The words you are searching are inside this book. To get more targeted content, please make full-text search by clicking here.

Lessons-Learned on Phase I of Conducting a Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Case study with Fort McMurray First Nation Prepared by: First Nations Technical ...

Discover the best professional documents and content resources in AnyFlip Document Base.
Search
Published by , 2016-02-25 02:33:02

Lessons-Learned on Phase I of Conducting a Climate Change ...

Lessons-Learned on Phase I of Conducting a Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Case study with Fort McMurray First Nation Prepared by: First Nations Technical ...

Lessons-Learned on Phase I of Conducting a
Climate Change

Vulnerability Assessment:
Case study with Fort McMurray First Nation

Prepared by:
First Nations Technical Services Advisory Group

February 2014


In loving memory of
Donald Quintal, Margret Quintal and Roland Woodward

(Fort McMurray First Nation elders)
Their hard work and love of the environment

helped make this document possible

i


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Climate change is happening. Weather patterns around the world are shifting, including

here in Alberta. Communities throughout the province are noticing the effects of change - from
shifting distributions of plants and animals, to changes in water levels and availability. The
negative impacts of climate change are predicted to disproportionately affect First Nation
communities in Canada and as a result it is integral that First Nations are prepared for what
may come.

Climate change adaptation planning is one tool that can be used to prepare for the
impacts of climate change on First Nation communities. Climate change adaptation planning is
a process through which communities evaluate potential impacts of climate change on the
community and then develop strategies for mitigating the impacts. The goal of a climate change
adaptation plan is to incorporate the mitigation strategies into community planning. Through
climate change adaptation planning, First Nations can have plans in place to face challenges
brought on by climate change rather than scrambling to react to the changes.

An important step involved in climate change adaptation planning is conducting a
“vulnerability assessment.” Climate change vulnerability assessments are used to identify
potential impacts of climate change within a community. In 2013, Fort McMurray First Nation
partnered with First Nations (Alberta) Technical Services Advisory Group (TSAG) to create one
part of a climate change vulnerability assessment for their community. The project used
traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) map-based interviews to gather data on the effects of
climate change on muskeg and other important surface water areas on their reserve and
traditional lands. This lessons-learned document is based on the experiences of all of the
people involved in the production of the Fort McMurray First Nation TEK study.

This document is not a “How To” manual on conducting climate change vulnerability
assessments, but rather an introduction to important concepts, key words, and steps involved
in producing climate change vulnerability assessments. In addition, this guidebook lists a
number of valuable references that can aid in the creation of a climate change vulnerability
assessment and eventually, a climate change adaptation plan.

The bulk of this document will focus on the steps taken by Fort McMurray First Nation
and TSAG in conducting the initial TEK study.

ii


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1: Introduction .................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Climate Change in Alberta .................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Climate Change Adaptation Plans and Vulnerability Assessments ...................................... 3
1.3 Purpose of this Lessons-Learned Document ........................................................................ 5

Chapter 2: Getting Started.............................................................................................................. 6
2.1 Obtaining Chief and Council Support.................................................................................... 6
2.2 Background Research............................................................................................................ 6
2.3 Establishing a Climate Change Adaptaion Planning Advisory Group ................................... 7
2.4 What to Study? ..................................................................................................................... 8

Chapter 3: Creating a TEK Map-Based Component of a Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment
....................................................................................................................................................... 10

3.1 Case Study: Fort McMurray First Nation ............................................................................ 10
3.2 Interviews............................................................................................................................ 11

3.2.1 Interview Guide............................................................................................................ 11
3.2.2 Interview Logistics........................................................................................................ 14
3.2.3 Choosing Maps............................................................................................................. 15
3.3.3 Conducting Interviews ................................................................................................. 16
3.4 The Report .......................................................................................................................... 17
3.4.1 Reading the Transcripts ............................................................................................... 17
3.4.2 Developing the Categories........................................................................................... 17
3.4.3 Developing the Chapters ............................................................................................. 18
3.4.4 Writing the Report ....................................................................................................... 21
3.4.5 Creating A Living Document......................................................................................... 25
Chapter 4: Multi-Media Presentation of Results.......................................................................... 26
4.1 Making the Movie ............................................................................................................... 26
4.2 Making the Pamphlet.......................................................................................................... 27
4.3 Getting the Results Out There ............................................................................................ 29

iii


Chapter 5: The Next Step.............................................................................................................. 30
Acknowledgements....................................................................................................................... 32
References .................................................................................................................................... 34
Appendices:................................................................................................................................... 35

Appendix 1: Glossary ................................................................................................................ 35
Appendix 2: Resources for Developing Vulnerability Assessements........................................ 37
Appendix 3: Resources and Examples for Creating a “Terms of Reference” Document ......... 38
Appendix 4: Resources for Developing a Code of Ethics for First Nations Traditional Ecological
Knowledge Studies.................................................................................................................... 39
Appendix 5: Resources for Conducting TEK Interviews ............................................................ 40
Appendix 6: Climate Change Impacts Being seen in AB First Nation Communities ................. 41

iv


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Flow diagram illustrating the basic steps involved in conducting a climate change
adaptation plan............................................................................................................................... 4
Figure 2: Example of how the interview questions in an interview guide could be organized ... 13
Figure 3: Example of a small scale map (A) and a large scale map (B) ......................................... 15
Figure 4: The outline used in the FMFN TEK-based climate change vulnerability assessment ... 20

v


LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: A selection of potential impacts of climate change in Alberta and associated
consequences for AB First Nations ................................................................................................. 2
Table 2: Examples of community priorities on which climate change vulnerability assessments
can focus ......................................................................................................................................... 9
Table 3: List of tools that can be used when conducting climate change vulnerability
assessments .................................................................................................................................... 9
Table 4: A subset of categories that were used in the FMFN climate change vulnerability
assessment and the associated highlighter colour used on the quotes ...................................... 18
Table 5: Example of an anonymous way of recording quotes said by interviewees ................... 23
Table 6: Examples of additional sections that could be included in a climate change vulnerability
assessment and the suggested topics that each section could cover .......................................... 24
Table 7: Suggested sections to include in a pamphlet on a community’s climate change
vulnerability assessment, as well as the topics each section could cover ................................... 28

vi


CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 CLIMATE CHANGE IN ALBERTA Climate change refers to a change in the state

Climate change is happening. of the climate that can be identified by

Weather patterns around the world are changes in the mean and/or the variability of

shifting, including here in Alberta. Many its properties (ex. temperature, weather
communities throughout the province have events, precipitation,…) and that persists for

already noticed weird weather and with it an extended period, typically a decade or
other strange changes are occurring. For longer. It refers to a change in climate over

example, fish habitat is being affected by time, whether due to natural variability or as a

reduced stream flow in southern parts of the result of human activity (IPCC 2007). In other

province and throughout Alberta, plants that words, when the long-term weather patterns

bloom early in the spring are, on average, that you, your grandparents and your great,

blooming two weeks sooner now than they great, great grandparents are familiar with are

were in the past (Pembina Institute 2012). altered and stay altered for over a decade,

Scientists studying climate change predict that is climate change.
that temperatures in Alberta will increase at

least 2°C over the next 100 years; this seemingly small increase could result in changes so large

they seem impossible. For example, Edmonton could develop a warmer, drier climate like

Calgary’s (Schneider 2013). Some predictions are for even larger temperature increases; these

would have drastic effects on all ecosystems throughout the province. A warming climate could

result in changes to water, forest, prairie and all of the plants and animals that depend on these

systems (Schneider 2013). In addition, the negative impacts of climate change are expected to

be disproportionately felt by First Nations. Table 1 lists a number of potential impacts of climate

change on ecosystems in Alberta as well as the potential consequences of these changes on

Alberta First Nation communities.

Fort McMurray First Nation Insight

“The sun was getting hotter. (There is) hardly any snow in winter. Much shorter winters.
Longer summers, not enough rain. So where the water’s gonna come from? It doesn’t rain. It
doesn’t help very much if it does rain anyway now cause everything that falls from the sky
you know, what comes out of the [industrial] plants it flows in the air and it mix with the rain
and kills the plants, the animals. Affected the animals, fish, water, everything else, lakes,
rivers” (AC) (FMFN Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment 2013).

1


Table 1: A selection of potential impacts of climate change in Alberta and associated
consequences for AB First Nations

Potential impacts of climate change in Alberta Potential consequences of climate change impacts
on AB First Nation

Increased drought  Decreased access to water resources
 Increased erosion

Lower levels of surface water and soil moisture  Declines in water quality
 Greater water stress on plants
 Shifts in the assemblage of plants and animals

Increased survival of pest species (including insect  Increased competition with native animals over
pests, weeds and other invasive species) limited resources

 Declines in access to subsistence plants and
animals

 Destruction of forest stands and agricultural
crops

Shifting distributions of animals  Declines in accessibility of subsistence animals
 Shifts in ecosystem composition

Increased numbers of forest fires  Loss of forest resources for logging
 Declines in habitat for species at risk such as

caribou
 Reduced quality of muskeg areas

Increased flooding  Damage to housing and other band
infrastructure

 Reduced ability to travel
 Declines in water quality

Loss of species, both plants and animals  Farther travel to gather traditional plants and
medicines

 Greater dependence on store-bought, non-
traditional foods

 Declines in health due to decreased exercise
associated with hunting and gathering

Increase in extreme weather events  Higher costs associated with EMS
 Damage to housing and other band

infrastructure

2


1.2 CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION PLANS AND VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENTS

One phrase that is gaining popularity when climate change specialists discuss how to be

best prepared for the changes brought on by climate change is “climate change adaptation

planning”. Climate change adaptation planning is a process through which communities

evaluate potential impacts of climate Vulnerability is defined by the Intergovernmental
change on the community, rank Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) as “the degree to
those risks according to resulting which a system is susceptible to, and unable to cope
impacts and community priorities, with, adverse effects of climate change. Vulnerability
and then develop strategies for is a function of the character, magnitude, and rate of
mitigating the impacts. The final climate change and variation to which a system is
stage in climate change adaptation exposed, its sensitivity, and its adaptive capacity”
planning is incorporating the (IPCC 2007)
mitigation strategies into community

planning. Figure 1 is a visual  In other words, the vulnerability of a
representation of the steps involved community to climate change is how
in climate change adaptation susceptible it is to harm
planning.
Sensitivity is the extent of impact caused by climate
The first stage of the process change
results in the production of a
“climate change vulnerability Adaptive capacity is the ability of a system to
assessment”. This is the stage that accommodate change with minimal disturbance to
this document will focus on. how things were prior to the disturbance

Climate change vulnerability Exposure is the amount of change in climate that a
assessments involve researching system experiences
areas within a community that may
be negatively impacted by climate Resilience is the capacity of a community to recover
quickly from difficulties

change. Vulnerabilities to climate

change can take many forms (refer back to Table 1 for examples); but are always a function of

an area’s sensitivity, adaptive capacity, and the extent of the area’s exposure to climate

change. Climate change vulnerability assessments are the first step that communities can take

towards increasing their resilience in the face of a changing environment.

3


Getting Started: Initiation of the Project Evaluate Progress
 Establish an advisory group and Update
 Collect background information about climate change in the
Adaptation Plan
region
 Seek chief and council approval of project
 Build and maintain community support for the project
 Establish scope of project

Vulnerability Assessment
 Use information to establish climate change scenarios for the

region
 Use climate change data/information to identify which areas of

the community will be affected by climate change
 Assess the vulnerability of each area to climate change impacts

Risk Assessment
 Assess the risks climate change impacts pose for each area
 Prioritize areas on which to focus adaptation plans based on

risk assessment

Adaptation Strategies and Options
 Establish goals the community wants to achieve through the

adaptation plan
 Develop adaptation strategies and options
 Prioritize adaptation strategies and options

Climate Change Adaptation Plan
 Write and finalize the adaptation plan
 Obtain chief and council approval of the adaptation plan

Implementation of the Climate Change Adaptation Plan

Figure 1: Flow diagram illustrating the basic steps involved in creating a climate
change adaptation plan

4


1.3 PURPOSE OF THIS LESSONS-LEARNED DOCUMENT
In 2013, Fort McMurray First Nation partnered with First Nations (Alberta) Technical

Services Advisory Group (TSAG) to create one part of a climate change vulnerability assessment
for their community. Due to funding and timing constraints the initial stage of the vulnerability
assessment focused specifically on important surface water areas in the Fort McMurray area,
including muskegs, lakes, and rivers. The project used traditional ecological knowledge (TEK)
map-based interviews to gather data on the effects of climate change and other cumulative
environmental effects on their reserve and traditional lands. Fort McMurray First Nation is
planning to build on this initial project by completing a more comprehensive vulnerability
assessment, as well as creating a climate change adaptation plan. This lessons-learned
document is based on the experiences of all of the people involved in the production of the Fort
McMurray First Nation TEK study, the initial step towards producing a climate change
vulnerability assessment.

This document is not a “How To” manual on conducting climate change vulnerability
assessments, but rather an introduction to important concepts, key words, and provides a
general overview of the steps involved in producing climate change vulnerability assessments.
In addition, this guidebook lists a number of valuable references that can aid in the creation of a
climate change vulnerability assessment and, eventually, a climate change adaptation plan.

The bulk of this document will focus on the steps taken by Fort McMurray First Nation
and TSAG in conducting the initial TEK study. This is one of many important components in a
comprehensive climate change vulnerability assessment.

5


CHAPTER 2: GETTING STARTED

2.1 OBTAINING CHIEF AND COUNCIL SUPPORT

The goal of climate change adaptation planning is to increase the resilience of a
community to climate change. Ideally, the adaptation plan will be incorporated into and
influence community planning. For this reason it is extremely important to have the support of
chief and council and to involve councilors throughout the planning process.

Involving chief and council may also aid in initially picking a focus for the study. They can
provide insight into the most pressing concerns for the community regarding climate change.

Please note that different First Nations have different methods for getting the support of
chief and council. It is important to follow the appropriate protocol for your community.

2.2 BACKGROUND RESEARCH

Before delving into the climate change vulnerability assessment step of a climate change
adaptation plan, it is important to research resources that already exist within the community
regarding climate change, community planning, etc. Background research can help in
determining the focus of the adaptation plan as well as save hours of work conducting a study
that has already been done. For example, communities that have undergone traditional land
use (TLU) studies may already have a wealth of background information documented. Other
examples of past work include:

 Emergency management plans
 Community development plans
 Source water protection plans
It is also valuable to look into pertinent documents that have been produced outside of the
community. For example:
 Government reports
 Technical reports produced by industry/consulting firms
 Local environmental group reports (e.g. Alberta Lake Management Society documents)
Often background research can uncover important information relevant to climate change
adaptation planning; background research can improve the quality of the document while
simultaneously saving limited resources such as time and money.

6


2.3 ESTABLISHING A CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTAION PLANNING ADVISORY GROUP

Once there is support from chief and council, it is time to organize an advisory group. In
order for a climate change vulnerability assessment to be successful, it is important to consider,
from the very beginning of the project, who from the community should be involved. In
general, adaptation plans are strongest when advisory groups are made up of people that have
knowledge on a broad range of topics that may be impacted by climate change. For example,
advisory groups could include people in departments spanning public works, housing,
agriculture, health centers, fire fighting, EMS etc. Depending on the type of climate change
vulnerability assessment chosen, the people involved in it will vary. However, in general the
more people from the following list that are involved, the more successful the project will be:

 1-2 members of administration. Having the

support of chief and council is integral to FMFN Example
community cooperation as well as to FMFN advisory group included:
increasing the likelihood that the climate
change vulnerability assessment is  Councillor

considered in future community plans.  Elder/youth coordinator

Having a member of the administration at  GIS expert

each meeting, when possible, is ideal  Knowledge holders

 Mix of men and women  Elders

 Knowledge holders e.g. people that know  Youth summer students

the history of the area, people that know  Mix of men and women

the land (e.g. hunters, trappers and

medicine gatherers)

 People from the community with expertise in specific areas relevant to the climate

change vulnerability assessment. E.g. People from the health center, lands department,

public works, agriculture department, industry relations corporation (IRC) etc.

 People involved in planning/programs within the community. This may include many of

the people listed above as well as youth group leaders, elder coordinators, aboriginal

junior foresters etc.

 Elders with expertise in different areas of traditional knowledge (e.g. traditional

medicines, hunting, trapping etc.)

 Youth

In addition to this list of people from the community who should be involved, depending on
the area being assessed, technical experts from outside the community may also be needed.

7


During the establishment of the advisory group, it is recommend that a “terms of
reference” be created for the group. Terms of reference documents outline basic goals and
responsibilities for the project and group. It also provides structure for how the group will
function. For example, how will decisions be made or how will disagreements be resolved? The
document ensures that all participants are on the same page from the beginning of the process.
See Appendix 3 for a list of terms of reference templates and examples.

2.4 PICKING AN AREA OF FOCUS
One of the most difficult parts of conducting a climate change vulnerability assessment

is focusing the study. There are so many different areas of the community that should be
evaluated and so many different ways that the evaluation can be done. Also, many
communities are experiencing change brought on by a number of different factors (for
example, industrial development, agricultural development, tourism, etc.) so it can be hard to
separate out the effects of these from those caused by climate change. In the beginning, all of
this information can be overwhelming. This is why it is so important to have chief and council
involved, a strong advisory group, and completed background research. All these factors
together will help you to keep in mind the community’s highest priorities while balancing your
budget. Table 2 provides a few examples of community priorities that could be the focus of a
climate change vulnerability assessment. Table 3 provides a list of tools that can be used when
collecting background research and when conducting climate change vulnerability assessments.
Please keep in mind that these lists are not exhaustive.

8


Table 2: Examples of community priorities on which climate change vulnerability assessments
can focus

Community priority
Drinking water
Water quality for aquatic life
Band infrastructure (band owned buildings, roads, etc.)
Housing
Food security
Agriculture
Fire
Flooding
Cultural resources and traditions
Transportation

Table 3: List of tools that can be used when conducting climate change vulnerability
assessments

Tools for conducting climate change vulnerability assessments
 Technical surveys
 Traditional ecological knowledge interviews/map-based interviews
 Household surveys
 Questionnaires
 Evaluation of current community protocols and plans (e.g. emergency response plans)

9


CHAPTER 3: CREATING A TEK MAP-BASED COMPONENT OF A CLIMATE CHANGE
VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT
3.1 CASE STUDY: FORT MCMURRAY FIRST NATION

As mentioned at the end of chapter one, this lessons-learned document is based upon
the process that Fort McMurray First Nation (FMFN) underwent in partnership with First
Nations (Alberta) Technical Services Advisory group (TSAG) during the fall and winter of 2013.
FMFN chose to make the first step of their climate change vulnerability assessment a traditional
ecological knowledge (TEK) study on the effects of climate change on important surface water
areas within the Nation’s reserve and traditional lands. For the TEK study, data was collected
using map-based interviews. A detailed report, short movie, and pamphlet were produced
based on the data collected from the interviews. The project also had an important Geographic
Information System (GIS) component. A GIS map layer was produced based on the data
collected in the interviews. This map-layer can be used in future climate change adaptation
plannings. The rest of this chapter, as well as Chapter 4 will discuss the process undertaken
during this study. Examples from this case study will be used throughout this document.

Reminder!
This TEK-map based surface water study is only one small part of a comprehensive climate
change vulnerability assessment. For a thorough understanding of how a community is
vulnerable to climate change, other areas that are susceptible to climate change must also be
assessed.

Appendix 2 provides a list of resources that can be used to learn about other parts of climate
change vulnerability assessments as well as explore how these assessments can be done.

10


3.2 INTERVIEWS

The interview stage is when the majority of data is collected
when doing a TEK map-based study. There are a number of integral steps
that go into ensuring the highest quality data possible is collected.

3.2.1 INTERVIEW GUIDE

After deciding on the type of study that will be conducted (e.g.
TEK map-based interviews) and the focus of the study (e.g. important
surface water areas), it is time to begin designing the interview guide.
This is one of the most important steps of conducting a TEK map-based study because the
interview guide enables the gathering of data to fulfill the goals of the project. The quality of
the data collected during the interview is often directly related to the quality of the interview
guide. Due to the importance of this step, this lessons-learned document will not provide a
detailed “how-to” on designing an interview guide. Instead it is strongly recommended that
documents focused specifically on this purpose be reviewed. Provided below are some
examples of the types of document that should be consulted:

 A Guide to Community-Based Monitoring for Northern Communities (1998) by Brenda
Parlee in collaboration with Lutsel K’e Dene First Nation

 Chief Kerry’s Moose: a guidebook to land use and occupancy mapping, research design
and data collection (2000) by Terry N. Tobias

 Living Proof: the essential data-collection guide for indigenous use-and-occupancy map
surveys (2009) by Terry N. Tobias

The above mentioned references provide guidance in how to create a strong interview
guide that enables the collection of unbiased data. Although this lessons-learned document
does not provide adequate details in this area, it will cover a number of general guidelines that
were helpful when conducting a surface water TEK map-based study in Alberta. These
guidelines are:

1. Each interview should follow the same set of questions listed in the interview guide.
Having consistency in the questions posed to each interviewee strengthens the data collected.
One tip to ensuring that this is done is to define, prior to beginning the interview, key words
that will be used throughout the interview that have a specific meaning. For example, the
difference between what is meant by the word “hunt” and the word “kill.” Keeping terms

11


consistent instead of switching between words with similar, but different meanings, helps
make sure that the same information is being collected each time an interview question is
posed to a different interviewee. This having been said, it is ok to change the order of the
questions or skip questions depending on the expertise of the interviewee. It is important to
engage interview participants early on in the interview. This can be done by starting with the
questions that fall within the participant’s area of interest. An engaged interviewee provides
higher quality data (Tobias 2009).
2. It is also essential to avoid tiring out both the interviewee and the interviewer. As a
result, the interview guide should be designed so that the interview lasts no longer than 2
hours (Tobias 2009). This is an appropriate amount of time to gather sufficient quantities of
high quality data without compromising the data due to interview exhaustion. If it is noticed
that the interviewee is becoming tired, the interview can be adjusted to shorten its length.
3. Use vocabulary that is easily understood by the interview participants and ask questions
simply and succinctly (Tobias 2009). If the interview questions are multi-part, use jargon, or
are poorly worded, it can result in interviewees becoming confused, frustrated and more
easily tired.
4. Organize the questions in logical sections that flow smoothly. See Figure 2 for an
example of how this can be done.

Once a rough draft of the interview guide has been developed, be sure to show it to the
advisory committee prior to commencing the interviews. It is important that the interview
guide asks the right questions in order to fulfill the community’s goals for the project.

12


PERSONAL INFORMATION ABOUT The interview should start with basic
THE INTERVIEWEE personal information about the

GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT interviewee. This establishes their areas of
THE TOPIC OF THE STUDY knowledge and timeline of that knowledge

IDENTIFICATION OF KEY The information collected in this section of
AREAS TO COLLECT the interview should not be tied to a
specific place – think of it as general
INFORMATION ABOUT
DURING STUDY background information about the topic

KNOWLEDGE ABOUT This section establishes consistent place
THE KEY AREAS names and locations – it is important to
make sure different names are not being
IDENTIFIED BY THE
INTERVIEWEE used to discuss the same place

INFORMATION The information collected in this section of
ABOUT CHANGES the interview is knowledge the
IN THE KEY AREAS
interviewee has about the topic, but
OVER TIME information tied to specific locations – the
questions asked depend entirely upon the

topic of the study

The information collected in this section
of the interview is what makes

vulnerability assessments different than
use and occupancy studies. These

questions are about the changes the
interviewee has observed in the identified

key areas over time

Figure 2: Example of how the interview questions in an interview guide could be
organized. One possible arrangement is to have the information flow or progress from general to
specific. This arrangement can be visualized or thought of as a funnel of information. However, keep
in mind that this is just one example, there are many ways the information could be organized - it
depends upon the topic and goals of the project!

13


3.2.2 INTERVIEW LOGISTICS FMFN Example

Together with the FMFN advisory group had two group trips out on the
advisory group, people chosen to land prior to the interviews. These trips helped the
participate in the interviews advisory group decide which topics were important to
should be selected. Once this has cover during the interviews. Due to weather the
been decided it is important to interviews were conducted inside; however, the trips
have a pre-interview meeting on the land were integral in setting the stage for the
with everyone who is involved to interviews.
further explain what the

interviews will entail. As part of “To us this was our farm, the farm we were supposed to
this meeting, the specific areas live in for the rest of our lives. We had all our animals,
each interviewee would like to all the feed for them and we had everything...” (VC)
speak about, and where the (FMFN Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment 2013)
interviewee would like to be

interviewed can be discussed. Interviews on the land are often desirable, but due to a number

of constraints (weather, time, mobility, size of map being used) this option is not always

feasible. The interviewee’s home, an office or boardroom at the band administration building

are also good options. In addition, it is recommended that the interview guide be shown to the

interviewees at this meeting. It is a good idea to get the advisory group and elders’ feedback on

the interview guide prior to the interviews.

Other integral topics that should be discussed at this stage in the planning process are
protection of privacy, confidentiality and intellectual property, as well as the terms of use for
the data collected. A thorough respect and understanding of the ethics involved in conducting
research is integral to the success of the project. Many First Nations already have a code of
ethics in place regarding the collection of TEK; if this is the case, it is very important to review
and follow the guide provided. If this is not the case, Appendix 4 lists a number of resources
that can help guide the ethics component of the study.

14


3.2.3 CHOOSING MAPS
The scale of maps chosen to use in the interviews is dependent on the goals of the

project. If, for example, the goals of the project are to talk broadly about how climate change
has affected surface water use over large regions, than having a map that covers a large region
(called a “small scale map”; Figure 3A) is appropriate. However, if the goals of the project are to
find out specific surface water areas that have been impacted by climate change, and how
those impacts have manifested, then having more detailed maps (called a “large scale map”;
Figure 3B) may be appropriate. If it is unknown which areas an interviewee may want to talk
about prior to the meeting, it is possible to start the interview with a small scale map of the
area, and as the interviewee begins to focus on key places, switch maps to use ones with a
larger scale.

Figure 3: Example of a small scale map (A) and a large scale map (B)

It is good to have a number of different colored pens and markers on hand during the
interviews. The interviewees should mark and draw on the maps to indicate the areas that they
are talking about. Different coloured markers help visually organize the data marked on a map.
Marking information and locations on maps is an integral component of data collection because
it improves the quality of the data provided and, in addition, aids the interviewer when they are
interpreting the data at a later time.

15


3.3.3 CONDUCTING INTERVIEWS

Prior to conducting interviews it is important for the interviewers to have proper training.
There are a number of excellent resources which can be followed. See appendix 5 for some
examples. In addition to acquiring proper training, here are some tips that can increase the
quality of data collected in an interview.

 As often as possible, conduct interviews on the land. When this is not a feasible option,
choose a location that is comfortable and familiar to the interviewee

 Bring snacks. They are good for morale and keep up energy levels
 Audio record the interviews. This is extremely important in order to ensure the

interviewee is properly recorded. Audio recordings also increased the credibility of the
data that is collected. Without audio recordings to prove the accuracy of data, the data
will not stand up in court. Having an audio record is also necessary in producing
transcripts to be used in writing the report1
 Video record the interviews. This will come in handy if it is decided that a video of the
project is going to be made1
 Begin the interview with straight forward demography questions. It is a good warm up
for interviewees who are nervous about being interviewed (Tobias 2009)
 Do not push the interviewees. If a participant seems to be tired, if they say they want to
stop, or appear uncomfortable, move on or end the interview. This will help ensure the
data is as accurate as possible
 Provide a translator for interviewees that prefer to be interviewed, and give answers, in
their traditional language. People should be interviewed in the language that allows
them to express themselves most clearly (Tobias 2009)

At the conclusion of an interview it is important to reiterate how intellectual property rights
work for the data collected. It is important that the interviewees understand who owns the
data collected during the interview and that they are clear on how the data will be used.

Once all of the interviews have been completed, transcripts of the interviews need to be
produced (transcripts are typed records of everything that was said, who said it, and in what
order during the interview). Consider contracting out the transcribing of the interviews. This job
can be very labor intensive without training and experience, yet is relatively low cost to
outsource.

1 Prior to making videotaping or making audio recordings of the interviews, ensure that they know you are
recording and that they sign a consent form. Please review appropriate ethic guides for more details.

16


3.4 THE REPORT
Once the interviews with the elders and other knowledge holders are finished, there will

be hours of audio and video recordings as well as pages upon pages of transcripts; how do you
turn all this valuable information into a reader-friendly report? There are a number of steps
involved, the first being to read through all of the interview transcripts. When you have read
through the entire set of transcripts, go back and read them one more time.

3.4.1 READING THE TRANSCRIPTS
The first time reading through the transcripts from the interviews, simply read through

them. The first reading is an opportunity to get familiar with the material covered. Often there
is too much happening in the middle of an interview to really have the interviewees’ words sink
in. It is important to re-familiarize yourself with the content covered in the interviews.

Before the second time reading through the transcripts, go back and re-read the
interview guide. Re-familiarize yourself with the goals of the project. This time, as the
transcripts are read through, think about different categories that encapsulate different parts
of the interview.

3.4.2 DEVELOPING THE CATEGORIES
By now the content of the interviews should be familiar. The next step is to create a list

of categories that can be used to sort through the interviews and group similar concepts from
the interviews together. These categories will eventually form the different sections of the
climate change vulnerability assessment report.

Categories are topics or concepts that can be used to communicate more complete
stories. Table 4 provides a list of category examples. One handy trick that makes this process go
smoothly is to have a highlighter or marker of different color for each category. As the
transcripts are read through, different quotes that fall under each category can be highlighted
with different colors. This visually separates the categories and makes them easier to group
together later.

17


Table 4: A subset of categories that were used in the FMFN climate change vulnerability
assessment and the associated highlighter colour used on the quotes

Category Highlighter color

Wildlife Blue

Plants Green

Water Quality Yellow

Water Quantity Orange

Air Quality Purple

Resilience Pink

Effects of change on health Forest Green

Effects of change on culture Lime Green

Use of the muskeg Dark Pink

3.4.3 DEVELOPING THE CHAPTERS
Once the categories have been solidified and important quotes have been highlighted, it is time
to develop an outline for the report. One option for organizing the report is to use the
geographical places identified as important during the interviews as the chapter titles. Then the
categories that are relevant to those places can be placed within the chapter. Some categories
will not fit within a specific place but are broader concepts that apply to the region as a whole
(for example see the box below and the chapter title “Resilience.” Resilience to climate change
is an ongoing category for which conclusions can be drawn by looking at examples from all of

18


the chapters). These categories can make up unique chapters and are often used to tie the rest
of the document together.

At this point it is time to pick out quotes that the report will be based around.
Conveniently, the quotes are already highlighted! Insert the quotes into the outline. It should
be clear if the report follows a logical order. Please see the blue box on the next page for a
partial example outline of a climate change vulnerability assessment TEK report on surface
water. This outline is based on the FMFN climate change vulnerability assessment; names of
places have been changed to protect the privacy of the First Nation.

This may be a good time to meet, once more,
with the advisory group. The group can provide
feedback on whether the outline of the report
accurately tells the story of their community’s
vulnerability to climate change.

19


Figure 4: The outline used in the FMFN TEK-based climate change vulnerability
assessment

Introduction

 Definition of climate change
 Climate change impacts on surface water
 Importance of water

o Quotes
 Importance of muskeg

o Quotes
Methods

 TEK interviews
Willow Lake

 Site Description
 Water movement

o Quotes
 Water Quality and Levels

o Quotes
 Wildlife and Fish

o Quotes
 Plants

o Quotes
 Reasons for Change

o Quotes
 Timeline for Change
General Overview
Impacts on Health, Traditional Way of Life and Culture
Resilience
Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References

20


3.4.4 WRITING THE REPORT

After all of the hard work that has already been put into the project, writing the report
will no longer be an overwhelming task. All that is left to do is to tell the story that has formed
around the categories and quotes.

3.4.4.1 QUOTES

There are two ways that quotes can be inserted into the text. Try using both when
writing the report. Using different ways of inserting quotes will make the report more
interesting to read.

1. The majority of the quotes should be inserted verbatim into the text. The quotes are
identified as such with the use of quotation marks and italicization. The knowledge
holder that provided the quote should be acknowledged.

The water quality in Machial Creek
and surrounding muskeg was a
major concern for all of the
respondents that discussed this
area. For many, the ways that they
have changed their use of the lake
and muskeg acts as an indicator of
water quality. “Water gave us
health. We use(d) to drink it
straight from the creek, now we are
scared to drink it” (LM).

“You use(d) to be able to
drink the water. Now there is no
way I would” (AD)

2. Alternatively, quotes can be referenced within the text. For this option the quotes are
paraphrased into the author’s words so that quotation marks are no longer needed. It is
still important, however, to reference the knowledge holder for providing the quote.

The water quality in Machial Creek and surrounding muskeg was a major concern
for all of the respondents that discussed this area. For many, the ways that they
have changed their use of the lake and muskeg acts as an indicator of water

21


quality. For example, when interviewees no longer believed the water to be safe,
they ceased drinking it (LM, AD).

It is important to document and record within the report which interviewee is
responsible for which quote. This increases the credibility of the data used and thus the
credibility of the report. There are a number of different ways that a quote and an interviewee
can be linked depending on the preference of the interview participants. In the two examples
above, the initials of the interviewees that said the quotes are found following the quotes.
Similarly, some people may wish that their first initial and their entire last name be used (e.g. L.
MacIntyer). Some people, however, may not be comfortable being identified at all. People may
not feel that they can speak freely about certain topics if they know that they will be linked to

the statement; for example land-users may fear that
others will take advantage of a family hunting spot or
medicine picking area, or people may not be
comfortable talking about the industries that they work
for. In these cases, a number of different techniques
can be used to assure all quotes are anonymous. One
of the most straight forward ways of doing this is to
randomly assign a number to each interviewee that can
be used instead of their initials. For example, A.
Dumpter could be assigned the number 1, while L. MacIntyer could be assigned the number 2.
If this were the case the above quote would look like the following:

The water quality in Machial Creek and surrounding muskeg was a
major concern for all of the respondents that discussed this area. For
many, the ways that they have changed their use of the lake and
muskeg acts as an indicator of water quality. “Water gave us health.
We use(d) to drink it straight from the creek, now we are scared to
drink it” (2).

The water quality in Machial Creek and surrounding muskeg was a major concern
for all of the respondents that discussed this area. For many, the ways that they
have changed their use of the lake and muskeg acts as an indicator of water
quality. For example, when interviewees no longer believed the water to be safe
they ceased drinking it (1, 2).

22


If the interviewees would like even more anonymity each quote can be assigned a
number based on when it appears in the text (e.g. the first quote will be #1), the writer of the
report can keep a spreadsheet of which quote numbers were said by which interviewee.

Table 5: Example of an anonymous way of recording quotes said by interviewees

Interviewee Quotes linked to interviewee

Laura MacIntyer 1, 6, 9, 11

Amanda Dumpter 2, 3, 8

Rose Raccoon 4, 5, 7, 10

3.4.4.2 BODY OF REPORT

The bulk of the report will be made up of information on each of the different places
identified as important during the interviews that were circled on the map. The number of
important areas will depend on what came out of the interviews; there is no right or wrong
number of sections.

In addition to the main text of the report, there are a number of other sections that
should be included. For example, including a methods section is very important. This is the part
of the report where it is explained how the data was collected and processed. It lays out, step-
by-step, how each part of the study was done. By including a methods section you increase the
validity of the study; for example, if a study does not have a methods section, the data within
the document cannot be used in court. In addition, methods sections make a study
reproducible. Having a project that is reproducible is valuable because it can ensure that other
related studies done within the community are done in a consistent way. Consistency in
methodology increases the value of the data. Finally, including a detailed methodology helps to
bridge gaps often produced by staff turn-over. A report with a well written methods section
contains all the information needed regarding how the project was done; the people that
conducted the report are not needed in order for the report to be understood. A number of
ideas for other sections are also listed in the table below.

23


Table 6: Examples of additional sections that could be included in a climate change vulnerability
assessment and the suggested topics that each section could cover. Based on FMFN climate
change vulnerability assessment

Examples of additional sections for the Topic includes
report

Methods  How research was conducted
 Scale of maps used
 Interview participant selection
 Intellectual property right terms

Traditional Language Name Table  Traditional language and common names for the places
studied

General Overview  Discussion of themes that applied to all sites discussed.
E.g. traditional uses of the muskeg

Impacts on Health, Traditional Way of  How the effects of climate change on surface water have
Life and Culture affected First Nation people’s health, traditional way of
life and culture

Vulnerability and Resilience  Discussion of the vulnerabilities to climate change that
became apparent throughout the study

Conclusion  Summary of the main findings from the study
 What are the next steps and action items

Acknowledgements  Thank you to everyone who participated in the project as
well as the people/organizations who funded/supported it

List of References  List of literature cited throughout the report

Upon the completion of the rough draft it is time, once again, to meet with your
advisory group. Prior to the meeting, provide each interviewee and all of the members of the
advisory group with a copy of the rough draft. Ensure that everyone has the time needed to
review the document prior to the meeting. For the meeting it is a good idea to have specific
questions for the group to help guide the conversation.

It is important to incorporate comments from the advisory group into the final copy of
the report. It is also important to make the report “readable.” Including pictures from the
community, and large, easy to read font sizes, will make the report accessible to more people.

24


3.4.5 CREATING A LIVING DOCUMENT
One of our most important recommendations is that the document be made a living

document. This means that the report has room to change as time goes on. If possible, it is a
good idea to contact the interviewees at least once within the year after the report is written to
see if there is any additional information that they feel the report should contain. This should
be done by either the original person that wrote the report, or by someone that was closely
involved in the process. As the report is being amended it is integral to keep in mind the initial
goals of the study; changes should align with these goals. Different communities will have
different systems in place for how an amendment may happen; these should be put in place
prior to the completion of the project.

25


CHAPTER 4: MULTI-MEDIA PRESENTATION OF RESULTS

Once the report has been written there is still one very
important job left to do - get the findings from the report out
into the community! Having a document of how a community is
vulnerable to climate change is a good start towards being
prepared for potential changes brought on by climate change,
but if people from the community do not know, or do not care
about it, then it may become a document sitting on a shelf getting dusty. If people know about
it, they will care and this will allow the project’s momentum to continue.

Presenting the findings of the report a number of different ways can greatly contribute
to the success of the project. People of different ages and educational backgrounds perceive
information differently. If videos, pamphlets, and/or brochures are produced in addition to the
information-dense report, it will help people throughout the community have a greater
understanding of what the project was about. The goal of the project is to record climate
change vulnerabilities within the community; however, if no one reads the report to know what
the vulnerabilities are, then only a small step has been taken in the right direction.

4.1 MAKING THE MOVIE

Movies and videos can be highly effective ways of communicating the goals and findings
of a project to a community. They are often universally understood across literacy levels and
ages as well as fun to watch. In addition, it is exciting for the people that participated in the
interviews to see themselves on the big screen! However, in order for a movie to have a
positive impact, it is important that it is well done. One of the key steps to having a successful
movie is to hire a professional video storyteller or videographer. A professional videographer
helps not only by shooting a good shot, but also by keeping in mind how that shot fits in with
others to tell a larger story.

A videographer is also able to ensure that enough of the right type of video footage is
collected to make the video interesting. For example, most interviews that follow a structured
interview guide do not make good movies. Too many of the answers generated from the
questions are the same from one interviewee to another which can be boring to watch; a
videographer will be able to suggest a few additional questions to make the movie more
interesting.

If a movie is to be incorporated into a community’s climate change vulnerability
assessment, it is also important that this is planned for from the beginning. Similar to consent

26


forms that are needed to voice record an interview, interviewees must give official consent to
being filmed. In addition, the longer that a videographer is involved, the more useable footage
they will have to work with. Hiring a videographer can be expensive; the earlier their fees are
incorporated into the budget, the higher the likelihood of having the resources to hire one.

4.2 MAKING THE PAMPHLET
Pamphlets are a great way of telling a community about the goals and findings of a

project. Pamphlets can be made so that the information is accessible to a large audience by
making them more reader-friendly than the report. For example, pamphlets can be more
general than the report; they can address the main goals and findings of the project instead of
being bogged down by documenting all of the facts. Pamphlets can be made in a variety of
ways with a number of different computer programs. Regardless of the style chosen, when
making a pamphlet, it is important to make it reader friendly by including pictures from the
project as well as including the following sections:

27


Table 7: Suggested sections to include in a pamphlet on a community’s climate change
vulnerability assessment, as well as the topics each section could cover

Sections to be included in the pamphlet Topics covered

Background  Why was the project done?

Definitions  Define important words that help to clarify the project

Introduction to the Community  Who was involved?
 Why did they care?

Goals  What were the goals of the project?
 What was the research question?

Methods  How was the study conducted?

Findings  What did the study find?
 Why did the study matter?

Conclusion  What were the most important findings for the community?
 What is the next step?

Acknowledgements  Who took part in the study?
 Who provided funding and support?

Contact Information  Who can people contact if they want to learn more about
the project and its findings?

Pamphlets also have an advantage over videos in that they are inexpensive to produce
and are easy to distribute as PDF documents. With a bit of computer know-how, making a
pamphlet is a breeze.

28


4.3 GETTING THE RESULTS OUT THERE

One of the key ways to ensure the success of the climate

change vulnerability assessment is to share the FMFN Example

information with as many different members of the FMFN has been very successful in
community as possible. There are a number of different telling the community about
techniques that can be employed to help with this their project. They had a film
process: debut at their community’s

 Show the movie at a community event Easter feast and take care to
 Place pamphlets at the band office, health always have a stack of pamphlets
available in the band office and
center, schools, and any other places in the other FMFN buildings! The
community where large numbers of people visit community has been very
 School presentations. The video can be shown in supportive.
school classes of appropriate age and pamphlets

can be given out to reinforce the message

 Talk about it! Word of mouth is one of the best ways to spread information. More

people talking about the project means that more people will hear about it

29


CHAPTER 5: THE NEXT STEP

In order to create a complete, comprehensive climate change vulnerability assessment,
the assessment needs to extend beyond a surface water TEK map-based interview study.
Additional areas that could be affected by climate change also need to be assessed, including
emergency management services, economic projects and basic infrastructure. Understanding
the potential impacts of climate change on various resources and infrastructure within the
community is integral to a deeper understanding of the challenges the people of that
community might face.

Once the vulnerabilities to climate change within a community are understood, you are

ready for the next steps: risk ranking, developing adaptive strategies and producing a climate

change adaptation plan. It may seem like a daunting task to move from the vulnerability

assessment to a plan for the future, but once you have worked through the stages of the

vulnerability assessment you will likely find that you have already covered many aspects of the

adaptation plan and have come up with several mitigation strategies without even realizing it.

Once the plan is developed, it can be incorporated into community planning. The adaptation

plan, like the vulnerability assessment, is a living

FMFN is preparing for the next stage in document to be revisited and edited as community

the climate change planning process. In needs and/or risks change.

2014 – 2015 they are hoping to begin a Communities that have climate change
climate change adaptation plan. In the adaptation plans are able to be proactive when
meanwhile they are organizing an faced with a changing climate. By reading this
event with elders and summer students document you are already moving in the right
previously involved in the project in direction to ensure that your community
order to increase conversations about understands and is prepared for the effects of
the importance of the muskeg and how climate change on the environment and traditional
it may be impacted by climate change. ways of life.

30


Recommendations made by the FMFN advisory group:
 This is what one Elder had to say regarding the importance of having the climate
change vulnerability assessment be a living document: “I think to be able to go
back and to see and to know what you are looking for now, whereas before, we
were just, you know, in a rush. Do this, we are looking for this, we are looking for
that. We did not have time to look for everything that we wanted too” (PC)

 When asked what should have been added to the project, one group member
commented “You know I was thinking, for the next step, we should actually go
out and do these things, you know we talk about the muskeg. We’ll go and make
a fridge, make the insulation, get the baby moss and use the moss!” (CR)

 The FMFN climate change vulnerability assessment was completed in 7 months.
This is what one member of the FMFN advisory group said regarding the length of
time spent on the project “You can’t rush Elders, you need to give them time to
look at things. When I go out in the bush I take the time to look at the trees, look
at whatever I want without having to rush, rush, and rush. I am not blaming
anyone about the rush that we had last year. It just went so fast. To me I think is
important, you need more time when you are out in the bush to see things” (AC)

 When discussing if one-on-one interviews were an effective way to do this type
of a study one Elder stated “I certainly liked the interviews… it gave you time to
do your own thing, your own way, your own knowledge... Whereas when you
have more than 2 people your mind shifts from one place to another.” (PC)

 Words of advice to other communities from FMFN advisory group include:
o “Watch over the moss and muskeg. Take care of them” (VC)
o “Tell your children” (RC)

31


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We thank all the Fort McMurray First Nation elders that shared their experience

working on the Fort McMurray First Nation Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment; Julie
Cheecham, Philip (Man) Cheecham, Violet Cheecham-Clark, August Cree, Robert Cree, Donald
Quintal, Margret Quintal, Bob Snyder, and Roland Woodward. Without their participation the
production of this lessons-learned guidebook would not have been possible. We would also like
to thank Harry Cheecham, Cheeko Desjarlais, and Cleo Reece for their feedback and support
over the course of this project. Funding for this project was provided by Aboriginal Affairs and
Northern Development Canada Climate Change Adaptation Program.

Photo Credits:
Cheeko Desjarlais: page 25
Cleo Reese: page 14a
Daniel: page 22
First Nations Technical Services Advisory Group: pages 11, 18b, 27
Fort McMurray Youth: pages 5, 21
Julie Cheecham: pages 18a, 18c, 19, 32
Robert Cree: pages 14b, 14c, 26

32


33


REFERENCES
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007) Climate Change 2007 Synthesis Report.
Pachauri, R.K. & Reisinger, A. (Eds) IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland pp. 104
Parlee, B.L. 1999.Traditional knowledge literature review aquatic effects monitoring program
guidelines. Traditional Knowledge Interim Working Group. Water Resources Division, Indian and
Northern Affairs Canada. Yellowknife, NT.
Pembina Institute (2012) Climate Change Impacts to Biodiversity in the Prairie Provinces.
Prepared for Prairies Regional Adaptation Collaborative (PARC) and Fish and Wildlife Division,
Alberta Environment and Sustainable Resource Development. Accessible at:
http://www.parc.ca/rac/fileManagement/upload/SRC_Grasslands_Pembina%20Institute_Biodi
versityReport.pdf
Schneider, R. (2013) Alberta’s Natural Sub-Regions under a Changing Climate: Past, Present, and
Future. Prepared for the Biodiversity Management and Climate Change Adaptation Project.
Accessible at:
http://www.biodiversityandclimate.abmi.ca/docs/Schneider_2013_AlbertasNaturalSubregions
underChangingClimate_ABMI.pdf
Tobias, T. (2009) Living Proof: The Essential Data-Collection Guide for Indigenous Use-and-
Occupancy Map Surveys, Ecotrust Canada & Union of BC Indian Chiefs, Vancouver, Canada

34


APPENDICES:
APPENDIX 1: GLOSSARY
Adaptation; making adjustments in our decisions, activities and thinking because of observed or
expected changes in climate

Adaptive capacity; the ability of a system to accommodate change with minimal disturbance to
how thing were prior to the disturbance

Climate change; a change in the state of the climate that can be identified by changes in the
mean and/or the variability of its properties and that persists for an extended period typically a
decade or longer. It refers to a change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability
or as a result of human activity. Climate change is when the climate that you, your
grandparents and your great-grandparents have always known, changes

Climate change adaptation plan; a document produced by a
community/organization/government that provides specific details on how to mitigate the
effects of climate change. A climate change adaptation plan identifies and prioritizes risks
resulting from a changing climate. The plan provides mitigation strategies

Climate change vulnerability assessment; the first stage in a climate change adaptation plan.
Climate change vulnerability assessments identify how susceptible a community is to climate
change and where the greatest susceptibilities lie

Exposure; the amount that a system is faced with the climate change

Map scale; the ratio of a distance on the map to the corresponding distance on the ground.
Large scale maps have greater detail then small scale maps because the ratio between the
distance on the map and on the ground is less

Resilience; is the capacity of a community to recover quickly from difficulties

Sensitivity; the extent of impact caused by climate change

35


Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK); is considered to be the body of accumulated
knowledge that has developed over many generations about the environment (Parlee 1999)
Vulnerability; the degree to which a system is susceptible to, and unable to cope with, adverse
effects of climate change. Vulnerability is a function of the character, magnitude, and rate of
climate change and variation to which a system is exposed, its sensitivity and its adaptive
capacity

36


APPENDIX 2: RESOURCES FOR DEVELOPING VULNERABILITY ASSESSEMENTS
Below is a list of resources that may aid in the development of different parts of climate change
vulnerability assessments.

 Climate Change Adaptation Framework Manual (2010) by Alberta Sustainable Resource
Development

 Climate Change Adaptation Planning: Background Material (2013) by Institute for Tribal
Environmental Professionals

 Progress Report of the Interagency Climate Change Adaptation Task Force:
Recommended Actions in Support of a National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy
(2010) by Interagency Climate Change Adaptation Task Force (White House Council on
Environmental Quality): www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ceq/Interagency-

Climate-Change-Adaptation-Progress-Report.pdf

37


APPENDIX 3: RESOURCES AND EXAMPLES FOR CREATING A “TERMS OF REFERENCE”
DOCUMENT
Below is a list of resources for creating a terms of reference document for climate change
vulnerability assessment, as well as sample terms of reference documents.

 Terms of Reference Template by Government of Nova Scotia:
http://novascotia.ca/psc/pdf/employeeCentre/recognition/toolkit/step2/Terms_of_Ref
erence_Template.pdf

 Sample Terms of References Contract (for community based research) by Wellesley
Central: http://depts.washington.edu/ccph/pdf_files/MOU6.pdf

 Terms of Reference Template by State Government of Victoria Department of Education
and Early Childhood Development:
http://www.education.vic.gov.au/Documents/school/principals/community/termsofref
erencetemp.pdf

38


APPENDIX 4: RESOURCES FOR DEVELOPING A CODE OF ETHICS FOR FIRST NATIONS
TRADITIONAL ECOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE STUDIES
Below is a list of resources that may aid in the ethical development of a traditional ecological
knowledge climate change vulnerability assessment.

 Ethics in First Nations Research (2009) by Assembly of First Nations Environmental
Stewardship Unit

 Considerations and Templates for Ethical Research Practices (2007) by First Nations
Centre

 Ownership, Control, Access, and Possession (OCAP) of Self-Determination Applied to
Research: A Critical Analysis of Contemporary First Nations Research and Some Options
for First Nations Communities (2004) by First Nations Centre

 Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans (2010) By
Canadian Institute of Health Research, Nations Science and Engineering Research
Council of Canada, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada

39


APPENDIX 5: RESOURCES FOR CONDUCTING TEK INTERVIEWS
Below is a list of resources that may aid in conducting TEK interviews that can be used in
climate change vulnerability assessments.

 Participatory Research Kit: Conducting Interviews (2010) by Datacenter:
http://www.datacenter.org/wp-content/uploads/Interview_toolkit.pdf

 Observations on the Utility of the Semi-Directive Interview for Documenting Traditional
Ecological Knowledge (1998) by Henry P. Huntington. Source: Arctic, Vol. 5, No. 3, p.
237-242

 Who Knows? On the Importance of Identifying "Experts" When Researching Local
Ecological Knowledge (2003) by Anthony Davis & John R. Wagner. Source: Human
Ecology, Vol. 31, No. 3, p. 463-489

40


APPENDIX 6: CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS OBSERVED IN AB FIRST NATIONS’ COMMUNITIES

In the winter of 2014 a “Planning for Environmental Change” workshop was held by First Nation
Technical Services Advisory Group (TSAG). During the workshop participants were asked to list
climate change impacts that they are already witnessing in their communities. Below is the list.

 Increased extreme weather
 Stronger winds
 Increased incidence of tornados
 Sun feels hotter
 Increased flooding
 Changing snowpack
 Decreasing water levels
 Seasonal fluctuations in water level changing

o More flat lining; less fluctuation
 River is smaller (narrow)
 Changing ice pack

o Less predictable
 Changing fire season

o E.g. If there is less moisture in the spring, fire season may start earlier in the year
 Fewer traditional plants
 Plants and trees are drying
 Animal migration shifts

o Breeding season shifts
 Confused waterfowl
 Animals are being displaced

**At the workshop there was also extensive discussion about oil and gas development
throughout AB. Workshop participants expressed deep concern about the affects of industrial
development on the landscape alongside the effects of climate change. They discussed the
need for increased dialogue concerning the impacts of cumulative effects on their land and
water.

41


Click to View FlipBook Version
Previous Book
Quantity Takeoff & Surveying
Next Book
QA and QC