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Published by anmehta25, 2019-09-04 05:49:39



Resource Book
MEA Sponsored Short-term International Training

Programme for African Countries

Orientation of
Recent Advances of IPM Technology

Through Extension Skills

03-12 September 2019

Mukesh Sehgal
Md. Idris

H.R. Sardana


ICAR-National Research Centre for Integrated Pest Management

LBS Bhawan, Pusa Campus, New Delhi-110 012

MEA Sponsored Short-term International Training
Programme for African Countries

Orientation of

Recent Advances of IPM Technology Through
Extension Skills

03-12 September 2019

Mukesh Sehgal
Md. Idris

H.R. Sardana


ICAR-National Research Centre for Integrated Pest Management

LBS Bhawan, Pusa Campus, New Delhi-110 012

Compiled and Edited by : Mukesh Sehgal
: Md. Idris
Graphics, design & Layout : H.R. Sardana
Published by : Neelam Mehta
Contact us
: Sehgal Mukesh, Idris Md., Sardana H.R. 2019. Resource
Telephone No. Book on “Recent Advances of IPM Technology Through
Fax No. Extension Skills” ICAR-NCIPM. pp: 215
Website : H.R. Sardana
[email protected]

: Dr. Mukesh Sehgal
Principal Scientist and Incharge HRD
Phone: 91-11-25843935 Ext.: 213 Mob.: 9810686677
[email protected]

: Dr. Md. Idris
Principal Scientist
Phone: 91-11-25843935 Ext.: 231
[email protected]

: 91-11-25843936, 25740951

: 91-11-25841472

: [email protected]


1. Towards Sustainable Agriculture through IPM Strategies 1-10

H. R. Sardana

2. Wider Area Sustainable and Adaptable IPM Technology for Vegetable 11-25

H. R. Sardana

3. Development and Application of Biopesticides and Biostimulants for 26-27
Integrated Pest Management (IPM)


4. New Approaches in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) of Potato 28-35

M. Narayana Bhat

5. Nematodes Management in Field and Horticultural Crops 36-43

Mukesh Sehgal

6. Nanotechnology and its Application in Crop Protection 44-51

Najam Akhtar Shakil

7. Use of Predators and Parasitoids in IPM 52-59
Surender Kumar Singh

8. Synthesis and Validation of Bio-Intensive IPM Technology in Rice 60-70

R.K. Tanwar, Satyandra Singh and SP Singh

9. Integrated Pest Management Strategy for Cotton Crop 71-78

Ajanta Birah and Anoop Kumar

10. Practical emphasis on mass production of microbial bio-agents 79-83
Jitendra Singh and Nasim Ahmad

11. Integrated Pest Management in Mustard crop through Farmers 84-89
Participatory mode

M.S. Yadav

12. Integrated Pest Management in Maize with Special Reference to Fall 90-98
Armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda

Suby SB, Lakshmi Soujanya P, Sekhar JC, Anoop Kumar* and M.K.

13. Weed Management in Crops for Higher Productivity and Profitability 99-112

14. Integrated Pest Management Strategies for Pulses 113-119

Jitendra Singh

15. Impacts of Changing Climate on Insect Pests and Diseases in Context of 120-128

S. Vennila

16. Android Mobile Apps for an Enhanced Extension of Integrated Pest 129-134
Management Tools

S. Vennila

17. ICT Based Pest Surveillance and Advisory System in Agriculture 135-140
Niranjan Singh

18. Integrated Rodent Pest Management 141-151

Md. Idris

19. Development of user & environment friendly new generation pesticide 152-163

Jitendra Kumara and Amrish Agarwal

20. Insect pest management in fruit crops with special reference to African 164-178

HS Singh

21. Socio-economic considerations in implementation of IPM 179-183

Vikas Kanwar

22. Use of Important Tools and Gadgets In IPM 184-189

Surender Kumar Singh

23. Fumigation Techniques for Managing Stored Grain Insects of 190-194
Agricultural Commodities

Sumitra Arora

24. Viral diseases of agriculturally important crops and their management 195-198

V K Baranwal and Kavi Sidharthan

25. Pesticide regulation in India with reference to Biopesticides 199-200

B.S Phogat

26. Microbial formulations for pest management with special reference to 201-206

S C Dubey and Aradhika Tripathi

27. Modern Extension Tools, Skills and Approaches in Plant Protection 207-215

R.N. Padaria

28. Annexures


Towards Sustainable Agriculture through IPM Strategies

Dr. H. R. Sardana
ICAR - National Research Centre for Integrated Pest Management, New Delhi

Agriculture is the cornerstone of Indian economy. The government policies and technological
innovations by the National Agriculture Research System (NARS) during the last 50 years have
transformed the Indian agriculture and achieved phenomenal success in increasing food and fibre
production. India has attained a rare distinction of ushering in rainbow (Green, White, Golden,
Brown, and Blue) revolution by achieving outstanding productivity gains in food grain, oilseeds,
pulses, and horticulture, milk, meat, poultry and fisheries sectors. While the progress made has
been awesome and there is significant change for the good, a lot more needs to be done doggedly
to meet the food and fibre ‘needs’ and ‘wants’ of growing human population. It is rather ironic and
unacceptable that malnutrition is still widespread in some parts of the country. Continually
decreasing land availability for food production, natural resource degradation, increasing risk of
invasion of biological threats, climate change, and new global trade regulations are only some of
the factors that are exacerbating the challenges to achieving food security for all.

Gujarat has varying topographic features though a major part of the state was dominated by
parched and dry region. The average rainfall in the state varies widely from 250 mm to 1500 mm
across various zones. Out of 8 agro-climatic zones, five are arid to semi-arid in nature, while
remaining three are dry sub-humid in nature. Deep black to medium black soils dominate the soil
types in the state.

Major Agricultural produce of the state include cotton, groundnut (peanuts), dates, and sugar cane,
milk & milk products. Gujarat is the dominant producer of tobacco, cotton, and groundnuts in India.
Other major crops produced in state are rice, wheat, jowar, bajra, maize, pigeon pea and gram.
Castor, Groundnut and Mustard are the important oilseed s crops of the state. The state has notable
achievement in production and productivity scenario in cotton, castor and groundnut. Cotton is an
important crop of the state which covers 27.97 lakh ha. Area under cultivation and produced 98.72
lakh bales during 2014-15(as per fourth advance estimate of 2014-15) which is approximately 1/3
production of the country. State has recognition for highest area, production and productivity of
castor in India. State produced 84% of total castor production of the country with area of 6.83 lakh
ha. And 12.98 lakh MT production. State has a 30% share in country for production of Groundnut
with 20.37 lakh MT production through area coverage of 14.02 lakh ha.

Horticulture production scenario gives the shining of increment. Area under cultivation of
horticulture crops and production are continuously increasing in the state. “Gir Kesar Mango” and
“Kutchi Date” have unique identity in the country. State is known for Cumin, Fennel and Isabgul
production and productivity. State contributes more than 90% production of the country in Fennel.
Farmers’ efforts make Gujarat proud in productivity of the onion and potato. State has highest
productivity in country for onion (25 MT/ha.) and potato (28.81 MT/ha.). Farmer of the state has



notableachievement in potato productivity i.e. 87 MT/ha., which is highest in the

Pests of all kinds destroy food crops, pre-and post-harvest and cause massive economic losses (Rs
0.9 to 1.4 trillion; US$ 15-36 billion) every year; the quantity of food lost is sufficient to meet the
food requirement of millions of hungry people in the country. It is estimated that pest-induced food
losses, if prevented would enable India meet its food production targets for 2020 at the present
levels of crop productivity.

The motto of crop protection research in India emphasises that not losing what is grown and
produced is as important (if not more) as growing more food. Institutions engaged in crop
protection research have made significant contributions to ‘not losing food’ to pests. Their
conscientious efforts are targeted to ensure that pest control is achieved without adversely
impacting the environment, consistent with the philosophy of intelligent or integrated pest
management (IPM), which is a common-sense approach to pest management. IPM is an ecosystem
approach to crop production and protection that combines different management strategies and
practices to grow healthy crops and minimize the use of pesticides (FAO, 2015). IPM emphasizes
the growth of a healthy crop with the least possible disruption to agro-ecosystems and encourages
natural pest control mechanisms." It focuses on enemies (pests) and ensures minimal collateral
damage to friends (beneficial organisms). It gives credence to scientific recommendations as well
as to time-tested indigenous knowledge for pest management. It utilises simple physical,
mechanical, cultural, biological, and educational tactics to keep pest numbers low. It does not
support implementation of any pest management practice such as the indiscriminate use of poisons
(chemical pesticides), which has potential to cause harm to the environment including the non-
target organisms. As a consequence, the indiscriminate use of chemical pesticides (~57353 t
technical grade per year) is, to some extent, curtailed and use of eco-friendly options such as
application of bio-pesticides increased. The amount of chemical pesticides used in India (0.5 Kg/ha)
is much lower than in China (14 Kg/ha) and Japan (12 Kg/ha). Due to growing public awareness and
concern about the potential hazards related to use of chemical pesticides, there has been a lot of
interest generated for use of eco-friendly strategies for the management of crop pests. IPM is often
the use of a combination of cultural practices, host resistance, biological control, and chemical
management methods to simultaneously (1) minimize pest induced economic losses, (2) avoid
development of new pest biotypes that overcome pesticides or host resistance, (3) minimize
negative effects on the environment, and (4) avoid pesticide residues in the food supply.

Bio-pesticides market is slowly and gradually growing. Currently (as on 2014), its share is in the
vicinity of 10% of overall global pesticides market (
accessed on 08 Nov 2015). Beneficial nematodes, a large array of fungi, viruses, and bacteria have
been developed for greenhouse, turf, field crop, orchard and garden use. Neem (Azadirachta
indica)-based pesticides, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (NPV) and
Trichoderma species are some of the major bio-pesticides produced and used in India. Bio-
pesticides do not pose the regulatory problems as seen with chemical pesticides. They are often
target-specific, benign to beneficial insects, do not pose air or water quality problems, and crops



can be visited soon after treatment. Naturally occurring microbials can be used in organic
production, and human health risks are low. As an added advantage, many pests are not resistant
to their effects. Many of the products were developed by small companies, but large companies
such as Bayer, Syngenta, and Novozymes have realized the commercial potential, and a flurry of
acquisitions have occurred in recent times. Marrone Bio Innovations has two new bioherbicides
based on microbials. MBI-005 (Opportune™) is based on Streptomyes sp., registered with the EPA
in 2012, which is based on non-pathogenic Burkholderia A396, and it has both contact and systemic
effects on pest plants (weeds). A bioherbicide MBI011 based on an extract of long pepper, Piper
longum, containing the active ingredient sarmentine is also in pipeline. Other bioherbicides include
the fungus, Phoma macrostoma, which has been commercialized by Scotts Company and was
registered in California, USA. Phoma™ is expected to be a commercial success for turf weeds. A
bioherbicide based on Sclerotinia minor (Sarritor™) is commercially available in Canada, and may
eventually be sold in the USA. Besides, bio-pesticides have the following benefits:

Factors Benefits of bio-pesticides
Cost effectiveness Costlier but reduced number of applications
Persistence and residual effect Low, mostly biodegradable and self perpetuating
Knockdown effect Delayed
Handling and Bulkiness Bulky: Carrier based
Easy: Liquid formulation
Pest resurgence Less
Resistance Less prone
Effect on beneficial flora Less harmful on beneficial organisms
Target specificity Mostly host-specific
Waiting time Almost nil
Shelf life Less

Bio-pesticides could be grouped into three major categories: (i) Microbial pesticides that contain a
microorganism (bacterium, fungus, virus, protozoan or alga) as the active ingredient, (ii) Plant-
pesticides are pesticidal substances that plants produce from genetic material that has been added
to the plant (Bt gene in Bt-cotton cultivars) and (iii) Biochemical pesticides that occur naturally and
are used for managing pests by non-toxic mechanisms. There are hundreds of registered bio-
pesticides world over and classified by EPA (EPA, 2015). About 1400 bio-pesticide products are
registered globally, out of which about 40% are used in the USA, 20% in Europe and Oceanic
countries and about 4.5% in India. There are about 410 bio-pesticides production units established



in India. But a lot of spurious bio-pesticides worth ~Rs. 500 crores are being sold annually to Indian
farmers by registered firms. Keeping in view the fact that only 19 patents are available for bio-
pesticides in India, the situation is explainable. The bio-pesticide industry in India is now worth INR
22000 million (approx. US$ 315 million). If we consider the global usage of 1 kg of bio-pesticide per
hectare of organic farming area, India should be consuming at least 1,00,000 MT of bio-pesticide
instead of the present 5544 MT. This indicates the huge scope for growth of the bio-pesticide sector
in India. The recommendation of the parliamentary panel on organic farming has highlighted the
importance of research and development on bio-pesticides, its production units including by use of
crop, horticultural wastes by encouraging cooperatives to undertake such ventures through
schemes of National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development. Thus, the main issues concerning
bio-pesticides in India are spurious products, lack of proper quality control, lack of awareness
among farmers and need for Intellectual Property Rights protection of bio-pesticide products in
India through bar-coding of potential isolates.

The use of bio-pesticides is being increasingly identified as a preferred option because of several
reasons including widespread sale of spurious chemical pesticides in India, which compromises the
ability of farmers to achieve pest management. It is estimated that about 10% of all chemical
pesticides traded globally are illegal and spurious (ADAS, 2015); global revenues from the trade in
counterfeit and illegal pesticides are estimated to be US$ 4.73 million per annum (ADAS, 2015). The
high profit margin makes counterfeit and illegal pesticides a fast growing area of organised crime.
Common risks associated with the use of counterfeit and illegal pesticides include (a) human health
risks at application or potentially harmful residues left in food, (b) environmental risks such as water
pollution and impacts on biodiversity, (c) security of supply if crops fail due to use of inefficacious
illegal or counterfeit pesticides; and (d) reputational risks from using or distributing counterfeit or
illegal products. There are three main types of illegal and counterfeit pesticides that enter the
European market: (i) counterfeit pesticides which are produced and packaged to look like legal
products, but their contents may not match their labels - contain less active ingredient, or cheaper,
possibly more toxic, active ingredients than their legal counterparts, (ii) counterfeit pesticide
products with limited labelling or in different packaging from the original product, claiming to be
the same as “product X”, (iii) Illegal parallel imports - parallel import system is an approval
mechanism, which allows products approved in one country to be used in another.

The quality, quantity, application method and timeliness play a significant role in determining the
level of success of bio-pesticides. There are several success stories of bio-pesticides in India in the
management of: (a) Diamondback moths by Bacillus thuringiensis, (b) Mango hoppers, mealy bugs
and coffee pod borer by Beauveria, (c) Helicoverpa on cotton, pigeonpea, and tomato by Bacillus
thuringiensis, (d) White fly on cotton by neem products, (e) Helicoverpa on chickpea by HaNPV, (f)
Sugarcane borers by Trichogramma, (g) Root rots and wilts in various crops by Trichoderma-based
products. Successful bio-management of papaya mealy bug and sugarcane woolly aphid has saved
more than Rs (INR) 250 billion (US$ 3.8 billion) in two years. The dreaded weed, Mikania micrantha
is being successfully managed in southwest and northeast India by Puccinia spegazzinii (rust fungus).
The Indian Agriculture Research Institute (IARI) has successfully developed technology to mass
produce a bio-pesticide (Kalisena) formulation and transferred the know-how to private sector
(Cadila Pharmaceuticals Ltd.) for marketing the product in Asia, Africa, North and South America.



Garlic bulb (2% w/v) aqueous extract (Meena et al., 2013) has also been adopted by farmers and
Government of Rajasthan for managing pests of Indian mustard. Treatment of seeds with strains
of Trichoderma and Pseudomonas fluorescens has been found to be highly successful in managing
dreaded diseases of different field and horticultural crops (NAAS, 2013). When seed treatments are
combined with soil application and (or) foliar spray, they result in even better impact not only in
reducing pests, increasing yields, economic benefits but also in safeguarding the environment from
dangerous chemical pesticide load. Some states in India such as Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and West
Bengal have been more progressive in encouraging the use of bio-pesticides for pest control.
Safeguarding intellectual property on strains of bio-agents is important and there is merit in having
DNA bar-code data on all such promising strains. There is a need to develop and implement specific
policies that encourage development of bio-pesticides, streamlining of their label claim issues,
simplification of process for registration of bio-pesticides with proper quality checks, increased
support to academic institutions for undertaking research on bio-pesticides, and industry for scaling
up of production of quality formulations from effective strains. Implementation of these policies
would enable generation of employment for small / micro-industries at village level in line with
concepts of model bio-village to bridge the yawning gap between demand and supply. This could
bring a paradigm shift in the chemical pesticide industry and transform them towards producing
bio-pesticides (Birah et al., 2014a).

Government of India (GoI) enables farmers to adopt IPM practices to bring down losses due to pests
and to reduce use of chemical pesticides since 1985. The National Centre for Integrated Pest
Management, later rechristened in 2014 as National Research Centre for Integrated Pest
Management (NCIPM) was set up in VII Plan (1988) under the Indian Council of Agricultural
Research. It was mandated to work on different areas of national importance related to IPM and
train the human resource in IPM. With humble beginnings, a small group of dedicated scientists
shouldered the responsibility of establishing the Centre’s blueprint. The initial research emphasis
was on development, synthesis and validation of IPM modules in major crops. At the same time, it
was entrusted the task of making linkages with national and international institutes and extend
technical consultancies to State extension functionaries and subject matter specialist of KVKs in
the area of IPM. Over the next few decades, NClPM achieved tremendous. During the last 26 years
of its existence, the Centre has contributed immensely to the Nation in the forms of various
technologies and concepts like Aastha Village (Maharashtra) and Jind (Haryana) Models for cotton
cultivation, lPM in rice (Bambawad, UP; Hooghly, WB), pulses (Gulbarga and Bidar, Karnataka),
groundnut (Kadiri, Andhra Pradesh), mustard (Alwar, Rajasthan; Mahendragarh, Haryana),
vegetable (Onion at Singohi-Singoha-Rambha and Bitter Gourd at Padhana, Haryana) and fruit
(Mango at Navsari, Gujarat; Grapes at Nashik, Maharashtra; Pomegranate at Solapur, Maharashtra;
Citrus at Abohar, Punjab) crops apart from trained manpower, who are serving the main
stakeholders. Excellent work in the area of lPM has been the shining example of team work with
high standards of applied research in the NARS. Today, NCIPM houses national database on real-
time as well as past data of pest incidence in India and abroad (Malawi). The Centre has also
developed forewarning models for Helicoverpa armigera and potato aphids. The Centre has
successfully elevated IPM paradigm from individual farm to area-wide pest management across the
crops and regions through net-works of partnerships and collaborations. The highlights of the



Centre are e-pest surveillance and management advisory system in identified crops. Integration of
electronic net-working and human resource development has resulted in effective pest
management practices in different regions and transfer of field data directly to the main server at

In the National Agricultural Policy announced by the Government of India in 2001, para 24
emphasizes IPM and use of biological control agents to minimize indiscriminate and injudicious use
of chemical pesticides as a cardinal principle for crop protection. During its more than 25 years of
existence, NCIPM has achieved successes in validating and harmonizing IPM technologies in
different crops. That apart, in 1992, Central Integrated Pest Management Centres (CIPMCs) were
established by merging all Central Plant
Protection Stations (CPPS), Central Surveillance Stations (CSS) and Central Biological Control
Stations (CBCS). Presently, there are 31 CIPMCs in 28 States and 1 Union Territory, which are
responsible for pest monitoring and field release of biological control agents, conducting Farmers’
Field Schools (FFSs), training Extension Officers, Master Trainers. CIPMCs are in turn linked with 98
State biocontrol laboratories.

Despite such efforts, rate of adoption of IPM must be accelerated by identifying and addressing the
constraints to successful adoption. This would need strategic approach to enhancing the capability
and awareness of subject matter specialists and extension personnel, availability of quality assured
bio-pesticides, and institutional technology transfer mechanisms in partnership with private sector.
On the demand side, farmers though are aware of technological failure of pesticides to manage
pests, and their negative externalities to environment and human health, pest risk is too high to
experiment with newer approaches to pest management. IPM is a complex process and farmers
lack understanding of biological processes of pests, their predators and methods of application of
new components. There are a number of IPM practices that work best when applied by the entire
community and in a synchronized mode. Though many technology programs are based on
community approach, they do not have any proper policy to sustain the group approach. The IPM
policy should provide incentives to farmers to adopt IPM as a cardinal principle of plant protection.
In this context, GoI has commenced “Promotion of Integrated Pest Management” initiative under
the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation. This initiative has created information system for
IPM, which helps in efficient reporting and dissemination of information on pest surveillance,
rearing of host cultures, production and release of biological control agents in the field and
conservation of naturally occurring biological control agents for control of crop pests, transfer of
innovative IPM skills, methods and techniques to extension workers and farmers through conduct
of training and Farmers’ Field Schools in all the states.

One of the most common approaches that have been adopted by many countries is pre-sowing
treatment of seed. Seed treatment is defined as chemical or biological substances applied to seed
or vegetatively propagated material to manage diseases organisms, insect-pests, etc. Seed
treatment pesticides include bactericides, fungicides and insecticides. Most seed treatments are
applied to true seeds, such as corn, wheat, or soybean, which have a seed coat surrounding an
embryo. However, some seed treatments can be applied to vegetatively propagated material, such
as bulbs, corms, setts or tubers. An IPM plan should identify important pests, determine pest



management options, and blend them together. To use seed treatments effectively, it is important
to understand the purposes of seed treatment, alternatives or supplements to seed treatments,
and the various advantages and disadvantages of seed treatments. Natural enemy cum beneficial
fauna population such as coccinellids, spiders and Chrysoperla, pollinators and honey bee remain
unharmed due to seed treatment (Birah et al., 2014b). GM technology has tremendous potential in
bringing down the dependence on chemical pesticides. Bt Cotton is a example for the same, where
chemical pesticide load has reduced by almost 50% over non-Bt in last 12 years. Thus, any effective
GM technology could be an integral component of IPM. Some of important biocontrol-based
technologies in the field of plant protection, which have shown their potential to manage the crop
diseases/pests in India, are as follows:

 Trichoderma harzianum (Th4d SC) for soil borne and foliar pathogens (Indian Institute of
Oilseed Research (IIOR), Hyderabad), Carbendazim and salinity-tolerant isolates of
Trichoderma [National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources (NBAIR), Bengaluru]

 Pseudomonas fluorescens, DAPG producing abiotic stress tolerant isolate for pest
management in rainfed and stressed agricultural soils (NBAIR, Bengaluru)

 High temperature tolerant strain of egg parasitoid, Trichogramma chilonis (NBAIR,

 Wettable powder formulation of entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis indica
strain (NBAIR, Bengaluru) for management of cryptic pests including scarabaeid, curculionid,
cerambicid grubs, cutworms, and other soil insect pests.

 Light trap safer for beneficial insects and improved version of light trap for managing insect-
pests, moth-egg cleaning device, aerial insect trap, UV chamber for sterilization of Corcyra
eggs, device for on-farm multiplication of parasitoids of crop pests (NCIPM, New Delhi)

 Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki wettable powder formulation (IIOR, Hyderabad).
 Bt kit for rapid detection of Bt.-Cry1Ac toxin and Bt-Cry toxin, respectively, BG-II seed

detection kit for identification of Bollgard-II transgenic cotton (CICR, Nagpur)

The area under organic cultivation (crops) in India is estimated to be around 1,00,000 hectares.
Besides, there are over 100,000 hectares of forest area being certified as organic. States like
Uttarakhand and Sikkim have declared their states as organic. Moreover, the area under organic
crop cultivation may rise because of the growing demand for organic food, a result of increasing
health consciousness among the people. This indicates that there is huge scope for growth of bio-
pesticide sector. India’s rich biodiversity is an asset for discovering promising sources of biological
control agents as well as natural plant-based pesticides. The rich traditional knowledge base
available with the highly diverse indigenous communities in India offers excellent opportunity to
explore and develop novel and effective bio-pesticides. The stress on organic farming and on
residue-free commodities would certainly warrant increased adoption of bio-pesticides by farmers.
Increased adoption further depends on (i) More evidences of efficacy of bio-pesticides in controlling
crop damage and the resultant increase in crop yield, (ii) Availability of high quality products at
affordable prices, (iii) Strengthening of supply chain management in order to increase the usage of



bio-pesticides. In this regard, an efficient delivery system from the place of production (factory) to
place of utilization (farm) of bio-pesticides is essential.

Apart from these technologies, several tolerant / resistant varieties (as technologies) towards
several pests, have been developed in India in rice, wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, millets (finger,
foxtail, kodo, little, proso, barnyard), pulses (chickpea, pigeonpea, mungbea, urdbean, lentil, field
pea, guar, mothbean, cowpea, horsegram), oilseeds (soybean, groundnut, rapeseed and mustard,
sunflower, safflower, castor, linseed, sesame, niger), vegetables and other horticultural crops,
sugarcane, cotton, jute, mesta, sunhemp, roselle, tobacco, etc. which are helpful in managing crop
pests very effectively. Main crops and pests in Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Maharashtra are
paddy (blast, sheath blight, Bacterial leaf blight, BPH, yellow stem borer), chickpea (wilt, root rot,
pod borer), groundnut (tikka leaf spot), cotton (jassids, Spodoptera, thrips), greengram (white fly,
thrips), soybean (rust), sorghum (shoot fly, yellow stem borer), maize (yellow stem borer), wheat
(rust), bajra (downy mildew), sunflower (necrosis, downy mildew) and chilli (white fly). Literacy level
in Maharashtra is higher than in other two states. Response received from 339 KVKs indicate lack
of awareness about IPM to be a major constraint in crop production.

IPM is everybody’s business; neither governments nor farmers can do it alone, it necessitates
networking of all stake-holders so that they could contribute effectively in a cohesive manner. Krishi
Vigyan Kendras and civil society organisations have a vital role in improving awareness levels of
farmers in IPM apart from fast-tracking of crop protection advisories. IPM is a simple yet holistic
approach wherein advanced planning, good agricultural practices (GAP) towards environment-
safety linked to maximum residue limit (MRLs) of chemical pesticides and cost-benefit
management. It also includes crop monitoring coupled with accurate diagnosis of the problem
(pest), expert advice, timely decision-making and quick action that make difference in tackling
unforeseen pest outbreaks. Thus, monitoring of pest dynamics through e-pest surveillance, analyse
pest risks, provide pest emergence, distribution and abundance forecasts along with mobile-based
dissemination of advisories keeping in view prevailing weather and changes in climate. Potential
benefits of short-to-medium range weather forecast from numerical weather prediction (NWP)
models or future climate projections on sleeper pests (including pathogens, their biotypes) have
been least harnessed in India for regional crop protection services. Use of state-of-the-art
technology through innovative and strategic research could enable Integrated Decision Support
System (IDSS) for Crop Protection Services through network of Krishi Vigyan Kendras. In the recent
past, the Information Communication Technology (ICT)-based system of real time pest surveillance
has played an important role in our country in collection and transfer of data from remote villages
to main station through internet. The information is compiled and displayed on the website in
tabulated and graphical form which can be directly accessed by State Agriculture Universities for
issue of advisory through State Agriculture Department (viz., Maharashtra, Odisha, West Bengal) by
SMS to farmers and extension workers for implementation, which could continue to make inroads
on future strategies so that the nation is prepared to face the challenges posed by pests.

Presently, crop protection or pest management in most of the countries starts post- (national
border) quarantine. Actions are initiated once the pest has entered the country, which ignores pre-
border pest risk analysis and commensurate policy thereof, the border inspections and regulations.



Thus, the present system could be labelled as a second order pest management. Thus, our
challenges in IPM also involve monitoring pre-border pest risks vis-à-vis incursion likelihoods for
necessary policy and operational preparedness. For this purpose, pest diagnostic systems need to
be robust and rapid preferably field-operable and inexpensive.

Change in climate affect fitness of all living beings including that of insect-pests and pathogens and
crops, which trigger migration from places where they are less comfortable to better ones for
improved fitness. Thus, bio-security (safeguarding of biological resources from external threats)
should be perceived for better prevention and preparedness through proper flow of information in
IPM decision framework. Thus, this is an opportunity for development of a comprehensive IPM
Policy through appropriate legislation. The policy could involve strategies for bio-security to prevent
entry and establishment, manage invasive exotic biological threats through adequate quarantine,
eradication, containment for preserving access to existing markets and expansion to newer ones,
help food, fibre industry to remain globally competitive through minimal and legally accepted
means of chemical pesticide use.

Global e-pest surveillance linked IPM/GAP programmes will give immense opportunities not only
for training but also for commercial production systems and track movement of invasive pests as
pre-border bio-security checks. Since pest invasions are irreversible and highly damaging for any
economy, there is need for action linked to IPM getting initiated pre-border (forecast, manage
monitoring human, cargo movement across globe) instead of waiting for the pest(s) to enter the
country. The changed policy could safeguard biological resources in the country from external
threats through provisions of bio-security.

Today’s challenge is to ‘produce more from less’ and we need to ensure enough food for the present
and the future (Sharma and Wightman, 2015). In the era of climate change, diagnostics of pests
(including pathogens) and capacity building of farmers, extension and even research personnel for
adaptation to changed pest scenario under future climates assumes significance, wherein
Integrated Crop Management in Private-Public-Partnership mode could be very effective. The
education system of NARS needs to emphasize training of human resource with knowledge and
thorough understanding of do’s and don’ts of IPM. There are risks of increased vulnerability to
biocontrol agents, reduced efficacy of chemical management (pyrethroids, spinosads), movement
of invasive species and reduced efficacy of durable resistance under elevated temperature and CO2.
With an increasing concern for cleaner environment, there is need to approach pest management
through knowledge on population dynamics as an art of living with them without getting adversely
impacted. Bio-pesticides may provide a satisfactory alternative to chemicals when used as part of
an overall IPM plan.

As an institution NCIPM has to further evolve in its role as India’s nodal centre for IPM. The NCIPM
still needs to do a lot on increase in areas under IPM in India and take a lead in this important
applied research to minimize the use of chemical pesticides in crop protection. NClPM envisages
larger role in making IPM more effective across the country through higher levels of integration of
multi-disciplinary technologies and of stakeholders by means of improved research, education,
training and extension for an enhanced crop and ecological health, and sustainable agricultural



growth. Thus, future research and education in plant protection in India does need to address the
different components of IPM in systems approach.


Birah A, Bhagat S, Tanwar RK and Chattopadhyay C. 2014a. Seed treatment in crop health
management. SATSA Mukhopatra- Annual Technical Bulletin, 18: 15-26.

Birah A, Bhagat S, Sehgal M and Chattopadhyay C. 2014b. Role of IPM for sustainable agriculture.
Agriculture Today Year Book: 52-54.

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 2015. Regulating Bio-pesticides.

Meena PD, Gour RB, Gupta JC, Singh HK, Awasthi RP, Netam,RS, Godika S, Sandhu PS, Prasad R.
Rathi AS, Rai D, Thomas L, Patel GA, Chattopadhyay C. 2013. Non-chemical agents provide tenable,
eco-friendly alternatives for the management of the major diseases devastating Indian mustard
(Brassica juncea) in India. Crop Protection 53: 169-174.

NAAS 2013. Biopesticides – Quality Assurance. Policy Paper No. 62, National Academy of Agricultural
Sciences, New Delhi. 20 p. (downloaded from on 20 Nov 2015, 2230 hrs IST)

Sharma, S. B., Wightman, J. 2015. Vision Infinity for Food Security: Some Whys, Why Nots and
Hows! Springer Briefs in Agriculture. DOI10.1007/978-3-319-23249-2, p. XVII, 98.

10 | P a g e


Wider Area Sustainable and Adaptable IPM Technology
for Vegetable Crops

H. R. Sardana
ICAR-National Research Centre for Integrated Pest Management, New Delhi

In India, vegetables play a pivotal role in agricultural economy as these, besides providing
nutritional security, also provide economic security to country. Vegetables form an essential part of
our diet and provide more food per unit time and area and can improve the economic condition of
the growers as compared to cereal crops. India because of its diverse agro-climatic conditions, is
able to grow almost all major vegetables in each and every corner/part of the country. Our annual
vegetable production is about 172 million tonnes from 9.2 M ha. India ranks second in the world
after China and accounts for 15 % of world production of vegetables. In spite of high production,
vegetable requirement will be around 175 m tones in the near future to meet the needs of our ever
increasing population. Compared to other crops, vegetables are more prone to insect pests and
disease mainly due to their tenderness and softness and growing under high fertility conditions. On
a conservative basis, pests cause about 25-30 per cent losses in vegetables which may be worth
more than Rs 1000 crores.

The scope for horizontal expansion of vegetables is limited and the only option is to increase the
productivity and prevent losses caused by various insect pests and diseases. Newly developed short
duration vegetable varieties of cabbage, tomato, capsicum, pea, french bean, etc. fit in the existing
cropping system of this region and thereby the cropping intensity can be increased many fold.

Introduction of high yielding varieties and hybrids has no doubt increased production many fold but
in turn changed the pest scenario. Some of them include stem borer Hellula undalis which has
become a serious problem in cauliflower; gall midge, Asphondalyia sp has become a regular pest in
brinjal; serpentine leaf miner has become devastating in tomato hybrid growing areas; diamond
back moth has already developed resistance to pesticides and red spider mites are creating havoc
in summer okra etc. Viral disease are causing extensive damage to pumpkin, squashes, water melon,
ridge gourd, bitter gourd, ash gourd, melon and cucumber. In order to reduce yield losses due to
these pests, vegetable growers are mainly relying on the excessive use of pesticides. Vegetables
consume about 13-14% of the total pesticide consumption in India, although only 2.6% of cropped
area falls under vegetables. Indiscriminate use of pesticides have created many ecological problems
due to mortality of natural enemies, resurgence of minor pests, resistance, environmental pollution
and residues in the vegetable. Surveys carried out by institutions spread throughout the country
indicate that 50-70% of vegetables are contaminated with insecticide residues. Pesticide residues
are the major constraints in the export of vegetables. Vegetables are consumed either raw or
cooked without much processing. A greater concern has been shown by the international
organizations especially after coming of WTO wherein very stiff restrictions have been imposed on
the import and export of consumable commodities and very low pesticide residue limits have been
fixed. This has dictated the need to look for alternative methods to chemicals which can be
integrated in a compatible manner to develop a complete pest management module. Therefore, in

11 | P a g e


the present scenario, total reliance on pesticides is not desirable. The single approach of pest
control has to be changed to multiple approaches and that is IPM.

Brinjal, tomato, cabbage, cauliflower, okra, cucurbits, onion, chillies etc., are the major vegetables
grown in African countries. In general, pesticide consumption in vegetables is very high and IPM is
required to reduce losses by using biopesticides and other means but reducing chemical pesticides
usage and load in environment is also very important. Judicious use of pesticides is required to raise
productivity of vegetables.

Table 1: Key insect pests and diseases of major vegetable crops.

Crop Insect pests Diseases
Cauliflower/cabbage White fly, leaf miner, fruit borer, Damping off, leaf curl,
Okra aphids early blight, late blight,
Bell pepper
Hot pepper Stem borer, leaf webber, DBM, Dbuacmkpeinyeg rooftf,, dFuoswanriyum wilt

Onion TCP, Aphids, painted bug mildew, Alternaria leaf
Aphids, hadda beetle, S&FB, sBpaoctte, brilaalckwroiltt,, stPahlkomrootpsis
hoppers, white blight, leaf spots and
pCeorwcodsepryorma illedaefwspot,
fHlyoppers, white fly, aphids, S&FB, Yellow Vein mosaic Virus,
stem fly

Thrips, aphids, fruit borer pFuoswadrieurmy mwiilldt,eLweaf curl

Thrips, fruit borer, aphids Damping off, Cercospora

leaf spot, Fusarium wilt,

Leaf curl, die-back and

Thrips Satnetmhrpahcynlolisuem blight,

Fruit fly, red pumpkin beetle and Damping off, anthracnose,

epilachna beetle cause damage to IBrliisgvhitr,ums ildews, wilt,

most of the cucurbits while gall fly, viruses

aphids, leaf hopper, ants, worms,

lWeahfitmeignreurbs, fruit borers and mites Rhizome rot

affect specific cucurbits

Amelioration of crop losses due to diseases and insect pests through scientific interventions is
very critical and forms sound means of their management. In this chapter, major diseases and
insect pests inflicting major vegetable crops and their management through Integrated Pest
Management (IPM) has been dealt comprehensively.

The following IPM technologies have been developed and validated in area wide programme for
majority of the vegetable crops at different locations and technologies validated were continually

12 | P a g e



Brinjal, tomato, okra, cucurbits, chillies etc are the major vegetables grown in African countries. In
general, pesticide consumption in vegetables is very high and IPM is required to reduce losses by
using biopesticides and other means but reducing chemical pesticides usage and load in
environment is also very important. Judicious use of pesticides is required to raise productivity of


This is damaged by several pests, however the major pests are fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera
(Hubner), serpentine leaf miner, L. trifoli, white flies, B. tabaci and thrips Frankliniella occidentalis
(Pergande), the later two being the vector for leaf curl disease of tomato also. Fruit borer is a major
pest on developing fruits and is responsible for major yield loss upto 40% in tomato (Singh, 1991).
Eggs are laid at the time of flowering on first four leaves at the top canopy (Chandersekhar, 1992).
First two instars of the borer scrap foliage, Thereafter they bore into the fruit. White fly It is
responsible for transmission of leaf-curl disease. Its incidence is found to be more in summer &
September transplanted crop, while in Oct. and late planted crop its incidence is less. Leaf miner is
serious during summer and increases with more number of sprays. In pre-emergence damping off,
seeds become soft, turn brown, and decompose and seedlings are killed before they reach soil. In
post-emergence damping-off, infected seedlings topple and collapse In early blight, small, dark
brown or black, circular or angular spots develop on leaves which later turns distinctly zonate. On
the main stem and side branches, small, dark, slightly sunken lesions develop which enlarge and
form dark brown, elongated spots, which occasionally develop concentric rings like those appear
on the leaves. Defoliation occurs due to serious infestation. On green or semi-ripe fruits dark,
velvety, sunken spots having distinct concentric rings develop at stem end. In late blight, initially
small, pale green, water-soaked spots, often surrounded by a pale yellowish green border, appear
on leaf tip or leaf edge which turn dark brown to purplish –black large spots resulting in killing of
leaves. On stem, brown to black lesions which enlarge rapidly appear and entire stem may be killed
under humid conditions. On fruits, grey-green water-soaked spots appear initially which enlarge,
darken, firm, brown, leathery-appearing spots appear. Leaf wetness favours growth of cottony
growth on lower side which disappear during dry conditions. In tomato leaf curl, leaves show
intervenal yellowing, vein clearing, crinkling and puckering along with inward rolling of leaf margins
13 | P a g e


and have prominent yellow margins. In case of severe attack, leaves become short, leathery and
brittle and shoots become erect internodes become short. Severe stunting, bushy growth and
partial or complete sterility depending upon the stage of the crop. Very few fruits or no fruits on
infected plants. In buckeye rot, disease appears as a greyish green or brown spot that usually occurs
where the fruit touches the soil. In case of severe attack, as the spot enlarges rapidly, entire fruit
surface turns dark brown which feels soft on touch. The surface of lesion assumes a pattern of
concentric rings of narrow, dark brown and wide, light brown bands. In bacterial spot, on leaves,
symptoms appear as small, discrete light brown to dark brown, water soaked spots of < 2 mm in
diameter which turn black and angular often surrounded by a yellow halo. On petioles and stems,
symptoms appear as circular to elongated light brown spots. On immature green fruits, small water
soaked spots appear with a yellowish green halo. On ripe fruits, dark brown to blackish brown water
soaked spots appear.

Integrated Pest Management for Tomato


 Prepare a raised seed bed about 10 cm above ground level for good drainage to avoid
damping off.

 Seed treatment with effective strain of Trichoderma @ 10 g/kg or thiram 75 WP (1.5 to
1.87 a.i) / captan 50 % WP (1.5 % a.i) and need based bed application of copper
oxychloride 50 % WP (1.5 % a.i)

 Grow Kufri Ananya which has combined resistance to Tomato Leaf Curl Virus (TLCV) and
bacterial wilt; Arka Abhijit, Arka Abha and Arka Alok resistant to bacterial wilt

 Use of nylon nets in nursery beds to avoid entry of white fly etc.
Main field

 Transplant a row of marigold after every 14 rows of tomato as a trap crop
 Adopt wide spacing of 60 x 45 cm (for varieties) and 90x60 cm (for

 Seedling dip with imidacloprid at sowing or spray of 5% NSKE at 15

DAP against leaf-miner or white fly or aphids.
 Pheromones traps @ 5/ha can be installed in the field for

monitoring fruit borer & monitoring top three leaves for Helicoverpa eggs.
 Release of T. chilonis @ 1.0 lakh/ ha six times from flower initiation
 Spray of HaNPV 250 LE/ha in the early stages at least 3 times.
 Regular collection & destruction of damaged fruits, leaf-curl & wilt affected plants.
 Spray of emmamectin benzoate or rynxpyr against H. armigera has been found to be

 Give prophylactic spray of mancozeb 75 % WP (0.2 % a.i) for early blight or hexaconazole 5

% EC (0.005 % a.i) if incidence is seen in the field.
 Staking for buck eye rot reduces disease or to prevent the crop from frost

14 | P a g e


 Apply Trichoderma at the time of planting @ 5 kg/ha through well rotten FYM and need
based spot application carbendazim 12 % /25 % + mancozeb 63 %/50 % @ 2 g/lit against
Fusarium wilt

 Bleaching powder @ 12 kg/ha, spray streptocycline 300 to 500 ppm, crop rotation for
bacterial wilt


There are many numbers of insect pests that attack from the nursery till the seed harvesting. Shoot
and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbondais is the most serious per of brinjal and has country wide
distribution. Larvae cause damage soon after transplanting and continuous till the harvesting.
Larvae bore into shoot during vegetable stages and later bore into fruit making them unfit for
human consumption. The yield loss due to this pest ranges from 54-66 per cent. The grubs and
adults of hadda beetles, Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata, H.dodicastigma, skeletonize the
leaves of brinjal. The grubs of ash weevil, Myllocerous subfaciatus cause damage to leaves biting
numerous holes into them. Red spider mites, Tetranychus neocaledonicus, T..cinnabarinus and leaf
hopper(A.buguttula biguttula) cause serious yield losses during different stages of crop growth.
Another important limiting factor is root rot nematode (Melidogyne incognita) results galls on the
roots affecting water supply and drying up of leaves. Regular field monitoring and surveillance of
pests and diseases is essential for success of any pest management programme in any crop. Control
measures may be adopted when the shoot & fruit borer population is 8-10 moths/day/trap or its
incidence reached 1-5 per cent (Dhaliwal et al, 2003). In little leaf, leaves in the early stage of
infection become light yellow and are much shorter. Under severe attack, leaves, petioles and
internodes show reduced size. Plants give a bushy appearance. Affected plants are generally shorter
in stature. Flower parts are deformed leading the plant to become sterile. Generally no fruits are
formed on infected plants, if any fruit formed, fruits are hard, tough, small and fail to mature. Leaves
in the early stage of Phomopsis blight show circular, grey to brown spots with light centre which
merge and may cover the entire fruit surface. Dark brown lesions with grey centre develop on the
stems and petioles. Pale, sunken spots develop on the fruits. Infected leaves turn yellow & drop
prematurely. Gradual or sudden withering, drying, wilting, stunting and collapse of entire plant is
the typical symptom of bacterial wilt. Vascular system turn brown and browning is often visible as
dark patches or streaks on the stems. In Alternaria leaf spot, concentric rings are formed on foliage.
On fruits deep seated spots are formed. In Cercospora leaf spot, angular chlorotic spots appear
which merge together to cover large area. Leaves may drop off in severe cases. Fruits turn yellow
and drop off.

Integrated Pest Management for Brinjal

 Raised seed bed of 10-15 cm height to avoid flooding of bed
 Soil solarisation for three weeks during June using polythene sheets of 0.45 mm width
 Soil treatment with T. viride @ 100gm/ kg FYM. Enrichment of T. viride for three weeks
before mixing in soil.
 Grow Pusa purple cluster which is field resistant to bacterial wilt; GBH-1tolerant to shoot
and fruit borer; Pant Samrat resistant to Phomopsis blight and bacterial wilt under field

15 | P a g e


Main Field

 Erection of bird perches @ 25/ha for facilitation of predation of insects
 Installation of Delta traps and yellow sticky traps @ 5/ha for hopper and

white fly
 Pheromone traps installation @ 12/ ha for Leucinodes orbonalis

 Soil application of neem cake @ 250 kg/ha along the plant rows at planting and 30 days

after planting
 Clipping of borer damaged shoots immediately after its appearance.
 Three sprays of NSKE @ 5% against sucking pests.
 Six releases of egg parasite, T. brasiliensis @1.0 lakh/ha at weekly interval for shoot and

fruit borer
 Collection & destruction of damaged fruits
 Rouged out little leaf affected plants at monthly interval
 One spray each of imidacloprid @ 0.5 ml/L and rynxypyr @ 1 ml/L in the season


Okra Abelmoschus esculantus (L.) (Moench) is one of the major economically important vegetable
belonging to family Malvacae. Major pests are Leaf hopper, Amrasca biguttula biguttulla Ishida,
Shoot and fruit borer, Earias vittella (Fabricius), White fly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius transmitting
yellow vein mosaic red spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus, aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover and
disease, Powdery mildew, Erysiphe cichoracearum. White gray powdery growth both on upper and
under surface of the leaves is the characteristic symptom of powdery mildew (Erysiphe
cichoracearum). It spreads fast under warm conditions. Cercospora leaf spot caused by Cercopspora
malayensis produce brown and irregular spots while C abelmoschi cause sooty black irregular spots.
Under humid conditions both leaf spots cause severe defoliation. Yellowing followed by wilting and
rolling of the leaves is the typical symptom of Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum).
Vascular bundle turns brown. Okra yellow vein mosaic is characterized by homogenous interwoven
net work of yellow veins enclosing island of green tissue within. In severe cases, infected leaves
become yellow or pale color. Infected plants remain stunted. Fruits malformed, small pale and
tough in texture. It is transmitted whitefly. Warm and dry weather favors disease development. It
is severe during March to June in South India, while in North India, it is severe from June to October.

IPM Technology Validated for Okra

 Grow Pusa Sawani, Varsha Uphar, Arka Anamika, Parbhani Kranti, CO1 and HBH 142
tolerant/resistant/field resistant to YVMV; Pusa A 4s tolerant to yellow vein mosaic
virus, tolerant to aphids

 recommended yellow vein mosaic resistant hybrid

16 | P a g e


 Yellow sticky traps and Delta traps set up for white fly and other
sucking pests

 Erect Pheromone traps for monitoring Earias vittella @ 5/ ha
 Three sprays of NSKE @ 5% for hopper, white fly and mites.
 Five releases of T. chilonis starting from 42 DAS at weekly interval
 YVM affected plants & borer affected shoots rouged out from time to time
 3-4 sprays of Imidacloprid (hoppers), cypermethrin, rynxypyr and emmamectin

benzoate (Borers) insecticides
 Prophylactic spray with wettable sulphur 80 WP @ 2.5 g /lit and need based

application of hexaconazole 5 % EC (0.005 % a.i), propiconazole 25 EC (0.025 % a.i) or
difenconazole 25 EC (0.015 % a.i) against powdery mildew and mancozeb 75 % WP
(0.2 % a.i), or carbendazim 50 WP (0.05 % a.i), against Cercospora leaf spot


Chilies are mainly damaged by sucking pests and borers. Among the
sucking insect pest of chilles are. Thrips ( Scirtothrips dorsalis,
Caliothrios indicus and Frankliniella shulphurea) and mites
Polyphagotarsonemus latus under dry conditions. The damage caused
by thrips may range from 30 to 50 per cent. Cloudy whether favours a
rapid multiplication of aphids Aphis gossypii and Myzus perssicae

which feed on the sap and reduces the plant
vigour and growth. The gallmidge, Asphondalia
capsici disorts the fruits of chilies. The crop is
also damaged by gram pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera and tobacco
caterpiller, spodoptera litura. Damping off caused by Pythium
aphanidermatum is serious in warm and moist heavy soils having poor drainage. Seed may rot
before emergence or the seedlings may be toppled before they emerge from the soil. Young
seedlings die in patches due to decay of tissues in the collar region. Cercospora leaf spot caused by
Cercospora capsici appears as brown, circular spots with small light grey centres and dark brown
margins. Severely infected leaves may drop off prematurely resulting in reduced yield.

Die-back and anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum capsici is one of the most serious diseases of
chilli occurring almost throughout the country. Spots on ripened fruits appear as circular, water-
soaked, sunken patches with black margins and numerous small
pinhead sized acervuli at the centre. The fruits with many spots
drop off prematurely resulting in heavy loss to crop yield. Fungus
may also attack the fruit stalk and spread along the stem causing
dieback symptoms.

Wilt caused by Fusarium solani is characterised by typical wilting
of the plant and upward, inward rolling of the leaves. Initially
wilt appears in patches in water stagnating/low lying areas and

17 | P a g e


quickly spreads through irrigation along the water channel. By the time symptoms are evident, the
vascular bundle turns brown, discoloured particularly at the collar region and roots.

Powdery mildew caused by Levillula taurica occurs during warm periods
under both dry and humid weather conditions. Initially, chlorotic blotches or
spots appear on the upper leaf surface with white to gray powdery growth
on the corresponding lower surface. It proceeds from the older to younger
leaves and shedding of foliage is very prominent.

Leaves are greatly reduced in size and plant gives stunted look due to leaf curl infection caused by
begomo virus. In advanced stages, the whole plant appears bushy, with stunted growth and fewer
flowers. Small sized fruits are produced with deformed seeds. Leaf curl is vectored by whiteflies
(Bemisia tabaci), which are favoured by temperature of 25-35oC. In case of severe infection,
complete crop failure is not uncommon. Infection by aflatoxin fungi (Aspergillus flavus) is specific
during and after harvest which makes the produce unfit for consumption.

The ravages of these pests may be minimized by adopting following integrated approaches.

Integrated Pest Management Module Validated (IPM) for Hot Pepper

 Prepare raised nursery beds about 10 cm above ground level for good drainage to
avoid damping off, seedling diseases, etc.

 Follow three to six weeks of soil solarisation as per established protocol under
supervision of expert [post-flood irrigation cover the beds with transparent polythene
sheet of 45 gauge (0.45 mm) thickness tightening sides of sheets to enable avoid
escape of moist heat].

 Mix 150 g of effective strain of fungal antagonist of Trichoderma from reliable source
(colony forming units/ CFU: 2 x 109/g) in 3 kg of FYM and leave for 7-14 days for
enrichment followed by mixing of Trichoderma enriched FYM in the soil of a 3 m2 bed.

 Grow Pusa Jwala which is fairly tolerant to thrips and mites; Pusa sadabahar resistant
to CMV, TMV and leaf curl complex; Arka Suphal tolerant to powdery mildew; Arka
Meghana resistance to powdery mildew and viruses; Pant C-1 is moderately resistant
to mosaic and leaf curl virus.

 Seed treatment with effective strain of Trichoderma from reliable source @ 10 g/kg
and imidacloprid 70 WS @ 10 g /kg seed or thiram 75 WP (1.5 to 1.87 g a.i/kg) /
captan 50% WP (1.5 g a.i/kg) to manage damping off and sucking pests in the initial

18 | P a g e


 Protection of seedling from infestation of white fly or any other sucking pest by
covering nursery beds with nylon net of 40-50 mesh

Main Crop
 Destruction of previous crop residues, weeds etc.
 During ploughing of different plots, tractor should be dis-infected so that soil-borne
inoculums do not get carried through such implements / equipment from one field to
 Land should be well prepared with arrangement for drainage of any excess water for
avoiding water-stagnation, particularly on lower end of slope.
 Care should also be taken that crops viz., cotton, papaya, tomato, tobacco, okra, etc.,
which support white flies, hoppers, chilli leaf curl virus and other common pests of chilli
are to be discouraged in the vicinity or as neighbouring crops.
 At the time of planting, apply effective strain of Trichoderma from reliable source @ 5
kg/ha along with well rotten FYM (250 kg) to manage fungal wilts.

 Planting of marigold around crop field or as trap crop (chilli: marigold – 15:1). Marigold
attracts lepidopteran adults for egg laying. Marigold also traps root-knot nematodes
(Meloidogyne), which could be checked and appropriately destroyed.

Vegetative stage

Pests: Thrips, mites, aphids, white fly, hoppers, cut worms, leaf curl / mosaic complex,
Cercospora/Alternaria leaf spot, Die-back, Fusarium wilt

 At the time of planting, dip the seedlings in Pseudomonas fluorescens solution (CFU: 2
x 1012/ml) @ 5-10 ml/litre for 20-30 min and sow in line maintaining plant population
as per recommendation of local State Agricultural University / State Agriculture

 Dip the seedlings in imidacloprid 17.5 SL @ 7 ml per litre for about 20 minutes before
transplanting to protect against sucking pests including white flies.

 Use reflective mulches of silver black colour of 7 µ thickness to deter white flies in early

 Plant barrier crops such as maize, sorghum, pearl millet or snap bean around chilli in 2-
3 rows to protect the crop against white flies.

 Erect T-shaped bird perches @ 25/ ha for facilitating visits of predatory birds.

 Install yellow sticky trap or delta traps @ 5 /ha for hoppers, aphids and white fly etc.

19 | P a g e


 Spray of neem products/NSKE 5% or effective formulation of Verticillum lecanii (cfu: 2
x 109 / ml) from reliable source as WP or EC @ 5 kg or 2.5 l / ha at evening time avoiding
windy periods against aphids, thrips, hoppers and white fly with high volume sprayer
having gooseneck nozzle to cover the under surface of the foliage. Spray NSKE 5%, 2-3
times at 10 days interval against above sucking pests in line with other vegetable crops
starting at 15-20 days after transplanting (DAT). If the population of thrips and white
fly is still high, spray triazophos 40 EC for white fly (2 l/ha), emmamectin benzoate 5 SG
@ 10 g a.i./ha or fipronil 5 SC @ 50 g a.i./ha or acephate 75 SP @ 2 gm/litre of water
for thrips control.

 Repeated application of same chemical insecticide or inappropriate ones leads to
resurgence of whiteflies, other sucking pests; hence a highly judicious application of
only recommended chemical insecticides is must only as a last weapon against any pest
with no repetition of the same. Tools for checking for pesticide resistance could be
used prior to use of any particular chemical so that choice of spray item is done

 Spray neem oil @ 5 ml / l or abamectin (vertimec) @ 0.5 ml / l water at evening time
avoiding windy periods for management of mites.

 If both thrips and mites are seen together, spray of fenpropathrin 30 EC @ 0.5 ml/l or
bifenthrin 10 EC @ 1.3 ml/l at evening time avoiding rainy and windy periods is useful.

 Adult moths of cut worm are attracted to light. So installation of light traps or pit fall
traps could be helpful for cut worms.

 Resort to drip irrigation wherever feasible; avoid water stagnation by draining any
accumulated water quickly to manage Fusarium wilt and other soil-borne diseases.

 Rogue out and bury leaf-curl and wilt-affected plants to reduce inoculum load and
spread of the disease.

 Follow clean cultivation, free from weeds.
 Need-based application of mancozeb 75% WP (2.5 g a.i /l), azoxystrobin 23 SC @ 125 g

a.i. / ha, difenconazole 25 EC (0.5 ml/l), hexaconazole 2 SC @ 60 g a.i./ha, tebuconazole
25.9 EC @ 0.123 – 0.187 kg a.i. / ha against powdery mildew and die-back and fruit rot
(anthracnose), at evening time avoiding rainy and windy periods. Mancozeb and
wettable sulphur 80 WP @ 2.5 g a.i. /litre are preferred for prophylactic spray against
anthracnose and powdery mildew, respectively.
 Need-based spot application of carbendazim 50 WP @ 2g / l could be done under
extreme situations to manage Fusarium wilt.
 Spray with P. fluorescens @10 g / l twice (at vegetative and flowering stage) at evening
time for overall health and growth of plants.
 Only need based spray of HaNPV /SlNPV 250 LE/ha (2 x 109 POB) against early instars
of lepidopteran larvae in evening hours along with sticker Teepol or 2% jaggery.
Flowering /fruit formation stage

Pests: Fruit borer (Helicoverpa armigera), tobacco caterpillar, powdery mildew, gall midge,
die-back/anthracnose, Fusarium wilt

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 Erection of pheromone traps @ 5/ ha for H. armigera/ S. litura for monitoring and
mass trapping of adults. Install light trap (NCIPM model) for lepidopteran pests etc.

 Periodic releases of egg parasitoid, Trichogramma sp @ 1.5 lakh/ ha for fruit borer (H.

 2-3 sprays at 7- 10 days interval of effective strain of HaNPV /SlNPV 250 LE/ha (2 x 109
POB) or Bt (@ 1.5-2 l/1000 l) from reliable source against early instars of lepidopteran
larvae preferably at evening hours when intensity of UV rays is less and thorough
coverage of foliage is must.

 Spray of biorational insecticides viz., emamectin benzoate 5 WDG @ 0.25 g /litre or
spinosad 45 SC @ 0.25 - 0.4 ml/litre or novaluron 10 EC @ 33.5 g a.i per hectare
against early instars of lepidopteran larvae at evening time avoiding windy periods.

 Only need-based spray of chemical insecticides (as a last weapon) viz., indoxacarb
15.5 SP @ 50 g a.i. /ha at evening time during initiation of flowering and fruiting stage
for fruit borer, H. armigera is effective. Avoid spray on windy periods.

 Periodic removal and destruction of damaged fruits due to borer.
 Roguing out and burying the leaf-curl and wilt affected plants to reduce inoculums

load and spread of the disease.
 Resorting to drip irrigation wherever feasible and avoid flooding by draining quickly

after rain to manage Fusarium wilt.
 Need-based application of mancozeb 75 WP (2.5 g a.i /l), azoxystrobin 23 SC @ 125 g

a.i. / ha, difenconazol 25 EC (0.5 ml/l), hexaconazole 2 SC @ 60 g a.i./ha,
tebuconazole 25.9 EC @ 0.123 – 0.187 kg a.i. / ha against powdery mildew, die-back
and fruit rot (anthracnose), at evening time avoiding windy periods.
 After harvest, plough and harrow the field to expose cutworms to natural enemies
and desiccation.
 Avoid crop rotation with tomato, brinjal and other solanaceous crops.

Harvesting and post-harvest operations

 Harvest at the right stage of maturity.
 For dry chilli, resort to sun-drying. Moisture in the dried pods should be brought

down to <10% to avoid microbial activity and aflatoxin production.
 Grading is to be done to remove defective and discoloured pods.

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Cucurbits belong to Cucurbitaceae, encompass about 118
genera and 825 species of which 36 genera and around 100
species have been described in India. Ash gourd (Benincasa
hispida), bitter gourd (Momordica charentia), bottle gourd
(Lagenaria siceraria), ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula), cucumber
(Cuccumis sativus), muskmelon (Cucumis melo), pumpkin
(Cucurbita moschanta), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), summer
squash (Cuccurbita pepo), winter squash (Cuccurbita maxima)
and ivy gourd (Coccinia cordifolia) are commonly grown across the country. Cucumber is cultivated
in 28,000 ha with annual production of 1. 61 lakh t while pumpkin, squashes and gourds are grown
in 0.5 mha with annual production of 4.69 mt. Cucurbits need an immense amount of heat, long
days of light and a lot of moisture. None of the cucurbits can withstand frosts, or produce good
quality fruit at low temperatures. Fruit fly is highly devastating pest. Cucurbit diseases reduce the
crop yield by reducing the number and size of fruit and adversely affect the fruit quality. Damping
off, Blight, mildews and wilt cause considerable yield loss in cucurbits across the country. Pre-
emergence damping-off results in brown, gelatinous rotting within the seed coat. Seedlings are
destroyed within a week in post emergence damping off (Pythium aphanidermatum, Rhizoctonia
solani and Fusarium oxysporum). Downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis) is prevalent during
rainy season under conditions of high humidity and moderate temperature in bitter gourd, snake
gourd, melon, bottle gourd and ridge gourd. Spots enlarge under favorable conditions with cobweb
like fruiting structures appearing on the corresponding abaxial surface. Whole vine weakens and
wilts under severe infection. Pathogen infects at 25-300 C and 15-210 C day and night temperature
respectively with humidity > 75 %. Anthracnose (Colletotrichum orbiculare) is endemic in warm and
humid conditions. Watermelon, bottle gourd, cucumber and snake gourd are highly susceptible to
this disease. Water soaked lesions appear in cotyledons and leaves which later coalesce and cause
drooping and collapse of seedlings. On vines, angular to circular brownish specks appear which
coalesce and produce blight symptoms. On mature fruits, small circular sunken water soaked spots
with dark border appear containing numerous pin head sized acervuli at the centre. Moist or humid
weather with temperature of 22-270 C favors sporulation, spread and host penetration. Powdery
mildew (Erysiphe cichoracearum, Sphaerotheca fuliginea and Leveillula taurica) is severe in
muskmelon, bottle gourd, cucumber, pumpkin and watermelon in warmer areas with dew and low
rainfall. Talcum powder like growth is seen on the lower surface of leaves which spread to upper
surface, petiole and stem. Spots remain pure white in Erysiphe and turn near rusty brown in case of
Sphaerotheca infection. Severe infection leads to defoliation and death of vines. Infection is favored
by high relative humidity of 80-95% and moderate temperature of 23-290 C. Dry weather and
absence of rainfall help further spread of the disease. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cuccumerinum,
melonis, niveum, lagenariae, momordicae cause wilt in cucumber, muskmelon, watermelon, bottle
gourd and bitter gourd respectively. It is particularly severe during flowering and fruiting. In young
seedlings, cotyledons drop and wither. During flowering and fruiting, basal leaves lose turgor which
proceeds upwards. Wilting may be partial or complete, sudden or gradual with long brown streak
seen on one side of the stem near the soil level extending upwards. Disease development and
progress is favored by high light intensity, relative humidity, evaporation rate, nitrogen and low

22 | P a g e


potassium and calcium levels. Gummy blight and stem rot pathogen Phoma cucurbitacearum cause
wide range of symptoms which include seedling death, spots, cankers on stem petiole and fruit
stalks, stem decay and fruit rot. Often yellowish brown gum is seen at the nodal portion of the stem.
Alternaria blight and fruit rot (Alternaria cucumerina) appear as yellow spots in leaf margin and
produce concentric rings which turn brown and black on aging. Severely affected vines look like
burnt charcoal. Under humid conditions, entire fruit rots due to Pythium which often show white
cottony growth on fruit surface. Bottle gourd, cucumber, muskmelon and watermelon are worst

IPM interventions at various stage of the crop

Choose pest tolerant varieties/hybrids in endemic areas keeping in view the acceptance/market
demand etc. Narendra Rashmi for powdery mildew and downy mildew in bottle gourd; Arka
Rajhans, Punja Hybrid 1 for powdery mildew in Muskmelon, Punjab Rasila against downy mildew
and Durgapura Madhu and Punjab Sunheri for Fusarium wilt; PCUCH 3 for downy mildew and
powdery mildew in cucumber; Deepthi for mosaic and downy mildew in ridge Gourd and Arka
sujat against downy mildew; Arka Manik for powdery mildew, downy mildew and anthracnose in
Water melon and Durgapaura Lal for blight and bud necrosis; Phule Prajakta for wilt and bean
mosaic in sponge gourd; Punjab chappan kaddu 1 for powdery mildew and downy mildew and
cucumber mosaic virus in squash

Before sowing

 Procure seeds from reliable source and prepare nursery with polythene bags or protrays
under protected nursery to get quality seedlings free of pests/direct sown as the case may

 Adjust sowing dates to manage fruit fly and red pumpkin beetle in endemic areas.
 Treat seeds with efficient Trichoderma sp. @10g/kg seed or thiram
 Plant four rows of maize/sorghum as a barrier crop to manage mosaic through check

vector movement; grow castor, tomato or marigold as a trap crop to manage leaf miner.

Main crop

 Spray Neem Seed Kernel Extract (NSKE) @ 5% against sucking pests at low level of incidence;
Apply need based foliar application of micro nutrients.

 Need based application of dusting of carbaryl 80 WP @ 1 kg a.i /ha during cotyledon stage
or spraying of dichlorvos 76 EC @1-1.5 ml/lit or trichlorfon 50% EC @ 0.12 % against beetles
and caterpillars

 Removal of cotyledon leaves infested with leaf miner followed by spraying of neem seed
powder extract @ 4% or neem soap @ 1% to manage leaf miner.

 Before transplanting, dip the roots of seedlings in imidachloprid 17.8 SL @ 0.3 ml/lit for 15
minutes to manage aphids, white fly & leaf miner and virus transmission and spread

 Thinning / gap filling to maintain optimum plant population
 Application of copper oxychloride 50 % WP (1.5 % a.i) or carbendazim 50 WP (0.05 % a.i) to

manage rots and wilts only under emergency
23 | P a g e


 Installation of blue and yellow colored sticky traps to reduce thrips and whitefly and leaf
miner infestation

 Need based spray application of imidacloprid 17.8 SL @ 0.3 ml/lit against thrips, aphids
and whitefly and to arrest virus transmission by these vectors and dicofol 18.5 EC @ 2.5
ml/lit, wettable sulphur 80 WP @ 2.5 g /lit to manage mite.

 Protective and need based application of zineb, mancozeb 75 % WP (0.2 % a.i),
Carbendazim 50 WP (0.05 % a.i) to manage fungal spots/blight

 Need based spray carbendazim 50 WP (0.05 % a.i), or thiophanate methyl 70% WP @ (0.07
% a.i) /fluzilazole 40 EC @ 0.03 % / dinocap 48 EC @ 0.03 % to manage powdery mildew
and anthracnose

 Protective spray with mancozeb 75 WP @ 0.2 % a.i or chlorothalonil @ 0.2 % and need
based application of cymoxanil 8% + mancozeb 0.3 %/ metalaxyl + mancozeb (0.25) %
/fosetyl Al 80 WP @ 0.1 % to manage downy mildew

 Application of carbendazim @ 2 g/lit to manage Fusarium wilt under emergency
 Need based soil application of carbofuran 3 G and phorate 10 G @1.5 kg a.i/ha at

transplanting and 30-40 days after transplanting
 Conserve natural predators like coccinellids, syrphids and chrysopids and parasitoids like

Aphidius spp. with judicious use of pesticides
 Rogue off-type and diseased plants showing wilting, severe mottling, mosaic, crinkle,

necrosis and leaf rolling symptoms at the initial stage itself


 MAT of adult flies through plastic bottle trap with ethanol,
carbaryl/melathion, cuelure (6:1:2) coated in wooden block installed @23-
30 traps / ha

 Spray liquid of 0.1% insecticide and 10% jaggery or 10% ripe banana at 200 spots/ha as bait /
fish meal trap with 5 gm of wet fish meal and 1 g of dichlorvos in cotton @ 50 traps /ha.

 Need based foliar application of neem oil @ 3.0 %

Constraints in Adoption of IPM

The validation trials have proved IPM as an effective method of controlling pests. Yet, it is not
being adopted by farmers to the desired extent because of a number of constraints faced by

 Farmers’ lack of awareness about IPM technology
 High labour input
 Non-availability of inputs like bio-agents, pheromone traps and true pest resistant varieties

is a major problem in adoption of IPM in vegetable crops. Besides, there is a lack of trained
personnel for mass multiplication of bioagents, their maintenance and distribution.
 Not convinced with the practices & their effectiveness
 Complex nature of IPM technology.

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 Time consuming nature of IPM and difficulty in implementing IPM practices
 Inadequate credit facilities
Selected References
 AESA based IPM – Cucurbitaceous Vegetable Crops. (Cucumber, Bottle Gourd, Bitter

Gourd, Sponge Gourd, Snake Gourd, Ash Gourd, Pumpkin, Squash). AESA BASED IPM
Package No. 21. Department of Agriculture and cooperation. Ministry of Agriculture, Govt.
Of India. pp. 68.
 Rai,A.B., M. Loganathan, Jaydeep Halder, V. Venkataravanappa and Prakash S Naik 2014.
Eco-friendly Approaches for Sustainable Management of Vegetable Pests. IIVR Technical
Bulletin No. 53, IIVR, Varanasi, pp. 104
 Sardana, H.R., M Narayana Bhat, Mukesh Sehgal, and O.M.Bambawale. 2012. Integrated
Pest Management strategies for vegetable crops. Technical Bulletin No. 27. 60 pp.
 Vegetable crop disease and their management. 2010. IIHR Bengaluru.pp.29
 National Horticulture Data Base 2014, NHB, Gurgaon, Haryana.

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Development and Application of Biopesticides and Biostimulants for
Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi

Integrated pest management means careful consideration of all available plant protection methods
and subsequent integration of appropriate measures that discourage the development of
populations of harmful organisms and keep the use of plant protection products and other forms
of intervention to levels that are economically and ecologically justified and reduce or minimise
risks to human health and the environment. 'Integrated pest management' emphasises the growth
of a healthy crop with the least possible disruption to agro-ecosystems, environment and
encourages natural pest control mechanisms.

 IPM involves an integrated approach to the prevention and/or suppression of organisms
harmful to plants through the use of all available information, tools and methods

 IPM aims to keep the use of pesticides and other forms of intervention only to levels that are
economically and ecologically justified and which reduce or minimise risk to human health and
the environment.

 Sustainable biological (microorganisms), biotechnological (genetically modified, RNAi),
physical (quarantine, isolation, non-host crops) and other non-chemical methods
(pheromones, biopesticides, botanicals, biostimulants etc.) should be preferred and
incorporated, if they provide satisfactory pest management.


1. The prevention and/or suppression of harmful organisms should be achieved or supported
among other options especially by:

o crop rotation,

o use of adequate cultivation techniques (e.g. stale seedbed technique, sowing dates and
densities, under-sowing, conservation tillage, pruning and direct sowing),

o use, where appropriate, of resistant/tolerant cultivars and standard/certified seed and
planting material,

o use of balanced fertilisation, liming and irrigation/drainage practices,

o preventing the spreading of harmful organisms by hygiene measures (e.g. by regular
cleansing of machinery and equipment),

o protection and enhancement of important beneficial organisms, e.g. by adequate plant
protection measures or the utilisation of ecological infrastructures inside and outside
production sites.

2. Harmful organisms must be monitored by adequate methods and tools, where available. Such
adequate tools should include observations in the field as well as scientifically sound warning,
forecasting and early diagnosis systems, where feasible, as well as the use of advice from
professionally qualified advisors.

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3. Based on the results of the monitoring the professional user has to decide whether and when

to apply plant protection measures. Robust and scientifically sound threshold values are
essential components for decision making. For harmful organisms threshold levels defined for
the region, specific areas, crops and particular climatic conditions must be taken into account
before treatments, where feasible.
4. Sustainable biological, physical and other non-chemical methods must be preferred to
chemical methods if they provide satisfactory pest control.
5. The pesticides applied shall be as specific as possible for the target and shall have the least
side effects on human health, non-target organisms and the environment.
6. The professional user should keep the use of pesticides and other forms of intervention to
levels that are necessary, e.g. by reduced doses, reduced application frequency or partial
applications, considering that the level of risk in vegetation is acceptable and they do not
increase the risk for development of resistance in populations of harmful organisms.
7. Where the risk of resistance against a plant protection measure is known and where the level
of harmful organisms requires repeated application of pesticides to the crops, available anti-
resistance strategies should be applied to maintain the effectiveness of the products. This may
include the use of multiple pesticides with different modes of action.
8. Based on the records on the use of pesticides and on the monitoring of harmful organisms the
professional user should check the success of the applied plant protection measures.

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M. Narayana Bhat
ICAR - National Research Centre for Integrated Pest Management, New Delhi

Potato crop is important because of its high nutritional value and limited water use compared
to cereals. At global level, potato is next only to rice and wheat grown in an area of 19.25 m
ha with production of 377 mt with China and India at first and second in area and production
respectively. In India, potato is grown in 2.14 mha ha with annual production of 51.31 mt out
of which 15.55 mt is contributed by Uttar Pradesh alone from an area of 0.61 m ha followed
by West Bengal, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. Algeria, Egypt, South Africa, Morocco,
Tanzania, Kenya, Nigeria, Malawi, Ethiopia and Rwanda are the major potato growing
countries in Africa. Average potato yield in Sub Saharan Africa is low (7.8 t/ha) with 25 t/ha
attained by a few progressive farmers. The yield gap can be attributed to low quality seed,
low yielding varieties, poor pest management particularly bacterial wilt, viruses, late blight
and sucking pests and inadequate soil fertility management.

In India, potato is grown in almost all the states under diverse climatic conditions. Nearly 80%
of potatoes come from Indo-Gangetic plains during short winter days from October to March
while in the hills, it is grown during long summer days of April to October. Plateau regions and
peninsular India, constitute about 6% area where potatoes are grown as rainfed crop during
July to October or as irrigated crop during winter. In Nilgiri and Palni hills of Tamil Nadu, it is
grown in about 4000 ha as irrigated and rainfed crop. It is also an important crop in the North
Eastern region of the country. Low production (15 t/ha) in some of the regions is mainly due
to lack of quality seeds, growing potato under rainfed conditions, non-adoption of
recommended package of practices and lack of infrastructural facilities like cold storage.
Apart from this, foliar diseases and soil and tuber borne diseases, viruses, soil pests, foliage
feeders, sap feeders and storage pests also cause considerable damage at various stages of
the crop and their severity and incidence varies from region to region. Amelioration of crop
losses due to diseases and insect pests through scientific interventions is very critical and
forms sound means of their management. In this article, major diseases and insect pests
inflicting potato crop and their management through Integrated Pest Management (IPM) has
been dealt comprehensively mainly under Indian conditions. IPM interventions should be
suitably modified and validated according to the region before its implementation. Pesticides
must have label claim in respective regions/countries.

Key pests of potato

Foliar Diseases: Late blight (Phyotophthora infestans), early blight (Alternaria solani) are
major diseases out of which, late blight is a known as plant destroyer which causes enormous
crop losses under optimal conditions. Late blight is a major constraint in sub-Saharan Africa,
cause 15 to 30 % yield loss in small farms. In the East African country of Uganda, late blight
destroys as high as 60% farmers potato crop, which translates into $129 million. Desiree, a
red-skinned potato is widely grown in Kenya, but very susceptible to late blight. Similarly,
Victoria, a popular variety in Uganda also requires regular fungicide applications to manage
late blight.

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Late blight affects all plant parts especially leave, stems and tubers. Under congenial weather
conditions (temp. 10-22 0 C; RH > 80 %, intermittent rains, cloudy overcast conditions, late
blight fungus becomes activated in the infected seed tuber(s) and colonizes it fast reaching
the outer surface of the tuber where it sporulates. The resultant spores then infect the leaves
touching the soil thereby initiating the disease. Within 3-4 days, the entire plant gets infected.
Besides sideway, plants also get infected and within 7-8 days, a ‘disease foci’ is formed which
serves as the source of the disease. In early blight, conidia and fungal mycelium in the soil or
debris of affected plants produce fresh crop of conidia which gets displaced and deposited on
the potato leaves thereby initiating the disease. The resultant disease spots in turn also
become the source of fresh crop of conidia which are disseminated by wind to long distance
causing infection over wide area. Early blight occurrence is also greatly influenced by
temperature and relative humidity. High humidity early in the season followed by high
temperature pre - disposes potato crop to early blight. A day temperature of 25 to 30oC is
congenial for the disease.

Soil and tuber borne diseases: Damping off (Pythium spp.) is a nursery disease in potato raised
through TPS. Bacterial wilt or brown rot (Ralstonia solanacearum) cause considerable yield
loss in several parts of the country including NEH region. It is a debilitating diseases
particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Common scab (Streptomyces scabis) is also prevalent in
some potato growing regions of the country. It is a major limiting factor in South Africa. Black
scurf caused by Rhizoctonia solani is an important disease wherever potato is grown. Damping
off is noticed by the typical toppling off of seedlings. While bacterial wilt can easily be
identified by dropping and wilting of plants and further confirmation by oozing test, common
scab is identified by corky lesions occurring around lenticels on tubers which may be star
shaped or irregularly circular with 3-4 mm deep pits surrounded by hard corky tissues. Black
scurf is readily recognized by the hard raised patches on the tuber surface. Infected soil and
seed tubers are the main source of infection. High soil moisture and temperature (20-30 0 C)
are ideal for bacterial wilt. From infected plants, the disease normally spreads through
irrigation water and farm implements.


Viruses have remained and will continue to remain as the most important factor limiting
potato production wherever it is grown. Apical leaf curl has acquired importance during the
last decade owing to change in planting date and increased whitefly population, the vector of
this disease. Affected plants show curling / crinkling of apical leaves with conspicuous mosaic
symptom. Plants recover from symptoms as the temperature falls < 25 o C. Incidence is high
in crops planted during October than in November because of the large whitefly population.
Potato leaf roll mostly appears in the youngest leaves which turn pale and roll inwards starting
at the leaflet base. Purple discoloration of affected leaflets may also occur. Inward rolling of
lower leaflets, extending ultimately to the upper leaves, is typical. The leaves become dry and
brittle and often show purple discoloration. It is spread long distances by winged aphids. PVA
causes mild mosaic symptoms. At least seven aphid species are capable of transmitting PVA.
Potato virus M causes mottling, mosaic, crinkling and rolling of leaves and stunting of shoots.
PVS is symptomless on the majority of cultivars, with occasional mild leaf symptoms. In
combination with PVA or PVY, PVX causes leaf distortion and crinkle. Transmission is by
contact. Primary symptoms of PVY are necrosis, mottling, yellowing of leaflets and premature

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death of plants which is spread mainly by Myzus persicae. It is one of the most serious diseases
throughout Africa, resulting in severe yield loss

Insect Pests of Potato

A great diversity of climate allows a variety of insect pests to flourish and inflict damage to
potato crop both in the field and the stores. Insect pests damage the crop by feeding on
potato tubers in soil, feeding or sucking sap from foliage and feeding on potato tubers in
stores. Accordingly, these pests can be grouped as soil pests, foliage, feeders, sap feeders and
storage pests.

Soil Pests: Cutworms (Agrotis ipsilon and Agrotis spp.) and white grubs (Lachnosterna
longipennis and L. coriacea), termites Odontotermes obesus and Eremotermes sp and red
ants, Dorylus orientalis are the main soil pests. As the name indicates, cutworm cut young
plants at the base and feed on them. They also feed on potato tubers and make deep and
irregular ‘tunnels’ within the tubers there by reducing their market value. White grubs unlike
cutworms do not damage potato foliage but do make large shallow and circular holes in
potato tubers. Death of the plants may occur from a severe infestation by termites. Generally
termites make circular holes in March when the day temperature is > 30o C which subsequently
increase with the rise in temperature. Tubers infested with red ants show large number of
small holes on surface with 70 to 90% tuber damage under favorable conditions

Foliage feeders: Leaf eating caterpillars Helicoverpa armigera, Spodoptera litura and Plusia
orichalcea and epilachna beetles Henosepilachna ocellata directly feed on potato foliage and
cause extensive damage under congenial conditions. These pests are polyphagous and feed
on a wide range of plants such as cauliflower, radish, turnip, celery, carrot, tomato, brinjal,
datura and many others.

Sap feeders: Major sap feeders include aphids, whitefly, thrips, mites and leaf hopper which
not only physically damage the crop but also act as carrier or vectors of viruses which limits
the prospects of healthy crop/seed production. Aphids and whiteflies lower the vitality of the
plants. Whitefly infected plants exhibit one or combination of symptoms of vein yellowing,
yellow leaf mosaic, leaf curling and stunting. Prolonged feeding by hoppers cause causes
‘Hopper Burn’. In case of severe infestation by mites, the leaves turn small and leathery,
resulting lowering photosynthetic area.

Storage Pest: Potato Tuber Moth (Phthorimaea operculella) commonly called as PTM is most
obnoxious pest of potato both in the field and country stores. PTM larvae damage foliage,
stems, exposed tubers in the fields and in country stores and cause considerable losses.

IPM interventions along growth stages of potato


 Plough the fields twice before planting to expose different stages of whitegrub /other
pests to harsh weather and predation by birds.

 Avoid planting in low-lying or water-logged areas and adopt fallow and crop rotation
with non hosts in bacterial wilt endemic regions

 Resort to seed replacement every 3-4 years and use reliable disease free seeds

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 Crop rotation with wheat, peas, oats, barley, lupin, soybean, sorghum, bajra and green
manures crops in common scab endemic area wherever feasible

 Plant 4 rows of maize, sorghum, bajra around the potato crop field as a barrier crop.

Sowing stages

 Grow varieties/hybrids Kufri Pukhraj, Kufri Gaurav, Kufri Khyati, Kufri Anand, Kufri
Arun, Kufri Badshah, Kufri Chipsona-1, Kufri Sadabahar, Kufri Chipsona 3, Kufri
Pukhraj, Kufri Pushkar, Kufri Surya, Kufri Jyoti, Kufri Girdhari, & Kufri Himalini having
moderate to high degree of resistance to late blight depending on the locality. In
Kenya, varieties Asante (red) and Tigoni (white) are fairly resistant to late blight. Kenya
Baraka, Annet, also have some resistance. CIP is expected to release more resistant

 Grow bacterial wilt resistant cultivars in endemic areas.
 Prefer varieties possessing some resistance to viral diseases like Kenya Baraka, Roslin

Eburu, Feldelslohn, Annet and Dutch Roben wherever feasible.
 Sow between second week of February and first week of March and harvest before

first week of June to avoid bacterial wilt in endemic area i,e adjust sowing dates
 Plant seed tubers at a depth of 10 cm against the traditional planting depth of 6 cm

against potato tuber moth (PTM) adopting optimum spacing and seed rate
 Dip well chitted tubers in effective strain of Bacillus subtilis and shade dry before

planting to manage common scab and black scurf and stem canker / treat seeds with
carboxin 37.5% + thiram 37.5% DS @ 2.5g/kg seed against black scurf
 Use healthy tubers and treat the tubers with boric acid (3% for 30 minutes) before or
after cold storage to take care of black scurf and common scab
 Flood irrigation prior planting to manage cutworm
 Follow high ridging to avoid PTM and late blight tuber infection
 Use phorate 10% CG @ 4 Kg/ acre for aphids in furrow at planting or carbofuran 3%
CG @ 6.64 Kg/ acre for aphids and jassids especially for seed potatoes.

Vegetative, tuber initiation and bulking stage

 Give prophylactic spray with contact fungicides, chlorothalonil 75% WP @ 350-500 g
in 240-320 l of water or copper oxychloride 50% WP @ 1 Kg in 300-400 l of water or
mancozeb 75% [email protected] 600-800 g in 300 l water or propineb 70% WP @ 300 g in 100 l
of water or zineb 75% [email protected] 600- 800 g in 300-400 l of water/acre as soon as the
weather conditions become congenial for late blight.. Use only label claim pesticides.
Keep watch on local weather forecasts and late blight local forecasts for the possible
late blight outbreaks. P infestans sporulate under cool and warm temperature that is
not less than 100 C, and RH > 75% lasting for two consecutive days.

 Apply any of the translaminar/systemic fungicides viz., cyazofamid 34.5% SC @ 80 ml
in 200 l water/acre or dimethomorph 50% [email protected] 400 g in 300 l water or
mandipropamid 23.4% SC @ 0.2 ml/ l in 200- 300 l of water or captan 70% WP +
hexaconazole 5% WP @ 200- 400 g in 200 l of water or cymoxanil 8% + mancozeb 64%
WP @ 600- 800 g in 200-300 l of water or famoxadone 16.6% + cymoxanil 22.1% SC @
200 ml in 200-300 l of water or fenamidone 10% + mancozeb 50% WDG @ 500- 600 g

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in 200 l of water or metalaxyl M 4% + mancozeb 64% WP @ 0.25% or 1 Kg/ acre in
200-400 l water or metalaxyl 8% + mancozeb 64% WP @ 0.25% or 1 Kg/ acre in 400 l
water or metiram 55% + pyraclostrobin 5% WG @ 600-700 g in 200 l water or
azoxystrobin 23% [email protected] ml in 200 l of water or ametoctradin + dimethomorph
20.27% w/w SC at 320 to 400 ml in 200 lit water or metalaxyl M 3.3% + chlorothalonil
33.1% SC at 0.2 % in 200 lit water /acre and repeat depending on late blight severity
and weather conditions
 Rogue off-type and diseased plants showing wilting, mottling, mosaic, crinkle, necrosis
and leaf rolling and symptoms
 Attract cutworm larvae using rice bran and destroy next day
 Spray captan 50% WP @ 1 Kg in 300- 400 l of water or chlorothalonil 75% WP @ 350-
500 g in 240-320 l of water or mancozeb 75% [email protected] 600-800 g in 300 l of water or
propineb 70% WP @ 300 g in 100 l of water or zineb 75% WP @ 600- 800 g in 300-400
l of water/acre and need based application of hexaconazole 2% SC @ 1.2 l in 200 l of
water or captan 70% + hexaconazole 5% WP @ 200- 400 g in 200 l of water/acre to
manage early blight
 Spray neem seed kernel extract (NSKE) @ 4.0 % against sap feeders at low level of
 Spray entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) @ 1 billion nematodes per acre in white
grub / root grub infested fields
 To manage leaf eating caterpillar, release egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum @
20,000/ acre/week four times; spray NSKE 5% against eggs and first instar larva
 Conserve natural predators like coccinellids, syrphids and chrysopids and parasitoids
like Aphidius spp. with judicious use of pesticides
 Irrigate judiciously at the time of tuber initiation to maturity to manage common scab.
 Place yellow traps/blue sticky traps for mass trapping of whiteflies/aphids/ thrips; light
traps for white grub adult beetles
 Spray oxydemeton–methyl 25% EC @ 0.4 l in 200- 400 l of water or thiamethoxam
25% WG @ 40 g in 200 l of water/acre against aphids and dimethoate 30% EC @ 264
ml in 200- 400 l water/acre for managing thrips above ETL
 Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt @ 109 spores/ml) application along ridges against whitegrub
and cutworm on need basis
 Monitor cut worm, PTM and Helicoverpa adult population using 10-12, 20 and 5
pheromone traps/ ha respectively
 Mulch with neem leaves four weeks before harvest reduce tuber moth damage.
 Harvest seed potatoes not later than 8 to 10 days after a critical; aphid build up.


 Treat the seed tubers with boric acid 3% for 30 minutes before cold storage to check
common scab and black scurf.

 Store healthy tubers in cold stores with moth proof structures with 2-3 cm thick layers
of chopped dried leaves of either of Lantana camara or soapnut / neem / Eucalyptus

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Conventional potato seed production in india

Seed plot technique

Pre-requisites of the technique: The soil should be free from quarantine and important
serious soil borne pathogens like wart, cyst nematode, bacterial wilt, black scurf and common
scab etc. There should be a low aphid or aphid free period of 75 days after planting the crop.
The minimum and maximum temperature should be 8 to 28°C during crop season. The
varieties used should have slow rate of degeneration. Additional components are illustrated
in Fig. below

Hot weather cultivation, Cold storage in
crop rotation plains and country

store in hills

Harvest, disinfect and

Healthy Dehaulm the crop
seed before 20 aphids/ 100

Seed plot technique compound leaves

Pre-sprouted seed

Plain-low aphid & soil Regular spray of
borne diseases in fungicides and
autumn Summer-hill

Remove off
type, diseased


Components of seed plot technique

Different stages in seed production Breeder seed

Tuber selection and indexing (Nucleus seed)
Stage –I (1st year)
Stage –II (2nd year)
Stage –III (3rd year)
Stage –IV (4th year)

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FS-I (5th year) Foundation seed
FS-II (6th year)

Certified (7th year) Certified seed
Certified I (8th year)
Certified II (9th year)

Indexing of tubers against contagious and insect transmitted viruses is done by ELISA against
PVX, PVS, PVM, PVA, PVY and PLR is must


Nucleus seed basic Central potato research institute, Shimla
Breeders seed/ Central potato research institute, Shimla + state agricultural
seed universities
Foundation I State departments + National seed corporation + state farm
corporation of India
Foundation II State departments + National seed corporation + state farm
corporation of India
Certified State departments + state seed corporation + cooperative
Certified I and II State departments + progressive seed growers

However, conventional system has limitations of low rate of multiplication, slow process for
development of 100% healthy seed stock and several field multiplications of initial disease-
free material for seven years. The only way-out is augmentation of seed production through
Hi-tech system to improve the quality and to reduce the field exposure. Under hi-tech seed
production system, nucleus planting material shall be produced in the laboratory under
controlled condition. Under this system, sub-systems are microplant based, microtuber based
and aeroponic based seed production system

Arora R.K. 2013. Comparative efficacy of boric acid and pencycuron for management of black
scurf of potato. Potato J. 40: 60-64.

Bhatnagar, A. and Thakur, Y. 2007. Management of thrips (Thrips palmi), a vector on early
potato crop (Solanum tuberosum). Indian J. Agri.Sci. 78:815-17

Bhatnagar, A. 2007. Incidence and succession of thrips, leafhoppers and whitefly in
combination of planting dates and potato varieties. Ann.Pl. Protec. Sci. 15:101-105

34 | P a g e

Narayana Bhat M and B P Singh. 2008. Management late blight hitherto unsolved problem in
potato cultivation. Indian Horticulture. Nov. - Dec. 2008. 32-33
Shahshi Rawat, Chandla V.K, Meena Thakur, Singh, B.P, Chakrabarti S.K and Sanjeev Sharma.
2012. Integrated management of potato pests: A field manual.
Shekhawat G.S, Gadevar A.V and Chakrabarti, S.K. 1999. Bacterial diseases of potato in India.
In: Diseases of Horticultural Crops –Vegetables, Ornamentals and mushroom. Ed. L R Sharma
and R C Sharma. Indus Publishing Co. New Delhi. P. 51-81.
Singh, B.P. and M Narayana Bhat. 2007. Good agricultural practices for the management of
late blight and other potato diseases-A manual For Tripura, Maharashtra and Karnataka.p.6
Singh P.H, V.K. Chandla, S.M.Paul Khurana, I.D. Garg, K.C. Thakur, Sarjeet Singh and S.S.Lal.
2003. Potato cultivation in North Eastern India. Extension Bulletin No. 34 (E). Central Potato
Research Institute Shimla, H.P.

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Nematodes Management in Field and Horticultural crops

Mukesh Sehgal
ICAR - National Research Centre for Integrated Pest Management, New Delhi

India being highly diversified having variety of soil types and climatic conditions which are
suitable for growing of many agricultural and horticultural crops. Field crops like Rice, Maize,
Finger millet, Sorghum, Pigeon pea, Chick pea, Black gram, Green gram, commercial crops like
Tobacco, Sugarcane, Cotton and Horticultural crops like Banana, Citrus, Pomegranate,
Arecanut, coconut, Coffee, Tea, Black pepper, Cardamom, Ginger, Turmeric, Tomato, Chilli,
Brinjal, Bhendi, Cucurbits etc., are majorly growing in different Part of the country.

Several biotic and abiotic factors are limiting the production of these crops. Among diseases,
Fungi, Bacteria, Viruses are already causing severe problems to the farming community.
Added to the agony of farmers, plant parasitic nematodes, of late, have become a major
constraint to the successful crop production both in nursery and main field by inflicting drastic
yield losses and reduction in quality. Majority of the farmers and extension workers are still
unaware of these emerging pathogens. Among plant parasitic nematodes a few genera viz.,
Meloidogyne, Radopholus, Rotylenchus, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Tylenchorynchus,
Heterodera, Globodera, Ditylenchus, Hirshmanniella, Aphelenchus are some of the important

Plant-parasitic nematodes are pests of every food crop worldwide, and cause yield loss in all
crops as well as damage to vegetables making them unmarketable. Plant parasitic nematodes
inflict enormous losses to the farm income by way of reduced yields as well as the quality of
the produce. Further, they have putative role as disease initiators, co-operators, aggravators,
resistant breakers and synergists for many other plant diseases.

In a survey of plant parasitic nematodes India, over 20 host plants with 20 species of
nematodes are listed. Meloidogyne spp. were found on 60% and Helicotylenchus spp. and
Rotylenchulus reniformis on 25% of the host species. Plant parasitic nematodes cause
estimated annual crop losses of $8 billion in United States and $75 billion worldwide. At a
time when malnutrition is still high and food prices are fast increasing, the country is losing
nearly Rs. 5,000 crore worth of nutritious vegetable and fruit crops every year due to
nematode infestation and related diseases associated with soil-borne pathogens. This is only
a conservative assessment as the losses due to nematode infestation and related diseases can
range from 10 to 70 per cent,


The rice is grown under a variety of soils and wide range of rainfall and temperature only
around 44% of the total average is under irrigation while the rest is under the regime of

The ecological conditions suitable for the cultivation of rice crop are very well congenial for
the multiplication of nematodes infecting rice over 200 species of plant parasitic nematodes
have been reported to be associated with rice. The major nematode pests associated with
rice are M. graminicola, and Hirshmanniella spp.

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Rice root-knot nematode, M. graminicola is a pest of international importance to rice around
the world and it is one of the great concerns of yield loss due to nematode infestation in rice
and wheat crops under rice-wheat cropping system. It is a serious problem in the nurseries
and upland rice but has been recently found to be widespread in the deep water and irrigated
rice also, in many states of India . Incidence of root knot nematode was observed during
Kharif 2001 in certain nurseries of 2 major rice growing districts of Shimoga and Mandya .
Outbreak of M. graminicola infestation in Kharif rice has been witnessed in around 800 ha in
Mandya dist. of Karnataka and many part of India like west Bengal, Orissa, Assam, UP,
Himachal Pradesh etc., the emergence of this nematode problem in rice nursery has been

Rice root nematode appeared in devastating form in parts of major rice growing areas of
Shimoga during 2001, which was a first report from Karnataka and subsequent reported from
Mandya district of the state. Preliminary survey carried out in major aerobic paddy growing
areas of Southern Karnataka revealed that Voddaragundi and Hosmavinakere villages, KR Pet
taluk, Mandya, ZAHRS, Navile, Shimoga district, Brahmavar, Udupi Districts recorded the
occurrence of rice root knot nematode .Severe outbreak of root knot nematode is also
observed in Shimoga, Karnataka . Initially it was noticed only in aerobic condition. Since 2010,
it has been observed in anaerobic condition also and appeared in all type of rice cultivating


The symptoms produced due to the infestation of
M. graminicola are manifested in the form of
characteristic terminal hook or typical ring like
spindle or bead/nodule shaped galls (depending
upon hosts) on the roots leading to stunting and
chlorosis of the rice plants in patches within a
nursery or main field and consequently reduced
crop yields


In order to control the spread and to minimise the yield losses, integrated nematode
management technology (INMT) for rice has to be followed, which comprised of use of
resistant varieties: KMP- 179 was found to be resisitant (Ravindra, 2012) and in addition to
this 32 and 45 local cultivars were found to be highly resistant and resistant respectively
against rice root knot nematodes (Ravindra et al., 2013). Soil solarisation of nursery beds for
15 days and application of carbofuran [email protected] 15g/m2 to the nursery for effective management
of root knot nematode (Ravindra, POP 2006, UAS, Bangalore). Raising rice nursery in
cabrofuran (0.3 g a.i/m2) treated beds followed by its field application @ 1 kg a.i./ha 40 days
after transplanting or applying Pseudomonas fluorescence @ 20 g/m2 in soil nursery or seed
treatment of rice with Trichoderma viride @ 4 g/kg seed in nursery (Somashekar et al., 2012).


Vegetables are one of the major groups consumed for daily culinary purposes. Hence, in India
, farmers are cultivating all types of vegetables. These vegetables are growing in controlled

37 | P a g e


condition so as to get higher quality and production. Among these, solanaceous vegetables
are of major importance. Like other crops, it is also affected by numerous microorganisms
and cause serious threat to the yield of vegetables both in field and in green house conditions.
Root knot nematodes are of major constraint for vegetable production especially under green
house conditions. Recent articles in news papers revealed that it is the major constraint that
the famers are facing in present situation and in future also. In addition to the solanaceous it
also affects cowpea, horsegram, cole crops, some cucurbits etc.,

Root knot caused by Meloidogyne incognita causes yield loss up to 30%. Specific estimates of
vegetable crop losses due to Meloidogyne spp. ranged from 17-20% in brinjal, 18 -33% in
melon, 24- 38 % in tomato, 25 % in potato and it also made the plant to susceptible to other
pathogens like fungi and bacteria.


The diseased seedlings are stunted and unthrifty with sparse and shallow root system, severe
infection results in wilting and yellowing of leaves with rim burn ultimately leading to death
of the seedlings. Root galling is the diagnostic symptoms.


Tomato: The combined application of castor leaf aqueous
extract (5 or 10%) and P. lilacinus significantly reduced the root
knot index and increase the yield of tomato. The reduction of
root knot on tomato plants in plots applied with combination
of Glomus fasciculatum and Calotropis amendment. Neem
cake amended soil incorporated with T. harzianum showed
increased plant growth and reduced root galling in tomato,
The integration of G. mosseae with margosa cake significantly
reduced M. incognita populations in soil and reduced root galling.

Capsicum: The combined application of bioagents like V. chlamydosporium and P.
fluorescence or T. harzianum and P. fluorescence was effective in reducing the root knot index
in capsicum plants Pochomia chlamydosporia was significantly more effective in reducing
root gall index @ 50g/m2 in bell pepper and they also observed that the combining application
of Pochomia chlamydosporia and P. flourescence was more effective than the individual

Brinjal: The application of 50g of Pochonia chlamydosporia to the main field can reduce the
root gall index in brinjal and nematode population in soil and the application of same dosage
to the nursery resulted in 59% paracitisation of eggs in the main field. The application of plant
based formulation of T. harzianum to nursery beds of brinjal showed least root knot index
and increase the yield. ). The addition of neem cake extracts (5% and 10 %) mixed with spores
of P.lilacinus applied to the soil was effective in management of M. incognita in egg plant. The
combined application of G.mosseae and P. lilacinus was effective in reducing nematode
populations in brinjal.

Okra: The combined application of castor cake aqueous suspension (10%) and P. lilacinus
significantly reduced the root knot index and increase the yield of okra.

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Several reports indicated that among the chemicals carbofuran @ 1 kg ai/ ha was more
effective in managing M. incognita in different vegetables but recent studies revealed that
the combining application of organic amendments and bioagents was more effective than the
carbofuran application.


Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is an important commercial cash crop grown extensively in
India as a narcotic crop. The Country is ideally suited for growing export quality of FCV
tobacco. It is grown mainly in Mysore, Shimoga, Hassan, Davangere and Chickmagalur
districts. As tobacco is a very succulent plant, it is easily attacked by various insect pests, fungi,
viruses and bacteria. Apart from these problems, it also suffers from the attack of plant
parasitic nematodes, both in the nursery as well as transplanted crops and the yield reduction
being 59.4% and 52.9% respectively.

Root-knot nematodes are widely prevalent on tobacco. Krishnappa (1982) in a review of the
different races of M. incognita, mentioned race 1 to be present throughout India on different
crops, race 2 in Karnataka zone only and race 3 in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. However, NC 95
was found susceptible under Hunsur condition against tobacco isolate of M. incognita, hence,
the isolate is race 2. A latest survey conducted in different tobacco growing districts of
Karnataka, namely, Shimoga, Mysore, Hassan, Davanagere and Chickmagalur from 2003 to
2009 indicated that heavy incidence of root-knot nematode and the average root knot indices
ranged from 3-5 . Tylenchorynchus annulatus was reported in Shimoga area of Karnataka.


The diseased seedlings are stunted and unthrifty with sparse and shallow root system, severe
infection results in wilting and yellowing of leaves with rim burn ultimately leading to death
of the seedlings. Root galling is the diagnostic symptoms.


The efficacy of solarization in enhancing seedling emergence, number of transplants, total
healthy seedlings with decreasing number of weeds and least root-knot index. Further, they
observed 4 weeks of solarization was sufficient. Pongemia cake 30g/plant yielded maximum
green and cured leaf yields while, neem cake @20 g/plant registered least root knot index
observed that application of poultry manure at 10 t/ha is one of the effective, practicable and
economical management practices of the disease. The work carried at main research centre,
Shimoga indicated that due to continuous cropping of rotation crops in the tobacco planted
soils; root-knot infections was seen on some of the rotation crops like sorghum, maize and
chillies .

‘Bhavya’ has been released for commercial cultivation in Karnataka. Subsequently, two root-
knot nematode resistant varieties viz., Thrupthi and Sahyadri were released to farming
community from Shimoga, Karnataka. 32 entries were found to be highly resistant including
Bhavya and Thrupthi which were most popular variety in Karnataka tobacco farmers. A
number of varieties were screened (about 180 germplasm) and found that one germplasm
A-2 x Olor- 655-27-38-39 was found to be immune and rest of the germplasm were under
either resistant or moderately resistant. It was reported that pressmud in combination with

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carbofuran significantly improved the emergence of seedlings and yielded maximum
transplants with reduced root knot index while, neem cake with carbofuran recorded lowest
root-knot index. Soil solarization for 2 weeks along with neem cake resulted in more
production of transplants with reduced root-knot index It was reported that soil solarization
for 4 weeks along with application of poultry manure yielded maximum number of
transplantable seedlings with minimum root-knot index. Further, observed that marigold
leaves along with soil solarization for 2 weeks produced highest number of transplants with
least root knot index. Soil solarization for 2 weeks along with neem cake resulted in more
production of transplants with reduced root-knot index.


Banana is known to adopt very quickly and produce higher yields under favourable conditions.
India has emerged as the largest producer of banana in the world having a share of 97 % of
the total fruit production of country. India is one of the major producer banana grown
extensively. It is however, prone to attack by different pathogens like fungi, bacteria, viruses
and nematodes. Among the production constraints, nematodes constritute one of the major
limiting factors to banana production, causing extensive root damage, resulting in serious
economic losses. Crop losses caused by nematodes to banana are very high, with a average
annual yield losses estimated at about 20% worldwide.

Meloidogyne incognita was found to attack banana roots and has wide distribution in major
banana growing regions of the country and the state. The root knot nematode is highly
pathogenic to poovan banana causing 30.9% yield loss in Tamil Nadu.

Symptoms: Infection of Meloidogyne spp. in banana leads to swelling and galling of banana
roots. Galled roots may crack and rot. Sometimes root tip are invaded and there is little or no
gall formation but, rot tip growth ceases. Infected plants may have much lower number of
secondary and tertiary roots. Above ground symptoms included yellowing and narrowing of
leaves, stunted plant growth and reduced fruit production.

In addition to Meloidogyne spp. other nematodes like Radopholus similis and Pratylenchus
coffee was found to be most devastating in many regions of Karnataka.

The Burrowing nematode, Radopholus similis

Radopholus similis is the most economically important nematode parasites infesting banana
in Karnataka. Its major hosts include banana, coconut, areca nut, black pepper and citrus.
Burrowing nematode infection destroys root tissue, leaving plants with little to no support or
ability to take up water and translocate nutrients.

a. Screening: During the evaluation of popular cultivars of banana against Radopholus similis
‘Yelakki Bale’ was found to be tolerant among several varieties.

b. Interaction: Studies were conducted on the interaction of Radopholus similis and Glomus
fasciculatum in banana and the interaction of G.fasciculatum in the management of
Radopholus similis on Nanjangud Rasabale.

c. Biological management : the utilization of ecofriendly biological agents in the management
of R. similis on banana , the effectiveness of indigenous isolates of Glomus fasciculatum

40 | P a g e


against R.similis on banana , the biomanagement of banana nematodes , and the effect of
different levels of G.fasciculatum, Radopholus similis infecting banana were studied.

d. Integrated management: Integrated management of R. similis and nematode complex on
banana was carried out .

Oil seeds

Oil seeds are one of the important groups of cash crops in Indian agriculture. They are the
most important sources of supply of edible oils in the country. India is blessed with diverse
agro- ecological condition ideally suited for many of the oilseed crops. Karnataka is one of the
major oilseeds producing state in the country accounting for 9.72% of total area under
oilseeds. Karnataka accounts for 50% of the area and production of total sunflower grown in
the country.

There are several factors which contribute for the drastic reduction in yield of oilseed crops.
Among them the unnoticeable and hidden factor is the damage caused by the plant parasitic
nematodes which apart from inciting the disease on their own will also give room for disease
complexes with fungi, bacteria and viruses. In Karnataka, association of different nematodes
with sunflower in 8 different districts. It is also observed that these nematodes are affecting
the groundnut and other oilseeds. There is no much work on these crops hence; there is need
to carryout detailed study of root knot nematodes on oilseeds.

It was indicated the presence of different plant parasitic nematodes in suflower which
indudes Rotylenchulus reniformis, Meloidogyne incognita, Aphelenchus avenae,
Helicotylenchus multicinctus, Tylenchorhynchus dubius, Aphelenchoides sp., Hoplolaimus,
Pratylenchus, Tylenchus and Xiphinema which were present in small numbers and considered
as minor nematodes. However, they reported that among all the nematode
genera, Rotylenchulus reniformis was the most predominant nematode associated with
sunflower in Karnataka. Further it was reported that Aphelenchoides spp., Ditylenchus spp.,
Helicotylenchus retusus, Helicotylenchus sp., Hoplolaimus seinhorsti, Hoplolaimus sp.,
Meloidogyne sp., Pratylenchus coffeae, P. delattrei, P. zeae, Tylenchorhynchus vulgaris and
Tylenchorhynchus spp. Pratylenchus spp. are found associated with ground nut in Northern
Karnataka but, these are of minor importance. Ravindra et al., 2013 observed that out of 71
ground nut germplasm screened against root knot nematode, only 12 and 16 germplasm were
found to be highly resistant and resistant respectively.

Pluses: It was reported Hetereodera cajani was found to be severe in all parts of Northern
Karnataka and it infects most of the pulse crops like, Pigeon pea, cowpea, Black gram,
Soybean etc., Sharma et al., 1992 observed that Heterodera cajani was infective to pigeon
pea in all the areas and they also observed that nematodes genera i.e., Aphelenchoides spp.,
Ditylenchus spp., Helicotylenchus retusus, Helicotylenchus sp., Hoplolaimus seinhorsti,
Hoplolaimus sp., Meloidogyne sp., Pratylenchus coffeae, P. delattrei, P. zeae,
Tylenchorhynchus vulgaris and Tylenchorhynchus spp. Pratylenchus spp. are found associated
with pigeon pea in northern districts of Karnataka.

Cotton: Lingaraju et al., 2012 revealed the presence of plant parasitic nematodes like
Aphelenchus sp., Hoplolaimus sp., Helicotylenchus sp., Pratylenchus sp., Rotylenchulus
reniformis, Tylenchoryhnchus sp., in Bt cotton in northern districts of Karnataka.

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Spices: Many of the spices are suffered by the different nematodes some of the important on
Pratylenchus spp., Radopholus spp., Hemicriconemoids spp. are important nematodes along
with Radopholus similis, Meloidogyne incognita and Trophotylenchulus piperis infecting the
roots of black pepper (Piper nigrum) in Uttara Kannada and Dakshina Kannada, the two major
pepper growing districts in Karnataka, India.

Pomegranate: Meloidogyne associated wilt complex is one of the important disease of
pomegranate. Wilt complex was first reported by Somashekhara and wali (1999) from
Karnataka. Somashekhara (2000) reported this wilt complex is increasing in Karnataka region.
. Management of root knot nematode by soil application of various bio agents Paecilomyces
lilacinus (20g/plant) and Verticillium chlamydosporium (20g/plant) along with carbofuron .

Medicinal plants: It was reported that root knot disease caused by Meloidogyne spp. was
important disease in coleus and combined application of plant products and bioagent was
effective in managing this nematodes.

While conducting extensive survey on rice root-knot nematode in entire Karnataka state apart
from severe incidence of rice root-knot nematode, we are also noticing serious incidence of
root-knot nematode on black pepper, onion, fodder sorghum, sunflower, coffee, jasmine,
ginger, turmeric, cardamom, banana, tobacco and most of the vegetables and simultaneously
we are reporting the same, and we presume that some of them are new reports from


On perusal of the literature cited above, it is clearly evident that infection by root-knot
nematode is universal irrespective of different climatic conditions and soils and a major
limiting factor with respect to yield and quality parameters of different crops cultivated for
various purposes. Other plant parasitic nematodes are Rotylenchulus reniformis, Heterodera
spp., Globodera spp., Pratylenchus spp. Radopholus spp. and Tylenchorhynchus spp. It is
practically impossible to eliminate the nematodes from soils once established, by any single

Some of the guidelines for management of populations are suggested below:

 Soil solarisation of nursery beds for nursery grown crops.
 Eradication of weeds reduces the multiplication of nematode in nurseries and field.
 Farmers should take up stalk and root destruction immediately after final harvests to

reduce the inoculum potential
 Dry tillage in summer reduces the nematode population.
 Deep ploughing by chisel plough is recommended to reduce nematode population

 Rotation of non-host or poor host crops
 Use of resistant varieties.

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 Non-volatile nematicides to

be chosen and employed
when moderate levels of
nematode populations
 Economical dosages of non-
volatile nematicides to be
used in field crop.
 Application of organic
 Application of bioagents like
Paecilomyces, Pochonia

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Nanotechnology and its application in crop protection

Najam Akhtar Shakil
ICAR-Indian Agriculture Research Institute, Division of Agricultural Chemicals, New Delhi

The advent of agrochemicals has increased the production of food substantially. However,
the non-judicious use of these indispensable chemicals has led to serious ecological problems
due to their leaching and volatilization. About 90% of applied agrochemicals never reach their
target in a definite time in the precise quantities. Their impact on surface water and
groundwater is also a major concern along with their potential health hazards to the general

Over the past few decades, there has been considerable interest in developing biodegradable
nanoparticles as effective drug delivery devices. The advantages of using nanoparticles for
drug delivery result from their two main basic properties. First, nanoparticles, because of their
small size, can penetrate through smaller capillaries and are taken up by cells, which allow
efficient drug accumulation at the target sites. Second, the use of biodegradable materials for
nanoparticle preparation allows sustained drug release within the target site over a period of
days or even weeks. The development of Nano particulate delivery systems for targeted drug
delivery has been reviewed recently.

Scientific publications and patents on nanomaterials (NM) used in plant protection or
fertilizer products have exponentially increased since the millennium shift. While the United
States and Germany have published the highest number of patents, Asian countries released
most scientific articles. About 40% of all contributions deal with carbon-based NM followed
by titanium dioxide, silver, silica, and alumina. Nanomaterials come in many diverse forms
(surprisingly often >> 100 nm), from solid doped particles to (often non-persistent) polymer
and oil-water based structures. Nanomaterials serve equally as additives (mostly for
controlled release), or active constituents.

Classes of NM and their intended purpose in agriculture

Generally, the elementary composition of NM in plant protection can be based on carbon
(i.e., carbon nanotubes (CNT), liposomes, organic polymers etc.), metals or metal oxides (i.e.,
silver (Ag), zinc oxide (ZnO)) and metalloids (silica). The frequency of their application
followed the order: lipids/polymers/emulsions > titanium dioxide (TiO2) > silver> silica Note
that the order changed to lipids/polymers/emulsions > TiO2 > ZnO and copper oxide (CuO),
taking into account the patents only. Nanomaterials can be present in formulations as solid
particles or as non-solid structures. The latter can be lipid or polymer (natural or synthetic)
based structures or oil-water (O/W) emulsions.

Non-solid NM

In agriculture (and maybe elsewhere as well), however, the most prominent fraction of NM
is non-solid, comprising nanoscale structures that may for example polymers used
include nanospheres of polybutylcyanoacrylate, polyethylenglycol or polyvinylpyrrolidon.
Other non-solid structures that can be used in thiscontext are liposomes. Liposomes are
spherical bilayer vesicles formed by dispersion of polar lipids in aqueous solvents.
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Liposomes have similarities to the structure of biological membranes, hence they are
highly biocompatible and therefore usually biodegradable. A special form of lipid based
NM are cochleates in which a lipid layer sheet is rolled up in a spiral fashion. Another
example for promising biocompatible substances considered for agricultural use are
chitin derivatives . Chitin is the most abundant natural amino polysaccharide and is,
together with its derivative chitosan, a very prospective molecule for encapsulation

Solid NM

1) Titanium dioxide (TiO2)

2) Silver (Ag) NM

3) Silica (SiO2) NM

4) Aluminum (Al) NM

5) Zinc oxide (ZnO)

6) Copper (Cu) NM

Plant disease diagnostics

The Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approach, widely adopted in agriculture today,
reduces pesticide use on plants and animals by only applying pesticides when needed based
on economic threshold limit. However, continuous monitoring is a time consuming task for
the farmer, and requires a significant degree of expertise to recognize and diagnose
symptoms of problems from insects, fungal, bacterial or viral pathogens, or nutritional stress.

Diseases are one of the major factors in limiting crop productivity. The problem in the disease
management lies with the detection of the exact stage of prevention. Most of the times
pesticides are applied as a precautionary measure that results in residual toxicity and
environmental hazards andn on the other hand application of pesticides after the appearance
of disease lead to some amount of crop yield losses. Among diseases, viral diseases are the
most difficult to control, as one has to stop the spread of the disease by vectors. Nano-based
viral diagnostics, including multiplexed diagnostic kit development, have taken momentum in
order to detect the exact strain of virus and stage of application. Detection and utilization of
biomarkers that accurately indicate disease stages with differential protein production in
both healthy and diseased states lead to the identification of the development of several
proteins during the infection cycle. These nano based diagnostic kits not only increase the
speed of detection but also increase the power of the detection.

Nanocides: pesticides via encapsulation

A more sophisticated approach to formulating nanoscale pesticides involves encapsulation -
packaging the nano-scale active ingredient within a kind of tiny 'envelope' or 'shell'. Both food
ingredients and agrochemicals in microencapsulated form have been on the market for
several decades. According to industry, reformulation of pesticides in microcapsules has
triggered 'revolutionary changes', including the ability to control under what conditions the

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