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Published by pyaro tv, 2021-04-30 04:39:32

science-2

RS15_science-2

d/] f] lj1fg, :jf:Yo
tyf zf/Ll/s lzIff
sIff #

ks| fzs
gk] fn ;/sf/
lzIff dGqfno

kf7o\ j|md ljsf; sG] b|

ks| fzs M gk] fn ;/sf/
lzÔf dGqfno
kf7o\ jm| d ljsf; sG] b|
;fgf]l7dL, eStk/'

ISBN: 978-99933-717-8-6

© k|sfzsdf

klxnf] ;+:s/0f M lj=;+= @)%!
k'gd'{b0| f -gof“ j0f{ ljGof;cg';f/_ M lj= ;=+ @)&#

dN" o ? &@÷—

kf7\oj|md ljsf; s]Gbs| f] lnlvt :jLs[ltlagf Jofkfl/s k|ofh] gsf nflu o;sf] k/' }
jf cf+lzs efu xa' x' k|sfzg ug,{ kl/jt{g u/]/ ks| fzg ug,{ sg' } ljB'tLo ;fwg
jf cGo kl| jlwaf6 clen]va¢ ug{ / kl| tlnlk lgsfNg kfOg] 5}g .

xfd|f] egfO

lzIffnfO{ pB]Zod"ns, Jofjxfl/s, ;d;fdlos / /f]huf/d"ns agfpg ljleGg ;dodf
kf7\oj|md, kf7\ok':ts ljsf; tyf kl/dfh{g ug{] sfo{nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbO“b} cfPsf] 5 . ljBfyLd{ f
/fi6«, /fli6«o Pstf / nf]stflGqs ;+:sf/sf] efjgf k}bf u/fO{ gl} tstf, cgz' f;g / :jfjnDag,
l;h{gzLntf h:tf ;fdflhs Pjd\ rfl/lqs u'0f tyf cfwf/et" eflifs tyf ul0ftLo l;ksf ;fy}
lj1fg, k;] f Joj;fo, ;"rgf tyf ;~rf/ k|ljlw, jftfj/0f / :jf:Yo ;DaGwL cfwf/e"t 1fg /
hLjgf]kofu] L l;ksf] ljsf; u/fpg' h?/L 5 . pgLx¿df snf / ;fG} bo,{ dfgjLo d"No dfGotf,
cfbz{ / j}lzi6o\ x¿sf] ;/+ If0f tyf ;+jw{gk|ltsf] efj hufpg cfjZos 5 . ;dfj]zL ;dfhsf]
lgdf{0fdf ;xof]u k'¥ofpg pgLx¿df ljleGg hfthflt, lnª\u, ckfª\utf, efiff, wd{, ;+:s[lt /
Ifq] kl| t ;defj hufpg' / dfgj clwsf/ tyf ;fdflhs dN" o dfGotfkl| t ;rt] eO{ lhDdj] f/Lk"0f{
cfr/0fsf] ljsf; u/fpg' klg cfhsf] cfjZostf ags] f] 5 . k|fylds lzIff kf7o\ j|md @)^@ nfO{
dn" cfwf/ dfgL lzIff ;DaGwL ljleGg cfofu] sf ;e' mfj, lzIfs, ljBfyL{ tyf cleefjsnufot
lzIff;“u ;Da¢ ljleGg JolSt ;lDdlnt uf]i7L / cGtlj{|mofsf lgisif{ / ljleGg ljBfnodf
k/LIf0f u/L kf| Kt k[i7kf]if0f;d]tnfO{ ;d]6L of] kf7o\ k:' ts tof/ kfl/Psf] xf] .

lj1fg tyf jftfj/0f / :jf:Yo lzIffsf ljifoj:t' Pp6} k:' tsdf ;d]6L dfx] guf]kfn Gof5\of],“ b'uf{
/]UdL, xl/zªs\ / dfgGw/ / /fdKof/L >i] 7åf/f ‘d]/f] ;/] f]km] /f’] k:' ts nv] g sfo{ ePsf] lyof] .
k|:t't k:' tsdf lj1fg tyf jftfj/0f, :jf:Yo ;Da¢ ljifo j:t'nfO{ cnu cnu v08sf ¿kdf
;dfj]z ul/Psf] 5 . o; k':tssf] nv] g Pjd\ kl/dfh{g sfo{ lj1fg tyf jftfj/0ftk{m /fsz] >i] 7,
6ªs\ nfn u/} ,] gfg' bjf8L, afnsi[ 0f rfkfufO+{ / ofu] G] b| s8“ n] ;n+ Ug /xge' Psf] sfob{ naf6 / :jf:Yo tyf
zf/Ll/s lzIfftkm{ xsk{ ;| fb >i] 7, 8f= /fdsi[ 0f dxhg{ , uLtf sfsL,{ bj] /fh dxhg{ / ks| fz dxhg{ ;n+ Ug
/xge' Psf] sfob{ naf6 ePsf] xf] . o; k:' tssf] ljifo j:t' ;Dkfbg /fdk;| fb ;j' b] L, 8Da/Wjh cfªb\ D] a,]
k|sfz dxh{g / k'0ok|;fb l3ld/a] f6 ePsf] xf] . o;sf] efiff ;Dkfbg lji0f'k|;fb clwsf/L tyf k?' iffT] td

l3ld/a] f6 ePsf] xf] . o; k:' tsnfO{ rf/ /ªdf ljsf; ug{ / o;sf] ¿k ljGof; Pjd\ snf ;Dkfbg sfo{ >Lxl/

>]i7n] ug'{ePsf] xf] . o; kf7o\ k:' tssf] ljsf; tyf kl/dfhg{ sfod{ f ;n+ Ug ;ak} l| t kf7o\ jm|d ljsf;
sG] b| wGojfb ks| 6 ub5{ .

kf7\ok':tsnfO{ lzIf0f l;sfOsf] dxTTjk0" f{ ;fwgsf ¿kdf lnOG5 . o;af6 ljBfyL{n] kf7o\ j|mdåf/f
nlIft ;Ifdtf xfl;n ug{ dbt k'Ug] ck]Iff ul/Psf] 5 . o; kf7\ok':tsnfO{ ;s;] Dd lj|mofsnfkd'vL
/ ?lrs/ agfpg] ko| Tg ul/Psf] 5 . kf7\ok':tsnfO{ cem} kl/is[t kfgs{ f nflu lzIfs, ljbo\ fyL{,
cleefjs, a'l¢hLjL Pjd\ ;Dk"0f{ kf7sx¿sf] ;d]t dxTTjk"0f{ e"ldsf /xg] x'“bf ;Da¢ ;a}sf]
/rgfTds ;e' mfjsf nflu kf7\oj|md ljsf; s]Gb| xflb{s cg/' f]w ub{5 .

g]kfn ;/sf/
lzIff dGqfno

lj= ;+= @)&# kf7o\ j|md ljsf; sG] b|



ljifo ;"rL

kf7 zLifs{ ki[ 7 ;ªV\ of

v08 ! M lj1fg !–^&
kf7 !
kf7 @ ;hLj j:td' f kfOg] ;femf nIf0fx¿ !
kf7 #
kf7 $ ;hLj / lghLj{ j:t'df km/s &
kf7 %
kf7 ^ hgfj/x¿sf] af;:yfg !!
kf7 &
kf7 * hgfj/x¿sf] vfgf / vfg] tl/sf !%
kf7 (
kf7 !) ljleGg Ct' / ;dodf bv] fkg]{ hgfj/x¿ !(
kf7 !!
kf7 [email protected] ljleGg ks| f/sf la?jfx¿ @)
kf7 !#
kf7 !$ la?jf / hgfj/af6 x'g] kmfObf @*
kf7 !%
kf7 !^ xfdf| ] j/k/sf] jftfj/0f #%

ljleGg k|sf/sf kbfyx{ ¿ $)

axs] f] xfjf / kfgLsf] pkof]u $#

atf; rn]sf] lbg $^

lr;f] lbg $(

afbn / kfgL %@

kY[ jL %^

;"rgf / ;r" gf k|jfxsf ;fwgx¿ ^)

xfd|f sx] L :yfgLo kl| jlwx¿ ^#

v08 @ M :jf:Yo lzIff ^*–!)$

kf7 ! ;kmf z/L/ ^*
kf7 @ Jofofd, cf/fd / kf;] fs &@
kf7 # ;kmf 3/, 5/l5ds] / 6fn] &^
kf7 $ vfgs] '/fsf] ;|ft] *)
kf7 % ;/' lIft vfgs] /' f *#
kf7 ^ /f]usf sf/0f / nIf0f *^
kf7 & /f]usf] /f]syfd / pkrf/ ()
kf7 * b'36{ gfsf sf/0fx¿ (#
kf7 ( :jf:Yo ;j] f (*
kf7 !) w"dkfg !)@

v08 # M zf/Ll/s lzIff !)%–!##

kf7 ! ultzLn cj:yfsf l;kx¿ !)%
kf7 @ l:y/ cj:yfsf l;kx¿ !)(
kf7 # sjfh !!!
kf7 $ zf/Ll/s Jofofd !!#
kf7 % ;fwf/0f vn] x¿ !!*
kf7 ^ :yfgLo v]nx¿ [email protected])
kf7 & xfdL clego u/L vn] v]N5f} “ [email protected]#
kf7 * syfgs v]nx¿ [email protected]$
kf7 ( dnfO{ esG' 8f] pkmfg{ cfp5“ [email protected]^
kf7 !) lhDgfl:6s sfo { !#)
kf7 !! ;Gt'ng !#@

v08 ! M lj1fg

kf7 !

;hLj j:td' f kfOg] ;f´f nIf0fx¿

xfdf| jl/kl/ kfOg] ;hLj j:tx' ¿sf sx] L nIf0fx¿af/] xfdLn] sIff @ df
kl9;s]sf 5f“} . o; kf7df ;hLj j:t'x¿df kfOg] ;femf nIf0fx¿af/]
sx] L yk hfgsf/L xfl;n ug]{ 5f}“ .

;hLj j:t'df kfOg] nIf0fx¿
;hLjsf] rfn xG' 5 M kf| oM ;hLj j:t' Ps 7fp“af6 csf]{ 7fpd“ f hfg
;S5g\ . r/fx¿ p85\ g\ . ufOx{ ¿ lx8“ 5\ g\ . df5f kfgLdf kfl} 8G5g\ .
o; k|sf/ ltgLx¿ cfk"mnfO{ dg nfu]sf] 7fpd“ f uPsf] xfdLn] b]vs] f
5f}“ . s] ltdLn] sg' } ;hLj j:t' cfk\mg} rfndf cfpg g;ss] f] bv] ]sf

1

5f} < o:tf] lsg ePsf] xf]nf eGg ;S5f} < ljrf/ u/, ;hLj j:t'sf]
zf/Ll/s agf]6cg';f/ ltgLx¿sf] rfndf cfpg] tl/sf eg] km/s
km/s x'G5 .

;hLjsf] jl[ ¢ x'G5 M ;hLj j:tx' ¿ ;fgfa] f6 a9b\ } uP/ 7n' f] cfsf/
df k'U5g\ . xfdLn] cGgafnL -wfg, ux“' cflb_, t/sf/L vt] L ubf{
;fgf la?jfx¿ 7'nf x'“b} uPsf] b]v]sf 5f}“ . dflg;nufot cGo
hgfj/x¿ ;fgfa] f6 7n' f] xb“' } uPsf] klg xfdLn] cge' j u/s] f 5f}“ . s]
;hLj j:t'x¿ afr“ G' hn] ;Dd jb[ \lw x“b' } hfG5g\ < ljrf/ u/L eg .
;hLjn] vfgf vfG5g\ M ;a} ;hLj j:tx' ¿n] afR“ gsf nflu vfgf
vfG5g\ . afR“ gnfO{ zlStsf] cfjZostf k5{ . ;hLjn] vfgfaf6 zlSt
k|fKt u5g{ \ . s'g} hgfj/n] 3f;“ kft / cGgafnLdfq vfG5g\ . s'g}n]
hgfj/x¿ tyf df;' vfG5g\ . la?jfn] klg xfjf / df6fdf ePsf kfgL
Pjd\ o;df 3'n]sf j:t'x¿ ;f];]/ cfk\mgf] vfgf agfp5“ g\ .

2

;hLjn] ;f; k]m5g{ \ M ltdLn] slxNo}
gfs / d'v Ps} k6s aGb u/]sf
5f} < o;f] ubf{ ;f; k]mg{ gkfP/
ltdLnfO{ cK7\of/f] ePsf] xf]nf .
Psl5g u/]/ x/] . dflg;nufot
ljsl;t hgfj/sf] ;f; km] g{] aflx/L
cª\u gfs xf] . df5fn] 6fpsfsf]
bfof“ afof“ /x]sf k'mNsfaf6 ;f;
lnG5g\ . la?jfdf eg] kftdf ePsf
clt ;;fgf l5b|af6 ;f; lng] sfd
x'G5 .

;hLjn] ;Gtfg pTkfbg u5{g\ M
;hLj j:t'x¿n] cfk"m h:t}
;Gtfg hGdfp“5g\ eGg] s'/f
xfdLn] sIff @ df kl9;s]sf
5f“} . s'g} hgfj/n] aRrf hGdfP/,
s;}n] k'mn kf/]/ ;Gtfg pTkfbg
u5{g\ . la?jfdf eg] kmnleqsf]
lapaf6 6';f knfP/ gof lj?jf
xG' 5 .

3

;hLj j:t'df rt] gf xG' 5 M

sg' } hgfj/nfO{ wkfpg vfH] bf ltgLx¿
efU5g\ . xfdf| ] xft tftf] j:td' f kbf{
´6\6 lgsfN5f“} . nHhfjtL ´f/nfO{
5fO] lbb“ f of] sx] L ;do cfO] nfPsf] h:tf]
bl] vG5 . ;hLj j:td' f rt] gf ePsfn]
o:tf 36gfx¿ bl] vPsf xg' \ . rt] gfn]
;hLjnfO{ sg' } sfd ug{ cxf| p5“ .
s'g} 36gfkl| t kl| tlj|mof bv] fpg ;Sg]
;hLjsf] Ifdtf g} rt] gf xf] .

;hLjdf lgisf;g ljm| of xG' 5 M

;hLjn] vfgf vfPsf] ;a} s'/f kRg ;Sb}gg\ . vfPsf s'/faf6 z/L/
nfO{ sfd nfUg] s'/fdfq z/L/df emfn] sf ¿kdf ;f]l;G5g\ . sfd
gnfUg] s/' f pgLx¿n] z/L/af6 aflx/ kmfN5g\ . dnd"q Tofu ug{,'
kl;gf cfpg,' la?jfdf rf]k lg:sg' ;hLjdf x'g] lgisf;gsf s]xL
pbfx/0f x'g\ .

ljm| ofsnfk !

ltdf| ] jl/kl/ kfOg] sg' } kfr“ cf6] f ;hLj j:t'x¿sf rfn cjnf]sg
u/ . ltgLx¿sf] rfn s:tf] 5, n]v .

4

lj|mofsnfk @

ltdf| ] 3/ jf ljBfno j/k/ kfOg] kfr“ cf]6f hgfj/ / kfr“ cf]6f
la?jfsf gfd n]v . ltgLx¿ klxnf sqf lyP / clxn] sqf 5g\, ltdf| ]
cjnfs] g / cg'ejsf cfwf/df n]v .

ljm| ofsnfk #

ltdF| ] jl/kl/ kfOg] kfr“ cf6] f ;hLj j:tx' ¿sf] gfd nv] . ltgLx¿n] ;f;
km] g{] sg' sg' aflx/L cª\ux¿ ltdLn] b]v]sf 5f}, cjnf]sg u/L nv] .

lj|mofsnfk $

ljm| ofsnfk @ df ltdLn] n]v]sf ;hLj j:t'dWo] s'g s'gn] k'mn kf5g{ \
/ s'g s'gn] aRrf hGdfp“5g,\ 5'6o\ fP/ n]v .

cEof;

!= l7s eP √ / al] 7s eP x lrxg\ b]pm M

-s_ la?jfnfO{ vfg]s/' f cfjZos k5{ .
-v_ la?jfn] ;f; k]m5{ .
-u_ a; -uf8L_ Ps 7fp“af6 csf]{ 7fp“df n}hfg
;lsG5 . To;}n] of] ;hLj xf] .
-3_ sldnfn] s]xL vf“b}g .
-ª_ df6] / ;fOsndf lgisf;g lj|mof xG' 5 .
To;n} ] of] ;hLj xf] .

5

@= tnsf k|Zgx¿sf] pTt/ b]pm M
-s_ ;hLj j:t'sf kfr“ cf6] f nIf0fx¿ n]v .
-v_ la/fnfnfO{ vfg afn] fp“bf cfp“5 t/ n6\7L b]vfpb“ f efU5, lsg

xfn] f <
-u_ la?jfnfO{ hldgaf6 pv]n]/ kmfNbf of] ;s' /] d5,{ lsg xf]nf <
-3_ hgfj/ / la?jfdf x'g] j[bl\ wdf s] km/s b]V5f,} n]v .
-ª_ xjfOh{ xfh klg p85\ , r/f klg p85\ . s] oL bj' } ;hLj xg' \ <

lsg <
-r_ hgfj/ / la?jfdf s;/L ;Gtfg pTkfbg xG' 5, n]v .

lzIF0f lgb{z] g M
ljleGg ;hLj j:tx' ¿sf] pbfx/0f lb“b} o;sf ljleGg nIf0fx¿af/] k:| 6 kfgx{' f;] \ .
vfgf, rfn, r]tgfh:tf nIf0fx¿ jg:kltdf klg x'g] s/' f pbfx/0f;lxt atfOlbg'xf];\ .
hgfj/x¿df lglZrt cjlw;Dd dfq jl[ ¢ x'G5 eg] la?jfx¿df hLjge/ g} j[l4 eO/xG5 eGg
s'/f pbfx/0f lbP/ :ki6 kfl/lbgx' f;] \ .

6

kf7 @

;hLj / lghL{j j:td' f km/s

xfdf| jl/kl/ ljleGg lsl;dsf j:tx' ¿ kfOG5g\ . s'g} j:t'x¿ ;hLj
5g\ eg] sg' } lghLj{ 5g\ . dflg;, r/f, ss' /' , af6] la?jf cflb ;hLj xg' \
eg] dr] , uf8L, 9ª' u\ f cflb lghLj{ j:t' xg' \ . lghLj{ j:tn' ] ;hLj j:ts' f
ljleGg cfjZostfx¿ k"/f ug{ ;xof]u k¥' ofp5“ g\ . ;hLj j:t'x¿sf]
d[To' ePkl5 lghLj{ j:td' f kl/0ft x'G5g\ . cl3Nnf] kf7df ;hLj
j:t'df kfOg] nIf0fx¿sf af/]df kl9;s]sf 5f} . ca oL b'Ol{ arsf]
km/ssf] ;r" L agfpg ;S5f} < sf]l;; u/L x/] .

7

;hLj j:t' lghL{j j:t'

-s_ ; h L j j : t ' n ] v f g f -s_ lghL{j j:t'nfO{ vfgfsf]

vfG5g\ . cfjZostf kb{g} .

-v_ ; h L j j : t ' n ] r f n -v_ lghL{j j:t'sf] rfn

bv] fpg ;S5g\ . x“b' g} . logLx¿ c¿n] an

nufPkl5 dfq rfndf

cfp5“ g\ .

-u_ ;hLj j:t'x¿sf] jb[ \lw -u_ lghLj{ j:tx' ¿ pq} cfsf/df

xG' 5 . logLx¿ ;fgfa] f6 /xG5g\ . logLx¿sf] j[l¢

7'nf] xb“' } hfG5g\ . xb“' }g .

-3_ ; h L j j : t ' n ] ; f ; -3_ l g h L { j j : t ' n ] ; f ;
k]m5{g\ . ;f; k]mg]{ lj|mof k]mb}{gg\. logLx¿df
gePdf logLx¿sf] d[To' dg]÷{ afR“ g] k|ljm| of x“'b}g .
x'G5.

-ª_ ;hLj j:tn' ] cfkm" h:t} ;Gtfg -ª_ lghL{j j:t'n] ;Gtfg hG-

pTkfbg ug{ ;S5g\ . dfpg ;Sbg} g\ .

-r_ ;hLjsf] r]tgf x'G5 . -r_ lghLj{ sf] r]tgf x“b' g} .

8

lj|mofsnfk !

;hLjsf nIf0fx¿sf cfwf/df 6a] 'n / la/fnfdf s] s] km/s kfp5“ f,}
;fyLx¿lar 5nkmn u/L tflnsf agfP/ nv] .

ljm| ofsnfk !

la?jf /f]lkPsf] Pp6f udnf np] m . udnf / la?jfdf s] s] ljzi] ftfx¿
kfof}, 5nkmn u/L n]v .

cEof;

!= hf8] f ldnfpm M lx“85\
pk|mG5
-s_ r/f 3;|G5
kf8} G5
-v_ ;k { p8\5
-u_ df5f
-3_ dflg;


@= l7s eP √ / al] 7s eP × lrxg\ bp] m M

-s_ vfn] fdf 7n' f 9ª' u\ fsf] glhs} ePsf ;fgf 9'ª\uf To;sf
;Gtfg xg' \ .

-v_ hgfj/n] ;Gtfg pTkfbg ub}{gg\ .

-u_ la?jfnfO{ vfgf rflxG5 .

9

-3_ la?jfn] ;f; k]mb}g{ g\ .
-ª_ dflg;df rt] gf x'G5 .
#= tnsf k|Zgsf] pTt/ b]pm M
-s_ ;hLj / lghL{jlar kfOg] s'g} rf/ cf6] f km/s nv] .
-v_ la?jf / hgfj/df kfOg] bO' { cf]6f km/s n]v .
-u_ ltdLnfO{ dg kg]{ sg' } Pp6f hgfj/sf] lrq nv] .

10

kf7 #

hgfj/x¿sf] jf;:yfg

hgfj/x¿nfO{ 3fd, kfgL,
xfjfx/' L / cGo ;d:ofaf6 aRg
jf;:yfgsf] cfjZostf
k5{ . sltko hgfj/x¿ cfkm\ gf]
jf;:yfg cfkm} “ agfp5“ g\ . sx] L
hgfj/x¿ k|fs[lts ¿kdf
/xs] f 7fp“x¿nfO{ g} cfkm\ gf]
jf;:yfg agfp5“ g\ .

hgfj/x¿ cfkm\ gf] z/L/ cgs' "n
jf;:yfg agfP/ a:5g\ . r/fx¿
?vdf u“'8 agfp5“ g\ . logLx¿sf]
z/L/ Kjf“vn] 9flsPsf] xG' 5 .

d;' fx¿ cfk\mgf bft“ / v'66\ fsf]
dbb\ tn] hldgleq b'nf] agfP/
a:5g\ . ;k{sf] z/L/ ;nSs
k/]sf] xG' 5 / of] klg hldgdf
bn' fl]eq a:5 .

hª\undf kfOg] v/fof] cfk}m“ n] b'nf]
agfP/ To;df a:5 . l;x+ / af3

11

hªu\ ndf ePsf u'kmfleq a:5g\ .
o:tf] uk' mfnfO{ cf]8f/ klg elgG5 .
df}/Lx¿ 3f/df a:5g\ .
3/kfnj' f hgfj/x¿ a:g] 7fp“
dflg;n] agfOlbG5g\ . ufOe{ }“;L
uf]7, afv|f vf]/ / 3f8] f tan] fdf
a:5g\ .
sx] L hgfj/x¿ kfgLdf a:5g\
eg] sx] L hgfj/x¿ hldg / kfgL
bj' }df a:5g\ . df5f kfgLdf
a:5g\ . logLx¿sf] z/L/ lrKnf]
xG' 5 . logLx¿ kv]6f / k'R5/sf]
;xfotfn] kfgLdf kf8} G5g\ . uf]xL,
uu“ 6f, Eofu'tf, s5j' fx¿ kfgL /
hldg bj' } 7fp“df a:g ;S5g\ .

lj|mofsnfk !

ltdLn] b]Vb} cfPsf s'g} kfr“ cf6] f hgfj/sf gfd nv] . tL hgfj/x¿sf]
af; a:g] 7fp“ sxf“ /x5] , cjnf]sg u/L l6kf6] u/ .

12

cEof;

!= tn lbOPsf jfSodf ldNg] u/L vfnL 7fp“ e/ M

-s_ ;hLj j:tn' fO{ 3fd, kfgL, xfjfx'/L / zq'af6 aRg
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + sf] cfjZostf k5{ .

-v_ r/fx¿ a:g] 7fpn“ fO{ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + eG5g\ .
-u_ ufO{ a:g] 7fpn“ fO{ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + elgG5 .
-3_ l;+x a:g] 7fpn“ fO{ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + elgG5 .
-ª_ afv|f a:g] 7fp“ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + xf] .

@= hf]8f ldnfpm M

hgfj/ jf;:yfg

-s_ d';f uf]7
-v_ ufO{ ta]nf
-u_ r/f 3f/
-3_ df5f u“8'
-ª_ 3f]8f kfgL
hldgsf] b'nf]

13

#= tn lbOPsf k|Zgx¿sf] pQ/ nv] M
-s_ hgfj/nfO{ jf;:yfg lsg rflxG5 <
-v_ af“b/ sxf“ a:5 <
-u_ ltdLnfO{ dg kg]{ hgfj/sf] gfd nv] / Tof] sxf“ a:5,atfpm .
-3_ ltdLnfO{ dg kg]{ hgfj/ a:g] 7fps“ f] lrq agfpm .
-ª_ hldg / kfgL bj' } 7fpd“ f a:g] sg' } bO' { cf6] f hgfj/sf gfd nv] .

lzIf0f lgbz{] g M
ljBfyLx{ ¿nfO{ pgLx¿n] b]vs] f hgfj/x¿ sxf“ a:5g,\ vfh] L ug{ pTk|]l/t u/fpgx' f];\ .

14

kf7 #

hgfj/x¿sf] vfgf /
vfg] tl/sf

;a} hgfj/x¿nfO{ afR“ gsf nflu vfgf rflxG5 . hgfj/x¿sf vfg]
s'/f klg km/s km/s ks| f/sf xG' 5g\ . xfdL klg vfgf vfG5f}“ .
hgfj/x¿n] vfgf vfg] tl/sf klg km/s km/s k|sf/sf x'G5g\ .
3f;“ kft vfg] hgfj/x¿
xfdf| jl/kl/ kfOg] w/] h} ;f] hgfj/x¿n] af6] la?jf / To;af6 aGg]
j:t'x¿ vfG5g\ . hª\undf klg 3f“;kft vfP/ af“Rg] hgfj/x¿ w]/}
5g\ . logLx¿sf bf“t 5f]6f / dl;gf xG' 5g\ . logLx¿sf gª\uf| xb“' }
gg\ . kf| oM v/' xG' 5g\ . logLx¿sf] alnof] y't'gf] x'G5 . jg:klthGo
j:tx' ¿ vfP/ afR“ g] hgfj/x¿nfO{ zfsfxf/L elgG5 . ufO,{ e;“} L, e8] f,
rf}/“ L, uwf, d[u, v/fofh] :tf hgfj/x¿ zfsfxf/L xg' \ . s] ltdLnfO{
c¿ zfsfxf/L hgfj/sf] gfd yfxf 5 <

15

df;' vfg] hgfj/x¿

ltdLx¿n] c¿ hgfj/x¿nfO{ df/]/ df;' vfg] hgfj/x¿ b]v]sf
5f} < sx] L hgfj/x¿ c¿ hgfj/x¿sf] df;' vfP/ afR“ 5g\ . logLx¿sf
ltvf bft“ , alnof kGhf / ltvf gªu\ f| x'G5g\ . c¿ hgfj/x¿sf]
df;' vfP/ afR“ g] hgfj/x¿nfO{ df;+ fxf/L hgfj/ elgG5 . af3,
lrn, Ajf;“ fh] :tf hgfj/x¿ df+;fxf/L xg' \ . sltko hgfj/n] df;'
n'5L rkfP/ vfG5g\ . s;}n] cGo hgfj/nfO{ l;ªu\ } lgn]/ vfG5g\ .
;k{n] Eofut' f] lgns] f] / 5k] f/fn] ls/f km6\ofªu\ f| lgn]sf] bv] ]sf 5f} <

df;' / 3f;“ kft bj' } vfg] hgfj/x¿

sltko hgfj/ df;' / 3f“;kft bj' } vfG5g\ . aªu\ /' , s's'/, la/fnf,]
sfu, sv' /' fn] df;' / 3f“;kft b'j} vfg ;S5g\ . s's'/, la/fnfsf] bf“t
/ gªu\ |f ltvf x'G5g\ . r/fsf] r'Rrf] x'G5 . logLx¿n] cGgsf u]8f
l6k]/ vfG5g\ . dflg;sf bf“t, gª df+;fxf/L h:t} ltvf xb'“ g} g\ t/
sltkon] df;' klg vfG5g\ . df;' / 3f“;kft b'j} y/Lsf vfgs] '/f vfg]
hgfj/nfO{ ;jf{xf/L elgG5 .

ljm| ofsnfk !

ltd|f] 3/ / ljb\ofno jl/kl/ kfOg] sg' } bO' { cf]6f zfsfxf/L hgfj/x¿
cjnfs] g u/ . ltgLx¿n] s;/L vfG5g,\ cjnf]sg u/L l6kf]6 u/ .

ljm| ofsnfk !

ltd|f] 3/ / ljb\ofno jl/kl/ kfOg] s'g} Pp6f df;+ fxf/L hgfj/ cjnf]
sg u/ . To;n] s;/L vfG5, l6kf]6 u/ .

lzIF0f lgb]{zg M
zfsfxf/L, df+;fxf/L / ;jf{xf/L hgfj/sf lrq jf df8] n jf jf:tljs j:t' cjnfs] g u/fO{
pgLx¿sf vfgf vfg] aflx/L cªu\ x¿sf] km/s 5'6o\ fpg nufpgx' f];\ .

16

ljm| ofsnfk !

Pp6f ;jfx{ f/L hgfj/n] s] s] vfgs] '/f vfg ;Sbf] /x]5, cjnf]sg tyf
;fw] vf]h u/L l6kf6] u/ .

cEof;

!= vfnL 7fp“df pkoS' t zAb 5fg/] n]v M

-s_ ;fukft dfq vfP/ afR“ g] hgfj/nfO{ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + elgG5 .
-zfsfxf/L, df;+ fxf/L, ;jf{xf/L_

-v_ df;'dfq vfP/ af“Rg] hgfj/nfO{ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + elgG5 .
-zfsfxf/L, df;+ fxf/L, ;jfx{ f/L_

-u_ 3f;“ kft / df;' b'j} vfg] hgfj/nfO{ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + elgG5 .
-zfsfxf/L, df+;fxf/L, ;jf{xf/L_

-3_ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + zfsfxf/L hgfj/ xf] . -d';f, v/fof,] la/fnf_]
-ª_ l;x+ sf] n5' g\ ] bft“ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + xG' 5 . -af]wf,] ltvf,] sdhf/] _

@= tn lbOPsf kZ| gsf] pTt/ n]v M

-s_ df;'dfq vfP/ afR“ g] kfr“ cf6] f hgfj/sf gfd n]v .
-v_ 3f“;kft dfq vfP/ af“Rg] kf“r cf]6f hgfj/sf gfd nv] .
-u_ df+;fxf/L / zfsfxf/L hgfj/n] vfgf vfg] tl/sfdf s]

km/s 5, n]v .
-3_ ltdLnfO{ dg kg{] Pp6f zfsfxf/L hgfj/sf] lrq agfpm .
-ª_ df;' / 3f;“ kft bj' } vfP/ afR“ g] kfr“ cf6] f hgfj/sf gfd nv] .

17

kf7 #

ljleGg Ct' / ;dodf
bv] f kg{] hgfj/x¿

xfdf| jl/kl/ an] fan] fdf bl] vg] hgfj/x¿ ;we“} l/ Psgf;n] bl] vb“ g} g\ .
kf| oM jiffo{ fddf bl] vg] Eofut' f, u8“ o\ fn} f / ;kx{ ¿ lxpb“ \ jf hf8f]ofddf
bv] f kb{}gg\ . kf| oM hldgdl' g ns' /] a:g] oL hgfj/x¿ udL{ ofddf
hldg tft/] ;txdf b]vf k5g{ \ . logLx¿sf] z/L/ cf]l;nf] / lr;f]
xG' 5 . jiff{t\sf] ;dodf hldgdf cfl] ;nf] df6f] kfOG5 .
k'tnLx¿ k|foM k'mn k'mNg] df};ddf a9L b]lvG5g\ . ufOg] ls/f
udL{ tyf jiff{ ofdsf] ;f“´kv a9L b]vf k5{g\ . l´“uf, ;fª\
nfx¿ klg kf| oM udL{ dlxgfdf a9L bv] f k5g{ \ . ufy“} nL / rd/] f]
udL{ tyf jiffo{ fdsf] ;f´“ kv a9L bv] f k5g{ \ . oL hgfj/ cfkm\ gf]
z/L/ ;'xfp“bf] jftfj/0f kfOg] cj:yfdf a9L b]vf k5{g\ .
nfdv'6\6] / zª\v] ls/f s'g ofddf b]vf k5{g\, ltdLn] ofb
u/]sf 5f} < hg' ls/L, nf6f]sf];/] f,] rd/] f] /fltdfq bv] f k5{g\ .

18

ltdLx¿n] cfkm\ gf] j/k/ bv] s] f hgfj/x¿ ;w“} ;a} ofddf b]vf k5g{ \
t < lsg o:tf] ePsf] xf]nf, ;fyLx¿;“u 5nkmn u/ .

lj|mofsnfk !

labfsf] lbg laxfg ltdLn] p7]bl] v ;f“´ kg]{ a]nf;Dd sg' sg' ls/f /
r/fx¿ b]Vof}, sflkdf l6kf]6 u/ .

cEof;

!= s] ;a} hgfj/x¿ ;a} ofddf bv] f k5g{ \ < sg' s'g hgfj/x¿
sg' s'g ofddf b]lvG5g\, ;"rL tof/ u/ .

@= tn lbOPsf hLjx¿dWo] udLo{ fddf kfOg] hLjx¿ 56' \ofpm M

5k] f/f] ;k{ h'gls/L rd]/f]

nfdv'6\6] lrKn]ls/f nf6f]sf;] ]/f ]

#= vfnL 7fp“df pko'St zAb /fv M
-s_ u“8\of}nf kFo| M ======================= ofddf bl] vG5g\ .
-v_ k'tnLx¿ k|foM ======================= df};ddf bl] vG5g\ .
-u_ Eofu'tfx¿ kf| oM ======================= ofddf b]lvG5g\ .

-3_ km/s======================= n] ubf{ ;a} hgfj/x¿ ;w“} bv] f kb{}gg\ .

lzIf0f lgbz{] g M
ljBfyLx{ ¿nfO{ cfk\mg} 3/ jl/kl/ b]lvg] hgfj/x¿ cjnf]sg ug{ nufO{ l6kf]6 ug{ nufpgx' f];\ .

19

kf7 ^

ljleGg ks| f/sf la?jfx¿

la?jfnfO{ ?v, a'6o\ fg / ´f/ u/L ltg ;dx" df af“8\g ;lsG5 . pSt
s'/f xfdLn] cl3Nnf] sIffsf] kf7df g} kl9;s]sf 5f}“ . ca xfdL o;
kf7df la?jfsf] km' n km' N5 jf k'mNbg} , s:tf la?jf sxf“ kfOG5g\ eGg]
af/] k9g\ ] 5f“} . sg' sg' ;dodf kfOG5g\ / slt ;do;Dd afR“ 5g\
eGga] f/] klg rrf{ ug]{ 5f}“ .

;o" {dv' L k"mn lha]| k'mn plgp“ hnsD' eL

km" n k'mNg] / km" n gkm" Ng] la?jf

ltdLx¿n] cfkm\ gf] 3/ / ljBfno j/k/ ljleGg lsl;dsf la?jfx¿
bv] s] f xfn} f . s] tL ;a} la?jfsf] km" n k'mN5 t < ;a} la?jfsf] km" n
k'mNbg} . s]xL la?jfsf] km" n km' N5 eg] s]xL la?jfsf] k"mn km' Nb}g .
tf/] L, un' fkm, ;okqL, u'/f“;, cf“k cflbsf] k"mn k'mN5 . sfO{, plgp,“
lgu/' f,] Rofp cflbsf] k"mn km' Nbg} . k"mn /ftf], kxn“] f] cflb ljleGg
/ªsf x'G5g\ . km" n k'mNg] la?jfsf] kmn klg nfU5 . kmnleq lap

x'G5 . lapaf6 g} ;fgf] la?jf pdG| 5 .

20 d]/f] lj1fg, :jf:Yo tyf zf/Ll/s lzIff M sIff #

Psa;]{ / ax'a;]{ la?jf

cf“k ;Nnf] ds } wfg

xfdf| j/k/ kfOg] la?jfx¿ s'g} Ps jif{;Dd dfq af“R5g\ eg] sg' }

Ps jife{ Gbf a9L w/] } jif{;Dd klg af“R5g\ . wfg, ds,} tf]/L, ;okqL,

l3/fn“} f, km;L{ cflb s]xL dlxgf;Dd dfq af“R5g\ . logLx¿nfO{

Psa;]{ la?jf elgG5 . ;fn, l;;f}, cf“k, cDaf, ;Nnf], u'/f“;,

lrnfpg,] plTt; cflb w/] } jif{;Dd afR“ 5g\ . logLx¿nfO{ ax'a;{] la?jf

elgG5 . ?v / a'6\ofg ;d"xdf kg]{ w]/}h;f] la?jfx¿ ax'a;]{

x'G5g\ . t/ ´f/kft ;dx" df kg]{ la?jfx¿ Psa;{] xG' 5g\ .

hldg / kfgLdf kfOg] la?jf

ltdLx¿n] la?jfx¿ sxf“ sxf“ b]v]sf 5f} < w/h} ;f] la?jf hldgdf
kfOG5g\ . j/, lkkn, ;Nnf,] u'/f;“ , cDaf, tf]/L, ba' f,] dn' f, nfs} f,
km;L,{ /fdtfl] /of cflb hldgdf kfOg] la?jf x'g\ . s]xL la?jfx¿ 
kfgLdf klg kfOG5g\ . sdn, hnsD' eL, xfOl8n« f, np] cflb la?jf kfgLdf
kfOG5g\ . hldgdf kfOg] la?jfx¿dWo] s'g} cf]l;nf] / s'g} ;'Vvf
7fp“df xG' 5g\ .

d]/f] lj1fg, :jf:Yo tyf zf/Ll/s lzIff M sIff # 21

j/ lkkn hnsD' eL xfOl8«n| f

l;p“8L, ;Nnfh] :tf sd kfgL rflxg] la?jfx¿ ;V' vf hldgdf kfOG5g\
eg] ‰ofp, plgp,“ lgu/' f,] cnr“} L, plTt;h:tf la?jfx¿ cfl] ;nf] hldgdf
kfOG5g\ . o:tf la?jfnfO{ lr;fk] g / 5xf/L rflxG5 .

udL{ / hf8f] ofddf kfOg] la?jf

sfpnL
;fu

af8] L km;L{

ls;fgx¿n] v]taf/Ldf ljleGg ofddf ljleGg lsl;dsf t/sf/Lsf
la?jfx¿ nufpg] u/]sf] ltdLn] b]v]sf 5f} xfn] f . s'g} la?jf udL{
ofddf xG' 5g\ eg] sg' } la?jf hf8f] ofddf xG' 5g\ . sfpnL / ;fu kf| oM
hf8f] ofddf kfOG5g\ eg] km;L,{ af]8L, l3/f}n“ f udL{df kfOG5g\ . t/

22 d/] f] lj1fg, :jf:Yo tyf zf/Ll/s lzIff M sIff #

cfhefl] n a]df;} dL t/sf/L klg pTkfbg ul/G5 . sl[ if kmfd{ tyf s[lif
sG] bx| ¿df ljleGg la?jfsf lap lajm| L ljt/0f ul/G5 .

ljm| ofsnfk !

ltd|f] ljBfno / 3/larsf] af6fsf] bfof“afof“ b]lvg] la?jfsf gfd
;ªs\ ng u/L k"mn k'mNg] / km" n gk'mNg] la?jfsf] gfd tflnsfdf 56' \ofP/
n]v / sIffdf lzIfsnfO{ bv] fpm M

km" n km' Ng] la?jf km" n gkm' Ng] la?jf

!= ======================================== != =====================================

@= ======================================== @= =====================================

#= ======================================== #= =====================================

$= ======================================== $= =====================================

%= ======================================== %========================================

ljm| ofsnfk @

ltd|f j/k/ kfOg] la?jfx¿dWo] sg' sg' la?jf Ps jif;{ Dd af“R5g\ /
sg' s'g la?jf w/] } jif{ afR“ 5g\, tflnsf agfO{ nv] . sIffdf lzIfsnfO{
klg b]vfpm .

d/] f] lj1fg, :jf:Yo tyf zf/Ll/s lzIff M sIff # 23

ljm| ofsnfk #

ltdf| j/k/ /x]sf hldg / kfgL ePsf 7fpx“ ¿ cjnf]sg u/ . Toxf“
ltdLn] s:tf s:tf la?jf bV] of}, tnsf] tflnsfdf n]v M

hldgdf kfOg] la?jf kfgLdf kfOg] la?jf

!= ========================================= != =========================================
@= ========================================= @= =========================================
#= ========================================= #= =========================================
$= ========================================= $= =========================================
%= ========================================= %= =========================================

lj|mofsnfk $

vt] af/Ldf s'g s'g ofddf s]s] t/sf/L pTkfbg ul/G5g\, tnsf]
tflnsfdf n]v M

hf8fo] fddf kfOg] t/sf/L udL{ofddf kfOg] t/sf/L

! ======================================= != =====================================
@ ====================================== @= =====================================
# ======================================= #= =====================================
$ ======================================= $= ======================================

24 d/] f] lj1fg, :jf:Yo tyf zf/Ll/s lzIff M sIff #

cEof;

! l7s eP √ / a]l7s eP x lrx\g b]pm M

-s_ tf]/L k"mn k'mNg] la?jf xf] .

-v_ ;okqL ax'a;{] la?jfsf] ;d"xdf k5{ .

-u_ km;L{ nx/f hfg] Psa;{] la?jf xf] .

-3_ ;Nnfsf] ?v kfgLdf kfOG5 .

-ª_ /fofs] f] ;fu k|foM hf8f] ;dodf kfOG5 .

@ l7s pTt/ 5fg/] vfnL 7fp“ e/ M

-s_ sx] L dlxgf;Dd dfq afR“ g] la?jf + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + xg' \ .
Psa;{,] ax'a;]{
-v_ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + ;'Vvf 7fpd“ f kfOg] la?jf xf] .
l;p8“ L, cnr“} L
-u_ kmnleq + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + klg x'G5 .
afj] |mf, lap
-3_ sf“jm| f / km;L{ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + ;dodf kfOG5g\ .
hf8f], udL{

d/] f] lj1fg, :jf:Yo tyf zf/Ll/s lzIff M sIff # 25

-ª_ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + df t/sf/L tyf kmnk"mnsf] lap
vl/b ug{ kfOG5 .
s[lif kmfd,{ :jf:Yo s]Gb|
# tn lbOPsf k|Zgx¿sf] pTt/ n]v M

-s_ km" n km' Ng] sg' } ltg cf6] f la?jfsf gfd nv] .

-v_ km" n gk'mNg] sg' } ltg cf6] f la?jfsf gfd nv] .

-u_ hf8f] / udL{ ;dodf kfOg] la?jfsf] ;"rL tof/ kf/ .

-3_ Psa;{] / axa' ;{] la?jfdf s] km/s 5, pbfx/0f lbP/ k|:6 kf/ .

-ª_ tn lbOPsf la?jfx¿nfO{ hldg / kfgLdf kfOg] la?jfsf] ;dx" df
5'6\ofP/ n]v M

nfnLu/' f;“ d]jf np]

sdn eG6f xfOl8n« f

/fdtfl] /of kLkn tf/] L

26 d/] f] lj1fg, :jf:Yo tyf zf/Ll/s lzIff M sIff #

$ tf]/Lsf] la?jfsf] ;kmf lrq sf/] / o;sf af/d] f tn lbPsf
cfwf/df n]v M

-s_ k"mn k'mNg]÷km" n gk'mNg]

-v_ hldgdf kfOg]÷kfgLdf kfOg]

-u_ hf8f]ofddf x'g÷] udL{df xg' ]

-3_ Psa;÷]{ axa' ;]{

% tn lbOPsf la?jfx¿nfO{ Psa;]{ / ax'a;{] la?jfsf] ;dx" df
56' \ofpm M

cf“k km;L{ wfg cª\u'/

rgf lnrL sfkmn /fof]

;G' tnf ux' “ s/] fp gl/jn

^ ltdLnfO{ dg kg]{ Pp6f k"mn k'mNg] / Pp6f k"mn gk'mNg] la?jfsf]
lrq agfO{ pkoS' t /ª klg nufpm .

lzIf0f lgb{]zg M
ljBfyLx{ ¿nfO{ :yfgLo :t/df kfOg] la?jfx¿sf] cjnf]sg u/fO{ ltgLx¿sf] juL{s/0f ug{
dbt ug{x' f;] \ .

d/] f] lj1fg, :jf:Yo tyf zf/Ll/s lzIff M sIff # 27

kf7 &

la?jf / hgfj/af6 x'g] kmfObf

wfg ds} /fof] s/] f cf“k

-s_ vfgf

xfdL cGg, ;fukft, kmnkm' n, df5f, df;' cflb vfg] u5f}“{ . o:tf vfg]
s'/fx¿ sxfa“ f6 kfpg ;lsG5, yfxf 5 < xfdLn] vfg] u/s] f oL vfg]
s/' fx¿ la?jf tyf hgfj/af6 kfOG5g\ .

la?jfaf6 xfdLn] cGg, u8] fu8' L, t/sf/L, kmnk"mn cflb kfp5“ f}“ .
hgfj/af6 xfdLn] vfgfsf] ¿kdf b'w, km" n, df;,' dx cflb kfp5“ f}“ .

28 d/] f] lj1fg, :jf:Yo tyf zf/Ll/s lzIff M sIff #

xfdL la?jfsf ljleGg efux¿ vfg] u5f}{“ . s'g} la?jfsf] h/f vfOG5
eg] sg' } la?jfsf] sf08 jf 8f“7 vfOG5 . To:t} sg' } la?jfsf] kft
vfOG5 eg] sg' } la?jfsf] kmn vfOG5 .

vfgfsf ¿kdf h/f k|of]u xg' ] la?jfx¿

dn' f ufh/ ;nud

dn' f, ufh/, ;nud cflb vfgfsf] ¿kdf h/f k|ofu] ul/g] la?jf x'g\ .

vfgfsf ¿kdf sf08 cyjf 8f7“ k|ofu] x'g] la?jfx¿

cfn' lk8“ fn' n;'g cbj' f Kofh

cfn,' lk8“ fn,' n;g' , cbj' f, Kofh cflbsf sf08 jf 8f7“ vfOG5 .

d/] f] lj1fg, :jf:Yo tyf zf/Ll/s lzIff M sIff # 29

vfgfsf ¿kdf kft k|ofu] x'g] la?jfx¿

/fof] rd;'/ kfnª' u\ f] d]yL

/fof,] rd;/' , dy] L, kfnª' u\ f] cflbsf] kft t/sf/Lsf ¿kdf vfg] ul/G5 .
vfgfsf ¿kdf kmn k|of]u xg' ] la?jfx¿

:ofp ;'Gtnf s]/f cª\u/'

:ofp, ;G' tnf, s]/f, cª\u/' , /fdtfl] /of, uf]ne“8] f cflbsf] kmn vfg]
ul/G5 .

30 d]/f] lj1fg, :jf:Yo tyf zf/Ll/s lzIff M sIff #

cGg / u]8fu'8L vfOg] la?jfx¿ 

s/] fp l;dL ux' “ ds}

wfg, ux'“, ds}, hf}, kmfk/ cflbnfO{ cGgsf ¿kdf vfg]
ul/G5 . logLx¿sf] kmn bfgfbf/ x'G5 / kmn g} lap klg xf] . To:t}
rgf, l;dL, af8] L, s/] fp cflb u8] fu'8L ju{df kg{] vfg]s'/f xg' \ .

dflysf vfgs] /' fafxs] c¿ s/' fx¿sf nflu klg xfdL la?jfdf e/
k5f+{}“ . tf/] L, ltn, gl/jn, cfn;, e6df;, ;"od{ 'vL cflbsf] lapaf6
tn] lgsflnG5 . t]nnfO{ xfdL t/sf/L ksfp“bf, dfln; ubf{ ko| fu]
ug{] u5f+{}“ . sg' } sg' } la?jf cfi} fwLsf nflu klg k|ofu] ul/G5, h:t} M
gLd, tn' ;L, afa/L cflb . ud, sfuh, /a/, cTt/ cflb klg la?jfaf6}
agfOG5 . la?jfaf6 c¿ klg w]/} kmfObf lng ;lsG5 .

-v_ n'uf sk8f

vfgfsf nflu dfq xf]Og la?jf / hgfj/nfO{ nu' f sk8fsf nflu
klg ko| fu] ul/G5 . nu' f sk8f agfpg rflxg] sRrf kbfy{ la?jf /

hgfj/af6 g} kfOG5 . s]xL af]6 la?jfx¿ n'uf sk8f agfpg

k|of]u ul/G5 . skf;sf] ej' faf6 ;'tL sk8f agfOG5 . l;/s, 8;gf,

d/] f] lj1fg, :jf:Yo tyf zf/Ll/s lzIff M sIff # 31

sldh, ;'?jfn, kfOG6 cflb skf;sf]

e'jfaf6 agfOG5 . ;'tLsf sk8f

kf| oM udL{ ;dodf nufpg] ul/G5 .

To:t} ;gkf6sf] la?jfaf6 klg xfdL

/];f lgsfnL 8f/] L, af]/f, ´fn] f, unr“} f,

sk8f cflb agfP/ ko| fu] u5f“{}+ .

e]8f / v/fof] pmg tyf df;'sf skf;
nflu kflnG5 . pmgaf6 l:j6/, df]

hf, un}“rf cflb agfOG5 . hf8f]

;dodf z/L/ Gofgf] /fVg pmgaf6 ;gkf6
ag]sf sk8f nufpg] ul/G5 . To:t}

/];d ls/faf6 /];d wfuf] lgsfn]/

;f8L, ;n cflb agfOG5 .

oLafxs] hgfj/af6 c¿ klg kmfObf

xG' 5 . hgfj/sf 5fnfaf6 h'Ttf,

;'6s];, Hofs]6, k;{, ´f]nf cflb

;fdfgx¿ agfOG5 . 5fnfaf6 ags] f

;fdfgx¿ g/d / alnof klg xG' 5g\ .
3f8] f, uwf cflb sx] L hgfj/x¿nfO{ 9j' fgLsf nflu klg ko| fu] ul/G5 .

ss' /' , la/fnf]h:tf s]xL hgfj/x¿ 3/sf] ;'/Iff / ;fv] sf nflu klg

kfNg] ul/G5 .

lzIf0f lgb{z] g M
:yfgLo :t/df kflnPsf hgfj/ / kfOg] af]6 la?jfx¿ tyf ltgLx¿af6 kfOg] vfg]s/' f / nu' f
sk8fsf af/]df kl/lrt u/fpgx' f;] \ .

32 d]/f] lj1fg, :jf:Yo tyf zf/Ll/s lzIff M sIff #

lj|mofsnfk !

tnsf] tflnsfdf 3/df kflng] hgfj/x¿sf gfd / ltgLx¿af6 kfOg]
kmfObf n]v/] ;fyL;u“ 5nkmn u/ M

hgfj/sf] gfd ss] f nflu kfns] f÷] kmfObf

!=+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + != + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
@=+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + @= + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
#= + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + #= + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

lj|mofsnfk @

ltdLn] k|of]u u/s] f h'Ttf, sk8f, emf]nf, k6] L sg' s'g hgfj/ /
sg' s'g la?jfaf6 k|fKt ePsf xg' \ < 56' \ofpm .

cEof;

! hf8] f ldnfpm M vfOg] efu
la?jfsf] gfd sf08
-s_ dn' f kmn
-v_ kfn'ª\uf] h/f
-u_ cb'jf kft
-3_ ufn] e“8] f
k"mn

33
d]/f] lj1fg, :jf:Yo tyf zf/Ll/s lzIff M sIff #

@= ldNg] zAb 5fg/] vfnL 7fp“ e/ M

cfi} fwL pmg bw' cGg 9'jfgL g/d

-s_ ufO{ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + sf nflu kflnG5 .
-v_ lgd + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + sf nflu pkofu] L xG' 5 .
-u_ uwf + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + sf nflu klg k|ofu] ul/G5 .
-3_ wfg, ux“' cflbaf6 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + kfOG5 .
-ª_ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + af6 l:j6/, df]hf cflb agfOG5 .

#= tnsf kZ| gsf] 5f]6f] pTt/ bp] m M
-s_ la?jfaf6 xfdLnfO{ x'g] sg' } ltg cf]6f kmfObfx¿ nv] .
-v_ hgfj/af6 xfdLnfO{ xg' ] sg' } ltg cf6] f kmfObfx¿ nv] .
-u_ pmgsf nflu kflng] s'g} bO' { cf]6f hgfj/sf gfd n]v .
-3_ sf08 vfOg] sg' } ltg cf]6f la?jfsf gfd n]v .
-ª_ hgfj/sf] 5fnfaf6 s] s] ;fdfg agfpg ;lsG5, ;fdfgsf

gfd nv] .

$ ltdLnfO{ dg kg{] Pp6f 3/ kfn'jf hgfj/sf] lrq sf]/ / To;n]
s] kmfObf lbG5, n]v .

% la?jfaf6 kfOg] ljleGg vfgs] /' fx¿ ;ªs\ ng u/L cfkm\ gf] sfkLdf
6f;“ / ltgLx¿sf gfd klg n]v .

34 d/] f] lj1fg, :jf:Yo tyf zf/Ll/s lzIff M sIff #

kf7 *

xfd|f] j/k/sf] jftfj/0f

jftfj/0f kmfx] f/] xg' fsf sf/0fx¿

d]/f] lj1fg, :jf:Yo tyf zf/Ll/s lzIff M sIff # 35

ljm| ofsnfk !

dfly lrqdf bv] fOPsf] 3/ / 3/ jl/kl/sf] jftfj/0f kmfx] f/] x'gfsf
sf/0fx¿ cjnfs] g u/L 5nkmn u/ .

3/leq / aflx/ ljleGg sfd ubf{ kmfx] f]/ lg:sG5g\ . tL kmfx] f/] x¿
sl' xg] / gsl' xg] u/L bO' { lsl;dsf xG' 5g\ . To:tf kmfx] f/] x¿ hyfefaL
kmflnPdf jftfj/0f kmfx] f/] xG' 5 . hxf“ kfof] ToxL “ lb;f lk;fa ubf{ klg
3/ tyf jftfj/0f kmf]xf/] / b'u{lGwt xG' 5 . To:t} 5f8f 5fl8Psf
hgfj/ cflbn] klg hyfefaL lb;f lk;fa u//] kmfx] f]/ kf5g{ \ . 3/
cfu“ g kmf]xf/] ePdf l´u“ f tyf nfdv'66\ s] f] jl[ ¢ xG' 5 . ltgLx¿n]
ljleGg ks| f/sf /f]ux¿ ;f5g{ \ . hyfefaL cfuf] afNbf lg:sg]
w'jf“n] ubf{ xfjf bl" ift x'G5 . bl" ift xfjfn] klg ljleGg k|sf/sf
/f]ux¿ nfU5g\ .
jftfj/0f ;kmf /fVg] pkfox¿

36 d/] f] lj1fg, :jf:Yo tyf zf/Ll/s lzIff M sIff #

lj|mofsnfk @

dflysf] lrqdf b]vfOPsf] 3/ ;kmf b]lvg'sf sf/0fx¿af/] 5nkmn u/ .

jftfj/0f ;kmf /fVg] pkfox¿

3/ cfu“ g / To;sf] jl/kl/ ;kmf /fVg kmf]xf]/ sl;ª\u/ hxf“ kfof]
ToxL“ kmfNg'xb“' }g . s'lxg] kmf]xf/] nfO{ vf8ndf hDdf u//] dn agfpg
;lsG5 .

gsl' xg] kmfx] f/] nfO{ 56' 6\ } ;ªs\ ng
u/]/ /fVg'k5{ .

ufO,{ e;“} L, sv' /' f cflb 3/ kfnj' f
hgfj/ 5f8f g5f]8d] f o;af6
xg' ] kmf]xf]/af6 aRg ;lsG5 .

lb;f lk;fa rkLd{ f dfq ugk{' 5{ .

9n lgsf;sf] plrt Joj:yf
ugk{' 5{ . 3/ cfu“ g ;kmf /fvd] f
/f]u nfUgaf6 aRg ;lsG5 .

ufp3“ /df vfgf ksfpb“ f xg' ] wj' fa“ f6 aRg wj' f/“ lxt rn' f] ko| fu] ugk{' 5{ .

wj' f“ / wn' fn] xfjf bl" ift kf5{ . o;af6 aRg ?vx¿ /fK] g'k5{ .

ljm| ofsnfk !

cfk\mgf] 3/ / ljBfno jl/kl/ ePsf s'lxg] / gs'lxg] kmf]xf/] x¿sf]
;r" L tof/ u/ .

d]/f] lj1fg, :jf:Yo tyf zf/Ll/s lzIff M sIff # 37

lj|mofsnfk #

cfkm\ gf] ljBfnonfO{ kmfx] f/] xg' glbg s] s] ugk{' 5,{ ljm| ofsnfksf] ;r" L agfpm .

lj|mofsnfk $

;kmf / kmfx] f]/ jftfj/0f emNsg] lrqx¿ ;ªs\ ng u/ .

cEof;

l7s jfSodf √ / al] 7s jfSodf x lrxg\ b]pm M
-s_ 3/ cf“ug ;kmf /fVg 3/ kfnj' f hgfj/ 5f8f 5f]8\g'k5{ .
-v_ wj' f“ sd ug{ ;'wfl/Psf] r'nf] ko| f]u ug'{k5{ .
-u_ ?v /fK] gfn] xfjfdf xg' ] k|b"if0f 36fpg ;lsG5 .
-3_ hxft“ xL“ lb;f lk;fa ug'x{ '“b}g .

-ª_ kmf]xf/] jftfj/0fn] xfdLnfO{ c;/ kf5{ .

@= vfnL 7fp“df pkoS' t zAb 5fg/] /fv M

5f8f 5f]8\g' vf8n ?v /f]Kg'

rkL { ;'wfl/Psf] rn' f]

-s_ 3/ kfnj' f hgfj/x¿ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + x'“bg} .

38 d/] f] lj1fg, :jf:Yo tyf zf/Ll/s lzIff M sIff #

-v_ w'jf“ sd ug{ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + ko| fu] ug'{k5{ .
-u_ lb;f lk;fa + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + df dfq ugk{' 5{ .
-3_ s'lxg] kmfx] f]/ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + df kmfNg'k5{ .
-ª_ xfjfdf xg' ] k|bi" f0f 36fpg ============================ k5{ .
tnsf k|Zgsf] pTt/ n]v M
-s_ jftfj/0f kmf]xf/] x'g] rf/ cf6] f sf/0fx¿ n]v .
-v_ sl' xg] kmfx] f/] af6 s] kmfObf lng ;lsG5 <
-u_ hyfefaL lb;f lk;fa u/] s] xG' 5 <

-3_ cfk\mgf] 3/ j/k/ ;kmf /fVg] ltg cf6] f pkfox¿ n]v .
-ª_ kmf]xf]/ jftfj/0fn] xfdLnfO{ s] c;/ kf5{ <

lzIF0f lgb]{zg M
ljBfyL{x¿nfO{ ljleGg k|sf/sf jftfj/0f cjnfs] g ug{ nufpg'xf];\ .
cfk\mgf] ljBfnosf kmf]xf/] x¿sf] plrt Joj:yfkg ug{ nufpg'xf;] \ .

d]/f] lj1fg, :jf:Yo tyf zf/Ll/s lzIff M sIff # 39

kf7 (

ljleGg k|sf/sf kbfy{x¿

kmnfdsf] lsnf

gg' sf7
eft

O“6f

bw' ds}

-s_ pqg] / 8A' g] j:t'

sx] L j:t' kfgLdf /fVbf pqG5g\ . pqg] j:t' kfgLeGbf xns' f] xG' 5 .
kfgLeGbf xns' f j:t' sf7, Knfl:6s, sfuh cflb kfgLdf pqG5g\ .
kfgLeGbf u/f“} 9ª' \uf, kmnfd cflb kfgLdf 8A' 5g\ . kfgLeGbf u/f}“ j:t'
kfgLdf 8'A5 .

lj|mofsnfk !

kmnfd, sf7, sfuhnfO{ kfnk} fnf] kfgLdf xfn . s] x'G5, x]/ . sg' sg'
j:t' kfgLdf pqG5g\ / sg' s'g j:t' kfgLdf 8A' 5g\, ;r" L agfpm .

40 d]/f] lj1fg, :jf:Yo tyf zf/Ll/s lzIff M sIff #

-v_ 3'ngzLn / c3'ngzLn j:t'

gg' , lrgL, lkm6ls/L cflb kfgLdf /fv/] rDrfn] rnfpb“ f kfgLdf lanfP/
hfG5g\ jf 3N' 5g\ . o:tf j:tn' fO{ 3n' g zLn j:t' eG5g\ . afn'jf,
sf7sf] w'nf,] rs kfgLdf /fv]/ rDrfn] rnfpb“ f 3N' bg} g\ . g3'Ng]
j:t'nfO{ c3'ng zLn j:t' eG5g\ .

ljm| ofsnfk @

lk7f], sf7sf] w'nf,] g'g / lrgLnfO{ kfnk} fnf] lunf;sf] kfgLdf xfn/]
rDrfn] la:tf/} rnfpm . s] x'G5, x]/ . oL j:t'x¿dWo] 3N' g] / g3N' g]
j:tx' ¿sf] ;"rL tof/ u/ .

ljm| ofsnfk #

cfk\mgf] 3/df ePsf kfr“ kfr“ cf6] f 3n' g zLn / c3'ng zLn
j:t'x¿sf] ;r" L agfpm .

-u_ kf/bz{s / ckf/bzs{ j:t'

kftnf] Knfl:6s, sfr“ tyf ;kmf kfgLaf6 pHofnf] l55{ . sf7,
9ª' u\ f, kmnfdaf6 pHofnf] l5bg{} . k|sfz l5g{] j:t' kf/bz{s j:t'
xg' \ . ks| fz gl5g{] j:t' ckf/bz{s j:t' xg' \ .

lj|mofsnfk $

sf“r, kftnf] Knfl:6s, sf7, l:6nsf] Kn6] jf To:t} cGo j:t' lnO{
an]sf] dg} aTtL jf 6r{ cufl8 /fv . sg' af6 dg} aTtL jf an]sf] 6r{
bV] g ;lsG5 / s'gaf6 ;lsb“ g} , x/] / kTtf nufpm .

d]/f] lj1fg, :jf:Yo tyf zf/Ll/s lzIff M sIff # 41

cEof;

! l7s jfSodf √ / a]l7s jfSodf x lrxg\ bp] m M
-s_ sfr“ kf/bzs{ kbfy{ xf]Og .
-v_ df6f] kfgLdf 3N' b}g .
-u_ kmnfdsf] lsnf kfgLdf 8A' 5 .
-3_ sf7 ckf/bz{s j:t' xf] .
@ vfnL 7fp“df ldNg] zAb 5fg/] e/ M
-s_ g'g kfgLdf + + + + + + + + + + + + + + . -pqG5, 8'A5, 3N' 5_
-v_ sfr“ af6 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + l55{ . -kfgL, ks| fz, xfjf_
-u_ kmnfd kfgLdf + + + + + + + + + + + + + + . -pqG5, 8A' 5, 3N' 5_
-3_ Knfl:6s kfgLdf + + + + + + + + + + + + + + . -8'A5, 3N' 5, pqG5_
# tnsf k|Zgsf] pTt/ nv] M
-s_ kfgLdf 8A' g] / g8A' g] ltg ltg cf6] f j:tx' ¿sf] gfd nv] .
-v_ kfgLdf 3N' g] / g3N' g] ltg ltg cf]6f j:t'x¿sf] gfd nv] .
-u_ ks| fz l5g{] / gl5g{] ltg ltg cf6] f j:t'x¿sf] gfd nv] .

lzIf0f lgb]{zg M
k:' tsdf pNn]v u/]sf afx]s cGo j:tx' ¿sf] ko| f]u ug{ kf| ]T;fxg ug'x{ f;] \ .

42 d/] f] lj1fg, :jf:Yo tyf zf/Ll/s lzIff M sIff #

kf7 !)

ax]sf] xfjf / kfgLsf] pkof]u

-s_ xfjfsf] pkofu]

ltdLn] slxNo} lkm/lkm/] 3'dfP/
x/] s] f 5f} < sfuhsf] lkm/lkm/]nfO{ xfjf
nfu]sf] 7fpd“ f lnP/ bf8} b“ f s] xG' 5 <
xfjf gaxs] f] 7fp“df lkm/lkm/] 3'dfpg'
k/] s] x'G5 <

ax]sf] xfjfn] sfuhsf] lkm/lkm/]nfO{
3'dfOlbG5 . To;}u/L xfjf nfu]sf]
7fpd“ f kªv\ f /flvlbb“ f xfjfn] kªv\ fnfO{
3d' fOlbG5 . kª\vf 3'Dbf To;df oGq
hf]8]/ lahn' L;d]t k}bf ug{ ;lsG5 .
xfjfn] ubf{ g} nu' f rf8“ f] ;S' 5 . ufp3“ /
df axs] f] xfjfsf] ko| fu] af6 wfg, cGg
cflbsf] e;' aTtfPsf] t b]vs] f xf}nf .
udL{df xfjf axb“ f xfdf| ] kl;gf ;s' /]

zLtn xG' 5 . ax]sf] xfjfsf] k|of]uaf6 kfgL tfGg] sfd klg ul/G5 .

-v_ aus] f] kfgLsf] pkof]u

xfjf dfq xfO] g aus] f] kfgLaf6 klg w/] } sfd x'G5 . kfgL36\6nfO{
aus] f] kfgLn] 3'dfp“bf cGg lkl;G5 . aus] f] kfgLsf] sf/0f oGq 3'dL

d/] f] lj1fg, :jf:Yo tyf zf/Ll/s lzIff M sIff # 43

To;n] ljB't\ k}bf u5{ . clxn] xfdLn] k|of]u ul//x]sf] lah'nL o;u} /L
pTkfbg ePsf] xf] . au]sf] kfgLdf 8ª' \uf rnfpg ;lsG5 .

lj|mofsnfk !

ufp“df kfgL36\6 eP Toxf“ uP/ kfgLn] s;/L sfd ubf]{ /x]5,
cjnf]sg u/L 5nkmn u/ .

ljm| ofsnfk @

ufp3“ /df wfg ux'“ r6' /] To;af6 e'; x6fpg s] u5g{ \,cjnfs] g u/L
5nkmn u/ .

cEof;

! l7s eP √ / a]l7s eP x lrxg\ b]pm M

-s_ 3fdafxs] xfjfn] klg lr;f] sk8f ;s' fp5“ .

-v_ gau]sf] kfgLaf6 36\6 rnfOG5 .

-u_ aus] f] kfgLaf6 lah'nL lgsfNg ;lsb“ }g .

-3_ cGgsf] e;' aTtfpg xfjf rNg'k5{ .

@ vfnL 7fpd“ f ;'xfp“bf] zAb e/ M

-s_ axs] f] xfjfn] kª\vfnfO{ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + .

-v_ aus] f] kfgLsf] sf/0f hg] /] 6] /n] + + + + + + + + + + + + + + kb} f u5{ .

-u_ kfgL366\ nfO{ 3d' fpg + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + kfgL cfjZos k5{ .

44 d]/f] lj1fg, :jf:Yo tyf zf/Ll/s lzIff M sIff #


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