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Published by , 2017-05-24 20:05:01

Vol2_Main Report_psukpp

Vol2_Main Report_psukpp

Kerajaan Negeri Pulau Pinang

The Proposed Reclamation &
Dredging Works for the Penang
South Reclamation (PSR)
Environmental Impact Assessment
(2nd Schedule) Study
Volume 2: Main Report

April 2017

DR. NIK & ASSOCIATES SDN. BHD.

No. 22 & 24, Jalan Wangsa Delima 6, Seksyen 5, Pusat Bandar Wangsa Maju (KLSC), 53300 Kuala Lumpur
T +603 4145 8888 F +603 4145 8877


The Proposed Reclamation &
Dredging Works for the Penang
South Reclamation (PSR)

Environmental Impact
Assessment (2nd Schedule)
Study

Volume 2: Main Report

April 2017

Prepared by:
DR. NIK & ASSOCIATES SDN. BHD.

No. 22 & 24, Jalan Wangsa Delima 6, Seksyen 5,
Pusat Bandar Wangsa Maju (KLSC), 53300 Kuala Lumpur
T +603 4145 888 F +603 4145 8877


CONTENTS

1 Introduction 1-1
1-1
1.1 General 1-2
1.2 Purpose of EIA Study 1-2
1.3 Objectives of the EIA Study 1-2
1.4 Legal Requirements 1-3
1-3
1.4.1 Environmental Quality Act 1974 (Amendment 2012) 1-4
1.5 EIA Study Approach 1-6
1-12
1.5.1 National Development Planning Framework 1-14
1.5.2 Policies 1-14
1-15
1.5.2.1 Third National Physical Plan (NPP-3) 1-16
1.5.2.2 Penang Structure Plan (RSNPP) 1-16
1.5.2.3 Northern Corridor Economic Region (NCER) 1-20
1.5.2.4 Integrated Shoreline Management Plan (ISMP) Pulau Pinang 1-21
1.5.3 Guidelines 1-21
1.5.4 Engagements with Government Authorities and Agencies 1-22
1.5.5 EIA (Second Schedule) Terms of Reference Approval Conditions 1-24
1.5.6 Other Reports 1-26
1.6 Structure of the EIA Report 1-26
1.7 Project Background 1-26
1.8 Project Location 1-27
1.9 Project Chronology
1.10 Project Initiators
1.10.1 Project Proponent
1.10.2 Project Delivery Partner (PDP)
1.11 EIA and Hydraulic Consultants

2 Terms of Reference

3 Statement of Need 3-1
3-3
3.1 Planning for Penang’s Future Generations 3-5
3.2 The Transformation of Penang - Smart City 3-7
3.3 Human Capital to Drive Penang’s Transformation 3-7
3.4 Economic Transformation of Penang 3-10
3-11
3.4.1 Expansion of the Bayan Lepas Free Industrial Zone (FIZ) 3-11
3.4.2 Diversifying the E&E Sector 3-13
3.4.3 A New Hub to Change Up the Services Sector 3-15
3.4.4 Tourism 3-16
3.5 Relieve Development Pressures on Georgetown 3-17
3.5.1 Why South of Penang Island, Not Penang Mainland? 3-18
3.6 Addressing New Land Scarcity and Preserving Penang’s Hills
3.7 Homes for All Income Levels Served by Well-planned Amenities
3.8 Economic and Employment Benefit

i


Proposed Reclamation & Dredging Works for the Penang South Reclamation (PSR)
Environmental Impact Assessment Study (2ndSchedule)

4 Project Options 4-1
4-1
4.1 Introduction 4-2
4.2 Layout Options
4-4
4.2.1 Option 1: Reclaimed Islands with Foreshore Reclamation for Airport
Extension 4-6
4-8
4.2.2 Option 2: Streamlined Edges of Island A with Foreshore Reclamation
for Airport Extension 4-10
4-10
4.2.3 Option 3: Reduction of Size of Island A with No Foreshore Reclamation
4.2.4 Option 4: Increased Number of Embayed Beaches at the South

Coastlines of Reclaimed Islands
4.3 No Build Option
4.4 Conclusion

5 Project Description 5-1
5-2
5.1 Introduction 5-4
5.1.1 Batu Maung to Tanjung Teluk Tempoyak 5-6
5.1.2 Tanjung Teluk Tempoyak to Tanjung Chut 5-8
5.1.3 Tanjung Chut to Tanjung Bongkok 5-10
5.1.4 Tanjung Bongkok to Tanjung Gertak Sanggul 5-10
5-10
5.2 Project Concept 5-11
5.2.1 Development Vision 5-11
5.2.2 Smart City Concept 5-11
5-13
5.3 Project Components 5-14
5.3.1 Reclamation of Islands A, B and C 5-14
5.3.1.1 Potential Sand Source Locations 5-16
5.3.1.2 Potential Rock Source Locations 5-18
5.3.2 Dredging of Access Channels between Islands 5-20
5.3.2.1 Disposal of Dredged Materials 5-21

5.4 Project Activities and Phasing 5-23
5.4.1 Pre-dredging Phase: Construction of Workers’ Quarters
5.4.2 Dredging to Create Access Channel Phase 5-23
5.4.2.1 Phase 1: Reclamation of Island B and Widening of the Access
Channel 5-23
5.4.2.2 Phase 2: Reclamation of Island A and Widening of the Access 5-25
Channel 5-26
5.4.2.3 Phase 3: Reclamation of Island C and Widening of the Access 5-27
Channel 5-27
5.4.3 Reclamation of Islands A, B and C 5-29
5.4.3.1 Rock Bund Construction and Reclamation 5-30
5.4.3.2 Temporary Sand Bund 5-32
5.4.3.3 Temporary Sand Bund with Geotextile 5-32
5.4.3.4 Silt Curtain 5-33
5.4.3.5 Offloading of Fill Material 5-33
5-33
5.5 Topside Development Land Use 5-33
5.5.1 Industrial 5-33
5.5.2 Residential 5-33
5.5.3 Commercial 5-34
5.5.4 Mixed Development
5.5.5 Institution
5.5.6 Open Space and Parks
5.5.7 Infrastructures
5.5.7.1 Road and Public Transport
5.5.7.2 Water Supply

ii


5.5.7.3 Power Supply Volume 2: Main Report
5.5.7.4 Sewerage System Table of Contents
5.5.7.5 Solid Waste Management
5.5.7.6 Telecommunication 5-34
5.6 Project Implementation Schedule 5-34
5-34
6 Existing Conditions 5-35
5-35
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Existing Physical Environment 6-1
6-1
6.2.1 Land Use 6-1
6.2.1.1 Forest Area 6-4
6.2.1.2 Other Land Use Activities 6-4
6-9
6.2.2 Hydraulic Components 6-9
6.2.2.1 Bathymetry 6-9
6.2.2.2 Water Levels 6-11
6.2.2.3 Currents 6-19
6.2.2.4 Waves 6-23
6-23
6.2.3 Climate and Meteorology 6-23
6.2.3.1 Monthly Rainfall 6-24
6.2.3.2 Flooding Condition 6-26
6-28
6.2.4 Tsunami 6-28
6.2.5 Hydrology and Drainage 6-29
6-29
6.2.5.1 Bayan Lepas Main Drain 6-31
6.2.5.2 Sungai Bayan Lepas 6-31
6.2.5.3 Sungai Batu 6-31
6.2.5.4 Sungai Teluk Kumbar 6-33
6.2.5.5 Sungai Gertak Sanggul 6-33
6.2.6 Geology and Geotechnical 6-38
6.2.6.1 Methodology 6-39
6.2.6.2 Geological Formation 6-42
6.2.6.3 Geotechnical Properties 6-42
6.2.6.4 Reclamation Embankment Stability Analyses 6-55
6.2.7 Water Quality 6-55
6.2.7.1 Methodology 6-55
6.2.7.2 Results 6-57
6.2.7.3 Discussions 6-58
6-59
6.2.7.3.1 Marine Water 6-60
6.2.7.3.2 Estuarine Water 6-60
6.2.8 Sediment Quality 6-60
6.2.8.1 Methodology 6-61
6.2.8.2 Results 6-61
6.2.8.3 Discussions 6-61
6.2.9 Noise 6-62
6.2.9.1 Methodology 6-64
6.2.9.2 Results 6-64
6.2.9.3 Discussions 6-64
6.2.10 Air Quality 6-64
6.2.10.1 Methodology 6-64
6.2.10.2 Results
6.2.10.3 Discussion
6.2.11 Marine Traffic and Navigation
6.2.11.1 Methodology
6.2.11.2 Existing Marine Facilities and Utilization

iii


Proposed Reclamation & Dredging Works for the Penang South Reclamation (PSR)
Environmental Impact Assessment Study (2ndSchedule)

6.2.11.3 Existing Marine Traffic Procedures and Safety Rules 6-69
6.2.12 Land Traffic 6-69
6-71
6.2.12.1 Methodology 6-71
6.2.12.2 Passenger Car Unit (PCU) Conversion Factors 6-71
6.2.12.3 Definition of the Peak Periods 6-71
6.2.12.4 Existing Major Roads 6-73
6.2.12.5 Existing Traffic Volumes 6-74
6.3 Existing Biological Environment 6-74
6.3.1 Terrestrial Biology 6-74
6.3.1.1 Coastal Flora 6-74
6-76
6.3.1.1.1 Methodology 6-76
6.3.1.1.2 Results 6-81
6.3.1.2 Mangrove 6-82
6.3.1.2.1 Methodology 6-90
6.3.1.2.2 Results 6-91
6.3.1.3 Fauna 6-91
6.3.1.3.1 Methodology 6-94
6.3.1.3.2 Results 6-94
6.3.2 Marine Biology 6-94
6.3.2.1 Biological Productivity 6-111
6.3.2.1.1 Phytoplankton and Zooplankton 6-124
6.3.2.1.2 Macrobenthos 6-133
6.3.2.1.3 Coral Reefs 6-151
6.3.2.1.4 Associated Marine Fauna 6-151
6.4 Existing Human Environment 6-152
6.4.1 Overall Socio-economy 6-152
6.4.1.1 Methodology 6-159
6.4.1.2 Sample Size 6-159
6.4.1.3 General Population Perspectives of the Study Area 6-160
6.4.1.3.1 General Population Growth and Distribution 6-161
6.4.1.3.2 General Population Age and Sex Structure 6-162
6.4.1.4 Profile of the Overall Respondents 6-165
6.4.1.5 Socio-economic Background
6.4.1.6 Housing, Ownership and Efficiency of Public Facilities and 6-167
Amenities 6-174
6.4.1.7 Survey Results on Opinions and Perceptions 6-175
6.4.2 Fishing Community in the Study Area 6-177
6.4.2.1 Characteristics of the Fishermen Respondents 6-179
6.4.2.2 Marine Capture Fisheries 6-194
6.4.2.2.1 Overview of Marine Capture Fisheries Industry 6-206
6.4.2.2.2 Survey Findings 6-217
6.4.2.3 Aquaculture Industry at the Study Area 6-225
6.4.2.4 Recreational Fisheries Activity at the Study Area
6.4.3 Feedback from the Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with the Public 6-228
and Fishing Community
6.4.4 Feedback from the Informal Conversation with the Public and Fishing 6-229
Community 6-231
6.4.5 Feedback from the Public Dialogue 6-234
6.5 Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs) 6-234
6.5.1 Physical ESAs 6-234
6.5.1.1 Beaches 6-236
6.5.1.2 Islands 6-239
6.5.1.3 River Outlets 6-240
6.5.1.4 Mudflats 6-240
6.5.2 Biological ESAs
6.5.2.1 Coral Reefs

iv


Volume 2: Main Report
Table of Contents

6.5.3 6.5.2.2 Turtle Landing Areas 6-241
6.5.2.3 Permanent Forest Reserves (PRFs) 6-242
6.5.2.4 Mangroves 6-243
Socio-economic ESAs 6-243
6.5.3.1 Fisheries 6-243
6-243
6.5.3.1.1 Fishermen Population 6-243
6.5.3.1.2 Fish Landing Volume and Value 6-244
6.5.3.1.3 Income 6-245
6.5.3.2 Recreational Fishing 6-246
6.5.3.3 Aquacultures 6-247
6.5.3.4 Hatcheries
7-1
7 Evaluation of Impacts 7-4
7-10
7.1 Introduction 7-10
7.2 Definition and Discussion Impacts 7-12
7.3 Impacts on Hydraulic and Hydrology 7-13
7-13
7.3.1 Model Layout 7-13
7.3.2 Climatic Conditions 7-15
7.3.3 Hydraulic and Hydrology Impact Assessment 7-16
7.3.4 Hydraulic Data Extraction at Sensitive Receptors 7-65
7.3.5 Currents 7-67
7-69
7.3.5.1 Simulation Model 7-69
7.3.5.2 Impact Assessment 7-69
7.3.5.3 Overall Findings for Currents 7-70
7.3.6 Water Levels 7-87
7.3.6.1 Overall Findings for Water Levels 7-88
7.3.7 Waves 7-89
7.3.7.1 Simulation Model 7-89
7.3.7.2 Impact Assessment 7-96
7.3.7.3 Overall Findings for Waves 7-99
7.3.8 Sedimentation and Erosion 7-100
7.3.8.1 Simulation Model 7-100
7.3.8.2 Impact Assessment 7-100
7.3.8.3 Overall Findings for Sedimentation and Erosion 7-125
7.3.9 Sediment Spill Dispersion 7-126
7.3.9.1 Simulation Model 7-126
7.3.9.2 Sediment Spill Budget 7-129
7.3.9.3 Impact Assessment 7-131
7.3.9.4 Overall Findings for Sediment Spill Dispersion 7-135
7.4 Impacts on Water Quality 7-135
7.4.1 Land Reclamation and Dredging 7-136
7.4.2 Disposal of Dredged Material 7-138
7.4.3 Post-reclamation 7-140
7.5 Impacts on Environmentally Sensitive Areas 7-141
7.5.1 Coral Reefs 7-141
7.5.1.1 Land Reclamation and Dredging 7-142
7.5.1.2 Post-reclamation 7-142
7.5.2 Turtle Nesting Area 7-142
7.5.3 Mangrove 7-143
7.5.3.1 Land Reclamation and Dredging
7.5.3.2 Post-reclamation v
7.6 Impacts on Fishing Industry
7.6.1 Hatcheries
7.6.1.1 Land Reclamation and Dredging


Proposed Reclamation & Dredging Works for the Penang South Reclamation (PSR) 7-145
Environmental Impact Assessment Study (2ndSchedule) 7-145
7-146
7.6.1.2 Post-reclamation 7-146
7.6.2 Cage Cultures 7-147
7.6.3 Marine Capture Fisheries 7-147
7-149
7.6.3.1 Loss of Fishing Ground 7-149
7.6.3.2 Loss of Fish Nursery Ground 7-150
7.6.3.3 Fish Landing Points 7-150
7.7 Impacts on Marine Biology 7-150
7.7.1 Land Reclamation and Dredging 7-151
7.7.1.1 Loss of Foreshore Area and Mudflat 7-151
7.7.1.2 Fish Fauna 7-152
7.7.1.3 Plankton 7-152
7.7.1.4 Macrobenthos 7-152
7.7.2 Transportation and Disposal of Material 7-152
7.7.3 Post-reclamation 7-153
7.7.3.1 Loss of Mudflat Area 7-153
7.8 Impacts on the Marine Traffic and Navigation 7-154
7.8.1 Land Reclamation and Dredging 7-154
7.8.2 Transportation and Disposal of Dredged Material 7-156
7.8.2 Post-reclamation 7-156
7.9 Traffic Impact Assessment (TIA) 7-156
7.9.1 Penang South Reclamation Transport Network 7-156
7.9.2 Methodology 7-157
7.9.2.1 Passenger Car Unit (PCU) Conversion Factors 7-158
7.9.2.2 Definition of Peak Period 7-160
7.9.2.3 Forecast of Future Traffic 7-164
7.9.2.4 Scenario Definitions of TIA 7-164
7.9.2.5 Traffic Performance 7-165
7.9.3 Overall Findings for Traffic 7-165
7.10 Noise 7-166
7.10.1 Pre-dredging 7-166
7.10.2 Land Reclamation 7-167
7.11 Air Quality 7-167
7.11.1 Pre-dredging 7-168
7.11.2 Land Reclamation and Dredging 7-168
7.12 Historical Structures 7-169
7.13 Tsunami Impact Assessment 7-172
7.13.1 Tsunami Incident on 26th December 2016 7-176
7.13.2 Tsunami Simulation 7-177
7.13.3 Impact Assessment 7-178
7.13.4 Overall Findings for Tsunami 7-178
7.14 Human Environment and Socio-economy 7-179
7.14.1 Pre-dredging 7-179
7.14.2 Land Reclamation and Dredging 7-179
7.14.2.1 Labour 7-180
7.14.2.2 Livelihood 7-180
7.14.2.3 Tranquility and Aesthetics 7-180
7.14.2.4 Psychological Well-being 7-181
7.14.3 Post-reclamation and Operational Phases 7-182
7.14.3.1 Employment 7-182
7.14.3.2 Income and Revenue 7-182
7.14.3.3 Demography, Housing and Other Services 7-182
7.14.3.4 Socio-cultural
7.14.3.5 Aesthetics
7.15 Viewshed Analysis
7.15.1 Methodology

vi


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