ues supply of raw material & dispatch of finished steel. To There are mainly two types of cells built with straight web
sheet piles :
achieve cost effective inwards & outwards freight and to take
- Circular cells
current location advantage, they de-cided to go for sea - Diaphragm cells
transport, which is most economical & cost effective mode Essar have chosen Diaphragm cells type for their 1100
M. deep berth construction.
of transport. This infrastructure is provided by Essar Ports,
isisaasUsfsfooullalloolwcwossnstruction sequence for Diaphragm cell structure
who develops, owns and operates ports and terminals, and
¡¡ Pitch the cell, using a template
is India’s second-largest private sector port and terminal
company by capacity and throughput. ¡¡-T4hthe4Tncthheeshlncl ie&fstlhltsi&hoftestoho1nes.ot1nts.etmtepmlaptlaetetotoththiridrdcceellll&&22nndd tteemmppllaatteetoto
rabasdunptrldokiadnfetTteeghxbarpremuonoldwHkirntetatahxeozlp,rifrofmtaohfrintirenfoiaiysamfhclfnieipflneiodtoiesryrhdtsi(mte3oead0pfesocMlitrreooptMennrolosTfptodPirrruruoAoecdc)n,tutiipsoocs.trensTealo.l,tneTeptotcaesa,tllhakllc-enekwtooesceal,coaalac,gtorrhleyeiamelowro,eflfhdsismitsuecouecehnchp-ehis ¡¡-TraTnrsafenrsfloeraldosadlikselikfeenfednedres,rsb,oblolallradr,d,ccrarannee llooaadd,,ssuurrcchhaargrgee
ptroovgeonfotrothbeesbheeetttepr ilfionrgttheechsnitoelo/gys.oTilhcisonsydsittieomnsparonvdenvetory ¡¡-CoCmopmleptleetseupsueprsetrrusctrtuucretuwreowrkosroknscoentcheetcheofcfeorfdfearmdamis fuislly
they wIf othueldy hwaovueldrehqauveiregdoanerofuonrdth4etoco5nyceraetres fsoorlcuotimonp, lethteinyg stafbuillilzyesdta. bilized.
haopveeraatciohniesveeadrlyti&mestasartveinagrnwinhgicthhedirirreecvtelynuceomnvuecrhteedarilnietro Pictures below will provide you overview on installation
imwmhiecdhiamteaincsolomweergebnreearakteiovne.n period. In short, they have procedure.
(cElTaPhCses)ClecoaondsnittnrraugcctEtioonnrg. iAnEcessteiavrriitnyPgr,oPjerocctsurisemaelnetadainndg Construction
66 The Masterbuilder | January 2015 | www.masterbuilder.co.in cocssdytoafccc(cirrsETueaoolmtpchaPcepmncaosispCtmasTtsunpcltca)hy-rrcasiiletinutwctensyey&rocyuay..ilitptlntdcuhicrsnstidltropnaapgitanojgieerenecgebccctEcioesbtriabnoaorrwelnget.dilfizhoafzirEsneaeestst.hsderldsdTrsesfeoeohiaaxrnfr-ii-eronsqmuicnmrvsPucueegmviraatrsb,doeeernasPejddsieenrfsriibnoclenbeosatgeryeclssncuobEcyooifracsrsneoefo4assmnaa40asnntes0kr,resc0tlul,ternfP00hrwuc-aut00sroctdaucioa0ortitptjsntneneoeitodpgdoocrn1&otrCcsco81raoo,t0o8&ncinnwnn,0na0ssgcb,hps0c0ttthiearr00rcauuugobdh0pccDclrreattaiDrtWsiiwoioovoboWcnnTaaintlfeykTl.l Template with two guided levels & Cell assembly
SheetThpisilecsellaurlear pcroefffaerbdraicmatbeedingcoanssterulf-cstuiopnposrotinwg egrahvaitvye
susptrpulcietudrtehist mdoaetsenriaotl irnec-quutirtoedleanngythanscohtohres eorxeacnucthiorn wwaollrk
casynstbeemswtaitrhtetdiewroitdhso.uTthwisacsatinngbeancyontsimtreuc. tTehdeoynhbaevde ruoscekd
yofour cthaisntystpaertofdcroivninsgtruthcteiosen &shueseetdpfiolersanupaltteorn1a.0te/c2e.l0l cMon. -in
clsotcrukcwtiosen.dTirheics tbioen-i.nOgnacsetryaoiguhctowmepb lseetectdiorniv,inhgavaelllpesiles sstehce-n
sttaiortntahlemseodshueluest.pHileenscfoersapneocitahlecra1r.e0 /ne2e.0dMto. inbeatnatkicelnocwkhwiliese
wcitihviol uwtoraknsy, theims qbueadymweanllti.sTrheeadyyaforer theecoopneormatiicoanls.solutions
sfotArruScw5tuo0rr0eksss.trinaThigdeheretewpaerbwesatmeteearlsins, hlyheiegtwthpoirleettsyap-ineAisnngoInfwtrcooedrklulssctabionundilt long
straight web sheet piles :
¡¡eEmss-abredhmaveentc. ThhoesyeanreDeiacponhoramgicmal csoellulstitoynpsefofrowr othrkesirin11d0e0eMp .
wdaeteerps,bheigrthhrceotaninstirnugcwtioonrk. s and long structures. Inside view of the Cell
¡¡ Usual construction sequence for Diaphragm cell structure marineconstructionmagazine.com
ISSUE #3 - 2018 49
MARINE STRUCTURES: SHEET PILES
- Prefabricated & Cut to length provides faster speed of
- Quicker and time bound deliveries, ensures speedier work
and shorten the project duration / time.
¡¡ By tThheisutsoetaol fmaatHeirgiahlewr iSlltebeel sGurpapdliee,dthiney3 cloatsn, ewnhsiuchreaare
sboepttreercdisreivlyeadebsilitgyne&dltehsaset rEstosnanr’asgweo.rCk ewllillcplorsoinggreswsoirnk fiunll
sPwroinggre. ss Adjacent cell assembly work in Progress Filling of
theDceellilvsering 18.5 M & 20.0 M. long sheet piles is big chal-
¡¡lPernegfae.bGriceaneterdall&y foCruat lltoBrleenakgtBhuplkroCvaidregos finasItnedriasp, Meeudmboaf i
isnsatamllaatinionp.ort. But this time ArcelorMittal decided to accept
Cell closing work in Progress DeliBveyrcinhgoo1s8i.n5gMhi&gh2e0r.0sMte.ellognrgadshee, Eest spailrews iisllbhigavcehfaolllleonwgineg
Gmeaadninvearpanotllayrtg.efoBsru:tatllhBisretiamkeBAulrkceCloarrMgiottainl India, Mumbai is a
Adjacent cell assembly work in Progress decided to accept
Filling of the cells th-e cBhaetllteenrgderivtaobidliteyliver these long sheet piles to Hazira
Po-rt. LAersrasnegr itnognntargaensport for oversize consignment is a
Advantages of Using Sheet Piles over concrete diaphragm ch-alleLnegsisnegrteafsfkecintivInedpiaro. jEevcet ncotrsatnsport cost is a major issue.
ADVANTAGES OF USING SHEET PILES OVER CONCRETE AhesthlpAert-cDhcueeeslmliotvoretmMoriieetstrsaa’svsl ecawhrooeerndkoutfrplaferendorisgnaprgneodsrdtscicraeolccsuttsldaaetneliddvettorimymetoa. xHimazairlas,uitppwoilrlt
By cDheoliovesirnygaht iguhnecor nsvteeentl iognraadl ep,orEtsssaarfewsilltheavceusftoollmowerinogn
UsUinsginSgteSetel eSlhSeheetePtilPeisleinssitnesatedaodfocf oconnccreretete, ,ccaan pprrovviiddee adtrvaannstpaogret sco: sts and time
- By the use of a Higher Steel Grade, they can ensure a ¡¡ BettIenradnrivuatsbhileitlyl, for construction of 1100 M. long berth, the
¡¡sLceosspeer otof nsunpapgley includes AS 500 Straight Web Section
better driveability & lesser tonnage.
¡¡-LessPeireeceffsective project cost : 8153 nos.
50 ISSUE #3 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com th---eDecluiLSTvsheteteonirceigemkltsnGheesrrc’sashsdweedourklepdroagnredssca:::lc11Su824l..a553t0mMeGd.mPto maximal support
-DeliIvneteryrloactkuTnecnosniovnentional:p5o5r0t 0sakNfe/sMt.he customer on
transport costs and time
aInndaYn–uJtsuhnecllt,iofonrPciloenss(t1ru2c0°ti)on of 1100 M. long berth, the
sc-opePoiefcseuspply includes AS 50:01S6tr2anigohst. Web Section
¡¡-PiecTehsic kne ss : 8153: n1o2s..5 mm
¡¡-ThicLkennegssth : 12.5 :m2m0.0 M.
¡¡-LenSgttehe l Gr ade : 18.5 :MS. 430 GP
68 The Masterbuilder | January 2015 | www.masterbuilder.co.in ¡¡CStoenecllGusriaodne : S 430 GP
¡¡ InteBrloycuksiTnegnssiotene l shee:t5p5i0le0skoNv/eMr.for concrete diaphragm
anwdalYl,–EsJsuanrchtiaovnePsialeves d(1c2o0n°s)iderable time in berth construction.
¡¡DmPiueuecchetosea thrliise rtiamned sualtviminag:tse1,l6yE2sstsnaaorrtse.cdogueldnesrtaatrint gporertveonpueeramtiounchs
¡¡fTahsictekrn.eCsso nsi dering the:s1e2.f5acmtsm, sheet pile construction is
¡¡hLeignhglythad visa ble for port: c2o0n.0stMru. ction.w
¡¡ Steel Grade : S 430 GP
ByKuirsainngPsutjeaeril wshaes ebtoprnileins Movuemrbfaoirinco19n7c3r.eHteis dBiaacphhelroargdmegwreaell,
Essarinhcaivviel esnagvineedercinognhsiedereracebivleedtifmroeminthbeeSrthhivacjioUnsntirvuecrstiitoyn, .
DueKtoolhtahpiusrti&mMe assatevrins gdse,grEesesainr cMoaurkldetisntgarMt apnoagrtemopenetrafrtoiomns
mucahsfaasMteanr.aCgeomnseindteTrrinaginetheefoser afaMcNtsC, schoemeptapnyil,ebcefoonrestjrouincitniogn
is higAhrlcyelaodrMvisttaabl lien fJoarnp2o0r1t0caosnsatrTueccthionnicanl Sales Manager for
Foundation Solutions. Kiran is now In charge of Technical Ser-
vices division & responsible for Marketing of Foundation Solu-
tions in India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka.
ABOVE, BELOW AND ON THE WATER.
A design-build firm specializing in turnkey marina development and construction.
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marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2018 51
BELOVED FLORIDA MARINA
REOPENS WITH TWO-YEAR
WAITING LIST FOR SLIPS
Naples City Dock joined the masses trading up their aging fixed docks to Unifloat concrete docks.
The city’s decision to switch to floating was influenced by customer request.
Naples, Florida, USA – 26 June 2018 – A popular Naples new facility one of the finest municipal marinas in southwest
landmark is debuting a radical facelift. The sought-after Florida,” remarked Steve Ryder, Bellingham Marine manager
changes created such a buzz among boaters that there of project development.
was a waiting list before the facility even opened.
“The FRP rods are the new standard in the Unifloat
Bellingham Marine, working with Kelly Brothers Marine docks. They are corrosion resistant and require almost zero
Construction and Turrell Hall and Associates, finished maintenance, which our clients appreciate.”
reconstruction in March of this year.
The marina has the same number of slips that it had
“Hurricane Irma caused a delay on the delivery of the in its previous life, though they were built larger to meet
docks,” shared Todd Turrell, principal at Turrell Hall and local demand. Each slip has upgraded electricity with
Associates. “It turned out to be a blessing in disguise for ground fault monitoring, potable water and advanced fire
the project because the docks were spared any possible protection systems.
damage, unlike many other structures in Naples.”
Slips range from 30 feet to 60 feet with an additional 430
The marina, now whole again, boasts the best in modern feet of side-tie space providing moorage for boats up to 120
marina design. A brightly painted dockmaster’s office, feet.
restroom/laundry facility and large gazebo each sit on a
match-cast floating platform. The structures were built to As the world’s leading marina design-build construction
withstand 170mph winds. company, Bellingham Marine specializes in floating dock,
floating platform and floating wave attenuation systems for
“A new high-speed fueling system together with many marinas worldwide. The company also produces dry storage
other improvements, such as FRP thru-rods, has made the systems for the upland storage of boats. n
52 ISSUE #3 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
54 ISSUE #3 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2018 55
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TAPPAN ZEE CRANE FAILURE
“Investigation of the July 19, 2016 Crane Collapse during Pile Driving
for New Tappan Zee Bridge over Hudson River, Rockland County, NY”
On July 19, 2016, at around noontime, a Manitowoc hit by the falling boom. The southbound lanes of the existing
MLC300 crawler crane engaged in driving piles for bridge sustained some structural damage. Traffic on the
the construction of a new bridge suddenly collapsed existing bridge was closed following the incident, and traffic
and fell over the existing Tappan Zee Bridge in New York. was diverted for several hours. Northbound lanes were
The new bridge was being constructed adjacent to the however reopened in the evening, and the southbound
existing bridge. The crane was equipped with the movable lanes were reopened later. There were no serious injuries
counterweight system known as VPC-MAX. Piles were driven reported, although four people were treated for minor
for the construction of a pier for the New Tappan Zee Bridge injuries.
over New York’s Hudson River. The incident occurred on the
Rockland County side. The 256 foot-long boom of the crane The OSHA Regional Administrator, Region II in New York,
fell over the existing bridge (north and southbound lanes of requested the Directorate of Construction (DOC), OSHA
Interstate I-87/I-287), see figure 1. Fortunately no vehicle was National Office, in Washington, D.C. to provide engineering
assistance in its investigation of the incident. There was
View of the fallen crane across the river and existing bridge. considerable media attention to the incident and it was
(Taken from WestchesterNews) the subject of prolonged discussion on TV. One structural
engineer from DOC visited the site to examine the failed
crane and vibratory hammer, and to obtain construction
documents. Two safety compliance officers from the
Tarrytown Area Office were also present during the visit.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT
In 2013, the New York State Thruway Authority began
construction of the New Tappan Zee Bridge, to replace the
existing Tappan Zee Bridge over New York’s Hudson River,
connecting Rockland County and Westchester County in
New York. The existing Tappan Zee Bridge opened in 1955, is
3.1-miles long and carries seven lanes of Interstate I-87/I-287/
NY Thruway traffic.
The replacement Tappan Zee Bridge, is a twin cable-
stayed bridge with separate structure for the westbound
and eastbound bridge. Each bridge structure will have four
lanes for general traffic along with designated bus lanes.
The new bridge is constructed north and close to the existing
bridge. The new bridge is scheduled for completion in 2018.
The project construction cost is approximately $4 billion.
The new bridge is designed and being constructed
by Tappan Zee Constructors, LLC (TZC), a consortium of
companies formed to build the bridge.
The four companies included in the consortium are: Fluor
Corporation, Irving, TX; American Bridge, Coraopolis, PA;
Granite Construction Inc., Watsonville, CA; and Traylor Bros.
Inc., Evansville, IN.
The location map, key plan and project photos are
shown. The new eastbound bridge is between the existing
bridge and the new westbound bridge. The new bridge, 3.1
miles long, has more than 40 piers each for eastbound and
westbound bridges. The crane collapse occurred on the
eastbound bridge in Rockland County while driving a pile
for pier #4EB. The foundation plan for new eastbound bridge
between piers 2B and 5EB are shown below. The pierswere
spaced approximately 350± ft. apart, see figure 9. The deck
for the westbound bridge was already completed in this
The pier 4EB consisted of 14 steel piles of 36” outside
diameter, 1¼” wall thickness and of 50 ksi grade steel. The
piles are numbered 1 to 14. Pile #1 is the southern-most pile;
58 ISSUE #3 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
see figure xx, where the incident occurred. The pile cap was to an approximate tip elevation of -214 feet. The bottom of
designed as cast-in-place concrete 73 feet long, 28 feet the pile cap was -4.25 feet. Given the in-situ soil condition,
wide and 8 feet thick. The pile was designed to be driven both vibratory and hydraulic hammers were selected for the
to 210± ft. below the pile cap. The pile consisted of two pile installation. The bottom section of the pile, 155 feet, was
sections. First, the bottom section, 155 feet long was to be to be driven with a vibratory hammer; then, the top section,
driven and then it was to be spliced to the top section, 75 75 feet long, was to be spliced; and the combined pile was
feet long, and then the combined pile was to be driven to to be driven to the final depth with a hydraulic hammer.
the required depth. To accommodate the 14 piles, a floating
cofferdam was constructed. Initially, all the piles (14 piles, 155 feet long) in pier 4EB were
driven under its self-weight to the bottom of the surface
The TZC pile driving computations for pier 4B assumed muddy layer of the river bed floor, approximately 50 feet
a MLC 300 crane and ICE 66 vibratory hammer. However, from the top of cofferdam. Installation templates were used
TZC decided to use a J&M Model 66 (manufactured by to guide the pile in to position.
J&M Foundation Equipment, LLC. and is believed to be
equivalent to an ICE 66), with 2 adjustable clamps, to drive On the day of the incident, before the driving began, all
the piles at the pier 4EB. Besides J&M 66, TZC had used other the piles were self-standing into the muddy river bed floor. Pile
vibratory hammer models as well in this project. TZC had #1 had been driven approximately 32 feet into the muddy
multiple cranes, as many as 50, at the construction site. TZC river bed floor under its own self weight. The pile installation
decided to use a recently purchased MLC 300 crane with logs indicated that the mud line was measured to be at a
VPC-MAX to drive the piles for the pier 4EB with J&M Model depth of approximately 10 feet below the water line.
66 vibratory hammer. The new MLC 300 crane had driven
fewer than 30 piles since TZC purchased it. MLC 300 was the On the day of the incident, TZC planned to drive the piles
only crane equipped with VPC-MAX at the entire site. in pier 4EB further into the soil with a vibratory hammer. The
piling started around 8 a.m. and pile # 2, 3, and 12 were
DESCRIPTION OF CRANE, GEOTECHNICAL DETAILS, COFFERDAM successfully vibratory driven approximately 120 feet into the
soil. Then the contractor placed the hammer on pile #1 and
AND VIBRATORY HAMMER pile driving continued. In a course of five to six minutes of
The crane that was involved in the incident and collapsed driving the pile, the vibratory hammer came out of the pile.
was a Manitowoc MLC300 crawler crane (S/N 605541) with
VPC-MAX (S/N 605826). The manufacturer provided the Cofferdams were designed as a floating structure in this
crane manual for this investigation. The crane was rigged project. The floating cofferdams were prefabricated at an
with a 256 foot-long boom (B60:500), per drawing 81023382 off-site location. The floating cofferdams consisted of thin
(see Appendix), and a 98-foot M10:503 lattice mast, per shells which were braced with wales and struts. Steel pipe
mast rigging drawing 81025690 (see Appendix). The crane sleeves were installed at the floating structure to guide pile
was equipped with a Series 2 counterweight of 386,000 driving through the bottom of the floating cofferdams. Once
pounds VPC (Variable Position Counterweight).
at the site, the floating cofferdam was lowered into the
At the time of the incident, the radius of the boom was 135 Floating cofferdam Plan and Sections
feet and the capacity was 146,000 pounds per load chart
9432-A (see Appendix).
SOIL CONDITIONS AND PILE DEPTH
Soil borings were performed at the construction site in
April 2012. Test boring log data in the vicinity of pier 4EB were
provided by TZC. Two boring logs, located approximately
150 feet around pier 4EB, the mud line indicated to be seven
feet below the water line. The river bed floor consisted of a
layer of very soft (WR/WH) organic silty clay soils (OH) with
very low or negligible bearing capacities. The soil in this
area was easily penetrated by rods with a zero blow under
the weight of the rods or with the weight of the rods plus
the weight of the hammer. Based on the boring logs, the
organic silty clay was approximately 30 feet deep at one
location and piles could be driven into this layer of very soft
soil under its own self-weight. The sub-surface investigation
indicated medium stiff to very stiff soils consisting of clayey
silt, silty clay and sand for the next 30 feet. Below this level,
there were alternating layers of stiff soils and very soft soils,
until hard rock was reached.
The steel open-end pipe piles were designed to be driven
marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2018 59
Vibratory Hammer recovered from water. components, Vibration suppressor; Vibration case with
(Taken from Thornton Tomasetti inspection report) eccentric weights and hydraulic motors; and Clamp.
Note: One Clamp Missing
Vibration suppressor is on the top of the hammer, which
J&M vibratory hammer 66 serves as an isolated bias weight. It is isolated from oscillation
water to a designated elevation. After the location of the by 12 rubber elastomers and acts as a net downward load
floating cofferdam was secured, the steel pipe piles were helping the driving efficiency by increasing the penetration
placed in the sleeves. The floating cofferdam method used rate of the pile. This driver in the middle consists of six
in this project required the floating cofferdam to be properly counter rotating weights. The horizontal components of the
located and secured with specific horizontal and vertical centrifugal force generated as a result of rotating masses
tolerances. During the pile installation, floating stability cancel each other. As a result, a sinusoidal dynamic vertical
of the coffer dam was to be checked within the specific force is produced on the pile and helps to drive the pile.
tolerances. A 12-foot-long caisson beam with hydraulic clamps was
VIBRATORY HAMMER used to attach the vibrator to the pile at the bottom of the
The vibratory hammer in use was J&M model 66 hydraulic hammer. Hydraulic hoses connected the power unit to the
vibratory Driver/Extractor, manufactured by J&M Foundation hydraulic motors on the vibrator. The above description
Equipment, LLC., with model 800G power unit. J&M used has been taken from the J&M vibratory hammer material
to manufacture vibratory equipment for ICE (International publicly available on the web.
Construction Equipment, Inc.) and were partners till around
2000. Around 2000, J&M split away from ICE and started DESCRIPTION OF THE INCIDENT
manufacturing on their own. Currently J&M is owned by APE The incident occurred on the eastbound bridge, Rockland
(American Piledriving Equipment). J&M model 66 is believed
to be an ICE 66 equivalent vibratory hammer. The principles side, while driving pile #1 for the pier 4EB. Pile #1, 155 feet
of operation of the vibratory hammer are shown in Figure long, 36 inches diameter, was being driven with a vibratory
16 as well. The vibratory hammer consists of three major hammer J&M 66 using Manitowoc MLC300 with VPC-MAX
crane. A schematic sketch with crane, hammer and pile is
shown in figure 17 below.
The crane was stationed on the newly constructed
The crawlers were placed on long wooden cribbing and
were oriented parallel to the new bridge. The centerline of
the south crawler was about 6 ft. from the edge of the new
bridge deck. The crane was operating at a radius of 135 feet
at the time of the incident.
The 155-foot-long pile weighed 73,285 lbs. and the J&M 66
hammer, rigging and hook block weighed 33,933 lbs. Thus
the total load on the crane was 107, 218 lbs. From the load
chart, the capacity of the crane at a radius of 135 ft. was
146,000 lbs. The water depth was 10± ft. and the top of the
cofferdam was 10± above the water.
In pier 4EB, out of the 14 piles, three piles were already
driven. The crew started the pile-driving in the morning. After
completing the three piles, the crew started driving pile #1.
During pile driving and extraction of pile #1, the hammer
got released from the pile, and then the crane collapsed.
The crane fell hitting the upright standing pilings of the
new bridge and fell over the existing bridge. The vibratory
hammer with caisson beam attachment fell into the water.
After the incident, TZC had retained Thornton Tomasetti,
New York, NY as their consultant and Thornton Tomasetti
provided OSHA their inspection report, which included site
photos and videos.
The piles consisted of 36” O.D steel pipe, consisting of upper
and lower sections. The lower section was approximately
155 feet long. The pipe was placed inside a 4 ft. outside
diameter sleeve approximately 20 ft. long. There was an
60 ISSUE #3 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
approximately 5” annular space between the piles and the pile, and drives the pile into the soil in a plumbed manner.
sleeve that provided a maximum tilt of ¼” per foot. In the event that the pile becomes skewed in one or two
orthogonal directions, the crane operator extracts the pile
The pile #1 where the incident occurred was the fourth pile to the extent necessary to re-drive the pile and correct the
of pier 04EB to be driven into the river bed on the day of the pile’s plumbness.
incident. In the morning, piles # 2, 3, and 12 were successfully
driven into the soil using the same set of crane and vibratory A review of the video taken by the on-site surveillance
hammer. There were reports of leaks in the hydraulic hoses camera indicated that the vibratory hammer remained on
connected to the vibratory hammer in the morning of the top of the pile #1 for no more than approximately six minutes
day of the incident. The vibratory hammer was lowered to before the incident occurred. For the first three minutes,
the platform for examination, but no substantial leaks were the pile was driven down into the soil followed by another
detected - although some hoses were observed to be “oily.” three minutes when the pile was being gradually extracted.
Repairs were therefore considered to be unwarranted, Immediately before the incident, the tip of the pile was
though it is believed that the issue of the leak, and the basis approximately at the same elevation as it was when the
and source of earlier reports of the leak, were never fully vibratory hammer was placed in the beginning. The crane
settled. The vibratory hammer, therefore, continued to be operator extracted the pile by the same amount as he
employed to drive the piles without ascertaining the veracity drove it into the soil earlier; after a little pause, there was
a sudden release of the vibratory hammer in a trajectory
Sketch of crane, hammer and pile motion consistent with the boom-up action instead of a
at the time of incident. load-up motion.
of the earlier news of the leaks. It is the industry practice to These six minutes of activity can be seen from the
replace the hoses immediately. surveillance camera frames shown below. More frames from
the surveillance camera are shown in the Appendix.
There are two key participants in driving the piles. First
is the operator of the remote control pendant of the It is not understood why the crane operator suddenly
vibratory hammer, who is stationed on top of the platform. switched from the load-up to boom-up mode. It is suspected
His functions, among other things, are to turn on and off that the pile got stuck either in the sleeve or in the muddy
the vibratory hammer’s engine, and to turn on and off the soil, and the crane operator acted to free it by booming
vibratory hammer’s clamp that provides the grip of the up. With the sudden release of the load, the mast of the
hammer onto the pile. The second key player is the crane crane failed, followed by the boom failure. The sequence
operator, who operates the crane within the parameters of the crane failure shown in the appendix was prepared by
set by the crane manufacturer with respect to radius of Manitowoc, the crane manufacturer.
the boom, and the magnitude of the load comprising the
dead load of the pile, vibratory hammer, rigging, block, etc. The crane was equipped with a data logger. The hook
The crane operator places the vibratory hammer onto the load, mast strap load, boom up/down operation, hoist up/
down operation, and other information are provided in the
data logger. For each second, there are more than ten lines
of entry, and the data logger file provided by Manitowoc
contained more than 398,000 lines of entry. A plot of
approximately five minutes of data, preceding the time at
which the hook load and mast strap load became zero, is
shown in the plot below. The plot is for duration of 4 minutes
and 28 seconds (The data logger time from 7:17:25 AM to
7:21:53 AM). The date and time in the data logger did not
correspond to local date or Eastern Standard Time. The plot
was provided by the crane manufacturer. Selected entries
within the 4 min. 28 sec. duration is shown in the Appendix.
Post-incident examination of the top three feet of the pile
indicated indentations on the south and north tips where
the grip cylinder and the bearing plates of the vibratory
hammer were clamping the pile. The mark on the south side
is a significantly deep groove indentation measuring half the
thickness of the pile wall.
On the north side there are scratching marks, but not deep
gouging as observed on the south side. This appeared to be
consistent with the boom- up action by the crane operator,
as it will exert higher force on the south side compared to
the north side. An additional reason for the deep gouging
marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2018 61
Mark on the north side of pile #1 on the south side of the pipe is the fact that the grip cylinder
had a flat contact surface with the pipe. This caused a
Deep indentation on the south side of pile #1 large concentrated force where the cylinder contacted
the pipe, resulting in permanent deformation of the pipe.
Deep indentation on the south side of pile #1 The vibratory hammer clamp and the removable bearing
plate. The replaceable “Fixed Jaw Plate” part from J&M
62 ISSUE #3 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com manual.
Metallurgical testing on the vibratory hammer, pile ends
and crane were being conducted by LPI, Inc., Consulting
Engineers, under the guidance of Thornton Tomasetti. The
testing was ongoing and their report was not available as
of January 18, 2017. Manitowoc did some non-destructive
testing of the crane, and their report was provided.
1. The collapse of the crane occurred when the crane
operator inadvertently or purposelyraised the boom
(boom-up) in order to further extract the pile during
the plumbing procedure. Minutes earlier, the crane
operator had successfully extracted the pile a few feet
by raising the load (load-up), but it is believed that,
for some unknown reason, he could no longer raise
the pile, and therefore resorted to “boom-up.” The
boom-up suddenly released the vibratory hammer and
resulted in a chain reaction failure of the crane mast
followed by the breakup of the crane boom when it
struck the standing piles on its way down. The boom
eventually fell over the lanes of the existing Tappan Zee
Bridge. This incident had the potential of catastrophic
2. Tappan Zee Bridge Constructors, LLC used a corroded
and damaged bearing plate located against the
clamping cylinder on the vibratory hammer - a deviation
from the standard industry practice.
3. Tappan Zee Bridge Constructors, LLC violated the
generally accepted industry standard (ANSI A10.19)
since the capacity of the crane was significantly lower
than the required capacity of five times the load of the
pile and the vibratory hammer during pile extraction.
However, during the pile driving, the load was within the
4. Tappan Zee Bridge Constructors, LLC proceeded to
use the vibratory hammer without entirely resolving the
issue of the oil leaks in the hydraulic hoses. This issue
was raised at the beginning of the morning shift on the
day of the incident but it persisted to varying degrees
throughout the morning.
5. The bearing plate of the clamp did not contain
jawed teeth as required by the vibratory hammer
6. It is believed that the Tappan Zee Bridge constructors,
LLC operated the vibratory hammer without possessing
its operating manual. Tappan Zee Bridge Constructors,
LLC could not produce the manual to OSHA in spite of
repeated requests from OSHA. n
We are looking
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Phone: 800-544-0735 • Fax: 772-461-2298
Email: [email protected] Website: www.hi-tide.com
marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2018 63
64 ISSUE #3 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2018 65
MOORING FAILURES AND
WHAT TO DO ABOUT THEM
Courtesy of InterMoor, Inc. 900 Threadneedle St. Suite 300,
Houston, TX. 77079 - Phone: 1-832-399-5000
Written by: Kent Longridge, Chief Engineer
Email: [email protected] Website: www.intermoor.com
“InterMoor, Inc. – Your Global Mooring Services and Equipment Provider”
Mooring failures are one of the most critical events in conditions can help identify and evaluate critical
offshore asset integrity. Between 2001-2011, there / high risk components and generate strength and
were 23 mooring failures detected on offshore fatigue life expectancy estimates.
assets. Fatigue and corrosion are the most frequent causes
of failure. Failure and premature replacement are costly and ¡¡ Are prepared to take necessary actions to maintain
force operators to ask questions, such as: production if they:
• Develop mooring repair procedures for readily
¡¡ How can we avoid mooring line failure and premature available or spot market installation vessels (e.g.,
mooring replacements? Anchor Handler Vessels, Construction Support Vessels,
¡¡ How do we ensure we stay compliant throughout the life • Identify long lead items, capable installation vessels,
of the asset? installation aid requirements, staging and mobilization
locations, import and export restrictions, etc.
¡¡ How should we manage the mooring system so that it’s • Develop and Sparing Philosophy and Plan to procure,
still compliant if we want to extend the life of the asset? fabricate, store, and maintain spare mooring
components needed to repair or replace failed
¡¡ Should we increase the frequency of inspection? moorings.
To answer these questions, maintain production from ¡¡ Take action to document as-built / baseline inspection
existing facilities and manage new developments more information and maintain, repair, and replace moorings:
efficiently, operators need to develop a Mooring Integrity • Plan and allocate the right personnel to properly
Management Plan. An MIM plan means that the operators: perform inspection, maintenance and repair work
• Stage and mobilize inspection equipment and / or
¡¡ Know the present & future status of their assets through spare components for offshore operations
inspections and monitoring: • Implement the Mooring Repair Plan that is already in
• Regular inspections show weakened / damaged place if necessary
mooring components and inspection measurements
can be used to estimate corrosion, abrasion, and ¡¡ Provide evidence of good IM practices and data
wear rates. management to satisfy safety and insurance
• Analytical modeling and simulations based on known requirements for on-going production operations and
metocean environments and anticipated loading earn life extension approval from regulatory bodies:
• Provide baseline / as-built information and equipment
• Demonstrate a well-planned and documented
inspection and maintenance plan
• Provide results and findings from regular maintenance
and inspection work
• Estimate degradation rates (e.g., corrosion, abrasion,
wear, etc.) based on base-line and regular inspection
• Identification of any critical / high-risk components that
should be monitored or measured more frequently
• Demonstrate preparedness for mooring system
damage or failure
• Provide estimates of remaining strength and fatigue
Mooring failures are not inevitable. A detailed mooring
integrity management plan can help identify potential
maintenance needs, make necessary inspection schedule
recommendations, and enable an operators’ preparedness to
ultimately reduce costs from any unforeseen circumstances.n
66 ISSUE #3 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2018 67
NEWS 225 Tons of
RELEASE Used Steel Sheet Pile
Offered for Sale
PS 27.5 and PS 31 in 18’ to 23’ Lengths I Uncoated
F.O.B. Kaukauna, Wisconsin I Available in September-2013
Elizabeth City Bridge in North Carolina
ELIZABETH CITY BRIDGE runs over the Pasquotank River but reasonable for the application and intended service
in Elizabeth City and is an important connection for the life of the fendering system. This PE thickness and the
area. 50 t of ShibataFenderTeam UHMW-PE Sliding Plates required minimum length is a general challenge for PE
protect the piers of the bridge since fall 2013. That portion manufacturers. Usually these thicknesses are only available
of the river, connecting Elizabeth City with the neighboring in shorter length due to the available press formats. With
county, is mainly used by smaller leisure boats sailing up the our German production site, however, we were able to
river. The fender system includes the typical pile cluster and meet the requirements of the client on time and in budget.
wonalteimr beridtogefitfewnitdhetrhinegindsetasigllant.ioThnescfehneddeuLrlseuwnoedfraethdeCepolivrnoesjeretcrdtu @cdvtlaiuuEoleulinnzetaodabCalisemosctehmiottenBwpdrsaiadbtsngrriadeyungciseimtksiipconordnorts.oascfinnoatgmpltihfroeejleinricevtetfroo. PrcroooutnernUcetSicnotgftfihtcheeis.ahriegah
and were installed by our lo9n2g0t-e7rm8 8c-l5ie2n3t 8ArcIhet hr Wo fefsmtearnn
We are glad that the UHMW-PE Sliding Plates are
for the final client, the DOT of North Carolina. successfully in operation for the fifth consecutive year. n
The UHMW-PE thickness of 152 mm (6”) was unusual
JUNE 2013 I I 45w w w. m a r i n e c o n s t r u c t i o n m a g a z i n e . c o m
68 ISSUE #3 - 2018
Short Auger Marine Pre-Drilling
301-662-6552 www.revdrill.com 1-877-41-DRILL
Sales Tooling Rentals Training Consulting
Drill & Excavatmoarrineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2018 69
Coastal Pile Cutters International, Inc.
Constractors are always looking for ways to cut cost and finish their project on time and within
Budget. View our website and see how we can cut days even weeks out of your bridge, dock and
pier removal projects. Cutting piling, pile caps, and tie beams above and below the water line
without the need for divers makes quick work of your removal process. Time is money.
Let Coastal Pile Cutters International, Inc show you how we can improve your bottom line.
Positioning the shears in the vertical position to cut Once a tie beam is cut the final cut is made at mud
the tie beams. line to remove the piling and half of the tie beams.
Coastal Pile Cutters International, Inc. looks forward to bidding on your next bridge,
dock, or pier removal project. Pricing depends on size and quantity of the pilings.
There is no project to big or to small.
Coastal Pile Cutters International, Inc. We are the
Contact: James Todack, Operations Manager Pile Cutting
Email: [email protected]
70 ISSUE #3 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2018 71
72 ISSUE #3 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
Flange Web Pile Wall Section Moment
Width Height Thickness Thickness Weight Weight Modulus of Inertia
Section in in lb/ft2
lb/ft in3/ft in4/ft
NZ 14 30.31 13.39 0.375 0.375 55 21.77 25.65 171.7
NZ 19 27.56 16.14 0.375 0.375 55 24.05 35.08 283.1
NZ 20 27.56 16.16 0.394 0.394 57 24.82 36.24 292.8
NZ 21 27.56 16.20 0.433 0.433 61 26.56 38.69 313.4
NZ 26 27.56 17.32 0.500 0.500 71 30.99 48.50 419.9
NZ 28 27.56 17.38 0.560 0.560 78 33.96 52.62 457.4
NZ 38 27.56 19.69 0.689 0.500 86 37.45 70.84 697.3
As a premier steel foundation supplier now offering NZ sheets in addition to our
extensive product line, Skyline Steel is the ideal partner for your next project.
Visit www.skylinesteel.com/nz or call 888.450.4330.
73© 2018 Skyline Steel, LLC. Skyline Steel is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Nucomr Caorrpionraetiocno, thneslatrrguesct ptrioodnucmer oaf gsteaelzininthee .Ucniotemd St ates. ISSUE #3 - 2018
IN MARINE CONSTRUCTION
The ability to handle materials, whether it be piling, upon the size and type of load and the environmental
marine timbers or sectional barges is critical on conditions of the workplace. All slings must be visually
any jobsite. After all, materials must be moved. In inspected before use to ensure that there is no obvious
short, without materials-handling capability, the marine damage.
construction industry would cease to exist.
A well-trained operator can prolong the service life of
All employees in marine construction take part in materials equipment and reduce costs by avoiding the potentially
handling, to varying degrees. As a result, some employees hazardous effects of overloading equipment, operating
are injured. In fact, the mishandling of materials is the single it at excessive speeds, taking up slack with a sudden jerk,
largest cause of accidents and injuries in the workplace. and suddenly accelerating or decelerating equipment. The
Most of these accidents and injuries, as well as the pain and operator can look for causes and seek corrections whenever
loss of salary and productivity that often result, can be readily a danger exists. He or she should cooperate with co-workers
avoided. Whenever possible, mechanical means should be and supervisors and become a leader in carrying out safety
used to move materials in order to avoid employee injuries measures - not merely for the good of the equipment and
such as muscle pulls, strains, and sprains. In addition, many the production schedule, but, more importantly, for the
loads are too heavy and/or bulky to be safely moved safety of everyone concerned.
manually. Therefore, various types of equipment have been
designed specifically to aid in the movement of materials. SLING TYPES
They include: cranes, derricks, hoists, powered industrial
trucks, and more. The dominant characteristics of a sling are determined
by the components of that sling. For example, the strengths
Because cranes, derricks, and hoists rely upon slings to and weaknesses of a wire rope sling are essentially the same
hold their suspended loads, slings are the most commonly as the strengths and weaknesses of the wire rope of which
used piece of materials-handling apparatus. This discussion it is made.
will offer information on the proper selection, maintenance,
and use of slings. Slings are generally one of six types: chain, wire rope,
metal mesh, natural fiber rope, synthetic fiber rope, or
IMPORTANCE OF THE OPERATOR synthetic web. In general, use and inspection procedures
The operator must exercise intelligence, care, and tend to place these slings into three groups: chain, wire
rope and mesh, and fiber rope web. Each type has its own
common sense in the selection and use of slings. Slings must particular advantages and disadvantages. Factors that
be selected in accordance with their intended use, based should be taken into consideration when choosing the best
sling for the job include the size, weight, shape, temperature,
and sensitivity of the material to be moved, as well as the
environmental conditions under which the sling will be used.
Chains are commonly used because of their strength and
ability to adapt to the shape of the load. Care should be
taken, however, when using alloy chain slings because they
are subject to damage by sudden shocks. Misuse of chain
slings could damage the sling, resulting in sling failure and
possible injury to an employee.
Chain slings are your best choice for lifting materials that
are very hot. They can be heated to temperatures of up
to 1000oF; however, when alloy chain slings are consistently
exposed to service temperatures in excess of 600oF, operators
must reduce the working load limits in accordance with the
All sling types must be visually inspected prior to use. When
inspecting alloy steel chain slings, pay special attention to
any stretching, wear in excess of the allowances made
by the manufacturer, and nicks and gouges. These are
all indications that the sling may be unsafe and is to be
removed from service.
A second type of sling is made of wire rope. Wire rope is
composed of individual wires that have been twisted to form
74 ISSUE #3 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
strands. The strands are then twisted to form a wire rope. surface per wire than regular lay ropes. In addition, since the
When wire rope has a fiber core, it is usually more flexible outside wires in lang lay ropes lie at an angle to the rope
but is less resistant to environmental damage. Conversely, axis, internal stress due to bending over sheaves and drums
a core that is made of a wire rope strand tends to have is reduced causing lang lay ropes to be more resistant to
greater strength and is more resistant to heat damage. bending fatigue.
ROPE LAY A left lay rope is one in which the strands form a left-hand
Wire rope may be further defined by the “lay.” The lay of helix similar to the threads of a left-hand screw thread. Left
lay rope has its greatest usage in oil fields on rod and tubing
a wire rope can mean any of three things: lines, blast hole rigs, and spudders where rotation of right
lay would loosen couplings. The rotation of a left lay rope
1. One complete wrap of a strand around the core: One tightens a standard coupling.
rope lay is one complete wrap of a strand around the
core. See figure below. WIRE ROPE SLING SELECTION
When selecting a wire rope sling to give the best service,
2. The direction the strands are wound around the core:
Wire rope is referred to as right lay or left lay. A right lay there are four characteristics to consider: strength, ability to
rope is one in which the strands are wound in a right- bend without distortion, ability to withstand abrasive wear,
hand direction like a conventional screw thread (see and ability to withstand abuse.
figure below). A left lay rope is just the opposite.
1. Strength - The strength of a wire rope is a function of
3. The direction the wires are wound in the strands in its size, grade, and construction. It must be sufficient to
relation to the direction of the strands around the core: accommodate the maximum load that will be applied.
In regular lay rope, the wires in the strands are laid in The maximum load limit is determined by means of an
one direction while the strands in the rope are laid in the appropriate multiplier. This multiplier is the number by
opposite direction. In lang lay rope, the wires are twisted which the ultimate strength of a wire rope is divided to
in the same direction as the strands. See figure below. determine the working load limit. Thus a wire rope sling
with a strength of 10,000 pounds and a total working
In regular lay ropes, the wires in the strands are laid in load of 2,000 pounds has a design factor (multiplier)
one direction, while the strands in the rope are laid in the of 5. New wire rope slings have a design factor of 5.
opposite direction. The result is that the wire crown runs As a sling suffers from the rigors of continued service,
approximately parallel to the longitudinal axis of the rope. however, both the design factor and the sling’s ultimate
These ropes have good resistance to kinking and twisting strength are proportionately reduced. If a sling is loaded
and are easy to handle. They are also able to withstand beyond its ultimate strength, it will fail. For this reason,
considerable crushing and distortion due to the short length older slings must be more rigorously inspected to ensure
of exposed wires. This type of rope has the widest range of that rope conditions adversely affecting the strength of
applications. the sling are considered in determining whether or not a
wire rope sling should be allowed to continue in service.
Lang lay (where the wires are twisted in the same direction
as the strands) is recommended for many excavating, 2. Fatigue - A wire rope must have the ability to withstand
construction, and mining applications, including draglines, repeated bending without the failure of the wires from
hoist lines, dredge lines, and other similar lines. fatigue. Fatigue failure of the wires in a wire rope is
the result of the development of small cracks under
Lang lay ropes are more flexible and have greater wearing repeated applications of bending loads. It occurs
when ropes make small radius bends. The best means
of preventing fatigue failure of wire rope slings is to use
blocking or padding to increase the radius of the bend.
3. Abrasive Wear - The ability of a wire rope to withstand
abrasion is determined by the size, number of wires,
and construction of the rope. Smaller wires bend more
readily and therefore offer greater flexibility but are less
able to withstand abrasive wear. Conversely, the larger
wires of less flexible ropes are better able to withstand
abrasion than smaller wires of the more flexible ropes.
4. Abuse - All other factors being equal, misuse or abuse of
wire rope will cause a wire rope sling to become unsafe
long before any other factor. Abusing a wire rope sling
can cause serious structural damage to the wire rope,
such as kinking or bird caging which reduces the strength
marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2018 75
of the wire rope. (In bird caging, the wire rope strands safety by showing early signs of failure. Factors requiring that
are forcibly untwisted and become spread outward.) a wire sling be discarded include the following:
Therefore, in order to prolong the life of the sling and
protect the lives of employees, the manufacturer’s ¡¡ Severe corrosion,
suggestion for safe and proper use of wire rope slings
must be strictly adhered to. ¡¡ Localized wear (shiny worn spots) on the outside,
Wire Rope Life. Many operating conditions affect wire ¡¡ A one-third reduction in outer wire diameter,
rope life. They are bending, stresses, loading conditions,
speed of load application (jerking), abrasion, corrosion, sling ¡¡ Damage or displacement of end fittings - hooks, rings,
design, materials handled, environmental conditions, and links, or collars - by overload or misapplication,
history of previous usage.
¡¡ Distortion, kinking, bird caging, or other evidence of
In addition to the above operating conditions, the weight, damage to the wire rope structure, or
size, and shape of the loads to be handled also affect the
service life of a wire rope sling. Flexibility is also a factor. ¡¡ Excessive broken wires.
Generally, more flexible ropes are selected when smaller
radius bending is required. Less flexible ropes should be FIBER ROPE AND SYNTHETIC WEB
used when the rope must move through or over abrasive Fiber rope and synthetic web slings are used primarily for
temporary work, such as construction and painting jobs,
Wire Rope Sling Inspection. Wire rope slings must be visually and in marine operations. They are also the best choice for
inspected before each use. The operator should check the use on expensive loads, highly finished parts, fragile parts,
twists or lay of the sling. If ten randomly distributed wires in and delicate equipment.
one lay are broken, or five wires in one strand of a rope lay
are damaged, the sling must not be used. It is not sufficient, FIBER ROPE
however, to check only the condition of the wire rope. End Fiber rope slings are preferred for some applications
fittings and other components should also be inspected for
any damage that could make the sling unsafe. because they are pliant, they grip the load well and they
do not mar the surface of the load. They should be used
To ensure safe sling usage between scheduled inspections, only on light loads, however, and must not be used on
all workers must participate in a safety awareness program. objects that have sharp edges capable of cutting the rope
Each operator must keep a close watch on those slings he or in applications where the sling will be exposed to high
or she is using. If any accident involving the movement of temperatures, severe abrasion or acids.
materials occurs, the operator must immediately shut down
the equipment and report the accident to a supervisor. The The choice of rope type and size will depend upon the
cause of the accident must be determined and corrected application, the weight to be lifted and the sling angle.
before resuming operations. Before lifting any load with a fiber rope sling be sure to
inspect the sling carefully because they deteriorate far more
Field Lubrication. Although every rope sling is lubricated rapidly than wire rope slings and their actual strength is very
during manufacture, to lengthen its useful service life it difficult to estimate.
must also be lubricated “in the field.” There is no set rule on
how much or how often this should be done. It depends on When inspecting a fiber rope sling prior to using it, look first
the conditions under which the sling is used. The heavier at its surface. Look for dry, brittle, scorched, or discolored
the loads, the greater the number of bends, or the more fibers. If any of these conditions are found, the supervisor
adverse the conditions under which the sling operates, the must be notified and a determination made regarding the
more frequently lubrication will be required. safety of the sling. If the sling is found to be unsafe, it must
Storage. Wire rope slings should be stored in a well
ventilated, dry building or shed. Never store them on
the ground or allow them to be continuously exposed to
the elements because this will make them vulnerable to
corrosion and rust. And, if it is necessary to store wire rope
slings outside, make sure that they are set off the ground
Note: Using the sling several times a week, even at a light
load, is a good practice. Records show that slings that are
used frequently or continuously give useful service far longer
than those that are idle.
Discarding Slings. Wire rope slings can provide a margin of
76 ISSUE #3 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
be discarded. SAFE LIFTING PRACTICES
Next, check the interior of the sling. It should be as clean as Now that the sling has been selected (based upon the
when the rope was new. A build-up of powder-like sawdust characteristics of the load and the environmental conditions
on the inside of the fiber rope indicates excessive internal surrounding the lift) and inspected prior to use, the next step
wear and is an indication that the sling is unsafe. is learning how to use it safely. There are four primary factors
to take into consideration when safely lifting a load. They
Finally, scratch the fibers with a fingernail. If the fibers are (1) the size, weight, and center of gravity of the load; (2)
come apart easily, the fiber sling has suffered some kind of the number of legs and the angle the sling makes with the
chemical damage and must be discarded. horizontal line; (3) the rated capacity of the sling; and (4) the
history of the care and usage of the sling.
SYNTHETIC WEB SLINGS
Synthetic web slings offer a number of advantages for SIZE, WEIGHT, AND CENTER OF GRAVITY OF THE LOAD
The center of gravity of an object is that point at which the
rigging purposes. The most commonly used synthetic web
slings are made of nylon, dacron, and polyester. They have entire weight may be considered as concentrated. In order
the following properties in common: to make a level lift, the crane hook must be directly above
this point. While slight variations are usually permissible, if the
¡¡ Strength - can handle load of up to 300,000 lbs. crane hook is too far to one side of the center of gravity,
dangerous tilting will result causing unequal stresses in the
¡¡ Convenience - can conform to any shape. different sling legs. This imbalance must be compensated
for at once.
¡¡ Safety - will adjust to the load contour and hold it with a
tight, non-slip grip. NUMBER OF LEGS AND ANGLE WITH THE HORIZONTAL
As the angle formed by the sling leg and the horizontal line
¡¡ Load protection - will not mar, deface, or scratch highly
polished or delicate surfaces. decreases, the rated capacity of the sling also decreases.
In other words, the smaller the angle between the sling leg
¡¡ Long life - are unaffected by mildew, rot, or bacteria; and the horizontal, the greater the stress on the sling leg and
resist some chemical action; and have excellent abrasion the smaller (lighter) the load the sling can safely support.
resistance. Larger (heavier) loads can be safely moved if the weight of
the load is distributed among more sling legs.
¡¡ Economy - have low initial cost plus long service life.
RATED CAPACITY OF THE SLING
¡¡ Shock absorbency - can absorb heavy shocks without The rated capacity of a sling varies depending upon
the type of sling, the size of the sling, and the type of hitch.
¡¡ Temperature resistance - are unaffected by temperatures Operators must know the capacity of the sling. Charts or
up to 180oF.
Each synthetic material has its own unique properties.
Nylon must be used wherever alkaline or greasy conditions
exist. It is also preferable when neutral conditions prevail
and when resistance to chemicals and solvents is important.
Dacron must be used where high concentrations of acid
solutions - such as sulfuric, hydrochloric, nitric, and formic
acids - and where high-temperature bleach solutions are
prevalent. (Nylon will deteriorate under these conditions.)
Do not use dacron in alkaline conditions because it will
deteriorate; use nylon or polypropylene instead. Polyester
must be used where acids or bleaching agents are present
and is also ideal for applications where a minimum of
stretching is important.
Possible Defects. Synthetic web slings must be removed
from service if any of the following defects exist:
¡¡ Acid or caustic burns,
¡¡ Melting or charring of any part of the surface,
¡¡ Snags, punctures, tears, or cuts,
¡¡ Broken or worn stitches,
¡¡ Wear or elongation exceeding the amount recommended
by the manufacturer, or
¡¡ Distortion of fittings.
marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2018 77
tables that contain this information generally are available to hang it on a rack or wall.
from sling manufacturers. The values given are for new slings.
Older slings must be used with additional caution. Under no Remember, damaged slings cannot lift as much as new or
circumstances shall a sling’s rated capacity be exceeded. well-cared for older slings. Safe and proper use and storage
of slings will increase their service life.
HISTORY OF CARE AND USAGE
The mishandling and misuse of slings are the leading causes MAINTENANCE OF SLINGS
of accidents involving their use. The majority of injuries and CHAINS
accidents, however, can be avoided by becoming familiar Chain slings must be cleaned prior to each inspection, as
with the essentials of proper sling care and usage.
dirt or oil may hide damage. The operator must be certain to
Proper care and usage are essential for maximum service inspect the total length of the sling, periodically looking for
and safety. Slings must be protected from sharp bends and stretching, binding, wear, or nicks and gouges. If a sling has
cutting edges by means of cover saddles, burlap padding, stretched so that it is now more than three percent longer
or wood blocking, as well as from unsafe lifting procedures than it was when new, it is unsafe and must be discarded.
such as overloading.
Binding is the term used to describe the condition that
Before making a lift, check to be certain that the sling is exists when a sling has become deformed to the extent that
properly secured around the load and that the weight and its individual links cannot move within each other freely. It is
balance of the load have been accurately determined. If also an indication that the sling is unsafe. Generally, wear
the load is on the ground, do not allow the load to drag occurs on the load-bearing inside ends of the links. Pushing
along the ground. This could damage the sling. If the load links together so that the inside surface becomes clearly
is already resting on the sling, ensure that there is no sling visible is the best way to check for this type of wear. Wear
damage prior to making the lift. may also occur, however, on the outside of links when the
chain is dragged along abrasive surfaces or pulled out from
Next, position the hook directly over the load and seat the under heavy loads. Either type of wear weakens slings and
sling squarely within the hook bowl. This gives the operator makes accidents more likely.
maximum lifting efficiency without bending the hook or
over-stressing the sling. Heavy nicks and/or gouges must be filed smooth, measured
with calipers, then compared with the manufacturer’s
Wire rope slings are also subject to damage resulting from minimum allowable safe dimensions. When in doubt, or in
contact with sharp edges of the loads being lifted. These borderline situations, do not use the sling. In addition, never
edges can be blocked or padded to minimize damage to attempt to repair the welded components on a sling. If
the sling. the sling needs repair of this nature, the supervisor must be
After the sling is properly attached to the load, there are
a number of good lifting techniques that are common to all WIRE ROPE
slings: Wire rope slings, like chain slings, must be cleaned prior to
¡¡ Make sure that the load is not lagged, clamped, or bolted each inspection because they are also subject to damage
to the floor. hidden by dirt or oil. In addition, they must be lubricated
according to manufacturer’s instructions. Lubrication
¡¡ Guard against shock loading by taking up the slack in
the sling slowly. Apply power cautiously so as to prevent
jerking at the beginning of the lift, and accelerate or
¡¡ Check the tension on the sling. Raise the load a few
inches, stop, and check for proper balance and that all
items are clear of the path of travel. Never allow anyone
to ride on the hood or load.
¡¡ Keep all personnel clear while the load is being raised,
moved, or lowered. Crane or hoist operators should watch
the load at all times when it is in motion.
¡¡ Finally, obey the following “never:”
Never allow more than one person to control a lift or
give signals to a crane or hoist operator except to warn
of a hazardous situation. Never raise the load more than
necessary. Never leave the load suspended in the air. Never
work under a suspended load or allow anyone else to.
Once the lift has been completed, clean the sling, check
it for damage, and store it in a clean, dry airy place. It is best
78 ISSUE #3 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
prevents or reduces corrosion and wear due to friction your purpose. Second, analyze the load to be moved - in
and abrasion. Before applying any lubricant, however, the terms of size, weight, shape, temperature, and sensitivity -
sling user should make certain that the sling is dry. Applying then choose the sling which best meets those needs. Third,
lubricant to a wet or damp sling traps moisture against the always inspect all the equipment before and after a move.
metal and hastens corrosion. Always be sure to give equipment whatever “in service”
maintenance it may need. Fourth, use safe lifting practices.
Corrosion deteriorates wire rope. It may be indicated by Use the proper lifting technique for the type of sling and the
pitting, but it is sometimes hard to detect. Therefore, if a wire type of load. n
rope sling shows any sign of significant deterioration, that
sling must be removed until it can be examined by a person
who is qualified to determine the extent of the damage.
By following the above guidelines to proper sling use and
maintenance, and by the avoidance of kinking, it is possible
to greatly extend a wire rope sling’s useful service life.
FIBER ROPES AND SYNTHETIC WEBS
Fiber ropes and synthetic webs are generally discarded
rather than serviced or repaired. Operators must always
follow manufacturer’s recommendations.
There are good practices to follow to protect yourself
while using slings to move materials. First, learn as much as
you can about the materials with which you will be working.
Slings come in many different types, one of which is right for
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marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2018 79
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84 ISSUE #3 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2018 85
U.S.A.C.O.E. SAFETY CHECKLIST FOR
BARGE MOUNTED PILE DRIVING APPLICATIONS
SAFETY INSPECTION FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Date of Inspection:
U.S. Army Engineer District, New Orleans
Contractor or Unit Contract No. Or Activity
Inspected by (Signature) Witness (Signature)
PILE DRIVERS Yes No N/A
NOTE: Safety and Health Requirements Manual (EM385-1-1 - Sep 08) references in parentheses.
1. Does the maximum allowable list and trim exceed the amount specified by the manufacture and shall not
(16.L.04.b(4)) (a) All deck surfaces of the barge or floating device shall be above water;
(b) The entire bottom area of the barge or floating device shall be submerged; and
(c) The least of the following; 5˚ the maximum specified by the crane manufacture or if not
specified, the amount specified by the qualified person.
2. Has the qualified person been identified and their experience and knowledge been accepted? (16.B.01)
3. Are Guy, outriggers, thrust outs, counter-balances or rail clamps provided to maintain stability of pile-driver
4. Does the swinging (hanging) leads have fixed ladders? (16.R.03.a(1))
5. Are employee prohibited from remaining on leads or ladders while pile is being driven? (16.R.03.a(2))
6. Are fixed pile-driver leads provided with decked landings having guard rails, intermediate rails, and toe
7. Are fixed ladders or stairs provided for access to landings and head blocks? (16.R.03.b(1))
8. Are fixed leads provided with rings or attachment points so that worker exposed to falls > than 6 ft. shall
attach their safety harnesses to the leads? (16.R.03.b(2))
9. Are landings or leads being used for storage of any kind? (16.R.03.b.(2)(c))
10. Is a stop block provided to prevent the hammer from being raised against the head block? (16.R.03.b.(2)(d))
11. Is a blocking device, capable of supporting the weight of the hammer, provided for placement in the leads
under the hammer at all times while the employees are working under the hammer? (16.R.03.b.(2)(e))
12. Are leads free from projections or snags to minimize line damage and personnel safety hazards?
13. When load is relieved or drum rotated, are procedures in place to eliminate the automatic disengagement of
14. Are guards provided across the top of the head block to prevent wire from jumping out of the sheaves?
15. Are all hoses connected to pile-driver hammers, pile ejectors, or jet pipes securely attached with an adequate
length of at least ¼ in. alloy steel chain, having 3,250 lb (1,500 kg) working load limit, or equal strength wire,
to prevent whipping if the joint is broken? (16.R.06)
16. Are two shutoff valves, one of which shall be a quick-acting lever type within easy reach of the hammer
operator, on steam/hydraulic line controls? (16.R.07)
86 ISSUE #3 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
MVN Form 385-29 Proponent: CEMVN-SS
17. Is the width of the hull of floating pile drivers at least 45% of the height of the leads above water?
18. Is the operating deck of a floating pile-driver so guarded as to prevent piles that are being hoisted into driving
position from swinging in over the deck? (16.R.08.b)
19. Are all employees clear when piling is being hoisted into the leads? (16.R.09.a)
20. Is the hoisting of steel piling done by use of closed shackle or other positive attachment to prevent accidental
21. Are taglines used for controlling unguided piles and free hanging (flying) hammers? (16.R.09.c)
22. Are hammers being lowered to the bottom on the leads while pile drive is being moved? (16.R.09.d)
23. Are all access pits provided with ladders and bulk headed curbs to prevent material from falling into the pit
when driving jacked piles? (16.R.10)
24. Are pile-driving operations suspended when tops of driven piles are being cut off? (except when cutting
operations are located at least twice the length of the longest pile from the driver) (16.R.11)
25. Is a pile extractor be used when piling cannot be removed without exceeding the load rating of equipment?
26. Is the crane equipped with LID device when pulling pilings? (the boom cannot be raised more than 60˚ above
27. Is the crane operator tipping the crane, then releasing the brake, and before settling, catching the load?
28. Are running lines located within 6'6" of the ground or working level guarded or restricted by physical
29. Is a positive latching device being used to secure loads and rigging when hoisting? (15.A.05)
30. Are Hooks, shackles, rings, pad eyes, and other fittings which show excessive wear, bent, twisted, or
otherwise damaged being removed from service? (15.A.06)
31. Has wire rope which has been removed from serviced been cut up and marked as defected? (15.D.02)
32. Does wire rope clips attached with U-bolts have the U-bolts on the unloaded (dead) or short end of the rope?
33. If a wedge socket is being used, is the unloaded/short end of the wire rope looped back and secured to itself
by a clip or have a separate piece of equal sized wire rope attached by a clip? (15.D.04)
34. Are safety shackles being used? (01.A)
35. Has crane and hoisting equipment been inspected, tested, and certified in writing by a competent person in
accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations? (16.A.02)
36. Is electronic equipment for entertainment being used by the operator during operations? (16.A.05)
37. Is mechanized equipment shut down during fueling operations? (16.A.06)
marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2018 87
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88 ISSUE #3 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2018 89
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92 ISSUE #3 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
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The project of operator SSA Mexico involved an investment Our fenders were specially designed for the berthing of
of US$ 50 million to build the infrastructure and the 600m berth car carriers. The dedicated use of the berth for car carriers is
with three docking positions. The building of the car terminal an important step for the port. Before this investment, there
is an important development for Lazaro Cardenas and an were several kinds of cargo being handled together, some
economic growth for the Mexican automotive industry, as it of them corrosive which was not in line with the demanding
has a capacity to mobilize more than 700,000 vehicles per quality control of the automotive industry, according to
year and houses almost half a million. Claudia Sanchez, Director of Public and Government
Relations of SSA Mexico. n
We received the order in May 2017 and the installation of
18 sets of SPC Cone Fenders was finally finished in January
94 ISSUE #3 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
GEOSTRUCTURAL SYSTEMS MANUAL
marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2018 95
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Phone: 510-431-2444 or 888-897-BIGGE (2444)
Email: [email protected] ISSUE #3 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com Website: www.bigge.com