ISSUE #5 - SEPT/OCT
Copyright 2017 - J.J. Smith & Company, LLC
In This Issue:
Let’s Talk Safety
5 (Not So Obvious) Costs of Construction Delays
Seawalls and Bulkheads
Marine Pile Driving
Barge and Floating Equipment Inspection
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Scott Bridge Company, Inc.
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ISSUE #5 - SEPT/OCT TABLE of CONTENTS
® Cover Photo
Copyright 2017 - J.J. Smith & Company, LLC
Marine Construction® Magazine
J.J. Smith & Company Inc.
P.O. Box 1915
Naples, FL U.S.A. 34106
Advertising & Subscription Information
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Christopher S. Smoot Features
GRAPHICS/LAYOUT/PRINTING Let’s Talk Safety................................................................................. 6
Presstige Printing 5 (No So Obvious) Costs of Construction Delays......................... 8
CARTOONIST/ARTIST Seawalls and Bulkhead................................................................. 16
Theresa M. McCracken Marine Pile Driving......................................................................... 38
www.mchumor.com Barge & Floating Equipment Inspection..................................... 84
CONTRIBUTING WRITER SPC Cone Fenders for Quay Offset Project................................. 98
John Davagian, II Bellinham Marine Launches Deeper into South Pacific....... 102
Davagian Associates, Attorneys at Law Florida vs. Georgia Rivalry Tradition Saved
by Floating Docks.......................................................................... 106
Marine Construction® magazine is published every 2-months. Denso Offers New Self-Priming Coal Tar Epoxies.................. 108
All material with all contents are all the property of Marine ALL Crane Adds New Tech.......................................................... 110
Construction® magazine. Marine Construction® magazine, web ShibataFenderTeam Opens New Office in Spain.................... 112
site www.marineconstructionmagazine.com. All information
is protected, without limitation, pursuant to U.S. and foreign Departments
copyright and trademark laws. Contents may not be reproduced
without prior written permission of the publisher, © 2015, 2016, Cartoons.............................................................................. 10, 62, 102
2017, J.J. Smith & Company; D.B.A. Marine Construction®
Magazine. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. Disclaimer:
The opinions expressed by the authors and/or editorials
contained are those of the of the respective parties and do not
necessarily represent the opinion of the Publisher.
|4 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #5 - SEPT/OCT
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At Marine Construction magazine we Before beginning he asked other crane What went wrong?
routinely receive emails/correspondence operators how certain controls worked. There were no training programs in place
with regard to issues surrounding safety in He did not understand their instructions. to prevent falling accidents. There were no
Marine Construction. With this in mind, we He practiced raising and lowering the main life rings available to rescue the drowning
thought it only fitting that we would share hook and extended and retracted the boom employee. Life rings with at least 90 feet of
in upcoming issues of Marine Construction for 15 minutes. During this time alarms were rope attached must be available and in the
magazine a current or past “safety story” that ringing in the cab that the crane operator vicinity of the work area. Since few work
may in some way, shape or form, prevent the did not understand. He was eventually able barges have guardrails to prevent workers
same unfortunate incident from happening to shut them off along with the anti-two from falling in the water, workers on them
to another. If this information causes any of block system on the computer. A rigger was must wear PFDs or tie off to a secure
us to rethink a certain assigned job, duty or positioned near the first load to connect structure. A ladder should also be available
task, then maybe in some small way, we hope the crane’s hook. He was inexperienced for rescue. An assessment of the work
this information may contribute in a positive and undergoing his second day of training. hazards should have been conducted prior
manner. We hope so. The crane operator extended the boom to to starting work. Not enough attention was
put the hook over the load. The lengthened given to the icy working surface conditions.
Accident Examination 1 - Truck Mounted boom put the auxiliary hook and line in a Pay attention to work surface hazards and
Crane Crushes Rigger - 1 Fatality two block condition. As the boom extended abate them.
Two men were unloading steel beams from the auxiliary line came under increased Accident Examination 4 - Workbench
a trailer using a truck mounted crane. The tension. The rigger noticed a cotter pin fly Grinder Wheel Explodes - 1 Fatality
outriggers on the crane were fully extended off. He looked up, saw the boom wiggle and A mechanic needed a work bench mounted
and set. The rigger and his helper walked turned to run. The rigger was struck and grinder and went to the tool room to get
with each load, controlling it with taglines. killed instantly by the falling auxiliary hook. one. None were available. He decided to
The crane operator lifted each load and (MUSIC) construct a grinder by modifying an electric
swung the crane to his right, about 180 What went wrong? buffet wheel. He created a mount and
degrees and lowered the beams to the The crane operator used equipment that attached the buffing motor to the bench.
ground. During the unloading the foreman he was not trained to operate. Safety He removed the buffing wheel, installed
approached to talk with the rigger’s helper. and warning devices were turned off or a grinding wheel in its place and began
When the unloading was finished, the crane disabled during operations. Personnel must constructing a guard. Before the guard was
operator began to put away the rigging and never work under the boom, hook or loads. finished he decided to test the grinder. He
stow the crane. The foreman left but the Although not contributing to the fatality plugged it in and turned it on. As the wheel
riggers helper remains standing beside the workers working near the water’s edge must gained speed it reached a point where the
outrigger. As the operator swung the crane wear personal floatation devices or PFDs. centrifugal force caused the wheel to break
into the stowed position the riggers helper Accident Examination 3 - Work Surface apart. The wheel shattered into pieces,
was crushed between the crane cab and Hazard Results in Slip and Fall - 1 Fatality striking the mechanic with tremendous
the outrigger he was leaning against. A welder and his helper were installing force. The mechanic died from multiple
What went wrong? guard rails on a dock. The work was being wounds to the chest and abdomen.
The swing radius of the crane was not done from a smaller barge that was tied to What went wrong?
barricaded to prevent employees from the dock. The smaller barge was moved Equipment must never be modified for use
entering a hazardous zone. The crane along the dock as work progressed. The other than its intended purpose. Ensure
operator should have kept visual contact helper would hold a section of guard rail that the grinding wheel is appropriate for
with his helpers at all times. An audible in place while the welder would tack weld the RPM rating of the motor’s spindle and
signal should be installed on the crane to it. The welder would come back later and ring test the wheel before it is installed.
warn employees of the crane’s movement. finish the weld. The icy deck made walking The mechanic used the grinder without the
Accident Examination 2 - Crane Fails, and working surfaces very slippery. While guard in place. A grinder must have a guard
Rigger Struck - 1 Fatality the welder was finishing several sections, with a properly adjusted work rest and
A 45 ton hydraulic telescoping crane was his helper reached around the corner of tongue guard and operators should stand
being used to move several loads, weighing the dock to take a measurement. He slipped to one side when starting any grinder. An
more than two tons each. The crane has and fell into the water. The welder heard operator must always wear eye protection
a multi part main line and a single part his helpers call and ran to him. The welder when using a grinder. u
auxiliary line. The crane operator had could not reach him and ran to call for help.
experience operating other cranes, but had When the welder returned his helper had
no training on this specific model crane. disappeared beneath the water.
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5 (Not So Obvious) Costs of Construction Delays
A New Take on an Old Subject
By S. S. Saucerman, Freelance Writer for the Building & Construction Industry
Ok, you know by now that construction porta-johns and the necessary things materials being ordered later than
schedule delays are killers. That’s that keep a jobsite running smoothly. originally anticipated (this one pops up
Construction 101. I’m also assuming you’re • Bigger office and administrative salary a lot more than you think).
aware that delays cut into your bottom line outlays for project managers, safety • Increased costs to store materials
because you understand that the longer officers, quality control personnel and on site due to 1) longer periods of
you tie up manpower and resources, the more (depending on the project). protection from the elements (to
more you will inevitably pay for: • Extended indirect/administrative reduce damage), 2) security against
• Forced over/double-time rates to expenses such as insurances, bonding, theft/pilfering and 3) the dreaded
accounting and document (i.e. change ‘double-handling’ that goes with
facilitate schedule targets and orders) administration. moving materials back and forth for
demands. • Disruption in company cash flow site access or other logistical reasons.
• Increased supervision and worker in the form of 1) having projected • Costs associated with the disruption
manhours which carry with them monthly payments come in lower of your own and/or a sub-contractor’s
straight wages, fringes/benefits, than expected due to the lengthening continuity that often result from
expediting/logistical time, human of the schedule (thereby ‘stretching’ schedule delay and interruptions.
resource cost – and all the expense out the finite contract amount over This includes additional mobilization
that comes with having employees on more distribution periods and 2) costs due to being interrupted during
site. unanticipated deferment of the release a phase of work originally anticipated
• Extended jobsite general requirements of last-payment retention monies and to be performed in one continuous
and conditions costs such that for securities at the end of the project. exercise.
storage trailers, offices/office supplies, • Material price increases arising from
phones/fax/computers, temporary (continued on page 10)
utilities, fencing & security, dumpsters,
|8 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #5 - SEPT/OCT
Quality steel sheet
(Continued from Page 8) downtime, lack of productivity, loss • Diminished Worker Morale
of use/rents, or construction interim Imagine you’re a construction site
Construction Delay loan interest expense that may arise superintendent overseeing a multi-
from his new building not being ready million-dollar project and you have the
• Similar to that above but this time to go. However - penalty or not - it is unenviable task of coordinating perhaps
regarding additional breaks in not unusual to hear of a client threaten 8-10 skilled trades (from different unions)
continuity from not having equipment to assess LDs to extract additional and dozens of material deliveries during
and/or other specialized resources performance and/or otherwise prod a any work day. Break a sweat yet? Ok, now
available when required. tardy contractor along. let’s suppose each of these trade crews
have their own agendas, motivations and
• Penalties/fees associated with not 5 Not-So-Obvious Costs opinions (of which they’re seldom afraid to
meeting schedule demands - often in of Construction Delay share ... funny how that is in construction)
the form of liquidated damages (LDs). So now that we’ve covered ramifications regarding virtually everything affecting
LDs are monetary compensation (most one normally associates with prolonged their work. Even on a ‘normal’ days,
often expressed as a ratio, such as project schedules and the things many interaction between these parties and the
$500/day) that the contractor must construction professionals already superintendent can be - well, tense.
pay back to the client for each day the understand, I’d like to go further and Now just for fun, let’s toss a completely
construction project schedule extends discuss a handful of (what I’ve found unannounced and highly volatile delay-
past the promised (made at contract to be) less tangible - yet just as (more?) grenade into the whole mix and see what
time) completion date. In theory, consequential – fallouts from construction happens. It isn’t pretty (although perhaps
LDs aren’t considered to be punitive schedules extending longer than they enlightening if you happen to be an
(punishment) but more a recompense should. Let’s begin with: anthropologist studying the de-evolution
for things such as the client’s of man). Just like that, everyone’s well-
crafted schedules are out the window and
|10 MCoanrs intreuction®® any/all previous goodwill and cooperation
between parties is supplanted by attitudes
far more mercenary and hostile. Friendly
exchanges are replaced with sharp looks
and crew leaders seem to be spending
inordinate cell minutes explaining once
again to corporate why they can’t be in
Houston on Monday.
Before long, the work environment that
started out with so much potential and
positivity at the beginning turns dark and
stormy as an almost visible burden lands
on the shoulders of every souls unlucky
enough to be effected by the delay. And this
added level of pressure does something to
a person. Individual pride in one’s work
almost inevitably grows less important
and the more primal need to just ‘get done
and get out of here’ takes over as the lone
motive force for getting through the day.
‘Morale’, you ask? Well, maybe on the next
• Introduction of NEW General
So, it’s already a given that extended
schedules cause one to pay more for
general requirements (GR) - like those
listed at the beginning of this article. This
is pretty straight-forward. But this makes
one very important assumption. It assumes
the GR line item was even present at bid
(continued on Page 12)
www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #5 - SEPT/OCT
Grouting Equipment (Continued from Page 10)
Heavy Building Infrastructure Construction Delay
Construction from the‘Ground Up’
for over 50 years time. Let me explain. Take the following example: when the project was bid,
Building it was assumed by the estimator that no cost provision for winter weather
Construction construction (we’re a northern contractor, so this comes up a lot with us)
would be required in the bid. This was a perfectly reasonable at the time and
Restoration based on the projected work schedule included in the bid package.
Repair Fast-forward to present: everyone’s on site and working but the project
schedule has been steadily slipping over the past weeks and months and
• Highways now - lo and behold - the exterior work that you’d planned on performing in
crisp, pleasant fall weather has now been un-mercilessly pushed out until
• Bridges after Christmas. But once again, let’s make matters worse (it’s way more fun
that way). Let’s also suppose that your company was partially responsible
• Dams (as is often the case; it’s seldom ONE culprit that single-handedly sends a
schedule south) for being behind, so the remedy isn’t going to be as easy as
• Tunnels approaching the client with a slam-dunk change order.
So, what do you do now? The client wants the exterior done. Period. He
• Mines starts bringing LDs up in progress meetings. And after a few terse talks with
your own corporate office (who are comfortably out of the line of fire) you do
• Wells indeed sheepishly ask for a change order to cover the cost of the temporary
tenting, heaters, fuel, reduced productivity, added supervision – everything
Discover the world’s you’ll need to complete your work in cold weather.
largest selection of It doesn’t go well. Because the client is well aware you’re culpable for being
Grouting Equipment behind, your request for additional funds is received less than cheerfully and
instead you are rewarded with 15 colorful minutes of your client instructing
Product information you to insert your request deep within the confines of a wholly adult and
Technical Assistance anatomically descriptive body location. In the end, you 1) ultimately eat the
Call: 708-354-7112 cost for winter weather and 2) disenfranchise your client in the process – all
Fax: 708-354-3881 due to schedule creep.
• Heightened Exposure to Accidents & Liability
Visit Our website: Here’s one we recently had happened to us on a project, so we felt its
www.chemgrout.com impact firsthand. Most of us know that in today’s world safety and accident-
prevention is no longer optional on the jobsite. The days of a contractor
treating the subject as an afterthought – or something that’s addressed only
after an actual accident occurs on site - are long gone. We live in a litigative
world and most commercial construction contracts call for strict safety
and accident prevention plans (in writing) and protocols before any of your
workers can go on site. One may even be judged for future work according
to past safety records or workers compensation scores.
It’s serious business and any risk manager worth their salt will tell you that
the primary way to reduce accidents on a jobsite is by decreasing your
exposure to those accidents (see where I’m going here?). It then follows
that the longer your project schedule extends, the greater your exposure
for potential accidents will be. You can also factor the morale argument into
the equation stating that as the project drags on, the greater the likelihood
that a worker’s caution, attentiveness and vigilance toward all things safety-
related may begin to weaken under the yoke of schedule pressures.
• Loss and Disruption of Future Work Opportunities
A stark reality for most contracting firms is that their company resources
are (more or less) finite. That is - regardless of size of scale – any particular
company model is built around a relatively static number of employees in the
(continued on Page 14)
|12 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #5 - SEPT/OCT
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(Continued from Page 12) least attention to detail. After all, there are only so many hours in a
day. Right? So, our contractor has mobilized on site and the work is
Protective underway, a mistake happens. It can be anything: a constructability
issue, a missed cost item, maybe a bad cell on a spreadsheet
field and a known quantity of ancillary resources (i.e. equipment) that causing a hole in your scope.
are available to them at any given time. If you’re larger, the number And though it doesn’t happen often, this time it’s a fairly substantial
is higher, smaller and there’s not so much. Simple. This means that slip-up; enough of a misstep to interrupt continuity on site and tack
(with minor exceptions involving temporary personnel and so forth) another month onto the schedule. Of course, this in turn inflicts
there’s generally no manpower to fill in once the company’s ‘stable’ considerable distress onto the client who is a businessperson
of workers and/or committed equipment has been exhausted. himself and (as you’re now finding out) doesn’t suffer such gaffes
This restriction can hurt a company in two ways. First, it can well. Oh, but we’re not done. You see, the mistake itself wasn’t even
become a major factor in management’s ability to go after future the worse part. The worse part was that:
work. I can recount many times in my own office where we’ve It happened early in the schedule
had solid construction opportunities presented to us but inevitably Just two weeks in (on an eight-month schedule) and already the
chose not to participate simply because (based on the information lions-share of goodwill, comradery and trust you’d worked so hard
at the time) we wouldn’t have manpower available to perform the to establish during the sales/bid period now lies faltering on life-
work according to the proposed schedule. It’s always a difficult call support. But it’s not only the backlash from the mistake itself. From
because NO one likes to turn down work. And sure enough - a year here on out - and all the way to punch- list - you’re virtually assured
later after all our other schedules had played out and all the delays to be under enhanced scrutiny, deeper analysis and heightened
had already wrought their havoc – we looked back and wished we’d distrust. Client’s don’t forget things like this and now his caution flags
gone after some of those prospects. Now of course hindsight is are straight up. It will take a ten-fold effort to coax them down again
20/20 but it does demonstrate the effect schedule delays can have – if they ever go down. Unfortunately, you’ve been through it before
on overall work flow. so you know from experience that once you land on the wrong side
Then there’s the flip-side: you DO choose to bid the job based on of a client’s suspicions, the only thing you can be assured of for the
your current manpower and resource projections and you (hooray!) rest of the job is less leniency and a heightened, critical awareness
win the bid. You made a good choice based on the data at the time of everything you do on site. As for the ‘benefit of a doubt’? Forget it.
and now you have a hard-won contract in hand and a start date on Closing
the calendar. But here’s the thing: you based your proposal on the Construction project delay will never, ever go away completely -
fact that Crew A would be finishing up Project A roughly 2 weeks not as long as humans are involved. But with clear communication,
prior to this new Project B’s start date. You even gave yourself 2 strict discipline, and consistent enforcement of rules, policies, and
weeks of leeway. But in the interim between presenting your expectations from those running the project, the damaging effects
proposal and receiving the award letter, the [insert back-ordered of delay can be mitigated. And by reinforcing to every member
critical path piece of equipment here] for Project A went belly-up on of your company – office and field - the doctrine that all delay is
its promised delivery and Project A was now a month behind. Just directly proportionate to X number of lost dollars, you can forward
like that, BOTH projects - the one you’re doing and the other you’ve the process of transforming delay into something more tangible
committed - are in peril. And now, through little fault of your own, – something easier to quantify – wherein the ability to effectively
the only thing you have to look forward to is #5 on our list: target and (hopefully) implement remedies will prove that much
• Loss of Client Trust simpler to those in charge of such tasks. Good luck! u
I saved this one for last because – to me – it’s arguably the most
devastating and destructive consequence of project schedules BIO: Steve (Stephen) Saucerman is a full-time commercial
going on longer than promised. It’s about trust - or more precisely, construction estimator/project manager for a Midwest general
your client’s trust in you as a person and in your ability to deliver on contractor and a freelance writer/author for the construction
your word. Building construction is a funny business. Though our industry. He also taught building construction technology part-
end-product may consist of gigantic monoliths of solid concrete time at Rock Valley College in Rockford, IL for 11 years. Since 1976,
and steel, we are still very much a service industry. Where his career includes building materials, residential construction
manufacturers sell a tactile, tangible widget that the customer may and commercial construction/project management. To date,
hold in their hand, we sell ourselves. Our client is paying for our Saucerman’s feature articles have been published more than 2,000
promise to deliver the many layers of service required to construct times in construction-industry magazines and periodicals all over
their project at an agreed-to price by an agreed-to time. If you the world. He’s also published 2 books. Saucerman’s writing style
should break that promise, you’ve failed to deliver your ‘product’. is informative while entertaining, filled with common sense and
Which leads me to a phenomenon I’ve watched play out time and experience (not ivory tower theory and jargon), and relatable to the
again over the many years I’ve been doing this. It goes like this: the reader ... because he’s been there.
contractor wins the contract. It’s one of many jobs he’s juggling at
the time (doesn’t it always seem to be like that?) and this happened
to be the runt of the estimating litter at the time and so garnered the
|14 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #5 - SEPT/OCT
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Seawalls & Bulkheads
By: Coastal Systems International, Inc. Typical bulkhead under construction
Seawalls and bulkheads (walls) provide shoreline stabilization
for many coastal and waterfront properties throughout Florida
and the Caribbean.The walls provide an economical approach for
vertical shoreline stabilization, allowing owners to maximize upland
property area, as opposed to other shoreline stabilization methods
such as revetments or natural wetlands/mangroves. Existing walls
were constructed of many different structural configurations, and at
various time periods. Coastal and waterfront properties are in high
demand in Southern Florida and the Caribbean with an increasing
coastal population. Developers and property owners are looking
to rehabilitate existing properties, and the condition of a coastal
seawall or waterfront bulkhead can significantly impact the total cost
of property development. Also, many waterfront property owners
may have experienced problems with their existing structures, or
have concerns regarding the structural integrity of their walls.
This perspective will explain:
• Difference between Seawall & Bulkhead
(continued on Page 18)
|16 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #5 - SEPT/OCT
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(Continued from Page 16)
Seawalls & Bulkheads
• Introduce Elements of Wall Design
• Present Materials of Construction with a
• Discussion ·of Material Performance
• Address Special Regulatory Issues with Seawalls
• Discuss Wall Structural Evaluation Methodology
• Present Frequently Asked Questions Regarding
• Seawalls and Bulkheads
Seawall vs. Bulkhead?
Many people refer to all vertical shoreline structures as “seawalls,”
but there is a difference between a seawall and a bulkhead.
Seawall: structure that provides shoreline protection from waves
but also retains soil.
Bulkhead: vertical shoreline stabilization structure that primarily
retains soil, and provides minimal protection from waves.
Seawalls are typically located on the coast fronting beaches, and Typical coastal seawall
are subject to storm surges with pounding surf, eroding shorelines
and wave overtopping from coastal storm events. Some localized
waterfront properties may be subject to significant wave activity,
even though they are not exposed to ocean waves. A coastal
(continued on Page 20)
|18 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #5 - SEPT/OCT
I SWEAT THE
DETAILS FOR YOU.
In my 18 years at ALL, I sincerely believe I’ve worked with the best
in the business — I’m talking people and equipment. Even as a
master operator, I still train constantly — most recently on the
900-ton Liebherr LTM-1750, the second largest in our extensive
ﬂeet. What does this mean for you? It means ALL has what you
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(Continued from Page 18)
Seawalls & Bulkheads
engineering study can provide seawall design information to
ensure that they are designed properly to withstand the dynamic
loading and overtopping effects of waves. The “rule of thumb” in
bulkhead design is to account for wave impacts if the significant
wave height at a project site is expected to be in excess of three
feet (1 meter). Unfortunately, many existing walls on the coast were
simply designed as bulkheads, and did not account for coastal
Elements of Wall Design
Prior to evaluating a bulkhead or seawall, the following design Typical Oceanfront Seawall
considerations need to be addressed to be able to properly assess
Topography: elevations, grading, etc.
Soil Properties: unit weight of soil, clay vs. sand, etc.
Embedment/Stability: depth of wall for stability
Water Table: differential water levels behind and in front of walls
can introduce additional loading on the wall
Wall Material Properties: strength and performance in the marine
Surcharge: live loads behind the wall such as vehicles
These additional design considerations need to be addressed for Cross-section of typical seawall:
seawalls: Note use of boulders against wave overtopping
• Wave Forces
• Toe Scour
• Wave Overtopping
• Storm Surge
If a wall is damaged or deteriorated, the original design may not
have accounted for the above-listed design considerations. Original
or “as-built” plans can provide a wealth of information including the
Typical Concrete Bulkhead Typical bulkhead cross section (continued on Page 24
www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #5 - SEPT/OCT
|20 MCoanrs intreuction®®
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(Continued from Page 20)
Seawalls & Bulkheads
age of the structure and many of the design elements listed in the
above paragraphs. The deteriorated condition of a wall may also be
an indication that the wall is in need of maintenance, or that it has
fulfilled its service life.
Materials of Construction
Seawalls and bulkheads are constructed of similar materials. The
material of the wall must be properly identified prior to assessing the
condition. The following table presents common wall construction
materials with comments regarding availability, construction issues,
and general performance
in the marine environment:
Concrete Pile/panel and sheet piling configurations common
in South Florida. Most common wall material in
South Florida due to the locally available aggregate; Failed bulkhead due to inadequate embedment of wall.
provides service life of 30+ years if correct mix design
and proper marine structural design implemented.
(continued on Page 26)
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(Continued from Page 24) Seawall - DEP Requirements
Seawalls on the coast of Florida come under the jurisdiction of the
Seawalls & Bulkheads Florida Department of Environmental Protection (DEP). In addition
to evaluating the structural condition of a seawall, the DEP has
special requirements for seawalls at or near the Erosion Control
Line (ECL). A coastal engineering analysis is required to determine
if an existing seawall will be affected by a 30-year coastal storm
(continued on Page 30
Deteriorated concrete pile/panel bulkhead:
Note storm sewer outfall through bulkhead.
Steel Steel sheet piling commonly used for bulkheads/ Damaged timber seawall
seawalls. Material provides excellent strength
characteristics for high wall exposure applications.
Provides interlocking seal, and generally easy to
install, even in harder substrate. Must be properly
coated and maintained for long service life of 25+
Aluminum Sheet piling provides good corrosion resistance,
but lighter sections allow for minimal exposed wall
height. Recognize corrosion potential of dissimilar
metal hardware, do not use in waters with low Ph
or backfill with clay-mucky soils. Difficult to install in
Timber Not often used in South Florida, but occasionally
seen on inland waterways. Timber pile/wale/
sheet system is common structural configuration.
Generally economical material, but limited strength
characteristics for high wall heights. Preservative
treatment is essential for marine organisms. Difficult
to install in hard substrates.
Vinyl/Plastic Relatively new economical product with service life Typical vinyl sheet pile bulkhead
of 50+ years. Available in different colors. Limited (Picture courtesy of Materials International)
strength characteristics for wall heights. Difficult to
install in hard substrates.
|26 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #5 - SEPT/OCT
(Continued from Page 26)
Seawalls & Bulkheads
event. If the existing wall is within the 30year
Erosion Projection, then the property owner
must “provide scientific and engineering
evidence that the armoring structure
(seawall) has been designed, constructed,
and maintained to survive the effects of
a 30-year storm and provide protection to
existing and proposed structures from the
erosion associated with that event.” The
DEP requires certification by a professional
engineer that the seawall was designed,
constructed, and is in adequate condition to
meet the following criteria:
1. The top of the seawall must be at or
above the predicted maximum wave
crest elevation, considering the eroded
beach profile, of the 30-year design
2. The seawall must be stable under the Coastal engineering analysis
30year design storm including localized
(continued on Page 34)
|30 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #5 - SEPT/OCT
|32 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #5 - SEPT/OCT
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(Continued from Page 30) • Qualifications of Inspection Personnel
• Types and methods of inspections
Seawalls & Bulkheads • Typical forms of deterioration
• Condition Rating
scour, with adequate penetration and toe protection to avoid • Frequency of Inspection
settlement, toe failure, or loss of material from beneath or A comprehensive report is essential to document a proper bulkhead
behind the armoring. or seawall evaluation. All of the above items should be included
3. The seawall must have sufficient continuity or return walls to along with photographs and sketches of the observed configuration
prevent flanking under the design storm from impacting the with notes regarding deterioration. Comparison of previous reports
proposed construction. provides an indication of the rate of deterioration.
4. The seawall must withstand the static and hydrodynamic forces Repair recommendations, along with construction cost estimates,
of the 30-year design storm. should be included to provide the property owner with sound
Structural Evaluation engineering advice so they can plan for maintenance or repairs as
The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Underwater necessary. The report should be sealed by a registered professional
Investigations Standard Practice Manual was released in 2001 and engineer experienced in the evaluation of inservice marine
provides guidance for the evaluation of walls. Procedures are also structures.
applicable for above-water structures. Most bulkheads are along FAQ Regarding Bulkheads and Seawalls
the waterfront, and should be evaluated above and below the water, Can I raise the grade of my property with the existing bulkhead?
whereas seawalls typically are not exposed to water on a regular
basis. The bulkhead must be evaluated by an engineer to determine if the
The following topics are covered related to structural bulkhead/ (continued on page 36)
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|34 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #5 - SEPT/OCT
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(Continued from Page 34) How often should I inspect the wall?
The ASCE Manual provides guidance for the frequency of
Seawalls & Bulkheads inspections. Generally, seawalls and bulkheads should be evaluated
every 5 to 6 years.
How do I repair my wall?
A qualified marine structural engineer should be consulted to
evaluate the existing wall and to determine if rehabilitation or
replacement is required. Options can generally be provided to
provide an economical approach to meet budget constraints.
Who can build a wall?
Marine structures are specialized structures, often requiring
water-based construction equipment and techniques. The costs
for waterfront construction are generally higher than for upland
structures such as buildings. Bulkhead or seawall work should be
reserved for a qualified and experienced marine contractor.
Exploratory excavation to evaluate condition of tie backs 1. There is a difference between a bulkhead and a seawall.
structure can withstand the additional loads from fill and structural 2. Bulkhead and Seawall design is sitespecific and the design
modifications. Deterioration can severely weaken the structural
capacity of the bulkhead, and the bulkhead was most likely designed elements of a particular structure should be understood prior
for the existing conditions. to evaluation.
What is the best material for bulkheads and seawalls? 3. Bulkhead materials of construction exhibit various forms of
Material selection is site-specific and dependent on design deterioration in the marine environment. Proper material
conditions. Concrete (if designed appropriately) generally provides identification is essential to assess structural performance.
a long service life, but it is not favorable from a first-cost basis. 4. Seawalls in Florida come under the jurisdiction of the DEP,
Vinyl sheet piling and other composite materials, where applicable, and require coastal engineering studies to assess predicted
should be considered due to their resistance to the harsh marine performance.
environment and 50+ year service life. 5. ASCE recently released a standard practice manual to provide
How long can I expect my wall to last? guidance for the above/ below water assessment of marine
Answers to this question are generally subjective. An experienced structures.
marine structural engineer can provide general assumptions as 6. Bulkhead and seawall evaluations should be conducted
to the “expected remaining service life” of a marine structure. by qualified personnel under the supervision of a licensed
Comparisons with observed deterioration over time can also provide professional engineer. u
an indication of material performance. Certain non-destructive and/
or partially destructive materials testing can provide additional Disclaimer: The material presented in this perspective is for general
information for the assessment. information only. The information should not be used without first
What regulatory permits are required? securing engineering advice from qualified personnel with respect
Bulkheads typically require an environmental resource permit from to its suitability for any application. Utilization of this information
several agencies including the county environmental resource assumes all liability arising from such use.
management agency, the DEP, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
Depending on the jurisdiction, the local water management district Coastal Systems International, Inc.
may also issue a permit. Seawalls require a permit generally from 464 South Dixie Highway
the state agency such as the DEP. Coral Gables, FL 33146
|36 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #5 - SEPT/OCT
Marine Pile Driving
Introduction Project emergency response plan.
The potential for an accident around marine pile driving is probably Worksite Analysis
greater than for any other construction operation. The pile rig with A practical analysis of the work environment involves a variety of
a set of heavy leads, a 50,000 lb. pile hammer is unwieldy enough; worksite examinations to identify existing hazards and conditions
add a long pile and a high potential for danger exists. Add a hammer and operations in which changes might occur to create new hazards.
in operation with its moving parts, a 60’ steel casing swinging Lack of awareness of a hazard stemming from failure to examine the
from a crane line, all situated on a floating barge and the need for worksite is a sign that safety and health policies and/or practices
awareness is obvious. are ineffective. Effective management actively analyzes the work
At a minimum, the Pile Driving Superintendent should review the and worksite to anticipate and prevent harmful occurrences. OSHA
Construction Safety Orders that pertain to the job. A tailgate safety recommends the following measures to identify all existing and
meeting with the entire pile driving crew should be held to discuss potential hazards:
the inherent dangers of performing the work prior to setting foot on • Conduct a comprehensive baseline worksite survey for safety and
This guideline is to assist the supervisor on a pile driving construction health and periodic comprehensive update surveys and involve
project to determine if there is an effective project plan to ensure a employees in this effort.
safe work environment throughout the duration of the job. • Analyze planned and new facilities, processes, materials, and
Just some of the points to be addressed prior to commencing work equipment.
should be: • Perform routine job hazard analyses.
Are there procedures in place by the general contractor, prime • Assess risk factors of ergonomics applications to workers’ tasks.
contractor, or other such entity to ensure that all employers provide • Conduct regular site safety and health inspections to identify new
adequate protection for their employees? or previously missed hazards and failures in hazard controls.
Is there a DESIGNATED COMPETENT PERSON responsible for the • Provide a reliable system for employees to notify management
implementation and monitoring of the project safety and health plan personnel about conditions that appear hazardous and to receive
who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards and timely and appropriate responses and encourage employees
has authority to take prompt corrective measures? to use the system without fear of reprisal. This system uses
Project Safety Analysis at initiation and at critical stages that employee insight and experience in safety and health protection
describes the sequence, procedures, and responsible individuals and allows employers to address employee concerns.
for safe construction. • nvestigate accidents and “near miss” incidents to identify their
Identification of work/activities requiring planning, design, causes and means of prevention.
inspection, or supervision by an engineer, competent person, or • Analyze injury and illness trends over time to identify and prevent
other professional. patterns with common causes.
Evaluation monitoring of subcontractors to determine conformance • Visit the OSHA website at www.osha.gov for information about
with the Project Plan. (The Project Plan may include, or be utilized standards and safety and health issues.
by subcontractors.) Hazard Prevention and Control
Supervisor and employee training according to the Project Plan Workplace hazards often can be eliminated by redesigning the
including recognition, reporting, and avoidance of hazards, and jobsite or job. However in Pile Driving, the pile contractor is generally
applicable standards. not afforded this opportunity. As a result, the project superintendent
Procedures for controlling hazardous operations such as cranes, must attempt to control any such hazardous condition to prevent
barges, pile driving and related equipment, scaffolding, trenches, unsafe and unhealthful exposure to his/her crew. Employers must
confined spaces, welding, cutting and burning, hoisting and lifting, eliminate or control the hazard in a timely manner once it becomes
hazardous materials and more. apparent. Specifically, as part of the program, employers should
Documentation of training, permits, hazard reports, inspections, establish procedures to correct or control present or potential
uncorrected hazards, incidents, and near misses. hazards in a timely manner. These procedures should include
Employee involvement in the hazard analysis, prevention, avoidance, measures such as the following:
correction, and reporting.
(continued on Page 40)
|38 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #5 - SEPT/OCT
combined steel wall
solutions for failing port
and marine infrastructure
(Continued from Page 38) and their rights and responsibilities.
In implementing a safety and health management system, there are
Marine Pile Driving various ways to provide commitment and support by management
and employees. Some recommended actions are described briefly
• Use engineering techniques where feasible and appropriate. as follows:
• Establish, at the earliest time, safe work practices and • State clearly a worksite policy on safe and healthful work and
procedures that all affected parties can understand and working conditions, so that everyone with responsibility at the
follow. Understanding and compliance are a result of training, site (and those at other locations with responsibility for the site)
positive reinforcement, correction of unsafe performance, and fully understand the priority and importance of safety and health
if necessary, enforcement through a clearly communicated protection in the organization.
disciplinary system. • Establish and communicate a clear goal for the safety and
• Provide personal protective equipment when engineering health program and define objectives for meeting that goal so all
controls are infeasible. members of the organization understand the results desired and
• Use administrative controls such as reducing the duration of measures planned for achieving them.
exposure. • Provide visible top management involvement in implementing
• Maintain the facility and equipment to prevent equipment the program so all employees understand that management’s
breakdowns. commitment is serious.
• Plan and prepare for emergencies, and conduct training and • Arrange for and encourage employee involvement in the
emergency drills, as needed, to ensure that proper responses to structure and operation of the program and in decisions that
emergencies will be “second nature” for everyone involved. affect their safety and health so they will commit their
• Establish a medical program that includes first aid onsite as well insight and energy to achieving the safety and health program’s
as nearby physician and emergency medical care to reduce the goal and objectives.
risk of any injury or illness that occurs. • Assign and communicate responsibility for all aspects of the
Safety and Health Training program so that managers, supervisors, and employees in all
Training is an essential component of an effective safety and parts of the organization know what performance is expected of
health program. Training helps identify the safety and health them.
responsibilities of both management and employees at the site. • Provide adequate authority and resources to responsible parties
Training often is most effective when incorporated into other so assigned responsibilities can be met.
education or performance requirements and job practices. The • Hold managers, supervisors, and employees accountable for
type of training depends on the size and complexity of the worksite meeting their responsibilities so essential tasks will be performed.
as well as the characteristics of the hazards and potential hazards • Review program operations at least annually to evaluate
at the site. their success in meeting the goals and objectives to identify
Employee Training. Design employee training programs to ensure deficiencies and revise the program and/or objectives if they do
all employees understand and are aware of the hazards to which not meet the goal of effective safety and health protection.
they may be exposed and the proper methods for avoiding them. CRANES and DERRICKS
Supervisory Training. Train supervisors to understand the key role General
they play in jobsite safety and to enable them to carry out their 1) The employer shall comply with the manufacturer’s specifications
safety and health responsibilities effectively. and limitations.
Training programs for supervisors should include the following 2) Rated load capacities, recommended operating speeds, and
topics: special hazard warnings or instructions shall be conspicuously
• Analyze the work under their supervision to anticipate and posted on all equipment.
identify potential hazards. 3) Instructions or warnings shall be visible from the operator’s
• Maintain physical protection in their work areas. station.
• Reinforce employee training on the nature of potential hazards in 4) Equipment shall be inspected by a competent person before
their work and on needed protective measures through continual each use and during use, and all deficiencies corrected before
performance feedback and, if necessary, through enforcement further use.
of safe work practices. 5) Accessible areas within the swing radius of the rear of the
• Understand their safety and health responsibilities. rotating superstructure shall be properly barricaded to prevent
Safety Program employees from being struck or crushed by the crane.
Employees and supervisors are knowledgeable of the project
safety and health plan, avoidance of hazards, applicable standards, (continued on Page 42)
|40 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #5 - SEPT/OCT
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(Continued from Page 40) cab) at all times they are to be operated:
1) A copy of the operating manual developed by the manufacturer
Marine Pile Driving for the specific make and model of the crane; a copy of the
operating manual for any crane operator aids with which the crane
6) Except where electrical distribution and transmission lines have is equipped.
been deenergized and visibly grounded at point of work, or where 2) The load rating chart for the crane, which shall include:
insulating barriers not a part of or an attachment to the equipment
or machinery have been erected to prevent physical contact with a. The crane make and model, serial number, year of manufacture;
the lines, no part of a crane or its load shall be operated within 10 b. Load ratings for all crane operating configurations
feet (3 meters) of a line rated 50 kilovolts (kV) or below; 10 feet (3 c. Recommended reeving for the hoist line; and
meters) plus 0.4 inches (10.2 centimeters) for each kV over 50 kV for d. Operating limits in windy or cold weather conditions.
lines rated over 50 kV, or twice the length of the line insulator, but 3) The crane’s log book which shall be used to record operating
never less than 10 feet (3 meters). hours and all crane inspections, tests, maintenance and repair. The
7) An annual inspection of the hoisting machinery shall be made by log shall be updated daily as the crane is used and shall be signed
a competent person. by the operator and supervisor; service mechanics shall sign the log
8) Records shall be kept of the dates and results of each inspection. after conducting maintenance or repairs on the crane.
9) The use of a crane or derrick to hoist employees on a personnel 4) Inspection of cranes and derricks shall be in accordance with the
platform is prohibited, except when the erection, use, and manufacturer’s recommendations. Inspections shall be conducted
dismantling of conventional means of reaching the worksite—such by a qualified person. Before initial use all new and altered cranes
as a personnel hoist, ladder, stairway, aerial lift, elevating work shall be inspected by a qualified person to ensure compliance
platform or scaffold—would be more hazardous or is not possible with the applicable standards. A copy of the checklist used for
because of structural design or worksite conditions. the inspection shall be maintained at the project site. Start-up
Documentation (pre-operational) inspections shall be conducted by the operator
General before every operation of the crane. If checklists are used for pre-
Every crane shall have the following documents with them (in the
(continued on Page 44)
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|42 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #5 - SEPT/OCT
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(Continued from Page 42) and the movements to be made.
(2) The designated person shall make such determinations as the
Marine Pile Driving necessity to reduce crane ratings, load position, boom location,
ground support, and speed of movement, which are required to
operational inspections, a copy of the checklist shall be maintained safely make the lift.
at the project site; if checklists are not used, the operator shall (3) The designated person shall ensure that all prescribed
indicate the successful completion of the inspection, in accordance communication (including signaling) personnel and/or equipment
with the manufacturer’s recommendations, in the operator’s log. are on hand and properly functioning, and that all personnel involved
Responsibilities in Crane Operations with the crane operation understand the communication systems
General and their responsibilities associated with communications.
a. The operator shall not engage in any activity that will divert his/ Operator Designation
her attention while operating the crane. General
b. The operator shall not leave the controls while a load is suspended. a. Only qualified, designated persons may operate cranes or
c. Before leaving the crane unattended, the operator shall: derricks. Only those operators qualified to operate a particular type
of crane or derrick may operate that type of machinery: proof of
(1) Land any load, bucket, lifting magnet, or other device; qualification shall be in writing. In addition to fully qualified crane
(2) Disengage the master clutch; operators, the following personnel may be designated to operate
(3) Set travel, swing, boom brakes, and other locking devices; cranes under limited conditions:
(4) Put the controls in the off or neutral position;
(5) Secure the crane against accidental travel; and (1) Trainees under the direct supervision of the designated
(6) Stop the engine. operator of the crane;
Exception: When crane operation is frequently interrupted (2) Maintenance personnel who have completed all operator
during a shift and the operator must leave the crane. Under these trainee qualification requirements.
circumstances, the engine may remain running and the following (3) Inspectors who have completed all operator trainee
conditions (including those in paragraphs (1) thru (5) shall apply: qualification requirements. Operation is limited only to functions
(a) The operator shall be situated where unauthorized entry of the necessary to accomplish inspection.
crane can be observed; and b. Each USACE Command with USACE employees designated as
(b) The crane shall be located within an area protected from crane or derrick operators shall designate a qualified individual(s)
unauthorized entry. (in-house or contract) to administer examinations and to qualify
d. The operator shall respond to signals from the person who USACE (but not Contractor) operators.
is directing the lift or an appointed signal person. When a signal c. Contractor crane and derrick operators shall be designated as
person is not used in the crane operation, the operator shall ensure qualified by a professional crane/derrick training or certification
he/she has full view of the load and the load travel paths at all times source that qualifies crane and derrick operators (e.g., an
the load is rigged to the crane. independent testing and qualifying company, a union, a governmental
e. Each operator is responsible for those operations under his/her agency, or a qualified consultant (can be an in house resource)).
direct control, including those items under f, below. Whenever Operator Qualifications and Training
there is any doubt as to safety, the operator shall consult his/her General Proficiency Qualifications
supervisor before commencing the operation. (1) All operators, Government or Contractor, shall be instructed in
f. Except for critical lifts, when these duties will be carried out by the and qualified for each type of crane or derrick he/she is to operate.
lift supervisor, the rigger shall ensure that: (2) Qualification for all crane/derrick operators shall be by written
(1) The crane is level and, where necessary, blocked; (or oral) and practical operating examination unless the operator is
(2) The load is well secured and balanced in the sling or lifting licensed by a State or city licensing agency for the particular type of
device before it is lifted more than a few inches; crane or derrick. (Qualification for crane or derrick operators shall
(3) The lift and swing path is clear of obstructions and adequate be valid for no longer than 5 years from the date of issuance. Prior
clearance is maintained from electrical sources; to re-issuance of qualification, crane/derrick operators must have
(4) All persons are clear of the swing radius of the counterweight. attended at least 8 hours of crane/derrick safety training; passed an
g. When two or more cranes are used to lift one load, one designated operational examination; and pass a physical examination within 2
person shall be responsible for the operation. years.)
(1) The designated person shall analyze the operation and instruct (3) As a minimum, the qualifying examination procedures in Appendix
all personnel involved in the proper positioning, rigging of the load, G shall be followed for all crane/derrick operators.
When the crane manufacturer recommends operator qualifying
examination procedures, those procedures shall be in addition to
(continued on Page 46)
|44 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #5 - SEPT/OCT
(Continued from Page 44 examination and meets the medical Construction Standards
requirements set forth in Appendix G, shall a. Cranes and derricks shall be designed
Marine Pile Driving be submitted to the GDA for acceptance and constructed in accordance with the
prior to allowing a crane/derrick operator to applicable ANSI/ASME standards in effect
the requirements of Appendix G. operate a crane/derrick. at the time of initial construction listed in
b. All crane/derrick operators shall meet the c. USACE crane and derrick operators Table 16-1, and the additional requirements
physical qualifications listed in Appendix G. (not Contractor) shall complete a crane of this manual, whichever is more stringent.
Physical examinations for operators are operators’ course (that is at least 24 hours in b. Modification of existing cranes and
required to be conducted at least biennially length) that covers general crane operation derricks shall be performed in accordance
and any time thereafter if indicated by a and safety. Yearly thereafter, operators with the current ANSI/ASME standards. It
medical condition that may impact on the shall complete an 8-hour refresher course is not the intent of this manual to require
safe operation of a crane/derrick. Written covering safe operation of the type of crane immediate retrofitting of existing equipment.
proof, signed by a physician stating that the or derrick they operate. Crawler, Truck, Wheel and Ringer
crane/derrick operator has had a physical Crane and Derrick Design and Mounted Cranes
1) All lattice boom and hydraulic mobile
cranes (except articulating boom cranes)
shall be equipped with a boom angle
indicator and a load indicating device, or
a load moment indicating (LMI) device
(rated capacity indicator). Calibration and
testing of indicators will be performed
in accordance with the manufacturer’s
2) When cranes are used in duty cycle
operations they are exempt from the
requirements for load indicating devices
and LMI devices.
3) All lattice boom and hydraulic mobile
cranes shall be equipped with a means for
the crane operator to visually determine the
levelness of the crane.
4) On all lattice boom and hydraulic mobile
cranes (except articulating boom cranes),
drum rotation indicators shall be provided
and located to afford sensing by the
operator. Equipment manufactured before
1990 is exempt from this requirement, but
retrofit is highly recommended.
5) All lattice boom and hydraulic mobile
cranes (except articulating boom cranes)
shall be equipped with a boom angle
or radius indicator located within the
When required on a crane/derrick, A2B
devices shall be installed at all points of two
a. Lattice boom cranes shall be equipped
with an A2B device to stop the load hoisting
and boom-down functions before the load
block or load contacts the boom tip.
(continued on Page 48)
|46 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #5 - SEPT/OCT
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(Continued from Page 46 other machine components when extending the boom.
e. Telescopic boom cranes that are used exclusively for duty
Marine Pile Driving cycle operations shall be equipped with a two -blocking damage
prevention feature or warning device to prevent damage to the hoist
b. Lattice boom cranes that are used exclusively for duty cycle rope or other machine components when extending the boom.
operations are exempt from A2B equipment requirements. When a All mobile cranes with cable-supported booms shall be equipped
lattice boom crane engaged in duty cycle work is required to make with:
a non-duty cycle lift (for example, to lift a piece of equipment), it will a. Boom stops that, at the angle specified by the crane manufacturer,
be exempt from the A2B equipment requirements if the following limit the movement of that portion of the boom below the point at
procedures are implemented: which the boom stop acts on the boom.
- An international orange colored warning device (warning flag, - The boom stop manufacturer shall certify that the boom stop has
warning tape, or warning ball) is properly secured to the hoist line been designed, manufactured, and functionally tested such that it
at a distance of 8 ft to 10 ft (2.4 m to 3 m) above the rigging; will fulfill the requirement of SAE Standard J220. (2) A crane boom
- The signal person acts as a spotter to alert the crane operator with stop field test will be conducted to verify the proper setup of the
a “STOP” signal when the warning device approaches the boom tip boom stops and functioning of the boom hoist disengaging device.
and the crane operator ceases hoisting functions when alerted of b. All jibs shall have positive stops to prevent their movement of more
this; than 5’ above the straight line of the jib and boom on conventional
- While the non-duty cycle lift is underway, the signal person shall crane booms.
not stand under the load, shall have no duties other than as a signal c. A properly functioning boom hoist-disengaging device that shall
person, and shall comply with the signaling requirements of this automatically and completely disengage the boom hoisting power
manual. from the boom hoist drum when the boom has reached its highest
c. For lattice boom cranes with manually activated friction brakes, rated angle. When power is thus disengaged, the boom hoist drum
A2B warning devices may be used in lieu of A2B prevention devices. shall automatically be restrained from motion in the lowering
d. Telescopic boom cranes shall be equipped with an A2B device direction under any rated condition.
to stop the load hoisting function before the load block or load
contacts the boom tip and to prevent damage to the hoist rope or (continued on Page 50)
|48 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #5 - SEPT/OCT
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(Continued from Page 48) - Maximum horizontal and vertical forces when handling rated
loads with the particular guy slope and spacing stipulated for the
Marine Pile Driving application, and - Maximum horizontal and vertical forces at the
guys when handling rated loads with the particular guy slope and
- The crane’s foundation shall be evaluated for stability. The spacing stipulated for the application.
evaluation shall consider ground conditions, static and dynamic b. Stiffleg Derricks
loads, and operating quadrants. Cribbing shall be provided in - Maximum horizontal and vertical forces at the mast base when
accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. handling rated loads with the particular stiffleg slope and spacing
Boom Assembly and Disassembly stipulated for the application, and
General - Maximum horizontal and vertical forces at the stifflegs when
a. The manufacturer’s boom assembly and disassembly handling rated loads with the particular stiffleg arrangement
procedures shall be followed. The manufacturer’s boom assembly stipulated for the application.
and disassembly procedures shall be reviewed by all members of 2) Derrick booms, load hoists, and swinger mechanisms shall be
the assembly/disassembly team before the start of assembly and suitable for the derrick work intended and shall be anchored to
disassembly. prevent displacement from imposed loads.
b. When removing pins or bolts from a boom, workers shall stay 3) When rotating a derrick, sudden starts and stops shall be avoided
out from under the boom. Sections shall be blocked or otherwise and rotational speed shall be such that the load does not swing out
secured to prevent them from falling, when necessary. beyond the radius at which it can be controlled. A tagline shall be
General 4) Boom and hoisting rope systems shall not be twisted.
a. When the load to be handled and/or the operating radius 5) Ropes shall not be handled on a winch head without the
require the use of outriggers, or anytime when outriggers are knowledge of the operator. When a winch head is being used, the
used, outriggers shall be fully extended to the appropriate setting operator shall be within reach of the power unit controls.
indicated by the load chart. The outriggers will be deployed so that 6) When securing the boom, dogs or other positive holding
the weight o f the machine is totally removed from the wheels at mechanisms on the hoist shall be engaged.
every setting (except locomotive cranes). 7) When not in use the derrick boom shall be either:
b. When outrigger floats are used, they shall be securely attached a. Laid down;
to the outriggers. b. Secured to a stationary member as nearly under the head as
c. Blocking under outriggers floats shall meet the following possible by attachment of a sling to the load block;
requirements: c. Lifted to a vertical position and secured to the mast (for guy
- Sufficient strength to prevent crushing, bending, or shear failure; derricks); or
- Such thickness, width, and length as to completely support the d. Secured against a stiffleg (for stiffleg derricks).
float, transmit the load to the supporting surface, and prevent Helicopter Cranes
shifting, toppling, or excessive settlement under load; and General
- Use of blocking only under the outer bearing surface of the (a) Prior to the start of any operation involving the use of a
extended outrigger beam floats. helicopter, a thorough survey of the conditions and hazards on the
- Unless the manufacturer has specified an on-rubber rating, job site shall be made by the employer in conjunction with the pilot
mobile cranes shall not pick or swing loads over the side of the or pilot’s representative to ensure a safe operation.
crane unless the outriggers (if so equipped) are down and fully (b) A Code Of Safe Practices shall be formulated and enforced for
extended. operations involving the use of a helicopter. This code shall include,
- Unless recommended against by the manufacturer, crane but is not limited to, the safe practices presented in Appendix Plate
booms shall be lowered to ground level or secured against C-36-a.
displacement by wind loads or other outside forces when not in (c) A daily briefing shall be conducted prior to starting work to set
use. If the manufacturer recommends against this practice, the forth the plan of operation for that day. This briefing shall include
manufacturer’s recommended practice shall be followed. planning to minimize possible hazards of the day’s operation and all
Derricks personnel exposed shall be informed and directed as to safeguards
General and escape procedures.
1) For permanent fixed locations, the owner shall provide the (d) If the helicopter pilot in command for any reason believes
following load anchoring data (for nonpermanent installations, this
data shall be determined by a qualified person): (continued on Page 52)
a. Guy Derricks
|50 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #5 - SEPT/OCT