Proposed Reclamation & Dredging Works for the Penang South Reclamation (PSR)
Environmental Impact Assessment (2ndSchedule) Study
Each farm was equipped with motorised boats for transportation of workers and materials to
and from their base on land to the culture site. The boats are also used for the transportation
of fish fry, and harvested fish to be marketed.
The superstructure of the cage farms is made of hardwood, with plastic drums used as
floats. Cages are usually 5 m x 9 m x 5 m in size, though some could be slightly smaller or
bigger. The net cages are made of braided polyethylene and hung from hardwood rafts. The
cages are anchored to prevent them from being swept away by currents.
iv) Production and Value
In 2015, the estimated production from marine cage culture at the study area amounted to
2,438.9 tonnes, with an estimated wholesale value of RM58.776 million or an average of
RM24.10/kg (DOF, 2016 - unpublished). The relatively high price is partly because grouper,
a high value fish, is increasingly being cultured in relation to other species. The average
price for grouper of less than one kilogram each was RM38/kg, while those weighing more
than one kilogram were priced at RM40/kg and could reach a maximum of RM46/kg.
Brackishwater Pond Culture (Shrimp Farming)
Traditional shrimp farming began in Malaysia in the 1930s with the utilization of the trapping
pond culture system, which depends on incoming tides for the supply of wild fry. Successful
larvi-culture of shrimp in the late 1960s led to large-scale seed production and the
establishment of government and private sector shrimp hatcheries in the late 1970s and
early 1980s (Mazuki and Subramaniam, 2005).
i) Size and Locations
Two companies were involved in shrimp farming in study area, i.e. Great Fishore Sdn. Bhd.
and Iyin Cooperation Sdn. Bhd. both of which operated at Sungai Pulau Betung. Great
Fishore Sdn. Bhd. operated a total of nine (9) ponds while Iyin Cooperation Sdn. Bhd. has
ten (10) ponds (T6.103 and F6.156). Both shrimp farms were located close to the coast
within a mangrove forest area. Their locations relative to the proposed reclamation Project
are provided in F6.154 (A2: Sungai Pulau Betung).
Location Sungai Pulau Betung T6.103
No. of culturist 2 Shrimp farming information at the
No. of pond 19 study area
Area (ha) 13
Source: Department of Fisheries,
Commodity cultured Udang Harimau (Penaeus monodon), Penang, 2016 - unpublished
Udang Putih (L. vannamei)
Production (tonnes) 692.32
Wholesale value (RM) 19,601,239.00
Volume 2: Main Report
Chapter 6 | Existing Environment
Brackishwater pond culture at
Sungai Pulau Betung. A-D: Great
G H Fishore Sdn. Bhd., E-F: Iyin
Cooperation Sdn. Bhd.
ii) Productive Assets
The culture of shrimps is mostly carried out in ponds built in coastal low-lying areas. In 2015,
there were 19 excavated ponds with sizes of between 0.5 to 0.7 hectares. Three-phase
electricity outlets were located around the pond walls to enable aerators (paddle wheels) to
be connected by cable. At least three (3) paddle wheels were installed in each pond.
All ponds are installed with small jetties to provide access for monitoring of feed trays and
water quality. There are also stores located within the farm area to keep formulated feed and
other equipment. The administration building and workers’ quarters are also located within
the farm. Transportation of seed, farm materials as well as harvested shrimp is undertaken
by lorries and pick-up trucks.
The man shrimp species cultured were Udang Harimau (P. monodon) and Udang Putih (L.
vannamei). The stocking density was 175,000 fry/pond or 35 fry/m2 for Udang Harimau (P.
monodon) and 700,000 fry/pond or 100 fry/m2 for Udang Putih (L. vannamei). Commonly fry
were stocked early morning around 7:00 am to 9:00 am. The fry were bought from a
hatchery at Sitiawan for Udang Harimau (P. monodon) and Gertak Sanggul Hatchery Sdn.
Bhd. for Udang Putih (L. vannamei). The price of fry (PL) were RM0.04/fry and RM0.014/fry
for P. monodon and P. vannamei respectively.
Frequent change of pond water was carried out at both farms to maintain water quality.
Approximately 40% water exchange was undertaken daily and carried out during high tide.
The process helped to introduce new food organisms into the pond and to stimulate moulting
of shrimp. In stagnant water, decomposition of accumulated organic wastes or depletion of
trace metals would affect shrimp growth.