua batu kapur terhasil daripada hakisan batu kapur oleh hujan asid. Rajah 1 / Diagram 1
Nyatakan nama asid yang terdapat dalam hujan asid.
Limestone cavern is produced from the erosion of limestone by acid rain.
State the name of the acid found in acid rain .

Asid sulfurik // Asid nitrik // Asid sulfurus // Asid nitrus // Asid karbonik.

Sulphuric acid // Nitric acid // Sulphurous acid // Nitrous acid // Carbonic acid

[1 markah / mark]

(c) (i) Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas antara asid yang dinyatakan di 2(b) dan batu kapur.
Write the chemical equation for this reaction between the acid stated in 2(b) and limestone.

CaCO3 + H2SO4 CaSO4 + CO2 + H2O

[2 markah / marks]

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Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 6 Asid, Bes dan Garam 

(ii) Hitungkan isi padu gas karbon dioksida terbebas apabila 1.0 mol batu kapur bertindak balas dengan asid
berlebihan pada keadaan bilik.

Calculate the volume of the carbon dioxide gas released when 1.0 mol of limestone reacts with excess acid at room condition.
[Isi padu molar sebarang gas pada keadaan bilik ialah 24 dm3 mol–1 ]
[Molar volume of any gas at room condition is 24 dm3 mol-1 ]

CaCO3 : CO2
1.0 : 1.0

Maka, isi padu CO2 / So, volume of CO2
= 1.0 × 24
= 24.0 dm3
[2 markah / marks]

(d) Namakan dua garam karbonat yang larut di dalam air.
Name two metal carbonates which is soluble in water.

Natrium karbonat dan kalium karbonat / Sodium carbonate and Potassium carbonate

[2 markah / marks]

Bahagian B BAB 6

3. (a) Garam Epsom yang dikenali secara saintifik sebagai magnesium sulfat merupakan satu penawar semula jadi
untuk melegakan sakit otot.

Di dalam makmal, garam tersebut boleh dihasilkan melalui beberapa kaedah seperti :
I. Menambahkan logam kepada asid
II. Menambahkan oksida logam kepada asid

Bagi setiap kaedah di atas, nyatakan nama bagi bahan-bahan yang diperlukan untuk menyediakan magnesium
sulfat.

Epsom salt is scientifically known as magnesium sulphate is used as a natural remedy to relieve muscle pain.
In laboratory, the salt can be made in several methods such as:

I. Adding a metal to an acid
II. Adding an oxide metal to an acid
For each of the method above, state the name of the substances needed to prepare magnesium sulphate.

[4 markah/ marks]

(b) Rajah menunjukkan pertukaran garam X kepada pepejal Y dan gas Z. Garam X merupakan pepejal hijau yang tak
larut dalam air manakala pepejal Y yang terhasil berwarna hitam.

Diagram shows the conversion of salt X to solid Y and gas Z. Salt X is a green solid which is insoluble in water while solid Y is a black
solid.

Gas Z
Gas Z

Garam X Pepejal Y
Salt X Solid Y

Panaskan [5 markah/ marks]

Heat
(i) Berdasarkan rajah, kenal pasti garam X, pepejal Y dan gas Z.
Huraikan ujian kimia bagi gas Z.
Based on diagram, identify salt X, solid Y and gas Z.
Describe a chemical test for gas Z.

153

  Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 6 Asid, Bes dan Garam

(ii) Rajah menunjukkan tindak balas antara pepejal Y dan asid nitrik. Pepejal Y
Diagram shows the reaction between solid Y and nitric acid Solid Y
Asid nitrik
Namakan hasil yang terbentuk daripada tindak balas itu. Nitric acid
Huraikan secara ringkas ujian kimia untuk mengesahkan kation dan anion

dalam larutan yang terhasil.
Name the product formed from the reaction.
Describe briefly a chemical test to verify the anion and cation in solution formed.

[6 markah/ marks]

(iii) 50 cm3 asid nitrik 1.0 mol dm–3 bertindak balas dengan pepejal Y berlebihan.
Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas itu. Hitung jisim hasil tindak balas yang terbentuk.
50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 nitric acid reacts with excess solid Y.
Write the chemical equation for the reaction and calculate the mass of the product formed.

[Jisim molar hasil tindak balas // Molar mass of the product = 188 g mol–1] [5 markah/ marks]

Bahagian C

3. (a) Sengatan tebuan adalah beralkali dan menyebabkan kesakitan pada kulit. Tebuan
The sting of a wasp is alkaline and can cause pain to the skin. Wasp
Cadangkan satu bahan yang boleh disapukan pada kulit untuk mengurangkan
kesakitan tanpa menyebabkan kecederaan seterusnya. Beri sebab bagi
menyokong cadangan anda.
Suggest one substance that can be applied to the skin to relieve the pain without causing
further injury. Give reasons to support your suggestion.
[4 markah/ marks]

(b) Persamaan menunjukkan tindak balas antara oksida logam X, XO dan asid sulfurik. Garam XSO4 ialah garam larut.
The equation shows the reaction between metal X oxide, XO and sulphuric acid. The salt XSO4 is a soluble salt.
XO + H2SO4  9:  XSO4 + H2O
Berdasarkan persamaan itu,
Based on the equation,

BAB 6 (i) Cadangkan XO dan kenal pasti garam XSO4 [6 markah / marks]
Suggest XO and identify salt XSO4
(ii) Daripada jawapan anda di 3(b)(i), tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas itu.

From your answer in 3(b)(i), write a chemical equation for the reaction.
(iii) Huraikan satu ujian untuk membuktikan kehadiran ion sulfat di dalam XSO4
Describe a test to prove the presence of sulphate ion in XSO4

(c) Amir diberi sebuah bikar yang mengandungi campuran pepejal garam X karbonat dan X nitrat.
Huraikan satu eksperimen untuk mendapatkan pepejal X karbonat dan X nitrat.
Huraian anda hendaklah berpandu pada aspek yang berikut:
Amir is given a beaker containing a mixture of solid X carbonate salt and X nitrate salt.
Describe an experiment to obtain the solid X carbonate and X nitrate .
Your description should be based on the following aspects :

Bahan dan Radas / Materials and Apparatus Kuiz 6
Prosedur / Procedure
Satu pemerhatian / One observation

[10 markah / marks]

154

BAB Kadar Tindak Balas

7 Rate of Reaction

PETA Konsep

• Tenaga Pengaktifan Aplikasi Faktor yang (i) Saiz bahan tindak balas
mempengaruhi Kadar
Activation Energy Tindak balas dalam Size of reactants
Kehidupan
• Orientasi Perlanggaran (ii) Kepekatan
Application of Factors
Collision Orientation that affect the Rate of Concentration
Reaction in Daily Life
• Perlanggaran Berkesan dan Kadar (iii) Suhu
Tindak Balas
Temperature
Effective Collision and Rate of Reaction
(iv) Kehadiran mangkin
• Tindak balas eksotermik dan
endotermik Presence of catalyst

Exothermic and Endothermic reaction

Teori pelanggaran KADAR TINDAK BALAS Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi
RATE OF REACTION kadar tindak balas
Collision theory
Factors affecting the rate of reaction

Penentuan kadar tindak balas BAB 7

Determining rate of reaction

• Mengelaskan kadar tindak balas

Classification of rate of reaction

• Maksud kadar tindak balas

Meaning of rate of reaction

• Perubahan yang berlaku semasa tindak balas

Changes that occur during a reaction

• Kadar tindak balas purata dan kadar tindak balas pada masa tertentu

Average rate of reaction and instantaneous rate of reaction

• Menyelesaikan masalah numerical berdasarkan kadar tindak balas

Solving numerical problems based on rate of reaction

155

  Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 7 Kadar Tindak Balas

7.1 Penentuan Kadar Tindak Balas
Determining Rate of Reaction

1. Tindak balas kimia yang berlainan berlaku pada kadar yang berlainan.

Tindak balas yang cepat mengambil masa yang singkat, maka kadar tindak balas adalah

tinggi . TP 1

Tindak balas yang lambat mengambil masa yang lama, maka kadar tindak balas adalah

rendah . TP 1

Different chemical reactions occur at a different rate.

Fast reaction takes a short time, so the rate of reaction is high .
low .
Slow reaction takes a long time, so the rate of reaction is

Contoh: Kelaskan tindak balas berikut kepada tindak balas cepat dan lambat. TP 2

Example: Classify the following reactions to fast and slow reactions.

Pengaratan Letupan Penapaian Penguraian ganda dua

Rusting Explosion Fermentation Double decomposition

Fotosintesis Pembakaran Respirasi Penyesaran

Photosynthesis Combustion Respiration Displacement



Tindak balas cepat Tindak balas lambat

Fast reaction Slow reaction

Pembakaran Pengaratan

Combustion Rusting

Letupan Fotosintesis

Explosion Photosynthesis

Penyesaran Penapaian

Displacement Fermentation

Penguraian ganda dua Respirasi

Double decomposition Respiration

2. Kadar tindak balas ialah perubahan kuantiti bahan atau hasil tindak balas dalam satu unit

masa . TP 1

BAB 7 Rate of reaction is the change in quantity of reactants or products in a unit time .

Kadar tindak balas = perubahan kuantiti bahan tindak balas atau hasil tindak balas
masa

Rate of reaction = change in reactant or product
time

Contoh unit ialah cm3 s–1 / cm3 minit–1, g s–1 / g minit–1, mol dm–3 s–1 / mol dm–3 minit–1

Example of units are cm3 s–1 / cm3 minit–1, g s–1 / g minit–1, mol dm–3 s–1 / mol dm–3 minit–1

3. Kadar tindak balas berkadar terus dengan 1/masa. TP 2

Rate of reaction is directly proportional with 1 / time.

Kadar tindak balas ∝ 1 1
masa
Rate of reaction ∝ Time

156

Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 7 Kadar Tindak Balas 

4. Perubahan yang boleh diperhatikan dan boleh diukur semasa tindak balas:

Possible observable and measurable changes during a reaction:

(a) Pertambahan isi padu gas yang terbebas. TP 2

Increase in volume of gas released.

(b) Pengurangan jisim bahan tindak balas. TP 2

Decrease in the mass of reactant.

(c) Pembentukan mendakan. TP 2

Formation of precipitate.

5. Menentukan masa yang diambil untuk tindak balas berlaku.

To determine the time taken for a reaction to occur

Perubahan yang Eksperimen Results
Experiment Keputusan
diperhatikan
Graf isi padu hidrogen melawan masa diplotkan.
dan diukur Graph of volume of hydrogen against time is
Observable and plotted.

measureable Isi padu gas hidrogen (cm3)
changes Volume of hydrogen gas (cm3)

(a) Pertambahan Tindak balas antara zink dengan asid sulfurik
Reaction between zink and sulphuric acid
isi padu gas
Increase in

volume of gas
released

Salur penghantar Gas V
Delivery tube hidrogen,
HHy2drogen Masa (s)
Asid sulfurik Buret gas, H2 t Time (s)
HSu2SlpOhu4ric acid, Burette Air – Isipadu gas hidrogen yang dihasilkan
H2SO4 Water semakin bertambah dengan masa.
Kelalang Volume of hydrogen gas produced increases
Zink, Zn kon Besen with time.
Zinc, ZN Conical Basin – Isi padu gas hidrogen menjadi malar
flask apabila tindak balas telah selesai pada t dan
mencapai isi padu maksimum, V.
Persamaan kimia: Volume of hydrogen gas is constant when
Chemical equation: the reaction has completed at t and achieved
the maximum volume, V.
Zn + H2SO4 → ZnSO4 + H2

(b) Pengurangan Tindak balas antara ketulan marmar dengan asid Graf jisim kelalang kon dan kandungannya BAB 7

jisim badan nitrik melawan masa diplotkan.
Reaction between marble chips with nitric acid Graph of mass of conical flask and its content
tindak balas against time is plotted.
Decrease in the Kapas
Cotton wool Jisim kelalang kon
mass of reactant dan kandungannya (g)
KMeartublleanchmipas,rmCaaCr OC3aCO3 Mass of conical flask
Asid nitrik, and its content
HNiNtriOc 3acid, Penimbang elektronik
HNO3 86.42 g Electronic balance

w Masa (s)
t Time (s)

157

  Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 7 Kadar Tindak Balas

Persamaan kimia: – Jisim kelalang kon dan kandungannya
Chemical equation:
semakin berkurang dengan
CaCO3 + HNO3 → Ca(NO3)2 + CO2 + H2O
masa kerana tindak balas berlaku dan
membebaskan gas ke persekitaran.
– Pada t, tindak balas telah selesai. Maka, jisim
kelalang kon dan kandungannya menjadi
malar dengan jisim minimum, w.
At t, the reaction has completed. Thus, the
mass of conical flask and its content becomes
constant with the minimum mass, w.

(c) Pembentukan Tindak balas antara plumbum(II) nitrat dengan Masa yang diambil untuk tindak balas selesai
dan jisim mendakan direkodkan.
mendakan larutan kalium iodida Time taken to comple the reaction and mass of
Formation of Reaction between lead(II) nitrate and potassium iodide preketulanitate are recorded.

preketulanitate Air suling Masa yang diambil untuk
Distilled water tindak balas selesai (s)
Kalium Plumbum(II) nitrat, Time taken to complete the
iodida, KI LPeba(dN(IOI)3n)2itrate, reaction (s)
Potassium Pb(NO3)2
iodide, KI Jisim mendakan (g)
Mass of preketulanitate (g)
Piring petri
Petri dish

Persamaan kimia:
Chemical equation:

Pb(NO3)2 + 2KI → PbI2 + 2KNO3

6. Menyelesaikan masalah numerikal berdasarkan kadar tindak balas TP 3

Solving numerical problems based on the rate of reaction

CONTOH 1

10.0 g serbuk marmar memerlukan 4 minit untuk bertindak balas dengan asid sulfurik cair. Apakah

kadar tindak balas purata dalam unit (i) g s–1 dan (ii) mol s–1?

10.0 g marble powder needed 4 minutes to react with dilute sulphuric acid. What is the average rate of reaction in unit
(i) g s–1 and (ii) mol s–1?

(a) Kadar tindak balas purata = 4 10
× 60
Average rate of reaction
= 0.0417 g s–1

(b) Bilangan mol CaCO3 = 10
100
BAB 7 Number of moles CaCO3 =
0.1 mol


(c) Kadar tindak balas purata = 0.1
4 × 60
Average rate of reaction
= 0.000417 mol s–­1

158

Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 7 Kadar Tindak Balas 

CONTOH 2

2.6 g serbuk zink bertindak balas dengan 50 cm3 1.0 mol dm–3 asid nitrik. Isi padu gas hidrogen yang

terhasil direkodkan di dalam jadual di bawah.

2.6 g zinc powder reacts with 50 cm3 1.0 mol dm–3 nitric acid. Volume of hydrogen gas produced are recorded in the
table below.

Masa (s) / Time (s) 0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0 210.0 240.0 270.0
Isi padu gas H2 (cm3) 0.0 10.0 19.0 27.0 33.0 38.0 42.0 45.0 48.0 48.0
Volume of H2 gas (cm3)

(a) Tentukan:

Determine:

(i) Kadar tindak balas purata bagi tindak balas ini. 2

Average rate of reaction for this reaction.
48
Kadar tindak balas purata = 240

Average rate of reaction 0.200
= cm3 s–1

(ii) Kadar tindak balas purata pada 2 minit pertama. TP 2

Average rate of reaction in the first 2 minutes.
33
Kadar tindak balas purata = 120

Average rate of reaction 0.275
= cm3 s–1

(iii) Kadar tindak balas purata pada minit yang kedua. TP 2

Average rate of reaction in the second minute.
33 – 19
Kadar tindak balas purata = 120 – 60

Average rate of reaction = 0.233 cm3 s–1



(b) (i) Lukiskan graf isi padu gas hidrogen melawan masa pada kertas graf anda. TP 4

Draw a graph of volume of gas against time on your graph paper.

Isi padu gas hidrogen (cm3)
Volume of hydrogen gas (cm3)

50

45
40 B

35

30

25 BAB 7

20

15
A

10

5

0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 Masa (s)
Time (s)


(ii) Tentukan kadar tindak balas pada 90 s. TP 4

Determine the rate of reaction at 90 s40.0 – 13.0
150 – 30
Kadar tindak balas pada 90 s = = 0.225 cm3 s–1

Rate of reaction at 90 s

159

  Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 7 Kadar Tindak Balas

7.2 Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Kadar Tindak Balas
Factors that Affect the Rate of Reaction

1. Tindak balas boleh berlaku pada kadar yang berbeza dengan mengubah keadaan tindak balas.

Reactions can occur at different rates by changing the condition of the reaction.

Faktor yang mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas ialah:

Factors that affect rate of reaction are:

(a) Saiz bahan tindak balas atau jumlah luas permukaan. Hanya untuk bahan

tindak balas pepejal sahaja. TP 1

Size of reactants or total surface area. Only for solid reactants.

(b) Suhu tindak balas. TP 1

Temperature of reaction.

(c) Kepekatan bahan tindak balas. TP 1

Concentration of reactants.

(d) Kehadiran mangkin TP 1

Presence of catalyst

(e) Tekanan (untuk gas sahaja) TP 1

Pressure (for gas only)

Eksperimen 7.1 Kesan Saiz Bahan Tindak Balas pada Kadar Tindak Balas
The Effect of Size of Reactants on Rate of Reaction

Tujuan / Aim:
Untuk mengkaji kesan saiz bahan tindak balas pada kadar tindak balas

To study the effect of size of reactants on rate of reaction

Pernyataan masalah / Problem statement:
Bagaimanakah saiz bahan tindak balas mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas?

How does size of reactant affect the rate of reaction?

Hipotesis / Hypothesis:

BAB 7 Semakin kecil saiz ketulan marmar, semakin tinggi kadar tindak balas.

The smaller the size of the marble chips, the higher the rate of reaction.

Pemboleh ubah / Variables : Saiz ketulan marmar TP 1
(a) Dimanipulasikan:
Size of marble chips
Manipulated:

(b) Bergerak balas: Kadar tindak balas

Responding: Rate of reaction

(c) Dimalarkan: Jisim ketulan marmar / Suhu TP 1

Fixed: Mass of marble chips / Temperature

160

Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 7 Kadar Tindak Balas 

Bahan / Materials:

Asid hidroklorik cair 0.1 mol dm–3, ketulan marmar kecil dan besar, air

0.1 mol dm–3 dilute hydrochloric acid, large and small calcium carbonate chips, water

Radas / Apparatus:

Kelalang kon 250 cm3, besen, buret, kaki retort, gabus dan salur penghantar, jam randik, silinder penyukat 100 cm3

250 cm3 conical flask, basin, burette, retort stand, stopper with delivery tube, stopwatch, 100 cm3 measuring cylinder

Prosedur / Procedure:

1. 80 cm3 asid hidroklorik disukat dan dituangkan ke Kaki retort
Retort stand
dalam kelalang kon.
Gas karbon
80 cm3 of hydrochloric acid is measured and poured into a dioksida
conical flask. Carbon dioxide
gas
2. Buret diisikan dengan air dan ditelangkupkan ke Salur penghantar
dalam besen berisi air. Buret dikepitkan pada kaki Asid Delivery tube Air
retort. hidroklorik Buret Water
Hydrochloric Burette
A burette is filled with water and inverted into a basin of acid Besen
water. Burette is clamped to a retort stand. Kelalang Basin
Ketulan kon
3. 5 g ketulan marmar besar dimasukkan ke dalam marmar Conical flask
kelalang kon dan digoncang. Gabus dan salur Marble chips
penghantar disambungkan ke buret.

5 g of large marble chips are added and shaken. The
stopper with the delivery tube is connected to the burette.

4. Jam randik dimulakan dengan segera. Kelalang kon dipusar dengan perlahan.

The stopwatch is started immediately. The conical flask is swirled slowly.

5. Isi padu gas terhasil direkodkan setiap 30 saat.

The volume of the gas released is recorded every 30 seconds.

6. Langkah 1 ke 5 diulang dengan ketulan marmar bersaiz kecil.

Steps 1 to 5 are repeated with small size marble chips.

Keputusan / Results:
Ketulan marmar besar / Large marble chips:

Masa (min) 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0
Time (min)

Bacaan buret (cm3) 49.40 40.90 34.40 28.40 23.40 19.40 15.90 12.90 10.40 8.10 6.40 6.40 6.40
Burette reading (cm3)

Isi padu karbon dioksida 0.00 8.50 15.00 21.00 26.00 30.00 33.50 36.50 39.00 41.30 43.00 43.00 43.00 BAB 7

terbebas (cm3)
Volume of carbon dioxide
released (cm3)

Ketulan marmar yang kecil / Small marble chips:

Masa (min) 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
Time (min)

Bacaan buret (cm3) 49.80 35.80 23.30 15.80 10.80 6.80 6.80 6.80 6.80
Burette reading (cm3)

Isi padu karbon dioksida terbebas (cm3) 0.00 14.00 26.50 34.00 39.00 43.00 43.00 43.00 43.00
Volume of carbon dioxide released (cm3)

161

  Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 7 Kadar Tindak Balas

Mentafsir data / Interpreting data:

1. Graf bagi isi padu gas karbon dioksida terbebas melawan masa untuk kedua-dua set eksperimen diplotkan
pada paksi yang sama seperti yang ditunjukkan di bawah.

Graph of volume of carbon dioxide gas released against time for both sets of experiment are plotted on the same axis as shown
below.
Isi padu karbon dioksida (cm3)

Volume of carbon dioxide (cm3)

50 Ketulan kecil
marmar hancur

Small marble chips

40 D

30 A Ketulan besar
marmar
20
E Large marble chips

10 B F
C

0 1234 56 Masa(min)
Time (min)

Menghitung kadar tindak balas purata keseluruhan tindak balas.

Calculating the overall average rate of reaction.

Ketulan marmar besar / Large marble chips:

= Isi padu maksimum gas terkumpul / Maximum volume of gas collected
Masa yang diambil / Time taken

= 43.0 = 8.6 cm3 min–1
5.0

Ketulan marmar kecil / Small marble chips:

= Isi padu maksimum gas terkumpul / Maximum volume of gas collected
Masa yang diambil / Time taken

= 43.0 = 17.2 cm3 min–1
2.5

Perbincangan / Discussion: TP 2

BAB 7 1. Tindak balas antara marmar dengan asid hidroklorik membebaskan gelembung gas tidak berwarna iaitu
karbon dioksida .

The reaction between marble with hydrochloric acid releases a colourless gas bubbles which is carbon dioxide .

Persamaan kimia: CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O

Chemical equation

2. Kadar tindak balas purata keseluruhan bagi ketulan marmar kecil adalah lebih tinggi berbanding ketulan
marmar besar. Hal ini kerana jumlah luas permukaan ketulan marmar kecil adalah lebih besar berbanding
ketulan marmar besar.

The overall average rate of reaction for small marble chips is higher than the large marble chips. This is because the small
marble chips have larger total surface area than the large marble chips.

Kesimpulan / Conclusion: TP 2

1. Semakin kceil saiz bahan tindak balas, semakin tinggi kadar tindak balas.

The smaller the size of the reactant, the higher the rate of reaction.

162

Eksperimen 7.2 Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 7 Kadar Tindak Balas 

Kesan Kepekatan Bahan Tindak Balas pada Kadar Tindak Balas
The Effect of Concentration of Reactions on Rate of Reaction

Tujuan / Aim:

Untuk mengkaji kesan kepekatan bahan tindak balas pada kadar tindak balas

To study the effect of concentration of reactants on rate of reaction

Pernyataan masalah / Problem statement:

Bagaimanakah kepekatan bahan tindak balas mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas?

How does concentration of reactant affect the rate of reaction?

Hipotesis / Hypothesis:

Semakin tinggi kepekatan larutan natrium tiosulfat, semakin tinggi kadar tindak balas.

The higher the concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution, the higher the rate of reaction.

Pemboleh ubah / Variables :

(a) Dimanipulasikan: Kepekatan larutan natrium tiosulfat TP 1

Manipulated: Concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution

(b) Bergerak balas: Kadar tindak balas

Responding: Rate of reaction

(c) Dimalarkan: Suhu / kepekatan dan isi padu asid sulfurik TP 1

Fixed: Temperature / concentration and volume of sulphuric acid

Bahan / Materials:

Asid sulfurik 1.0 mol dm–3, larutan natrium tiosulfat 0.2 mol dm–3, air suling

Sulphuric acid 1.0 mol dm–3, sodium thiosulphate solution 0.2 mol dm–3, distilled water

Radas / Apparatus:

Kelalang kon 150 cm3, kertas putih, silinder penyukat 10 cm3 dan 50 cm3, jam randik

150 cm3 conical flask, white paper, 10 cm3 and 50 cm3 measuring cylinders, stopwatch

Prosedur / Procedure:

1. 45 cm3 of larutan natrium tiosulfat 0.2 mol dm–3 disukat dan Larutan natrium BAB 7
dituangkan ke dalam kelalang kon. tiosulfat + asid sulfurik
Sodium thiosulphat solution
45 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm–3 sodium thiosulphate solution is measured and poured + sulphuric acid
into a conical flask.
Kertas putih ditanda 'X '
2. Kelalang kon diletakkan atas sekeping kertas putih bertanda ‘X’ di White paper marked with ‘X’
tengah.

The conical flask is placed on a piece of white paper marked ‘X’ at the centre.

3. 5 cm3 1.0 mol dm–3 asid sulfurik dituang ke dalam kelalang kon. Jam
randik dimulakan.

5 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm–3 sulphuric acid is poured into the conical flask. The stopwatch is started.

4. Campuran itu dipusar dengan perlahan.Tanda ‘X’ diperhati dari atas.

The mixture is swirled slowly. The mark ‘X’ is observed from the top.

5. Jam randik dihentikan apabila tanda ‘X’ hilang. Rekodkan masa direkodkan.

The stopwatch is stopped when the ‘X’ mark disappears. The time is recorded.

6. Langkah 1 ke 5 diulang empat kali dengan menggunakan kepekatan larutan natrium tiosulfat yang berlainan.

Steps 1 to 5 are repeated four times by using different concentrations of sodium thiosulphate solution.

163

  Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 7 Kadar Tindak Balas

Keputusan / Results:

Eksperimen I II III IV V
Experiment 45 40 30 20 10
0 5 15 25 35
Isi padu larutan natrium tiosulfat, V1 (cm3) 555 5 5
Volume sodium thiosulphate solution, V1 (cm3)
50 50 50 50 50
Isi padu air suling (cm3)
Volume of distilled water (cm3) 0.2(20) 0.2(10)
50 50
Isi padu asid sulfurik 1.0 mol dm–3 (cm3)
Volume of sulphuric acid 1.0 mol dm–3 (cm3) = 0.08 = 0.04

Jumlah isi padu campuran tindak balas, V2, 40.82 83.24

(cm3) 0.024 0.012
Total volume of mixture, V2 (cm3)

Kepekatan larutan natrium tiosulfat dalam

campuran tindak balas, M2 (mol dm–3) 0.2(45) 0.2(40) 0.2(30)
Concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution in 50 50 50

mixture, M2 (mol dm–3) = 0.18 = 0.16 = 0.12

(M2 = M1V1 )
V2

Masa diambil, t(s) 18.18 20.05 26.98
Time taken (s) 0.055 0.050 0.037

Kadar tindak balas, 1 (s–1)
Rate of reaction 1 t
t (s–1)

Mentafsir data / Interpreting data: TP 3

Kepekatan larutan Kepekatan larutan

natrium tiosulfat (mol dm–3) natrium tiosulfat (mol dm–3)
Concentration of sodium Concentration of sodium
thiosulphate (mol dm–3) thiosulphate (mol dm–3)

0.20 0.20

0.16 0.16

0.12 0.12

BAB 7 0.08 0.08

0.04 0.04 M—a—s1a–(—s)(s–1)
1
0 20 40 60 80 100 Masa(s) 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06
Time (s) ——–— (s–1)
Graf I Time (s)
Graf bagi kepekatan larutan natrium tiosulfat
melawan arus Graf II

Graph of concentration of sodium thiosulphate Graf bagi kepekatan larutan natrium tiosulfat
1
melawan masa

Graph of concentration of sodium thiosulphate against 1
time

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Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 7 Kadar Tindak Balas 

Perbincangan / Discussion: TP 2

1. Larutan natrium tiosulfat bertindak balas dengan asid sulfurik cair untuk membentuk mendakan kuning
iaitu sulfur.

Sodium thiosulphate solution reacts with dilute sulphuric acid to form yellow precipitate which is sulphur.

Persamaan kimia: Na2S2O3 + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + S + SO2 + H2O

Chemical equation

2. Dalam eksperimen ini, masa yang diambil untuk tanda pangkah ‘X’ hilang daripada penglihatan
boleh digunakan untuk menentukan kadar tindak balas.

In this experiment, the time taken for ‘X’ mark to disappear from view can be used to determine the rate of reaction.

Kadar tindak balas ∝ 1
Masa diambil untuk tanda ‘X’ hilang daripada penglihatan

Rate of reaction ∝ 1
Time taken for ‘X’ mark dissappear from view

3. (a) Berdasarkan graf I, apabila kepekatan larutan natrium tiosulfat berkurang, lebih panjang masa

yang diperlukan untuk tanda ‘X’ hilang daripada penglihatan.

Based of Graph I, when the concentration of sodium thiosulphate decreases, longer time is needed for ‘X’
mark to disappear from view.

(b) Maka, semakin rendah kepekatan larutan natrium tiosulfat, semakin rendah kadar tindak
balas.

Thus, the lower the concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution, the lower the rate of reaction.

4. (a) Graf II menunjukkan satu garis lurus. Oleh itu, kepekatan larutan natrium tiosulfat berkadar terus dengan
1.

masa

Graph II shows a straight line. Therefore, the concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution is directly proportional

to 1 .
time

(b) Apabila kadar tindak balas berkadar terus dengan 1 , maka kadar tindak balas berkadar terus dengan
masa
kepekatan larutan natrium tiosulfat.

When the rate of reaction is directly proportional to 1 , thus, the rate of reaction is directly proportional to the
time
concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution.
BAB 7
5. Larutan yang berkepekatan tinggi mempunyai lebih banyak zarah-zarah yang hadir per unit isi padu.

Maka, perlanggaran antara zarah-zarah semakin bertambah . Kadar tindak balas bertambah .

Concentrated solution has many particles present per unit volume. Thus, the collision between particles

increases . Rate of reaction increases .

6. (a) Dalam eksperimen ini, jika asid hidroklorik dengan kepekatan yang sama digunakan untuk menggantikan

asid sulfurik, kadar tindak balas menjadi lebih rendah .

In this experiment, if hydrochloric acid with the same concentration is used to replace sulphuric acid, the rate of reaction
is lower .

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  Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 7 Kadar Tindak Balas

(b) Hal ini disebabkan asid hidroklorik ialah asid monoprotik yang kuat manakala asid sulfurik

ialah asid diprotik yang kuat. Kepekatan ion hidrogen di dalam asid hidroklorik adalah

separuh daripada kepekatan ion hidrogen di dalam asid sulfurik.

This is because hydrochloric acid is a strong monoprotic acid whereas sulphuric acid is a strong

diprotic acid . The concentration of hydrogen ion in hydrochloric acid is half the concentration

of hydrogen ion in sulphuric acid.

Kesimpulan / Conclusion: TP 3

Apabila kepekatan suatu bahan tindak balas bertambah, kadar tindak balas meningkat .

When the concentration of reactant increases, the rate of reaction increases .

Eksperimen 7.3 Kesan Suhu Bahan Tindak Balas pada Kadar Tindak Balas
The Effect of Temperature of Reactants on Rate of Reaction

Tujuan / Aim:

Untuk mengkaji kesan suhu bahan tindak balas pada kadar tindak balas

To study the effect of temperature of reactants on rate of reaction

Pernyataan masalah / Problem statement:

Bagaimanakah suhu bahan tindak balas mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas?

How does temperature of reactant affect the rate of reaction?

Hipotesis / Hypothesis:

Semakin tinggi suhu larutan natrium tiosulfat, semakin tinggi kadar tindak balas. TP 2

The higher the temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution, the higher the rate of reaction.

Pemboleh ubah / Variables :

(a) Dimanipulasikan: Suhu larutan natrium tiosulfat TP 1

Manipulated: Temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution

BAB 7 (b) Bergerak balas: Kadar tindak balas

Responding: Rate of reaction

(c) Dimalarkan: Kepekatan dan isi padu asid sulfurik TP 1

Fixed: Concentration and volume of sulphuric acid

Bahan / Materials:

Asid sulfurik 1.0 mol dm–3, larutan natrium tiosulfat 0.2 mol dm–3, air suling

Sulphuric acid 1.0 mol dm–3, sodium thiosulphate solution 0.2 mol dm–3, distilled water

Radas / Apparatus:

Kelalang kon 150 cm3, kertas putih, silinder penyukat 10 cm3 dan 50 cm3, jam randik, termometer, penunu Bunsen,

tungku kaki tiga

150 cm3 conical flask, white paper, 10 cm3 and 50 cm3 measuring cylinders, stopwatch, thermometer, Bunsen burner, tripod stand

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Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 7 Kadar Tindak Balas 

Prosedur / Procedure:
1. 50 cm3 0.2 mol dm–3 larutan natrium tiosulfat disukat dan dituangkan ke dalam kelalang kon.

50 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm–3 sodium thiosulphate solution is measured and poured into a conical flask.

2. Suhu awal direkodkan. Kelalang kon diletakkan atas sekeping kertas putih bertanda ‘X’ di tengah.

Initial temperature is recorded. The conical flask is placed on a piece of white paper marked ‘X’ at the centre.

3. 5 cm3 1.0 mol dm–3 asid sulfurik dituang ke dalam kelalang kon. Jam randik dimulakan.

5 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm–3 sulphuric acid is poured into the conical flask. The stopwatch is started.

4. Campuran itu dipusar dengan perlahan.Tanda ‘X’ diperhati dari atas.

The mixture is swirled slowly. The mark ‘X’ is observed from the top.

5 . Jam randik dihentikan apabila tanda ‘X’ hilang. Masa direkodkan.

The stopwatch is stopped when the ‘X’ mark disappears. Time is recorded.

6. Langkah 1 ke 5 diulang dengan suhu larutan natrium tiosulfat, 40°C, 45°C, 50°C dan 55°C.

Steps 1 to 5 are repeated with the temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution, 40°C, 45°C, 50°C and 55°C.

50 cm3 larutan Termometer Kelalang kon
natrium tiosulfat Thermometer Conical flask

+

Kertas putih 5 cm3 asid 50 cm3 larutan
White paper
sulfurik natrium tiosulfat
Keputusan / Result:
Eksperimen 50 cm3 of sodium 50 cm3 of sodium

Experiment thiosulphate solution thiosulphate solution
I + Panas
II
III 5 cm3 of sulphuric acid        Heat
IV
V Suhu (°C) Masa, t(s) 1 (s–1) / 1 (s–1)
Temperature (°C) Time, t(s) masa time

28.0 18.52 0.054

35.0 9.48 0.105

40.0 7.07 0.141

45.0 5.62 0.178

50.0 4.63 0.216

Mentafsir data / Interpreting data:

1. Berdasarkan keputusan, dua graf diplotkan. Suhu (°C) BAB 7
Temperature (°C)
Based on the result, two graphs are plotted.
50
(a) Graf I: Graf bagi suhu melawan masa 45
40
Graph I: Graph of temperature against time 35
30
(b) Graf II: Graf bagi suhu melawan masa 1 . 25 0 5
masa

Graph II: Graph of temperature against 1 .
time

2. Daripada Graf I, dapat dirumuskan bahawa apabila suhu Masa (s)
10 15 20 Time (s)
meningkat, masa yang diambil untuk tanda ‘X’ hilang

daripada penglihatan semakin berkurang.

From Graph I, it concludes that when the temperature increases,
the time taken for ‘X” mark to disappear from view decreases.

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3. Daripada Graf II, dapat dirumuskan bahawa suhu bertambah secara linear dengan masa 1 .
masa
From Graph II, it concludes that the temperature increases linearly with 1 .
time

Suhu (°C)

Temperature (°C)

50

45

40

35

30 M—a—s1a–(—s)(s–1)

25 0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 1
——–— (s–1)
Time (s)

4. Pada suhu yang tinggi, zarah-zarah natrium tiosulfat dan asid sulfurik mempunyai tenaga kinetik

yang tinggi. Zarah-zarah ini akan meningkatkan perlanggaran. Kadar tindak balas bertambah .

At a high temperature, sodium thiosulphate and sulphuric acid particles have high kinetic energy. These

particles increase collisions. Rate of reaction increases .

Perbincangan / Discussion:

Persamaan kimia: Na2S2O3 + H2SO4 2Na2SO4 + H2O + SO2 + S

Chemical equation

1. Daripada graf yang diplotkan,

Based on the graph plotted,

(a) Suhu bertambah secara linear dengan 1 .
masa
1
Temperature increase linearly with time .

(b) Tetapi, kadar tindak balas berkadar songsang dengan masa.

But, the rate of reaction is inversely proportional with time.

(c) Maka, kadar tindak balas bertambah secara linear dengan suhu .

BAB 7 Thus, the rate of reaction increases linearly with temperature .

2. Apabila suhu meningkat, masa yang diambil untuk bertindak balas berkurang dan kadar tindak balas

bertambah .

When the temperature increases, the time taken to react decreases and the rate of reaction increases

Kesimpulan / Conclusion: TP 2

1. Semakin tinggi suhu bahan tindak balas, semakin tinggi kadar tindak balas.

The higher the temperature of reactant, the higher the rate of reaction

2. Hipotesis diterima. / Hypothesis is accepted.

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Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 7 Kadar Tindak Balas 

Eksperimen 7.4 Kesan Mangkin pada Kadar Tindak Balas
The Effect of Catalyst on the Rate of Reaction

Tujuan / Aim:

Untuk mengkaji kesan mangkin pada kadar tindak balas

To study the effect of catalyst on the rate of reaction

Pernyataan masalah / Problem statement:

Bagaimanakah kehadiran mangkin mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas?

How does the presence of catalyst affect the rate of reaction?

Hipotesis / Hypothesis:

Kehadiran mangkin meningkatkan kadar tindak balas.

Presence of catalyst increases the rate of reaction.

Pemboleh ubah / Variables :

(a) Dimanipulasikan: Kehadiran mangkin TP 1

Manipulated: Presence of catalyst

(b) Bergerak balas: Kadar tindak balas

Responding: Rate of reaction

(c) Dimalarkan: Jisim mangan(IV) oksida TP 1

Fixed: Mass of manganese(IV) oxide

Bahan / Materials:

20-isi padu larutan hidrogen peroksida, 0.5 g serbuk mangan(IV) oksida, air suling

20-volume hydrogen peroxide solution, 0.5 g manganese(IV) oxide powder, distilled water

Radas / Apparatus:

Silinder penyukat 10 cm3, tabung uji, rak tabung uji, kayu uji berbara, corong turas, kertas turas, bikar 150 cm3,

spatula, penimbang elektronik

Measuring cylinder 10 cm3 , test tube, test tube rack, glowing wooden splinter, filter funnel, filter paper, 150 cm3 beaker, saptula,
electronic balance

Prosedur / Procedure:

1. 5 cm3 hidrogen peroksida dimasukkan ke dalam dua tabung uji yang dilabel I dan II. BAB 7

5 cm3 hydrogen peroxide is put into two test tubes labelled I and II.

2. 0.5 g mangan(IV) oksida dimasukkan ke dalam tabung uji II sahaja.

0.5 g manganese(IV) oxide is added into test tube II only.

3. Kayu uji berbara didekatkan pada mulut tabung uji I dan II. Pemerhatian direkodkan.

A glowing splinter is put near the mouth of test tubes I and II. Observation is recorded.

Keputusan / Results:

Tabung uji Pemerhatian Inferens TP 2
Test tube Observation Inference

I Membara malap Sedikit gas oksigen
(tanpa MnO2 ) Glowing dimly Less oxygen gas
(without MnO2 )
Menyala terang Banyak gas oksigen
II Burning brightly Plenty of oxygen gas
(dengan MnO2 )

(with MnO2 )

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Perbincangan / Discussion: TP 2

1. Hidrogen peroksida terurai kepada gas oksigen dan air .

Hydrogen peroxide decomposes to oxygen gas and water .

Persamaan kimia: 2H2O2 O2 + 2H2O

Chemical equation

2. Kehadiran mangan(IV) oksida meningkatkan kadar penguraian hidrogen peroksida.

Presence of manganese (IV) oxide increases the rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.

Kesimpulan / Conclusion: TP 2

1. Kehadiran mangkin meningkatkan kadar tindak balas.

Presence of catalyst increases the rate of reaction.

2. Hipotesis diterima. / Hypothesis is accepted.

7.3 Aplikasi Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Kadar Tindak Balas dalam Kehidupan
Application of Factors that Affect Rate of Reaction in Life
1.

• Penghasilan etanol melalui penapaian • Daging dipotong kepada saiz yang lebih

glukosa menggunakan enzim kecil supaya cepat

yis sebagai mangkin. dimasak.
Meat is cut into
Production of ethanol through fermentation smaller

of glucose using yeast pieces to cook faster.

enzyme as catalyst. Mangkin Saiz
Catalyst Size

• Makanan yang dimasak Suhu Kepekatan • Hujan asid di kawasan industri
Temperature Concentration
BAB 7 mengandungi kepekatan
pada suhu yang tinggi lebih
sulfur dioksida yang tinggi
cepat masak.
meningkatkan kadar
Food cooked at a high temperature
kakisan bahan yang
faster
cooks . diperbuat daripada besi.

Acid rain in industrial areas contains

a high concentration of sulphur

dioxide which increase the rate

of corrosion of iron

substances.

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1Tugasan

1. (a) Terangkan pernyataan ini.
Explain the statement.
Potongan nipis kentang akan lebih cepat masak apabila digoreng di dalam minyak panas berbanding seluruh
biji kentang dimasak di dalam air mendidih.
Slices of potato cutlets will cook faster if fried in hot oil compared to whole potato being cooked in boiling water.
Potongan nipis kentang mempunyai jumlah luas permukaan yang lebih besar berbanding dengan seluruh
biji kentang. Minyak panas mempunyai suhu yang lebih tinggi berbanding dengan air mendidih.
Slices of potato cutlets have larger total surface area compared to whole potato. Hot oil has a higher temperature compared
to boiling water.

(b) Tiga eksperimen dijalankan untuk mengkaji faktor yang mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas. Jadual
menunjukkan keadaan bagi tiga eksperimen itu.

Three experiments were carried out to study the factors that affect rate of reaction. Table shows the conditions for the three
experiments.

Eksperimen Bahan tindak balas Suhu (oC)
Experiment Reactants Temperature

A 30 cm3 10.5 mol dm–3 asid hidroklorik, HCl + serpihan kalsium karbonat, CaCO3 32
30 cm3 10.5 mol dm–3 hydrochloric acid, HCl + calcium carbonate, CaCO3 pieces
B 30 cm3 10.5 mol dm–3 asid hidroklorik, HCl + serpihan kalsium karbonat, CaCO3 45
30 cm3 10.5 mol dm–3 hydrochloric acid, HCl + calcium carbonate, CaCO3 pieces
C 30 cm3 10.5 mol dm–3 asid hidroklorik, HCl + serbuk kalsium karbonat, CaCO3 45
30 cm3 10.5 mol dm–3 hydrochloric acid, HCl + calcium carbonate, CaCO3 powder

Isi padu maksimum gas karbon dioksida ialah 50 cm3 selepas 55 s
Maksimum volume of carbon dioxide gas is 50 cm3 after 55 s.

(a) Kirakan kadar tindak balas purata bagi eksperimen A. TP 3
Calculate the average rate of reaction for experiment A.

kadar tindak balas purata = 50
average rate of reaction 55

= 0.91 cm3 s_1

(b) Lakarkan graf A, B dan C pada paksi yang sama. TP 4 BAB 7
Sketch the graph A, B and C on the same axes.

Isi padu (cm3) CB
Volume (cm3)

55

A

Masa (s)

50 Time (s)
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  Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 7 Kadar Tindak Balas

(c) Terangkan bentuk graf A, B dan C. TP 2
Explain the shape of graph A, B and C.

Graf A: Kecerunan paling rendah. Kadar tindak balas paling rendah.
G raph A Gradient the lowest. Rate of reaction the lowest.

Graf B: Kecerunan lebih tinggi daripada Graf A kerana suhu lebih tinggi. Kadar tindak balas tinggi.
G raph B Gradient is higher than Graph A because temperature is higher. Rate of reaction is high

Graf C: Kecerunan paling tinggi kerana suhu tinggi dan jumlah luas permukaan CaCO3 besar.
Graph C Kadar tindak balas paling tinggi.

Gradient is highest because temperature is high and total surface area is large.

Rate of reaction is the highest.

7.4 Teori Perlanggaran
Collision Theory

1. (a) Teori Kinetik Jirim menyatakan bahawa jirim terdiri daripada zarah-zarah yang halus dan

diskrit yang sentiasa bergerak . TP 1

Kinetic Theory of Matter states that matter consist of continuously moving , tiny and

discrete particles.

(b) Teori pelanggaran menyatakan bahawa

Collision theory states that

(i) tindak balas kimia akan berlaku akibat daripada perlanggaran zarah-zarah (atom, molekul atau
ion). TP 1

chemical reaction will happen due to the collision between particles (atom, molecules or ions).

(ii) Kadar tindak balas bergantung keapda frekuensi perlanggaran berkesan .

Rate of reaction depends on the frequency of effective collisions .

(c) Perlanggaran berkesan ialah perlanggaran antara zarah-zarah bahan tindak balas yang menghasilkan

BAB 7 tindak balas kimia dan membentuk hasil tindak balas. TP 2

Effective collision is collision between particles of the reactants that produce chemical reaction and produce
the products.

(d) Perlanggaran berkesan berlaku jika

Effective collision occurs if

(i) Zarah-zarah bahan tindak balas mempunyai tenaga yang sama atau tenaga yang lebih

tinggi daripada tenaga minimum yang dipanggil tenaga pengaktifan , EA. TP 2

The particles of reactants that have the same energy or more than the minimum

energy called the activation energy, EA.

(ii) Perlanggaran berlaku dalam orientasi yang betul . TP 2

Collision occurs in the correct orientation.

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Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 7 Kadar Tindak Balas 

2. Tanda dan lebelkan tenaga pengaktifan, EA dalam gambar rajah profil tenaga berikut:

Mark and label the activation energy , EA in the energy profile diagram below:

Tenaga Tenaga
Energy Energy

Bahan EA Hasil
Reactants Products
EA

Bahan
Reactants

Hasil
Products

Lintasan tindak balas Lintasan tindak balas
Reaction pathway Reaction pathway

Tindak balas eksotermik Tindak balas endotermik

Exothermic reaction Endothermic reaction

3. (a) Tenaga pengaktifan, EA adalah tenaga minimum yang diperlukan untuk memulakan suatu tindak
balas.
energy required to start a reaction. TP 2
Activation energy, EA is the minimum

(b) Gambar rajah profil tenaga menunjukkan perubahan tenaga bagi zarah-zarah yang bertindak

balas daripada bahan tindak balas kepada hasil tindak balas. TP 2

Energy profile diagram shows the energy change for particles that react from reactants to products.

(c) Tenaga pengaktifan, EA ditunjukkan sebagai perbezaan tenaga antara puncak graf

dengan bahan tindak balas. TP 2

Activation energy, EA is shown as energy difference between the peak of the graph and the
reactants.

Contoh / Example

Tenaga
Energy

K+L 100 kJ BAB 7

40 kJ

M+N

Jika K ialah asid nitrik dan L adalah serbuk zink,

If K is nitric acid and L is zinc powder,

(i) Nyatakan M dan N. TP 2

State M and N.

M = zink nitrat N = hidrogen

zinc nitrate hydrogen

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  Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 7 Kadar Tindak Balas

(ii) Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas di antara asid nitrik dan serbuk zink. TP 2

Write the chemical equation for the reaction between nitric acid and zinc powder.

Zn +  2HNO3   9:  Zn (NO3)2  + H2

(iii) Tentukan perubahan tenaga dan tenaga pengaktifan bagi tindak balas ini. TP 2

Determine the heat change and activation energy for the reaction.

Perubahan Tenaga = 40 kJ Tenaga Pengaktifan = 60 kJ

Heat Change Activation Energy

(iv) Tentukan tindak balas ini eksotermik atau endotermik. Jelaskan. TP 2

Determine whether the reaction is exothermic or endothermic. Explain.

Tindak balas adalah eksotermik kerana perubahan tenaga adalah negatif.

Reaction is exothermic. Because the energy change is negative.

Perubahan tenaga = 0 – 40
–40 kJ
Energy change =



Perlanggaran Berkesan dan Kadar Tindak Balas

Effective Collison and Rate of Reaction

1. Semakin tinggi frekuensi perlanggaran berkesan, semakin tinggi kadar tindak balas.

The higher the frequency of effective collision, the higher the rate of reaction.

2. Isikan tempat kosong dengan simbol (↑) bagi peningkatan atau (↓) bagi pengurangan.

Fill in the blanks with the symbol (↑) for increment and (↓) for reduction.

Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas:

Factors affecting the rate of reaction:

(a) Kesan kepekatan ke atas kadar tindak balas (b) Kesan saiz bahan tindak balas kepada kadar tindak
balas
Effect of concentration on the rate of reaction
Effect of size of reactant on the rate of reaction
Kepekatan bertambah / Concentration increases
Jumlah luas permukaan bahan tindak balas bertambah
Bilangan zarah per unit isi padu Total surface area of reactant increases

Number of particles per unit volume Jumlah luas permukaan terdedah untuk perlanggaran

Frekuensi perlanggaran antara zarah-zarah Total surface area exposed for collisions

Frequency of collisions between particles Frekuensi perlanggaran antara zarah-zarah

Frekuensi perlanggaran berkesan antara zarah-zarah Frequency of collisions between particles

Frequency of effective collisions between particles Frekuensi perlanggaran berkesan antara zarah-zarah

Kadar tindak balas / Rate of reaction Frequency of effective collisions between particles

BAB 7 Kadar tindak balas / Rate of reaction

(c) Kesan suhu kepada kadar tindak balas (d) Kesan mangkin kepada kadar tindak balas

Effect of temperature on the rate of reaction Effect of catalyst on the rate of reaction
Kehadiran mangkin / Presence of catalyst
Suhu bertambah / Temperature increases Tenaga pengaktifan

Tenaga kinetik zarah-zarah bahan tindak balas Activation energy

Kinetic enegry of reactant particles Bilangan zarah bahan tindak balas yang mencapai
tenaga pengaktifan
Bilangan zarah yang bertenaga untuk mengatasi
tenaga pengaktifan / Number of reactant particles that Number of reactant particles that achieve the activation energy

achieve the activation energy Frekuensi perlanggaran berkesan antara zarah-zarah

Frekuensi perlanggaran berkesan antara zarah-zarah Frequency of effective collisions between particles

Frequency of effective collisions between particles Kadar tindak balas / Rate of reaction

Kadar tindak balas / Rate of reaction

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Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 7 Kadar Tindak Balas 

3. Labelkan gambar rajah profil tenaga di bawah.

Label the energy profile diagrams below.

Tindak balas eksotermik Tindak balas endotermik

Exothermic reaction Endothermic reaction

Tenaga Tenaga Tanpa mangkin
Energy Energy Without catalyst

Bahan Ea Tanpa mangkin Dengan mangkin
tindak Without catalyst With catalyst
balas
Reactants E’a Dengan mangkin Ea Hasil tindak balas
With catalyst E’a Products
Bahan
Hasil tindak balas tindak
Products balas
Reactants

Lintasan tindak balas Lintasan tindak balas
Reaction pathway Reaction pathway

Petunjuk / Key:
Ea = Tenaga pengaktifan tanpa mangkin
Activation energy without catalyst

Ea’ = Tenaga pengaktifan dengan mangkin
Activation energy with catalyst

PRAKTIS SPM 17

Soalan Objektif 3. Zink yang berlebihan dicampurkan kepada 25 cm3
asid hidroklorik 0.2 mol dm–3 pada suhu bilik.
1. Faktor yang manakah tidak mempengaruhi kadar Eksperimen ini diulangi dengan menggunakan asid
tindak balas? hidroklorik pada isi padu dan kepekatan yang sama
tetapi dipanaskan kepada suhu yang lebih tinggi.
2 018 Which factor do not affect rate of reaction?
A Saiz bahan tindak balas bentuk pepejal Excess zinc is added to 25 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm–3 hydrochloric
Size of solid reactant acid at room temperature. The experiment is repeated using
B Suhu bahan tindak balas hydrochloric acid of the same volume and concentration but
Temperature of reactants heated to a higher temperature.
C Kepekatan bahan tindak balas
Concentration of reactants Isi padu (cm3) X BAB 7
D Isi padu bahan tindak balas Volume (cm3)
Volume of reactants
Y
2. Tindak balas manakah yang mempunyai kadar tindak
balas paling tinggi? Z Masa (s)
W Time (s)
Which reaction has the highest rate of reaction?
A Pengaratan paip besi
Rusting of iron pipe
B Pembakaran arang bersaiz kecil Antara berikut, yang manakah menunjukkan isi padu
Burning of small size charcoal gas yang terkumpul pada sela masa tertentu untuk
C Fotosintesis dalam tumbuhan kedua-dua eksperimen ini?
Photosyntesis in plants
Which of the following graphs show the volume of gas collected
at regular interval time for the two experiments?

175

  Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 7 Kadar Tindak Balas

A Z , Y C W, Y 7. Berdasarkan teori perlanggaran, pernyataan manakah
B Z, X D W, X benar tentang kesan saiz bahan tindak balas yang
kecil?
4. Jadual menunjukkan isi padu gas yang dikumpulkan
apabila kalsium karbonat bertindak balas dengan Based on the collision theory, which statement is correct about
asid hidroklorik. KBAT Menganalisis the effect of small size reactant?
A Kepekatan zarah bahan tindak balas lebih tinggi
Table shows the volume of gas collected when calcium Concentration of particles of reactant is higher
carbonate reacts with hydrochloric acid. B Jumlah luas permukaan bahan tindak balas lebih
besar
Masa (min) 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Total surface area of reactant is bigger
Time C Tenaga pengaktifan bahan tindak balas lebih rendah
Activation energy of reactant is lower
Isi padu CO2 D Tenaga kinetik bahan tindak balas lebih tinggi
Volume of CO2 0 90 150 180 200 210 210 Kinetic energy of the reactant is higher
(cm3)
8. Kadar tindak balas meningkat apabila sedikit larutan
Kirakan kadar tindak balas purata. kuprum(II) sulfat ditambah kepada campuran
Calculate the average rate of reaction. serbuk magnesium dan asid nitrik cair. Pernyataan
manakah menerangkan mengapa kadar tindak balas
A 70 cm3 min–1 meningkat?
B 84 cm3 min–1
C 100 cm3 min–1 The rate of reaction increases when a little copper(II) sulphate
D 150 cm3 min–1 solution is added to a mixture of magnesium powder and
dilute nitric acid. Which statement explains why the rate of
5. Rajah menunjukkan satu graf isi padu gas oksigen reaction increase?
melawan masa dalam penguraian hidrogen peroksida. A Jumlah luas permukaan zarah-zarah bahan tindak
balas bertambah
Diagram shows a graph of volume of oxygen gas against time The total surface area of the reactant particles increases
in the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. B Tenaga kinetik zarah-zarah bahan tindak balas
bertambah
Isi padu (cm3) V The kinetic energy of the reactant particles increases
Volume (cm3) C Tenaga pengaktifan dikurangkan
The activation energy is lowered
U D Jumlah bilangan zarah-zarah bahan tindak balas
T per unit isi padu bertambah
The total number of reactant particles per unit volume
S increases

Masa (s) 9. Penguraian hidrogen peroksida menghasilkan gas
Time (s) oksigen. Apakah kesan kepada penguraian hidrogen
peroksida jika dipanaskan pada suhu yang lebih
Titik manakah yang menunjukkan kadar tindak balas tinggi? KBAT Menganalisis
paling tinggi?
Which point shows the highest rate of reaction? Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide produce oxygen
gas to hydrogen peroxide. What is the effect to the
A S C U decomposition of hydrogen peroxide if it is heated to a higher
temperature?
BAB 7 B T D V A Jumlah isi padu oksigen mengurang.
Total volume of oxygen decreases.
6. Dalam tindak balas asid hidroklorik dengan zink, B Lebih banyak haba terbebas.
faktor yang manakah tidak mempengaruhi kadar More heat is released.
tindak balas? C Kadar awal penguraian hidrogen peroksida
meningkat.
In the reaction hydrochloric acid and zinc, which of the factors Initial rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide increases.
does not affect rate of reaction? D Kepekatan hidrogen peroksida meningkat.
A Kepekatan asid hidroklorik Concentration of hydrogen peroxide increases.
Concentration of hydrochloric acid
B Suhu asid hidroklorik
Temperature hydrochloric acid
C Tekanan tindak balas
Pressure of reaction
D Kehadiran mangkin kuprum(II) sulfat
Presence of the catalyst copper(II) sulphate

176

10. Antara tindak balas berikut, yang manakah kadar Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 7 Kadar Tindak Balas 
tindak balasnya boleh ditentukan dengan mengukur
perubahan isi padu gas? A Cu + HCl
B CuO + HCl
Which of the following reactions, its rate of reaction can be C NaOH + HCl
determined by measuring change in gas volume? D CaCO3 + HCl

Soalan Struktur
Bahagian A

1. Jadual menunjukkan maklumat bagi dua set eksperimen.
Table shows information for two sets of experiments.

Set Bahan Isi padu gas terkumpul dalam 2 minit (cm3)
Material
Volume of gas collected after 2 minutes (cm3)
I 50 cm3 1.0 mol dm–3 asid sulfurik + zink
50 cm3 1.0 mol dm–3 sulphuric acid+ zinc 40 .00

II 50 cm3 1.0 mol dm–3 asid sulfurik + zink + mangkin Y 60.00
50 cm3 1.0 mol dm–3 sulphuric acid + zinc + catalyst Y

Berdasarkan jadual,
Based on table,

(a) Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan mangkin?
What is the meaning of catalyst?

Bahan yang meningkatkan kadar tindak balas tetapi dirinya tidak berubah secara kimia.

Substance that increase the rate of reaction but itself remains chemically unchanged. [1 markah / mark]

(b) Nyatakan nama bagi mangkin Y yang boleh digunakan dalam Set II.
State the name of catalyst Y that can be used in Set II.

Kuprum(II) sulfat / Copper(II) sulphate

[1 markah / mark]
[2 markah / marks]
(c) (i) Hitung kadar tindak balas purata dalam
Calculate the average rate of reaction in

Set I :  40 Set II:  60 BAB 7
2 2

= 20 cm3 min–1 = 30 cm3 min–1



(ii) Bandingkan kadar tindak balas antara Set I dan Set II.
Compare the rate of reaction between Set I and Set II.

Kadar tindak balas Set II lebih tinggi / Rate of reaction of Set II is higher [1 markah / mark]
(iii) Terangkan jawapan anda di 1(c)(ii) berdasarkan teori perlanggaran.
Explain your answer in 1(c)(ii) based on collision theory.

Mangkin Y merendahkan tenaga pengaktifan tindak balas itu. Frekuensi perlanggaran berkesan meningkat.

Catalyst Y lowered the activation energy of the reaction. Frequency of effective collision increase. [2 markah / marks]


177

  Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 7 Kadar Tindak Balas [1 markah / mark]

(d) (i) Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi Set I.
Write the chemical equation for Set I.
Zn + 2HCl 9: ZnCl2 + H2

(ii) Lakarkan rajah profil tenaga bagi Set I.
Draw the energy profile diagram for Set I.

Tenaga
Energy

Zn + 2HCI

ZnCI2 + H2
[3 markah / marks]

Bahagian B

2. (a) Susu yang disimpan di dalam peti sejuk tahan lebih lama daripada susu yang dibiarkan di luar. Terangkan
mengapa.

Milk kept in the refrigerator last longer compared to milk left outside. Explain why.
[4 markah/ marks]

(b) Jadual menunjukkan maklumat tentang tiga eksperimen, I, II, dan III yang dijalankan untuk menyiasat faktor-
faktor yang mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas.

Table shows the information of three experiments, I, II and III which are carried out to investigate the factors affecting the rate of
reaction.

Set Bahan tindak balas Masa untuk selesai tindak balas (s)
Reactants Time to complete the reaction
33
I 5 g serbuk CaCO3 50 cm3 1.0 mol dm–3 HCl 45
25
5 g CaCO3 powder

II 5 g ketulan CaCO3 50 cm3 1.0 mol dm–3 HCl

5 g CaCO3 chip

BAB 7 III 5 g serbuk CaCO3 25 cm3 2.0 mol dm–3 HCl

5 g CaCO3 powder

(i) Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas antara kalsium karbonat dan asid hidroklorik.
Hitung isi padu maksimum gas karbon dioksida yang terbebas dalam Eksperimen I.
Write the chemical equation for the reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid.
Calculate the maximum volume of carbon dioxide gas produced in Experiment I.

[Isi padu molar gas pada keadaan bilik ialah 24 dm3 mol–1]
[Molar volume of gas at room conditions is 24 dm3 mol–1]

[5 markah/ marks]

(ii) Lakarkan graf bagi isi padu gas melawan masa bagi eksperimen I, II dan III atas paksi yang sama.
Sketch the graphs for the volume of gas against time for experiment I, II and III on the same axis.
[4 markah/ marks]

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Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 7 Kadar Tindak Balas 

(iii) Berdasarkan jadual di atas:
Based on table above:

• Susun kadar tindak balas bagi Eksperimen I, II, dan III dalam tertib menurun.
Arrange the rate of reaction for Experiment I, II and III in descending order.

• Nyatakan dan terangkan faktor bagi perbezaan kadar tindak balas antara Eksperimen I dan III dengan
merujuk kepada teori perlanggaran.

State and explain the factor for the difference of rate of reaction between Experiments I and III by referring to the collision theory.
• Kirakan kadar tindak balas purata bagi Eksperimen II.
Calculate the average rate of reaction for Experiment II.
[7 markah/ marks]

Bahagian C

3. (a) Rajah menunjukkan roket soda yang disediakan oleh Adam menggunakan bahan isi rumah untuk projek sainsnya.
Demonstrasi ini mengaplikasikan tindak balas antara cuka dan serbuk penaik bagi pelancaran roket.
Diagram shows a soda rocket prepared by Adam using household materials for his science project. This demonstration apply
reaction between vinegar and baking soda to launch the rocket.

Serbuk penaik Cuka
Baking soda Vinegar

Sirip
Fins



Cadangkan satu bahan yang boleh digunakan oleh Adi untuk menggantikan cuka supaya dia dapat memastikan
roket terbang lebih tinggi. Terangkan jawapan anda.

Suggest one substance which Adi can use to replace vinegar so that he can ensure the rocket fly higher.
[4 markah /marks]

(b) Jadual menunjukkan dua set eksperimen untuk mengkaji faktor yang mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas antara BAB 7
serbuk zink dan asid hidroklorik.

Table shows two sets of experiments to study the factor that affects the rate of reaction between zinc powder and hydrochloric acid.

Set Bahan tindak balas Masa untuk tindak balas lengkap (min)
Reactants Time taken for reaction to complete

I Zink + X mol dm–3 asid hidroklorik 5.0
Zinc + X mol dm–3 hydrochloric acid

II Zink + Y mol dm–3 asid hidroklorik 3.5
Zinc + Y mol dm–3 hydrochloric acid

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  Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 7 Kadar Tindak Balas

Berdasarkan jadual,
Based on table,

(i) Cadangkan kepekatan asid hidroklorik yang digunakan dalam Set I dan Set II.
Suggest the concentration of hydrochloric acid used in Set I and Set II.
(ii) Terangkan mengapa terdapat perbezaan dalam kadar tindak balas dengan menggunakan teori perlanggaran.
Explain why there is a difference in the rate of reaction by using collision theory.

[6 markah/ marks]
(c) Huraikan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji bagaimana suhu mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas antara larutan

natrium tiosulfat dan asid hidroklorik.
Describe an experiment to investigate how temperature affect the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate solution and

hydrochloric acid.
Dalam huraian anda, sertakan:
In your description include:

Bahan dan Radas
Substance and Apparatus

Prosedur
Procedures

Satu pemerhatian
One observation


[10 markah/ marks]

Kuiz 7

BAB 7

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BAB Bahan Buatan Dalam Industri

8 Manufactured Substances in Industry

PETA Konsep Komposisi seramik dan • Jenis seramik
kegunaannya
• Bahan komposit dan Types of ceramics
kegunaannya Composition of ceramic
and its uses • Aplikasi penggunaan
Composite materials and their uses seramik
• Perbandingan dan perbezaan
Ceramics Uses Application
sifat bahan komposit dengan
komponen asal
Comparison and difference in

properties of composite materials and
their original components

Bahan komposit dan BAHAN BUATAN Komposisi kaca dan
kepentingannya DALAM INDUSTRI kegunaannya
MANUFACTURED
Composite materials SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY Composition of glass
and its importance and its uses
Aloi dan kepentingannya
• Jenis kaca
Alloys and its importance
Types of glass
• Perbandingan sifat aloi dengan logam
tulen BAB 8

Comparison of properties of alloy and pure
metals

• Kewajaran penggunaan aloi berdasarkan
komposisi dan sifat

Justify of uses of alloys based on their
composition and properties

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  Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 8 Bahan Buatan dalam Industri

8.1 Aloi dan Kepentingannya
Alloy and Its Importance

1. Aloi ialah suatu campuran dua atau lebih unsur dengan komponen utamanya ialah

logam . TP 2

Alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with the main element is a metal .

Aloi seperti gangsa, loyang , keluli, besi keluli , duralumin dan piuter adalah biasa

digunakan dalam kehidupan harian. Superkonduktor adalah contoh aloi yang berfungsi dalam meningkatkan

keberkesanan pengangkutan elektrik. TP 2

Alloy such as bronze, brass , iron steel , duralumin and pewter are commonly used in

everyday life. Superconductor is an example of an alloy that functions in increasing the effectiveness of transporting
electricity.

2. Perbandingan Sifat Aloi dengan Logam Tulen.

Comparison of Properties of Alloys and Pure Metals.

Eksperimen 8.1 Perbandingan Sifat Aloi dengan Logam Tulen
Comparison of Properties of Alloys and Pure Metals

Tujuan / Aim:
Untuk mengkaji perbandingan sifat aloi dengan logam tulen

To study the comparison of properties of alloys and pure metals

Pernyataan masalah / Problem statement:
Adakah aloi lebih tahan kepada kakisan dan lebih keras daripada logam tulen?

Is an alloy more resistant to corrosion and harder than pure metal?

Bahan / Materials:
Plat keluli nirkarat, plat besi, air suling, bongkah kuprum, bongkah gangsa

Stainless steel plate, iron plate, distilled water, copper block, bronze block

Radas / Apparatus:
100 cm3 bikar, 100 cm3 silinder penyukat, kertas pasir, bola keluli, 1 kg pemberat, pembaris, kaki retort dengan
pemegang, pita selofan dan benang

100 cm3 beaker, 100 cm3 measuring cylinder, sandpaper, 1 kg weight, ruler, retort stand with clamp, cellophane tape, and thread

A Ketahanan kepada kakisan

Resistant to corrosion

Hipotesis / Hypothesis:

BAB 8 Keluli nirkarat lebih tahan terhadap kakisan berbanding besi.

Stainless steel is more resistant to corrosion than iron.

Pemboleh ubah / Variables :

(a) Dimanipulasikan: Jenis plat TP 2

Manipulated: Type of plate

182

(b) Bergerak balas: Kakisan plat Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 8 Bahan Buatan dalam Industri 
TP 1
Responding: Corrosion of plate

(c) Dimalarkan: Saiz plat dan isi padu air suling

Fixed: Size of plate and volume of distilled water

Plat keluli nirkarat Plat besi
Stainless steel plate Iron plate

Air suling          Air suling
Distilled water Distilled water

Prosedur / Procedure:

1. Permukaan kedua-dua plat dibersihkan dengan ketas pasir.

The surface of both plates is cleaned with sandpaper.

2. Kedua-dua plat direndam di dalam air suling selama seminggu.

Both plates are immersed in distilled water for one week.

3. Pemerhatian terhadap keadaan permukaan plat direkodkan selepas seminggu.

Observation on the condition of the plates’ surfaces is recorded after one week.

Keputusan / Results:

Jenis plat Keadaan permukaan plat
Type of plate Condition of plate’s surface

Keluli nirkarat Sebelum direndam ke dalam air suling Selepas direndam di dalam air suling
Stainless steel Before immersing into distilled water After immersing into distilled water

Besi Licin Tiada perubahan
Iron Smooth No changes

Licin Terkakis
Smooth Corroded

B Kekerasan bahan

Hardness of substances

Hipotesis / Hypothesis:

Gangsa lebih keras daripada kuprum (logam tulennya).

Bronze is harder than copper (its pure metal).

Pemboleh ubah / Variables :

(a) Dimanipulasikan: Gangsa dan logam tulennya (kuprum) TP 1

Manipulated: Bronze and its pure metal (copper)

(b) Bergerak balas: Diameter of dent

Responding: Diameter lekuk

(c) Dimalarkan: Saiz bola keluli / jisim pemberat / ketinggian pemberat TP 1 BAB 8

Fixed: Size of steel ball / mass of weight / height of weight

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  Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 8 Bahan Buatan dalam Industri

Benang
Thread
Pemberat
Weight

Bola keluli
Steel ball
Bongkah kuprum
Copper block

Prosedur / Procedure:
1. Pembaris diapitkan pada kaki retort dan bongkah gangsa diletakkan di atas tapak kaki retort.

A ruler is clamped to the retort stand and a bronze block is placed on the base of the retort stand.

2. Bola keluli diletakkan di atas bongkah gangsa menggunakan pita selofan.

A steel ball is placed on the bronze block using a cellophane tape.

3. 1 kg pemberat digantung pada ketinggian 50 cm dari bongkah gangsa.

1 kg weight is hung at a height of 50 cm from the bronze block.

4. Pemberat dijatuhkan ke atas bola keluli. Diameter lekuk diukur dan direkodkan.

The weight is released on the steel ball. Diameter of the dent is measured and recorded.

5. Eksperimen diulang tiga kali pada kawasan bongkah gangsa yang berbeza. Purata diameter lekuk dihitungkan.

The experiment is repeated three times at different areas of the bronze block. The average diameter of the dent is calculated.

6. Langkah 1 hingga 5 diulang dengan menggunakan bongkah kuprum.

Steps 1 to 5 are repeated using copper block.

Bongkah I Diameter lekuk(cm) Purata
Block Diameter of dent Average
2.8
Kuprum / Copper 2.0 II III 2.8
Gangsa / Bronze
2.8 2.9 2.1
2.2 2.1

Perbincangan / Discussion:

1. Kadar kakisan pada plat keluli lebih rendah daripada plat besi.

The rate of corrosion of steel plate is lower than iron plate.

2. Semakin kecil diameter lekuk, semakin kuat dan keras bahan itu. Diameter lekuk

BAB 8 gangsa lebih kecil. stronger the material. The dent diameter of

The smaller the diameter of the dent, the harder and

bronze Is smaller.

3. Aloi keluli lebih tahan kepada kakisan daripada besi. Aloi gangsa lebih kuat
daripada kuprum.
resistant to corrosion than iron. Bronze alloy is stronger than copper.
Steel alloy is more

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Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 8 Bahan Buatan dalam Industri 

Kesimpulan / Conclusion: TP 2

1. Aloi lebih tahan kepada kakisan dan lebih keras daripada logam tulen.

Alloy is more resistant to corrosion and harder than pure metal.

2. Hipotesis diterima. / Hypothesis is accepted.

Perbandingan antara susunan atom-atom dalam logam tulen dengan aloi

Comparison between the arrangement of atoms in pure metal and alloy

Logam tulen Aloi
Pure metal Alloy

(a) Satu jenis atom dengan saiz atom yang (a) Campuran atom-atom logam tulen dan atom-atom
sama
One asing dengan saiz yang berbeza berbanding
size
type of atom with the same atom logam tulen.
Mixing of pure metal atoms and
foreign atoms of

different sizes compared to pure metal atom.

(b) Atom-atom disusun secara teratur membentuk (b) Susunan teratur lapisan-lapisan atom logam tulen
terganggu .
lapisan-lapisan atom.
The orderly arrangement of pure metal atoms layers is
Atoms are arranged orderly forming layers of disrupted .
atoms.

(c) Apabila daya dikenakan, lapisan atom mudah (c) Apabila daya dikenakan, lapisan atom sukar
menggelongsor antara satu sama lain. easily menggelongsor antara satu sama lain. hardly

When force is applied, layers of atoms When force is applied, layers of atoms
slide over each other. slide over each other.

(d) Sifat logam tulen: (d) Sifat aloi:
Properties of pure metal: Properties of alloy:
(i) Mulur / Ductile
(i) Keras / Hard
(ii) Boleh ditempa / Malleable

Daya Atom logam tulen
Force Pure metal atoms

Atom logam tulen Lapisan atom menggelongsor Atom logam asing BAB 8
Pure metal atoms Layers of atoms sliding Foreign metal atoms

Aloi gangsa
Bronze alloy

185

  Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 8 Bahan Buatan dalam Industri

8.2 Komposisi Kaca dan Kegunaannya
Composition of Glass and Its Uses

1. Komponen utama kaca ialah silika atau silikon dioksida, SIO2 . TP 2

The major component of glass is silica or silicon dioxide, SIO2 .

2. Jenis kaca, komposisi, sifat dan kegunaannya. TP 2

Types of glass, composition, properties and its uses.

Jenis kaca Komposisi Sifat Kegunaan
Types of glass Composition Properties Use

Kaca silika terlakur Silika, SiO2 – Takat lebur tinggi Kanta teleskop
Fused silica glass Silica, SiO2 High melting point Telescope lens

– Tidak mengecut atau

mengembang dengan

banyak apabila suhu

berubah
Does not contract or expand

under temperature change

Kaca soda kapur – Silika, SiO2 – Takat lebur rendah Bekas kaca
Soda lime glass Silica, SiO2 Low melting point Glass containers
– Natrium karbonat, Na2CO3
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3 – Mudah dibentuk Botol dan jug air
– Kalsium karbonat, CaCO3 Easily moulded Bottles and jugs
Calcium carbonate, CaCO3
– Tidak tahan haba
Not resistant to heat

– Mudah retak apabila suhu

berubah
Easily cracks under

temperature change

Kaca borosilikat – Silika, SiO2 Tahan haba Radas kaca makmal
Borosilicate glass Silica, SiO2 Resistant to heat Bikar, kelalang
– Natrium karbonat, Na2 CO3
Sodium carbonate, Na2 CO3 – Sukar retak apabila suhu Laboratory glassware
– Kalsium karbonat, CaCO3 Beaker, flasks
Calcium carbonate, CaCO3 berubah
– Boron oksida, B2O3 Hardly cracks under
Boron oxide, B2O3
– Aluminium oksida, Al2O3 temperature change
Aluminium oxide, Al2O3

BAB 8 Kaca plumbum – Silika, SiO2 Indeks pembiasan tinggi Prisma
Lead crystal glass Silica, SiO2 High refractive index Prisms

– Natrium karbonat, Na2 CO3
Sodium carbonate, Na2 CO3

– Plumbum(II) oksida, PbO
Lead(II) oxide, PbO

186

Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 8 Bahan Buatan dalam Industri 

8.3 Komposisi Seramik dan Kegunaannya
Composition of Ceramics and Its Uses

1. Seramik ialah satu pepejal diperbuat daripada bahan tak organik dan bahan bukan logam .

Ceramic is a solid made up of inorganic and non-metallic substances. TP 2

2.

Seramik

Ceramic

Seramik tradisional Seramik termaju

Traditional ceramic Advanced ceramic

diperbuat daripada diperbuat daripada
made of made of

Tanah liat (kaolin) Bahan bukan organik (oksida, karbida, nitrida)

Clay (kaolin) Inorganic compounds (oxide, carbides, nitrides)

Contoh Contoh
Example Example

Batu-bata Tembikar Cakera pemotong Cakera brek

Brick Pottery Cutting disc Brake disc

3. Padankan kaca dan seramik dengan sifat masing-masing.

Match glass and ceramic with their respective properties.

Lengai secara kimia

Chemically iner

Keras tetapi rapuh

Hard but brittle

Penebat elektrik

Electrical insulator

Keras dan kuat

Hard and strong

Kaca Lut sinar Seramik

Glass Transparent Ceramic

Penebat haba BAB 8

Heat insulator

Rintangan haba tinggi

High thermal resistance

Mudah pecah

Break easily

Kalis air

Waterproof

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  Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 8 Bahan Buatan dalam Industri

8.4 Bahan Komposit dan Kepentingannya
Composite Materials and their Importance

1. Bahan komposit ialah bahan yang diperbuat daripada gabungan dua atau lebih bahan bukan homogen iaitu

bahan matriks dan pengukuhan . TP 1

Composite material is a material that is formed by combining two or more non-homogenous substances, that is a

matrix substance and a strengthening substance.

+ =

Bahan matriks Bahan pengukuhan Bahan komposit
Matrix substance Strengthening substance Composite material

2. Bahan komposit dan kegunaannya: TP 2

Composite materials and their uses:

Komponen
Components

Bahan komposit Bahan matriks Bahan Sifat-sifat Kegunaan
Composite materials Matrix substance Properties Use
pengukuhan
(a) Konkrit yang Strengthening
diperkukuhkan
substance
Reinforced
concrete Konkrit Batang keluli – Kekuatan mampatan dan Pembinaan bangunan,
Concrete regangan tinggi jambatan dan empangan
atau dawai Construction of
Steel bars or wire High compression and buildings,bridges, and dam
mesh stretching strength
Topi keledar, bumpar
(b) Gentian kaca Plastik Gentian kaca – Tahan kakisan kereta
Fibre glass Plastic Glass fibre Resistant to corrosion Making helmets, car
bumper
(c) Gentian optik – Kaca atau Gentian kaca – Kekuatan regangan tinggi
Optical fibre High stretching strength Menghantar data dan
plastik silika – Penebat haba dan elektrik maklumat dalam bentuk
Glass or plastic Silica glass fibre Heat and electrical insulator
– Tahan kakisan cahaya
– Jaket Resistant to corrosion seperti kamera video dan
– Tahan lasak komputer
pelindung Durable Transmit data and
information in the form
plastik – Kekuatan mampatan of light
Plastic tinggi such as video camera and
computer
protective High compression strength
jacket – Fleksibel
Flexible

BAB 8

188

Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 8 Bahan Buatan dalam Industri 

(d) Kaca fotokromik Kaca – Argentum – Lut sinar Kanta kamera, tingkap
Photochromic Glass Transparent
glass klorida, AgCl kereta dan tingkap
Silver chloride, – Menyerap sinar UV
(e) Superkonduktor Absorbs UV ray bangunan
Superconductor AgCl Making camera lens, car
windows and building
– Kuprum(I) windows

klorida, CuCl
Copper(I)

chloride, CuCl

– Itrium(III) karbonat No electrical resistance at Elektromagnet
Yttrium(III) carbonate
very low temperature untuk mesin pengimejan
– Kuprum(II) karbonat Tiada rintangan elektrik pada resonans magnet (MRI)
Copper(II) carbonate suhu sangat rendah dan resonans magnet
nukleus (NMR)
– Barium karbonat Produce
Barium carbonate
electromagnet
– Oksigen
Oxygen for magnetic resonance
imaging (MRI) and nuclear
magnetic resonance (NMR)
machines.



PRAKTIS SPM 18

Soalan Objektif A Piuter C Gangsa

1. Apakah kesan pengaloian emas tulen? Pewter Bronze
What is the effect of alloying pure gold ?
B Loyang D Duralumin
A Menjadi kurang keras
Become less hard Brass Duralumin
B Lebih mudah melebur
Easier to melt 3. Antara yang berikut, yang manakah bahan komposit?
C Tidak terkakis Which of the following is a composite material?
Does not corrode 2017 A Kaca fotokromik
D Lebih mudah dibentuk C Kaca plumbum
Easier to be shaped
Photochromic glass Lead crystal glass
2. Rajah menunjukkan struktur satu bahan.
Diagram shows the structure of a substance. B Kaca soda kapur D Kaca borosilikat

Zink Soda lime glass Borosilicate glass
Zinc
4. Apakah kelebihan raket badminton diperbuat
daripada bahan komposit berbanding dengan
diperbuat daripada kayu? KBAT Menganalisis
What are the advantages of badminton rackets made of
composite materials as compared to made of wood?
BAB 8
I Lebih murah III Lebih kuat

Cheaper Stronger

II Lebih berat IV Kukuh

Kuprum Heavier Durable
Copper
A I dan II C II dan IV
Apakah bahan ini?
What is this substance? I and II II and IV

B I dan III D III dan IV

I and III III and IV

189

  Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 8 Bahan Buatan dalam Industri 9. Maklumat di bawah adalah tentang aloi P.
The information below is about alloy P.
5. Struktur kerangka Jambatan Tun Ahmad telah 2018 Komponen utama: Ferum
bengkok selepas 6 bulan beroperasi. Satu struktur
yang kuat yang boleh menahan kakisan diperlukan. Main componenet : Iron
Kombinasi bahan manakah yang paling sesuai untuk Kegunaan: Alatan pembedahan, kutleri
menghasilkan kerangka tersebut? Use: Surgical instruments, cutlery

The frame structure of Tun Ahmad Bridge bent after 6 months Berdasarkan maklumat ini, apakah P?
in operation. A strong structure that can withstand corrosion is Based on the information, what is P ?
needed. Which combination of substance is the most suitable
to produce the structure? KBAT Mengaplikasi A Keluli nirkarat C Loyang
A Kuprum dan Nikel C Kuprum dan Stanum
Copper and Nickel Copper and Tin Stainless steel Brass
B Ferum dan Karbon D Aluminium dan Zink
Iron and Carbon Aluminium and Zinc B Duralumin D Gangsa

6. Maya berasa silau dengan cahaya matahari ketika Duralumin Bronze
dia sedang membaca buku di mejanya. Dia hendak
menukar kaca tingkapnya untuk menyelesaikan 10. Tampalan gigi amalgam ialah aloi daripada raksa
masalah tersebut. Kaca tingkap baharu perlu 50%, argentum 30% dan timah 14% . Mengapakah
mengandungi bahan X. Apakah bahan X itu? amalgam digunakan sebagai tampalan gigi?
Dental amalgam is an alloy of mercury 50%, silver 30% and tin
Maya was dazzled by the sunlight while reading a book at her
table. She wanted to change the window glass to solve the 14%. Why amalgam is used as dental filling? K BAT Mengaplikasi
problem. The new window glass should contained substance
X. What is substance X? KBAT Mengaplikasi A Tidak tahan lama C Mudah pecah
A Argentum klorida C Boron oksida
Silver chloride Boron oxide Not long lasting Likely to break
B Plumbun(II)oksida D Kuprum(II) sulfat
Lead(II) oxide Copper(II) sulphate B Kuat D Mahal

7. Silikon dioksida adalah komponen utama bagi Strong Expensive
kaca. Apakah jenis kaca yang terbentuk apabila
kalsium karbonat dipanaskan dengan silikon 11. Rajah menunjukkan sebuah basikal sukan ekstrem dan
dioksida? senarai bahan yang digunakan bagi meningkatkan
kualiti ciri basikal tersebut.
Silicon dioxide is a major component of glass. What type of
glass is formed when calcium carbonate is heated with silicon Diagram shows an extreme sport bicycle and a list of substance
dioxide? KBAT Mengaplikasi that can be used to increase the quality of the bicycle.
A Kaca silika terlakur
Fused glass Keluli
B Kaca borosilikat Steel
Borosilicate glass Aluminium
C Kaca soda kapur Aluminium
Soda lime glass Gentian karbon
Carbon fibre
8. Aloi kuprum lebih keras daripada kuprum tulen. Titanium
Pernyataan manakah benar? Titanium

Copper alloy is harder than pure copper. Which statement is Antara berikut, yang manakah menunjukkan
correct? ciri-ciri yang betul bagi bahan untuk membina sebuah
A Daya tarikan antara atom kuprum berkurang basikal ekstrem?
Force of attraction between copper atoms decrease
B Atom tersusun dengan teratur Which of the following shows the correct characteristics for the
Atoms are orderly arranged substances to build an extreme bicycle?
C Ruang kosong antara atom berkurang
Empty spaces between atom decrease Bahan Ciri-ciri
D Lapisan atom kuprum lebih sukar menggelongsor Substance Characteristics
Layers of copper atoms are more difficult to slide
BAB 8 A Keluli Sangat tahan regangan
Steel Very high tensile strength

B Aluminium Kebolehtempaan dan
Aluminium kemampanan yang baik
Great formability and durability

C Gentian karbon Sangat ringan
Carbon fibre Very light

D Titanium Tidak mudah terkakis
Titanium Not easily corrode

190

Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 8 Bahan Buatan dalam Industri 

Soalan Struktur
Bahagian A
1. Rajah menunjukkan badan kereta api laju yang diperbuat daripada aloi Z dan landasan kereta api yang diperbuat

daripada aloi Q.
Diagram shows the body of a bullet train which is made of alloy Z and the railway track which is made of alloy Q.

Aloi Z
Alloy Z

Aloi Q
Alloy Q



(a) Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan aloi?
What is the meaning of alloy ?

Campuran dua atau lebih unsur dengan komposisi tetap di mana komponen utama ialah logam.

Mixture of two or more element with fixed composition where the major component is metal. [1 markah / mark]
(b) (i) Nyatakan nama bagi aloi Z.

State the name of alloy Z.

Duralumin / Duralumin
[1 markah / mark]

(ii) Berikan sifat khas bagi aloi Z yang menjadikan satu kelebihan digunakan dalam kereta api laju.
Give the specific properties of alloy Z that make it an advantage to be used in making bullet trains.

Ringan dan Kuat // Light and Strong [2 markah / marks]

(c) Landasan kereta api diperbuat daripada aloi Q.
The railway track is made of alloy Q.

(i) Nyatakan dua komponen dalam aloi Q.
State two components in alloy Q.

Besi / Karbon // Iron / Carbon [2 markah / marks]
(ii) Lukis sebuah rajah untuk menunjukkan susunan atom dalam aloi Q.
Draw a diagram to show the arrangement of atoms in alloy Q.

Karbon Besi BAB 8
Carbon Iron

[2 markah / marks]
191

  Kimia Tingkatan 4  Bab 8 Bahan Buatan dalam Industri

2. Jadual menunjukkan empat jenis kaca dan kegunaannya.
Table shows four types of glass and their uses.

Jenis kaca Kegunaan Sifat
Type of glass Uses Properties
Indeks biasan tinggi
Kaca plumbum High refractive index
Lead crystal glass

Kaca soda kapur Tahan terhadap bahan kimia
Soda lime glass Resistant to chemicals

Kaca borosilikat Tahan haba tinggi
Borosilicate glass
Kaca silika terlakur Resistant to high heat
Tahan haba dan bahan kimia
Fused glass Resistant to heat and chemicals

(a) Apakah komponen utama dalam kaca?
What is the major component in glass?

Silikon dioksida / Silicon dioxide

[1 markah / mark]

(b) Lengkapkan Jadual dengan menyatakan jenis kaca dan satu ciri yang sesuai dengan kegunaannya.
Complete table by stating the type of glass and one property suitable with its uses.

[8 markah / marks]

BAB 8 (c) Kaca X dipanaskan pada suhu yang tinggi dan kemudian dicelup ke dalam air sejuk. Didapati kaca X tidak retak.
Apakah kaca X?

Glass X is heated to a high temperature and then plunged into cold water. It is observed that glass X do not crack. What is glass X?

Kaca silika terlakur / Fused glass

[1 markah / mark]

192


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