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Published by scmsm2021, 2021-12-17 22:24:55




Physicochemical Characterization of Biomass Wastes as Potential Growth Substrate for Wild
Schizophyllum commune Cultivation
Siti Aminah Mohd Hassan1*, Sam Sung Ting1,2, Nik Noriman Zulkepli2 and Farizul Hafiz Kasim1
1Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kompleks Pengajian Jejawi 3, 02600
Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
2Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, Kompleks Pusat Pengajian Jejawi 2,
Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Taman Muhibbah, 02600 Jejawi, Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

In this study, the feasibility of utilizing several lignocellulosic biomasses such as rubber wood sawdust,
mushroom spent medium, rice husk, and rice husk ash as a potential growth substrate for optimal mycelial
growth rate and yield in wild Schizophyllum commune cultivation was evaluated based on the
lignocellulosic contents and morphology surface analysis using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX). The results indicated that rice husk (37.82%) contained
large amount of cellulose followed by rubber wood sawdust (34.90%) and mushroom spent medium
(27.21%). From the SEM-EDX analysis, an even and rough structure with small hole was observed from
rubber wood sawdust, whereas rice husk showed an unbroken surface. The most porous and broken
structure with increasing area of external surface was obtained from rice husk ash. Both rice husk and
rice husk ash contained high amount of silica. The maximum mycelial growth of 7.79 mm/ day and yield
of 117.76 g were obtained from rice husk and rubber wood sawdust respectively. The results
demonstrated that biomasses with high amount of cellulose and slightly destructed structure in the absent
of silica resulted the best yield and mycelial growth rate in wild S. commune cultivation.
Keywords: Physicochemical, Lignocellulosic biomasses, Schizophyllum commune, Cultivation, SEM-


Siam-Weed Based Gelatin Electrospun Scaffolds

Nor Shamsiah Mohamed1, Wen Jun Ham1, Sharaniza Ab-Rahim2, Cheng Yee Low1 and Ching Theng

1Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400
Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia

2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Sungai Buloh Campus, Jalan Hospital, 47000 Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Siam weed is a traditional herb used for the soothing of burn and scar, and potentially improve healing
ability for dressing and tissue-engineered construct. The use of Siam weed is mainly in the form of extract.
The form of extract limits the use of Siam weed as compared to the form of gels and membrane. However,
the development of the hybrid of Siam weed in gel and membrane form is lacking. In this study, Siam
weed was harvested and make into aqua extracts. The biocompatibility of the aqua extract with various
concentration was tested using Cell Proliferation Assay. The aqua extract was then incorporated in the
gelatine solution and spun into nanofibers using an electrospinning technique. Cell proliferation study
shows maximum cell proliferation at the concentration of 25 g/ml. The Scanning Electron Microscope
images of the electrospun scaffolds shows the microstructures of fibrous networks without beads. The
concentration of the hybrid solution was found to affect the morphology of the nanofibers by having
diameters in the range of 160 ± 90 to 250 ± 150 nm. The Siam-weed based gelatine electrospun scaffolds
provide native-like microenvironment and potentially improve wound healing ability for biomedical
Keywords: Siam weed, Electrospinning, Gelatine, Nanofiber, Tissue engineering


A Comprehensive Trichome Investigation and its Taxonomic Significance of Vitex L. (Lamiaceae

Martinov) in Peninsular Malaysia
Syanawiyyah Md Zin, Fatimah Mohamed and Nor Nafizah Mohd Noor*
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900

Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Member of Vitex are synonym with its vernacular name, ‘Leban’. Despite of widely distributed, members
of the genus are sometimes confusing due to high leaf morphological variation. Commonly, Vitex species
are identified based on its opposite, trifoliate or palmate leaves which sometimes misleading. Therefore,
in this study, types of trichomes present shows a distinct character among the species hence has
taxonomic significance. A total number of 11 species (V. gamosepala, V. glabrata, V. longisepala, V.
millsii, V. negundo, V. pinnata, V. quinata, V. trifolia, V. vestita, Vitex sp.1 and Vitex sp.2), one subspecies
(V. trifolia subsp. litoralis) and two varieties (V. negundo var. bicolor and V. negundo var. cannabifolia)
were investigated. The findings of G1, N1 and N9 types of trichome in Vitex sp. can be useful in solving
placement of problematic members in the family. In this review, new morphological, anatomical and
micromorphological findings including trichomes characters will be taken into account to construct a new
taxonomic key up to species level and might propose some changes to the placement of taxa hence can
be devoted as an improvement for the previous study.
Keywords: Vitex sp., Trichomes, Lamiaceae, Leban, Taxonomic key


Microscopic Analysis of POME Microbial Community Established in Chlorophenol-Fed Microbial

Fuel Cell
Raudzah Mohd Zahir1, Huzairy Hassan1,2* and Mohd Azmier Ahmad3
1Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600

Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
2Centre of Excellence for Biomass Utilization, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia

3School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong
Tebal, Penang, Malaysia

*Corresponding author: [email protected]

2-chlorophenol (2CP) is a common contaminant found in industrial effluent that is both hazardous and
persistent in the environment. The bioelectrochemical degradation of 2CP has been approved as a
preferred method for removing the abrasive 2CP from wastewater. In this work, a microbial fuel cell (MFC)
system inoculated with palm oil mill effluent (POME) sludge was used to degrade 2CP. The changes of
morphology of the anode biofilm were observed under a light microscope and scanning electron
microscope (SEM) for 2CP-fed MFC compared with the biofilm inoculated in an anaerobic chamber (AC).
Maximum current density generated by the MFC was 97.30 mA/m2 while degrading 75% 2CP. Lower
2CP degradation of 64% was observed using the AC. Also, the abundance of negatively stained bacteria
is reduced in the AC biofilm. This research shows that bioelectrochemical 2CP degradation is more
efficient than conventional AC degradation. POME has the potential to be a high-value substrate for
bacteria that can generate electricity in the MFC while also degrading harmful 2CP.
Keywords: Microbial fuel cell, POME, Chlorophenol


Comparative Analyses of Stomata and Epidermal Cell among Different Species in Genus Premna

Ain Najwa Amran, Nor Nafizah Mohd Noor* and Fatimah Mohamed
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900

Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia
*Corresponding author:

The genus Premna of Lamiaceae family was categorized into two groups namely P. serratifolia-group
and P. trichostoma-group by De Kok in 2013. The division was based on three distinct morphological
characters which are twigs, calyx and fruit. This group categorizing lacks of anatomical and
micromorphological evidence and solely based on those morphological characters. Therefore, in this
study, anatomical and micromorphological analyses on six species of Premna (P. divaricata, P.
serratifolia, P. trichostoma, P. tomentosa, P. parasitica and P. odorata) from few localities in Peninsular
Malaysia were investigated to determine the size and density of stomata also some epidermal characters
among the species members to provide some evidence towards the division. The methods involved in
this research were epidermal peel preparation and scanning electron microscopy technique. The stomata
were observed under the microscope and also photographed at different magnification. Based on the
observation, primary sculpturing pattern of leaf surface shows only two types labelled as type 1 and type
2. All six species of Premna have the same number of anticlinal walls which shows shared characters of
the genus. However, the stomatal sizes, sculpturing and distributions shows some taxonomic significance
in identification of the species. Stomatal sizes show significant difference between species which ranged
from 3µm to 20µm. Four different types of stomatal sculpturing were observed which are type 1, type 2,
type 3, type 4 and stomatal distribution resulted in variances in stomatal density. The findings therefore,
primary, secondary sculpturing and stomatal frequency dispute the group division by De Kok.
Keywords: Premna sp., Stomata, Density, Size


Taxonomic Values of Trichomes in Malvaceae subfamily Bombacoideae and Helicteroideae
Noor Solihani Shamsudin1, Noraini Talip1*, Nabilah Mohammad1, Mohd Norfaizal Ghazalli2 and
Mohammad Ruzi Abdul Rahman1
1Department of Earth Sciences and Environmental (JSBAS), Faculty of Science and Technology,
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
2MARDI, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Micromorphological studies of leaves has been conducted on 24 selected species of Bombax,
Coelostegia, Durio, Kostermansia, Ochroma and Pachira from Malvaceae subfamily Bombacoideae and
Helicteroideae which previously known as Bombacaceae. The objectives of this study were to identified
leaf micromorphological characteristics which can be used as secondary data for scientific research
especially in species, genus and also family classification. Methodology been used were observation of
adaxial and abaxial epidermal surface of gold coated dried leaves under electron scanning microscope
with 200x, 300x, 500x and 1000x magnification. Result shown some variation of appearance and types
of trichomes of all species which research has been conducted. Some significant in certain trichomes
characteristics have taxonomical value and can be used for classification up to species and genus level
were trichome lepidot seen as common character can be found in Coelostegia, Durio, Kostermansia,
Ochroma and Pachira but not in Bombax. However, capitat glandular trichomes with multiseriate terminal
(spatulat terminal lobes) only can be found on adaxial epidermal of B. anceps. Whereas, dendritic
trichomes of D. affinis can be a diagnostic characteristic. Trichomes diversity in Pachira even more unique
as the trichomes armed were swollen which can be seen in 3-armed trichomes (swollen in the middle
armed) and stellate trichomes non-cushion (short armed, thin wall, swollen in the middle and at the end).
As conclusion, trichomes did have shown taxonomical value in Malvaceae subfamilyBombacoideae and
Keywords: Bombax, Coelostegia, Durio, Kostermansia, Ochroma, Pachira, Leaf micromorphology,
Bombacaceae, Trichomes


Orthopaedic Metal Imlant Coated with Silver (Omics) in Six Hours Golden Rules: An Overview of

Histology Analysis
Nurul Hafiza Mohd Jan1, Ahmad Hafiz Zulkifly1*, Mohd Zulfadzli Ibrahim1 and Mohd Radzi Mohd Toff2
1Department of Orthopaedic, Traumatology & Rehabilitation, Kulliyyah of Medicine, International Islamic

University Malaysia, 25150 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
2Industrial Centre of Innovation in Biomedical, SIRIM Berhad, 09000 Kulim, Kedah, Malaysia

*Corresponding author: [email protected]

The prevalence of implant-related infections and its management poses an essential challenge in the
orthopaedic field. The colonisation of bacteria and biofilm adhesion on implant surfaces may lead to
infection at the implantation site. Several strategies have been implemented to control these incidences.
The risk of infection may be overcome through the application of OMICS as an alternative strategy in
managing cases of implant-related infection. This study is aimed to evaluate the efficacy of OMICS as an
antibacterial agent and its biocompatibility in an animal model. The effects of OMICS on open fracture-
related infections were assessed in New Zealand White rabbit models. All rabbits were implanted with
OMICS after six hours of tibial bone exposure. The implanted tibia was excised en bloc and evaluated
using microbial assessments and histological analysis for any effects of infection. After three and six
weeks of post implantation, the microbial analysis revealed no colonies were noted at the OMICS group
as compared to the control. Histological analysis showed there is no bone reaction with no indication of
the presence of microbial were noted in both groups. Besides, no abnormalities, no apparent changes,
and no periosteal reaction were revealed at the surrounding of the implanted area. This data showed
OMICS implant have good interaction with the surrounding of the implanted area, which is comparable to
control. The outcome of this study indicates that OMICS technology shows antibacterial properties,
biocompatible and provide good osteoconductivity. In conclusion, these values suggest that OMICS is
comparable and may have the potential to prevent infection during implant placement.
Keywords: Implant-related infection, OMICS, Antibacterial, Biocompatibility



Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopic Changes in Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells
of Monosodium Methylarsonate (MSMA)-Exposed Rats

Shahida Saharudin1, Zunariah Buyong1*, Nor Zamzila Abdullah2, Norlelawati Ab Talib2, Jamalludin Ab
Rahman3 and Azliana Abd Fuaat2

1Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Kulliyyah of Medicine, International Islamic University
Malaysia. 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia

2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Kulliyyah of Medicine, International Islamic
University Malaysia, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia

3Department of Community Medicine, Kulliyyah of Medicine, International Islamic University Malaysia,
25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia

*Corresponding author: [email protected]


Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) are the most abundant non-parenchymal hepatic cell population.
Inorganic arsenic has been shown to cause LSEC structural and phenotypic disturbances that marked
the early pathogenic changes of the liver. Monosodium methylarsonate (MSMA) is an organic-arsenic
based herbicide that is used in certain part of the country as it has been thought to be less dangerous
than inorganic. This study investigated the effect of MSMA on the morphological changes of the LSEC.
Twenty- four male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups according to duration of exposure,
2 and 6 months. Each with its corresponding control groups. MSMA was given at 63.20 mg/kg daily
through oral gavage. At the end of the duration, liver tissues were harvested and processed for scanning
and transmission electron microscopy. In 2-month and 6-month control rats, plates of hepatocytes were
clearly seen separated by sinusoids. Sinusoids were lined by LSEC which were characterized by flattened
cells, attenuated cytoplasm and the presence of numerous fenestrae arranged in groups. Groups of
fenestrae on LSEC in 2-month exposed rats were present but appeared lesser that its control. While,
groups of fenestrae in 6-month exposed rats were also lesser than its control with more obvious gaps
seen. Chromatin condensation of LSEC were noted with few caveolae within the cytoplasm. Noticeable
defenestration suggested that MSMA may lead to LSEC structural disturbances that could be the initial
events in the liver pathogenic changes. Therefore, we concluded that MSMA may possess potential toxic
elements as inorganic arsenic.

Keywords: Monosodium methylarsonate, Organic arsenic, Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, Electron


A Study on Gentamicin Impregnated Biomaterials for Treating Induced Osteomyelitis in the New

Zealand White Rabbit Animal Model: An Overview of Microscopic Analysis
Ahmad Hafiz Zulkifly*, Nurul Hafiza Mohd Jan and Mohd Zulfadzli Ibrahim

Department of Orthopaedic, Traumatology & Rehabilitation, Kulliyyah of Medicine, International Islamic
University Malaysia, 25150 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Osteomyelitis treatment remains a significant challenge in orthopaedics. A suitable animal model is
required for the study of osteomyelitis and infection. The New Zealand White Rabbit (NZWR) is a suitable
experimental model for local delivery of antibiotics in the treatment of osteomyelitis because it closely
mimics the disease process in humans. The objective of this study was to induce osteomyelitis in rabbit
femurs and to analyse the treatment with gentamicin beads impregnated with biomaterials. The study was
evaluated in thirty-six (36) of NZWRs. They were divided into two groups [Hydroxyapatite (HA) and
Calcium Sulphate (CaSO4)] with four subgroups separated by three, six, twelve, and twenty-six weeks.
Each NZWR underwent two surgeries. The first surgery was to induce osteomyelitis by inoculating
Staphylococcus aureus in the distal femur and the second surgery was for debridement and biomaterial
impregnated antibiotics implantation. Histological examination was used to evaluate the treatments
(gentamicin impregnated with HA and CaSO4). The results indicated that all rabbits developed
osteomyelitis at three weeks after bacteria were inoculated. At 6 to 26 weeks, histological examination
revealed complete healing of the infected area, with the appearance of new bone formation. Both findings
indicate complete bone healing after a 26-week interval. The results of histology analysis using gentamicin
impregnated with HA and CaSO4 is comparable. As a consequence, antibiotics impregnated with
biomaterials are proven effective in treating osteomyelitis. In conclusion, the findings of the study indicated
that gentamicin impregnated with biomaterials has great potential to be used in the treatment of
Keywords: Osteomyelitis, Gentamicin impregnated with biomaterials


Cytotoxic Effect of -, - and -Carrageenan Extracts on Human Breast Cancer Cells
Nooraini Mohd Ain1* and Muhammad Farhan Nazarudin2

1UPM-MAKNA Cancer Research Laboratory, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400
UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

2Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Health and Therapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra
Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Cancer is one of the world's leading causes of death. Nowadays, treatment options include surgery,
chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, all of which have side effects. To reduce the side effects, it is
necessary to seek alternative treatment that is based on natural sources. Marine natural products, which
have a high concentration of biologically active substances with novel chemical structures, have been
used to prevent and treat a variety of diseases, including cancer pharmacological activities. Carrageenan
is a hydrocolloid extracted from marine red seaweed (Rhodophyceae family) based natural
polysaccharide. It has a wide range of applications in the biomedical and biopharmaceutical fields.
Utilizing the MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay, iota (-), kappa (-
), and lambda (-) carrageen were tested for in vitro cytotoxicity against human breast cancer cells (MCF-
7 cells). Using a light microscope and fluorescence microscope, cell morphological changes were
observed. The λ-carrageen extract had the lowest IC50 value of 101.86 ± 1.069 µg/ml of the three extracts
tested. Morphological changes in MCF-7 cell lines after extract exposure were observed under a phase
contrast microscope in a dose-dependent manner, and the Hoechst 33342/PI dual-staining assay
revealed typical apoptotic morphology of cancer cells following treatment. More research is needed to
investigate the potential applications of -, - and -carrageen extract as an anticancer drug source for
breast cancer treatment.
Keywords: -carrageenan, -carrageenan, -carrageenan, Breast cancer, Cytotoxicity, Morphology



Foxtail Palm Fruit, Wodyetia bifurcata as Potential Material for Production of Activated Carbon
Nik Raihan Nik Yusoff* and Nisrina Nadia Maizatul

Department of Natural Resources and Sustainability, Faculty of Earth Science, Universiti Malaysia
Kelantan, Jeli Campus, 17600 Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

The production of activated carbon from foxtail palm fruit, Wodyetia bifurcata was tested as an effective
adsorbent for heavy metals (Au, Ag and Cu) removal. The activated carbon was chemically impregnated
using a 2:1 ratio of concentrated nitric acid (HNO3) to foxtail fruit char, followed by two and a half hours
of carbonization in a furnace at 500oC. This study used field emission scanning electron microscope
(FESEM) and BET-N2 adsorption to explore the physical and chemical properties of the generated
activated carbon. The parameters such as surface area, total pore volume, pore size distribution, surface
physical morphology of the activated carbon as well its adsorption capacity in adsorbing Au, Ag and Cu
from printed circuit board leachate were all investigated in this work. The results showed that the
Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) surface area of foxtail palm fruit activated carbon was 0.680 m2/g,
whereas the average pore diameter and total pore volume were 7.2366 nm and 4.005 cm3/g indicating
that the produced activated carbon had remarkable mesopore surface areas with the formation of
honeycomb structure that is presented in Figure 1(a). The highest adsorption percentage of Au, Ag and
Cu were achieved at high adsorbent dosage (5 g) with high contact time (100 mins) which were 65.51%,
30.30% and 62.51%, respectively. The pore size of the activated carbon was discovered to be reduced
after the adsorption process, as shown in Figure 1(b), indicating that the Au, Ag, and Cu metals were
adsorbed to the activated carbon. As a result of this research, it appears that activated carbon generated
from foxtail palm fruits could be used to remove heavy metals from printed circuit board leachate.
Keywords: Activated carbon, Foxtail palm fruit, Mesopore, Printed circuit board leachate


Microwave-Assisted Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Azadirachta indica Leaf
Extract along with Collagen as Stabilizing Agent
Mira Azah Najihah Zainurin1, Ismail Zainol1*
1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris,
35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been widely used as antimicrobial agent toward many bacterial strains
and microorganisms. Biogenic method of silver nanoparticles synthesis is proven to be a safer alternative
in compare to physical and chemical method. In this study, microwave-assisted green synthesis of silver
nanoparticles (AgNPs) using neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract as reducing agent along with fish
collagen as stabilizing agent have been studied. Neem extract itself has the ability to inhibit bacteria. The
reaction was carried in microwave oven using different concentrations of silver nitrate (AgNO3) solutions,
0.1M, 0.01M, 0.001M, 0.0005M and 0.0001M but fixed amount of neem extract and collagen. The silver
nanoparticles produced were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)
spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The UV-visible
spectra of AgNPs showed a shift to lower absorbance peak as the concentration of silver nitrate (AgNO3)
solutions decreased. The microstructure analysis of AgNPs using SEM reveals that the silver particles
are round shape with size ranging from 30 to 90 nm. As the concentration of nitrate (AgNO3) solutions
decreases, the particles size of AgNPs becomes smaller. FT-IR analysis shows the sufficient evidences
of silver ion interaction with collagen. XRD analysis proved the formation of AgNPs and demonstrate the
crystalline nature of the silver nanoparticles.
Keywords: Silver nanoparticles, Neem extract, Collagen, Microwave-assisted



Microstructure Evaluation of Service Aged and Rejuvenated Nickel Super Alloys using Hot
Isostatic Pressing treatment

Saidatul Akmal Biyamin1,2*, Anis Muneerah Shaiful Bahari1,2, Ng Guat Peng1, Thanaraj Sanmugham3,
Robiah Ghazali1, Rogemah Ramli2 and Azieyanti Nurain Azmin2

1Materials Engineering & Testing Group, Tenaga Nasional Berhad Research Sdn. Bhd., 43000 Kajang,
Selangor, Malaysia

2Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional 43000
Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia

3TNB REMACO Repair Centre, Jalan Dato’Muhammad Sidin, 41000 Klang, Selangor, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]


The design life of gas turbine blades is normally 48,000 EOH or 72,000 EOH based on OEM
recommendation. Extending the service life of gas turbine blades is a huge advantage in the aspect of
capital cost-saving in the power plant industries. The coarsening and shape transformation of γ′
precipitates is one of the main life limiting factor for gas turbine blades. The conventional heat treatment
could not restore or recover the γ′ -phase precipitates to their original morphology. In this study, Hot
Isostatic Pressing (HIP) treatment is used to improve the material properties of the blades to nearly zero-
hour operation and prolong the life of gas turbine blades. HIP rejuvenation treatment applies high
temperature and high pressure to close up the micro pores, re-transform the micro phases, such as γ′
precipitates and to heal the material property. For case study, three HIP parameters were applied on
Nickel–based superalloy (GTD111). Microstructure characterization were carried out on the new, aged,
and HIPed treated GTD 111 alloys. The microstructure after HIPed treatment exhibited significant
improvement and recovery in γ′ precipitates morphology. The hardness property of HIPed blade samples
appeared consistent at 440 HV and did not deviate significantly from new materials with an average value
of 439 HV. The average size of the γ′ - precipitate was successfully reduced from 1.3 µm (degraded state)
to 0.3 µm (near zero operation state). The experimental results suggested that HIP treatment is a
promising procedure to restore the creep life of gas turbine blades.

Keywords: Hot Isostatic Pressing, Nickel superalloy, Turbine blade


A Review on -Al2O3 and Thiol Roles for Mercury Adsorption

Nur Iraizzati Shaifudin*, Aisyah Mohamad Sharif and Rozita Yahaya
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris,

35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

In recent years, issues regarding cleanliness of water rising as it is not concerning to human only but also
to environment. Heavy metal such as mercury which present in water body had been caught attentions
from researchers. Many researchers produced methods to remove mercury from water such as ion
exchange, usage of membrane and adsorption. Among them, adsorption is one of most popular method
to remove mercury by using an adsorbent. Materials such as thiol and alumina are among most sought
in the study. In this review, thiol and alumina will be discussed their characterization such as effect at
different temperature, particle size, surface area and confirmation of presence of functional groups
through XRD, SEM, BET, FTIR, TEM and XRF analysis. In conclusion, this review paper highlights the
important points of alumina and thiol in adsorbent for mercury removal for future references in the field.
Keywords: Alumina, Thiol, Adsorption, Adsorbent


Investigation of Microbiologically Influence Corrosion of Dissimilar Welded Joint by
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Mohd Fauzi Mamat1*, E. Hamzah2, Z. Ibrahim3 and Rohah Ab. Majid4
1Department of Industrial Technology, Faculty of Engineering Technology Mechanical and

Manufacturing, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Kampus Teknologi, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100
Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia

2School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM
Skudai, Johor, Malaysia

3Department of Biosciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai,
Johor, Malaysia

4School of Chemical Engineering and Energy Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi
Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia

*Corresponding author: [email protected]

The presence of bacteria initiates, facilitates, or enhances microbially influenced corrosion (MIC), which
is a destructive type of corrosion. The objective of the study is to assess MIC behaviour of dissimilar
welded joint substrates that are exposed to the existence and absence of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa
inoculated nutrient-rich simulated sea water medium (NRSS). Field emission scanning electron
microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), weight loss, and corrosion
rate methods were used to characterise the formation of the biofilm layer, corrosion products, and pitting
areas on the dissimilar welded substrate. The corrosion rate of a welded coupon immersed in bacteria-
inoculated medium was higher than that of a sterile NRSS medium. The FESEM results revealed an
aggressive role for Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm and bacteria colonisation in inducing corrosion and
producing significant pits on welded joints in the HAZ area. The main elements present in corrosion
product, according to X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) results, are iron oxides and iron hydroxides. This research
could contribute to a better understanding of the MIC behaviour of dissimilar welded joints caused by
bacterial colonisation and biofilm formation.
Keywords: Dissimilar welded joint, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pitting, Corrosion rate


Morphology Studies of ZnO Doped Al Nanoparticles for Potential Use in Sensing Applications
Naif H. Al-Hardan, Muhammed Azmi Abdul Hamid*, Azman Jalar and Mohd Firdaus-Raih
Department of Applied Physics - Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,
43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Morphology of an active materials in sensors may play a role in increasing sensors sensitivity. Aluminium
(Al) doped ZnO nanoparticles with doping percentage of 0 at%, 1 at%, 3 at%, and 5 at% were
synthesized via co-precipitation method. The produced samples were thermally treated at 600 ℃ in
atmospheric environment. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission
electron microscopy (TEM) were used to observed morphological changes for undoped and doped
samples. Agglomeration was obvious for all samples producing irregular shapes particles stacking on
each other as observed by SEM. There particles were not uniformly distributed, where several void can
be seen whereas some are densely packed. It also can be observed with increasing dopant the particles
size also increased. TEM images reveal the particles sizes as low as 15 nm can be obtained without
dopant These results demonstrate that Al as dopant successfully increased ZnO particles which may
influence the sensitivity of a ZnO based sensor.
Keywords: Morphology, Al doped, Precipitation method, ZnO particles


Development of Self-Disinfection TiO2-PVA Based Coating for Steel Surfaces Application
Nurul Fatiha Mohd Padzli, Najihatul Fatihah Ahmad, Hussain Zuhailawati*,
Anasyida Abu Seman, Mohamad Danial Shafiq and Pung Swee Yong
School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia,
14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

The purpose of this work is to develop a self-disinfection coating consisting of titanium dioxide (TiO2)
nanoparticles embedded in poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix that can be applied onto steel surfaces. Film
coating was prepared using solution casting method by mixing TiO2 powder (3wt%) into PVA solution.
Glutaraldehyde was added into the solution as crosslinking agent in order to enhance the coating physical
properties. The resulting film was obtained after drying in room temperature for 48h. PVA/TiO2 self-
disinfection coatings were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visible
spectroscopy (UV-Vis), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and zeta potential instrument. SEM analysis
conducted on the films showed good interaction between nanoparticles and PVA matrix by homogenous
and uniform dispersion of TiO2 on the film in the presence of cross-linking agent. Both samples exhibited
an absorption edge at ultraviolet region (200-400nm) due to π-π* electron transition of TiO2 nanoparticles.
FTIR result showed a reduction of hydroxyl broad band at 3500-3220cm-1 on the cross-linked sample
indicating the reduction of coating hydrophilicity. TiO2 particles dispersion demonstrated higher stability
at -29.2mV of zeta potential in 8wt% glutaraldehyde compared to -5.43mV in 0wt% of glutaraldehyde. In
conclusion, the embedment of TiO2 nanoparticles as the active material for anti-bacterial properties on
PVA coating was successfully done. In order to reduce the transmission infection in public and improving
the communal hygiene, this self-disinfecting PVA/TiO2 coating may potentially use for steel surfaces on
public facilities such door-knobs, train handlebars, stairs handrail and lift buttons.
Keyword: Self-disinfecting coating, Poly-vinyl alcohol, Titanium dioxide, Glutaraldehyde, Steel coating



Effect of Transition Metal Element Doping on Barium Strontium Cobalt Ferrite-Based Composite
– A Short Review

Umira Asyikin Yusop1, Nurul Farhana Abd Rahman1, Yohannes Nyambong Anak Lowrance1, Mohd
Faizal Tukimon1, Zolhafizi Jaidi1, Mohd Azham Azmi1, Azzura Ismail1, Shahruddin Mahzan1, Nur Azmah

Nordin2 and Hamimah Abd Rahman1*

1Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering,
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Malaysia

2Engineering Materials and Structure (eMast) iKohza, Malaysia-Japan International Institute of
Technology (MJIIT), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Yahya Petra, 54100 Kuala Lumpur,


*Corresponding author: [email protected]


Two types of transition metals that act as doping materials on Barium Strontium Cobalt Ferrite (BSCF)-
based composite cathodes are discussed in this review. This research could improve cathode materials
for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Commercialization of SOFC especially for intermediate to low
temperature application can be widely achieved after meeting a few system requirements and locating
suitable material candidates. Therefore, this review is conducted to observe the current approach on the
development for intermediate temperature SOFC (IT-SOFC) and the influence of doping element on
BSCF-based composite cathode properties. This article focused on two types of doping elements,
namely, Niobium (Nb) and Zinc (Zn), with the BSCF-based composite. The effect of doping on chemical,
physical and electrochemical properties were further discussed. The dopant material was substituted at
the B-site (Co/Fe) of BSCF cathode material to increase the cell performance of the cathode material. As
observed from the properties studied, the substitution of dopant material has greatly enhanced the
performance and chemical stability of BSCF as composite cathode material. Interestingly, Nb-doping
improved the chemical stability of BSCF-based materials under high oxidation conditions and the CO2
tolerance. Zn doping was highly effective on enhancing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR)
electrocatalytic activity of BSCF cathode material for IT-SOFC. This review found that BSCF perovskite
is an interesting and promising candidate material for SOFC, but the compatibility of the cathode material
should be further investigated to achieve optimum parameter for outstanding cell performance.

Keywords: BSCF-based composite, IT-SOFC, Niobium, Zinc



Chloride-less Synthesis and Effect of Crystallinity on Cr(VI) Removal via Photoreduction of UiO-

Anis Muneerah Shaiful Bahari1, Siti Zubaidah Othman1, Nisaa Husnina Zulkifli1, Mohd Zul Amzar
Zulkifli1, Mohammad Faizulizwan Mohamad Fadli1, Saidatul Akmal Biyamin1,2, Nurhaswani Alias3, Siti
Azlina Rosli3, Nurliyana Abu Hasan Sazalli3, Zainovia Lockman3 Nowshad Amin4 and Halina Misran1*

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional 43000
Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia

2Tenaga Nasional Berhad Research Sdn. Bhd., No. 1, Kawasan Institusi Penyelidikan, Jalan Ayer Itam,
43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia

3School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal,
14300 Penang, Malaysia

4Institute of Sustainable Energy, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, 43000 Kajang,
Selangor, Malaysia

*Corresponding author: [email protected]


Zr-based metal-organic framework UiO-66 with 12-connected [Zr6O6(OH)4]12+ secondary building block
forming octahedral structure was successfully synthesized for the first time without using chloride ions
(Cl-) at room temperature in a facile approach. Dimethylformamide (DMF) was used as solvent. In this
attempt, the framework formation at various ratio of metal salt (Zr2+)-to-DMF with or without the presence
of Cl- and their effect on crystallinity of UiO-66 were investigated. The aging of pre-mixed solution and
various drying (activation) condition has an effect to crystallinity when using Cl-. The crystallinity in the
form of relative crystallinity (RC) of all samples was found to be affected by the presence of DMF that
acted as organic modulators in the formation of UiO-66. Decreasing the Zr2+-to-DMF ratio resulted in
increment of RC regardless of Cl-. All samples exhibited the X-ray diffraction peaks corresponding to
(111), (002) and (022) reflection planes of Ui-O-66 octahedral structure suggesting successful formation
of UiO-66. Primary crystallite sizes estimated using Scherrer equation at highest reflection peak (111)
were ranged at ca. 8 nm to 28 nm. Chloride-less synthesis resulted in smaller particles at ca. 8-10 nm
regardless of precursor ratio. Results suggested that UiO-66 with lower RC exhibited pseudo-first-order
highest photoreduction efficiency of Cr(IV) at ca. 54 % in 5 ppm solution with reduction rate of 0.0028
min-1. High RC value was suggested to decrease overall active sites for photoreduction reaction to occur
resulting in less photoreduction efficiency.

Keywords: UiO-66, Chloride-less, Facile, Photoreduction, Cr(IV)


Investigating the Structural Transformation of Individual Au-Incorporated CNF Interconnect

Mohamad Saufi Rosmi1*, Yazid Yaakob2, Subash Sharma3, Mohd Zamri Mohd Yusop4, Golap Kalita3,
Illyas Md Isa1, Siti Munirah Sidik1, Suriani Abu Bakar5 and Masaki Tanemura3

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris,
35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia

2Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor,

3Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of
Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showaku, Nagoya 466-8555, Japan

4Department of Materials, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310
Skudai, Johor, Malaysia

5Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900
Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia

*Corresponding author: [email protected]

We present a direct observation of graphitic hollow structure formation from a single Au-incorporated
carbon nanofiber (Au-CNF) during current-voltage (I-V) measurement by in-situ transmission electron
microscopy (TEM). Significant structural transformation of Au-CNF was observed with an applied
potential in a two probe system. Under high current flow between 1.35 μA to 14.7 μA, the Au nanoparticles
agglomerated and evaporated due to joule heating and large thermal gradient. Consequently, the TEM
images and their electron diffraction pattern indicated that the amorphous carbon structure of CNF was
transformed to hollow sp2 graphitic structure catalysed by dispersed Au particles after the current flow. At
higher applied potential of 60 μA, graphene structure broke in the middle part due to saturated current
flow and induced Joule heating. The direct observation of graphene formation in in-situ TEM is significant
to reveal the solid phase interaction between Au and carbon atom.
Keywords: Graphene, Amorphous carbon, Gold, Solid phase reaction, In-situ TEM


Preparation and Characterization of Beads of Fish Collagen/Fish Scales Hydroxyapatite/Silver
Nanoparticles by using Infiltration Method
Mustafa Mudhafar1*, Ismail Zainol2, H.A. Alsailawi1 and C.N. Aiza Jaafar3

1Department of Anesthesia Techniques and Intensive Care, Faculty of Altuff Collage-Iraq
2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris,
35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia
3Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra
Malaysia, 43000 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

The aim of the present study was to formulated the fish collagen/fish hydroxyapatite/ Silver nanoparticles
(FsCol/FsHA/AgNPs) as a bead by using infiltration method. FsCol/FsHA/AgNPs composites beads were
prepared by infiltration of FsHA with FsCol-AgNPs solution. AgNPs were incorporated to increase
antibacterial properties of the FsHA bead. FTIR, XRD, EDX, and SEM were employed to identify the
chemical structure and morphology of the composites beads that had been prepared. The results had
revealed that by using XRD and FTIR analysis, the peaks of functional groups of collagen and silver
nanoparticles were observed in all composite. FESEM had shown the morphology of beads with intact to
the availability of silver nanoparticles on the surface of porous structure. The beads morphology
demonstrated a homogeneous surface with nanosilvers scattered in the matrix. Additionally, the activities
of the antimicrobial in the composites are opposing to Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus
aureus (S. aureus).
Keywords: Fish scales, Hydroxyapatite, Collagen, Silver nanoparticles


Structural, Thermal and Rheological Studies of Virgin Coconut Oil-Based Lamellar Liquid
Crystals from Mixed Tween 85 and Tween 65
Norzakiatul Husna Isnolamran1, Wan Rusmawati Wan Mahamod1*, Norlaili Abu Bakar1, Norhayati
Hashim1, Siti Aisyah Shamsudin2 and Nor Ain Mohamed Arifin1

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris,
35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia

2Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,
43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

*Corresponding author: [email protected]

The uniqueness and diversity of the liquid crystal structure have attracted many of scholars of
pharmaceutical and cosmetic products to conduct intensive studies on the structure of this emulsion. In
this study, VCO-based lamellar liquid crystal (VL) from mixed tween 85 and tween 65 was synthesized
via titration method. The structural, thermal and rheological studies were performed using PLM and
SAXS, DSC and rheometer, respectively. The effect of VCO content and the addition of crisaborole on
the entire characterization were also carried out. The maltese cross and oily textures that appear in the
PLM micrographs indicate the presence of a lamellar structure. The periodic ratio of 1: 2 values of the
scattering vector, (q) in the SAXS spectrum confirms the presence of a lamellar phase (L) in the system.
This L sample is thermally stable and pseudoplastic in nature with shear thinning behaviour. The
increase in VCO content and the addition of crisaborole did not cause significant changes to the structure,
thermal properties and even the rheological profile. This synthesized lamellar phase accompanied by
VCO as a value -added material has its own distinctive rheological behaviour, promising wide application
potential such as topical application.
Keyword: Lamellar liquid crystal, Rheological properties


The Effect of Virgin Coconut Oil Content on the Rheological Profile of Virgin Coconut Oil-Based

Lamellar Liquid Crystal of Mixed Tween 80:Brij 30 System
Nor Ain Mohamed Arifin1, Wan Rusmawati Wan Mahamod1*, Norlaili Abu Bakar1, Norhayati Hashim1,

Norzakiatul Husna Isnolamran1 and Siti Aisyah Shamsudin2
1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris,

35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia
2Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,

43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

The health advantages of virgin coconut oil (VCO) and the diversity of its biological characteristics have
garnered considerable attention recently. Nevertheless, scientific research on VCO-based applications is
still under-reported particularly in Malaysia. This study aimed to investigate the effect of VCO content on
the rheological profile of virgin coconut oil-based lamellar (V-L) liquid crystal systems of
Tween80:Brij30/H2O/VCO. In addition, the influence of mixed surfactant to water (MS/W) ratio also
investigated. V-L samples formulated using the titration method. The formation of lamellar liquid crystals
confirmed based on the existence of birefringence texture and the appearance of two recurring scattering
peaks in the SAXS spectrum. The rheological study shows that V-L samples exhibit the shear-thinning
behaviour of pseudoplastic materials with a yield stress range of 11.4 – 50.0 Pa. The effects of VCO
content and MS/W ratio were mutually significant on rheological profiles of V-L. The pseudoplastic
properties of the L structure increased with increasing VCO content for samples with lower MS/W
(0.56/0.44) while the pseudoplastic properties weakened with increasing MS/W especially at high VCO
(10 wt%) content. These rheological findings of the V-L will open greater application opportunities in
industries, especially pharmaceuticals, because of the uniqueness of lamellar liquid crystals that can
mimic lipid skin bilayers and the health benefit of VCO.
Keywords: Lamellar liquid crystal, Virgin coconut oil, Rheological analysis, SAXS


Investigation of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) Process Parameter for Ultrafine-Grained Aluminium

5083 Alloys
Muhamad Nabil Faizul Hilmy1, Anasyida Abu Seman1*, Zuhailawati Hussain1 and Abioye Taiwo

1School of Materials & Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia,

14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
2Industrial and Production Engineering Department, School of Engineering and Engineering Technology

Federal University of Technology Akure, Akure, Nigeria
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Ultrafine-grained (UFG) have received considerable attention due to improve mechanical properties. The
instability of UFG materials upon intense heating cycle in fusion state welding processes make the solid-
state welding more convenient for UFG materials. However, the generation of heat due from the frictional
force between the rotating tool and the workpiece has an impact on the weld’s quality and its mechanical
properties. Thus, this work studied the effect of tool rotational speed on microstructure and mechanical
properties of friction stir welding of ultrafine-grained Al 5083 alloy. Different rotational speeds of 410, 600,
865, 1140, and 500 rpm, a fixed travel speed of 264 mm/min and tool tilt angle of 2° were used as
processing parameters. Visual inspection, macroscopic and microscopic analysis, Vicker's
microhardness, tensile properties and fracture observation were used to evaluate weld quality. The
optimal rotating tool of 865 rpm produced a smooth welded surface, defect-free weld, and finest grain
within nugget zone (NZ), resulting in the highest microhardness and tensile strength with an average of
91.78 HV and 145.14 MPa. The fractured sample composed mixture of brittle and ductile manner with
fine dimple structure. Generation of adequate heat, resulting in a high quality UFG welded joint. These
findings may contribute to advance welding technology, particularly for marine industries that use
aluminium alloys (AA) 5083 as their primary material.
Keywords: Cryorolling, Welded joint, Nugget zone, Tensile strength, Al 5083 alloy


Si-Mo-Modified Aluminide Slurry Coating for High Temperature Protection of Austenitic
Stainless Steel

Syamimi Abu Kassim, Nur Muzirah Md Shukri, Syazana Ahmad Zubir, Anasyida Abu Seman and Tuti
Katrina Abdullah*

School of Materials and Minerals Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains
Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, Seberang Perai Selatan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

*Corresponding author: [email protected]

In this research, Si-, Mo- and Si-Mo-modified aluminide slurry coating were prepared on 304 stainless
steels through a slurry spraying process. The aluminizing of alloy was performed at 650 ºC for 4 h and 6
h. The physical, chemical and mechanical properties of the aluminide coatings were characterized using
Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive X-ray
Spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and Vickers microhardness test. The Vickers
microhardness test shows an increase in hardness value (HV) as the aluminizing time increased for Mo-
and Si-modified coating. However, Si-Mo-modified aluminide coating shows a decrease in hardness value
(HV) as the aluminizing time increased due to the formation of multi-crack and porous coating structures.
A formation of dense and continuous inner FeAl-base intermetallic slightly improves the coating behaviour
of the alloys (Figure 1). This finding suggested that slurry aluminide coatings on 304 stainless steels could
be a viable potential for high temperature application.
Keywords: Aluminide coating, Aluminizing, Si-Mo-modified, Austenitic stainless steel, High temperature



Different Concentrations of Sodium Hydroxide Caustic Leaching for Refinement of Calcium
Source from Dental Mould Waste

Nur Liyana Mohd Rosli1,2 and Yanny Marliana Baba Ismail1*

1Biomaterials Niche Group, School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering
Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia

2Advance Material Processing & Design, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Universiti
Malaysia Perlis, Kampus Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia

*Corresponding author: [email protected]


Dental mould is a component used in making the model structures of patient-specific dentures in treating
tooth defects. It will be disposed once the patient obtains his dentures. Dumping these non-biodegradable
wastes into the landfills, particularly the green dental mould waste (DMW) (type3) which was
characterized as calcium sulphate dihydrate (CaSO4.2H2O) containing-chromium, can produce toxic and
odorous hydrogen sulphide gas. The current study aimed to convert the DMW via alkaline roasting and
subsequently caustic leaching to remove chromium and thus producing high purity calcium hydroxide
(Ca(OH)2). The ground DMW powder was mixed with sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and roasted at 1000°C
for 1hour at 5℃/min. The roasted samples were then proceeded with caustic leaching with 5M, 7M and
10M of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The influence of different concentrations of NaOH on chromium
removal were investigated. Our finding showed that the chromium could be efficiently leached out up to
94% using 7M NaOH. The white residue was an indication of the efficiency of chromium removal, and it
can be confirmed that chromium was largely diminished when analysed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF).
Additionally, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed that portlandite (Ca(OH)2) was the phase
formed after roasting and subsequently leached with NaOH. The synthesized Ca(OH)2 powder observed
under field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) showed highly agglomerated with presence
of needle-shape or fibrous-like particles. Transforming this calcium-rich DMW into a potential Ca(OH)2,
which can be used in making potential bone substitute material is thought to be one of the sustainable
approach in preserving our environment.

Keywords: Dental mould waste, Calcium sulphate dihydrate, Chromium, Alkaline roasting, Caustic


Effect of Stand-Off Distance on Alzn Pseudo-Alloy Coating Properties Prepared via Wire Arc
Spray Process
Nur Suhaili Ismail*, Tuty Asma Abu Bakar and Nor Akmal Fadil

School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor
Bahru, Johor, Malaysia

*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Sacrificial metallic coatings specifically aluminium (Al), zinc (Zn), and their alloys have been one of the
most effective corrosion mitigation methods, therefore are utilized to protect steel substrates especially
in marine environment. Among various coating techniques, Twin Wire Arc Spray (TWAS) process has
been widely adopted for decades to protect components from corrosion and wear due to its cost
efficiency, flexibility, and it promotes superior coating quality. Besides, continuous demand in high-
technology industries combined with new advanced materials availability have initiated many
improvements in the coating quality developed using TWAS. In this study, two different wires of Al and
Zn were employed to produce pseudo alloy of AlZn coating on low carbon steel substrates. Investigations
were carried out on the effect of stand-off distance (100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mm) on the properties
of developed coating layer including thickness, hardness, and adhesion. The microstructure of developed
coating was analysed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The results have shown that coating
thickness increases as stand-off distance increases and there are strong correlations between process
parameters and all aforementioned coating properties.
Keywords: Thermal spray process, Corrosion protection, Wire arc spray, Pseudo alloy, Aluminium alloy



Post-Coating Treatment Effects on the Physicomechanical and Corrosion Resistance of Plasma-
Sprayed Hydroxyapatite (FsHA) on Ti-13Nb-13Zr Alloy for Biomedical Applications

Franklin Amaechi Anene1,3, Che Nor Aiza Jaafar1*, Ismail Zainol2, Azmah Hanim Mohamed Ariff1 and
Suraya Mohd. Tahir1

1Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra
Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia

2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris,
35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia

3Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,
Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

*Corresponding author: [email protected]


β titanium alloys are widely used in orthopaedic applications as an alternative to the high modulus α + β
titanium alloys which leads to aseptic loosening of implants as a result of the mismatch of the modulus
to that of human bone. Hydroxyapatite (HA) coating has been used to enhance the biological properties
of Ti alloys. The present study determined the effect of heat treatment on the properties of plasma-
sprayed low modulus Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy using a natural and economical HA derived from fish scales
(FsHA) and FsHA-doped yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ). The microstructure was examined by SEM-
EDS and the hardness was determined using Vickers hardness tester whereas the corrosion resistance
was studied using potentiodynamic polarization method. The SEM micrograph of the as-coated FsHA
revealed micro pores and cracks with partially melted and unmelted FsHA particles while the as-coated
FsHA/YSZ samples developed denser coatings, lesser number of pores with increased number of
melted FsHA particles, fine micro cracks and evenly dispersed ZrO2 particles. On the other hand, the
post-coating treatment led to a much denser and finer lamellar morphology with more cracks as well as
a significant increase in the microhardness as the heat-treated FsHA and FsHA/YSZ coatings had 514.7
and 566.9 Hv respectively, compared to their non-heat-treated values of 467.8 and 492.5 Hv. However,
heat treatment recorded a slight increase in corrosion rate as the as-coated FsHA and FsHA/YSZ
samples had 44.54 and 22.72 mmpy while their heat-treated counterparts recorded 83.7 and 73.88
mmpy respectively.

Keywords: Hydroxyapatite coating, Yttria stabilized zirconia, Plasma spray, Microhardness, Corrosion



A Comparative Study of Graphenated-Carbon Nanotubes Cotton and Carbon Nanotubes as
Catalysts for Counter Electrode in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

Yusnita Yusuf1, Suhaidi Shafie1,2*, Ismayadi Ismail1, Fauzan Ahmad3, Mohd Nizar Hamidon1,2, Shyam
S. Pandey4, Nazalea Yazmin Muhammad1 and Wei Lei5

1Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia,

43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
3Malaysian-Japan International Institute of Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 57000 Kuala

Lumpur, Malaysia
4Graduate School of Life Science and System Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 2-4

Hibikino, Wakamatsu, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 808-0196, Japan
5School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Sipailou, JinLing Yuan 109,

Nanjing 210096, China

*Corresponding author: [email protected]


This work reports a comparative study of synthesized graphenated-carbon nanotubes cotton (g-CNTC),
standard carbon nanotubes (CNTP), and conventional platinum (Pt) thin layer which are employed as the
counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The g-CNTC was synthesized via the floating-
catalyst chemical vapor deposition (FCCVD) method. Subsequently, the g-CNTC is made into a uniform
paste and deposited for the counter electrode layer. The results obtained from FESEM/TEM, Raman, CV
and I-V measurements respectively, which expose the structural, graphitization and I-V characteristics
were analysed. Briefly, the morphology of g-CNTC shows the growth of graphene foliates out-sidewalls
of CNT with a diameter of 40 nm. The graphitization of g-CNTC shows two dominant peaks namely the
D and G bands showed strong intensities. The g-CNTC counter electrode provides good electrical
conductivity (1.14×10-1 to 4.0×10-1 S/cm), which is a significant feature to employ counter electrodes to
enhanced DSSC performance. In addition, the g-CNTC counter electrode offered an excellent catalytic
activity for iodide/triiodide reaction and exhibited 3.49 % of photovoltaic conversion energy, which was
much higher compared to CNTP (2.93 %) and platinum (3.12 %), respectively.

Keywords: Dye-sensitized solar cells, Carbon-based counter electrode, Graphenated-carbon nanotubes


Electrospinning of Aligned Nanofibers for Biomedical Application using a Rotating Drum
Ham Wen Jun and Koh Ching Theng*

Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400
Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia

*Corresponding author: [email protected]

The orientation of nanofibers can be random or aligned. In biomedical, cells cultured on aligned
electrospun fibrous substrate exhibit contact guidance for cell growth. Considering the influence of fibre
alignment, knowledge in the control of microstructure alignment in electrospun scaffolds is crucial.
However, there is a lack of literature in controlling fibre alignment in gelatine nanofibers. Classic
electrospinning which produces random fibres using static collector, cannot cater the requirements of
practical applications when aligned fibres is needed. In this study, a rotating collector drum was designed
and fabricated to collect aligned gelatine fibres using an electrospinning technique. The rotation speed of
the fabricated rotating drum collector was adjustable and controlled at 1000 rpm, 2000 rpm, and 3000
rpm. Electrospun scaffolds having aligned fibres were successfully produced using the rotating drum at
3000 rpm and compared with random nanofibers collected with the static plate. The rotation speed of the
rotating drum collector increased the fibre alignment and reduced the fibre diameter. The results suggest
an important set of process parameters to aligned gelatine fibres for biomedical application.
Keywords: Rotating drum, Electrospinning, Aligned fibres



Catalytic Ketonization of Fatty Acids over MgO/ZrO2: Characterization and Optimization via
Response Surface Methodology

Shamina Abdul Aleem1,3, Nurul Asikin-Mijan 1, S. Sivasangar 1,4,5*, Yun Hin Taufiq-Yap1,2*

1Catalysis Science and Technology Research Centre (PutraCAT), Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra
Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

2Chancellery Office, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
3PETRONAS Research Sdn. Bhd., Kawasan Institusi Bangi, Kajang, 43000 Selangor, Malaysia
4Department of Basic Science & Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Universiti Putra

Malaysia Kampus Bintulu, Jalan Nyabau, Peti Surat 396, 97008 Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia
5Institut EkoSains Borneo, Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu, Jalan Nyabau, 97008 Bintulu, Sarawak,


*Correspondence: [email protected], [email protected]


Amphoteric metal oxides catalysts such as ZrO2 are shown to be effective in ketonization reactions and
addition of MgO dopant was reported to enhance ketonization catalytic activity. The basicity of MgO
significantly alters the physicochemical properties of ZrO2 and improve the performance of the catalyst in
fatty acid conversion. Hence, this study investigates the optimization of ketonization reaction using
MgO/ZrO2 catalyst with undiluted fatty acid feedstock (C12 and C16). MgO/ZrO2 was synthesized via
deposition-precipitation and characterized by XRD, BET, TPD-CO2 and FESEM. Response surface
methodology-central composite design (RSM-CCD) was used to design the experiments with three
varying parameters: catalyst loading (3–10 wt.%), reaction temperature (330 to 430⁰C), and reaction time
(3.5 to 12 h). The reaction products were analysed using GC-MS which indicated ketones and alkanes
as the main products. Under the optimized parameters of 379⁰C, 7.9h and 5wt% catalyst loading,
maximum feedstock conversion of 40% with ketone yield of 6.5% is achieved. The reaction model is a
quadratic model with time and temperature being very significant factors and greatly influences the
product yield and selectivity. The confirmation run based on the model prediction yielded 6.5% ketone,
falling well within prediction within 90% confidence level. Catalytic ketonization of undiluted fatty acids is
still at preliminary stage of investigation whereby most reported reactions in the literature are performed
using diluted feedstock in solvents. Therefore, this RSM study provides crucial information of the
synergistic effects of the reaction parameters of bulk fatty acids conversion and ketone selectivity of
MgO/ZrO2 in ketonization.

Keywords: Lauric acid, Palmitic acid, Metal oxide, Dopant, Ketone, Central composite design


Synthesis and Characterization of Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) / Silica Aerogel (SA)
Composites as Floating Covers
Rozalina Amran1*, Muhamad Azizi Mat Yajid1 and Nuha Awang2

1Department of Materials, Manufacturing & Industrial Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia

2Plant Engineering Technology (PETech), Universiti Kuala Lumpur Malaysia Institute of Industrial
Technology, Persiaran Sinaran Ilmu, Bandar Sri Alam, 81750 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

The main objective of the research is to solve non environmentally friendly issue faced by conventional
floating covers. In this study, Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane was synthesized using
dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent then prepared by phase inversion casting. The properties of PVDF
have been enhanced by adding 10wt% of aerogel. The aerogel undergoes surface modifying using 30wt%
of trimethylsilyl chlorosilane (TMCS). Membrane microstructure has been characterized by FTIR and
SEM. The samples had been undergone hydrophobicity test to characterized the psychochemical
properties and for mechanical properties had been characterized by tensile test. SEM results for silica
aerogel shows its multi porous properties. While SEM results for PVDF membrane shows silica aerogel
is well scattered in the membrane. As results showed that contact angle of PVDF membrane has
increased about 36% and the hydrophobicity effect due to silylating agent has displayed by Fourier
transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). FTIR result highlight that crystalline conformation of the chain
from 849 cm-1 wavelength. The tensile strength of membrane increased about 54% from 0.23446 MPa to
0.36116 MPa for PVDF 10 wt% and PVDF 10 wt% with silica aerogel (with silylating TMCS 30 wt%)
accordingly. It can be concluded that by adding optimum amount of silica aerogel will enhanced PVDF
membrane properties.
Keywords: Polyvinylidene fluoride; Silica aerogel, Hydrophobic membrane, Tensile strength



Fabrication of Aligned Pineapple Leaf Fibre Reinforced Polylactic Acid for High Performance

Zaleha Mustafa1*, Anira Shahidah Razali1, Siti Hajar Sheikh Md Fadzullah2, Sivakumar Dhar
Malingam2, Aslina Anjang3, Qumrul Ahsan4 and Thanate Ratanawilai5

1Faculty of Manufacturing, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Durian Tunggal, 76100, Melaka,

2Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Durian Tunggal, 76100,
Melaka, Malaysia

3School of Aerospace Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia
4Department of Mechanical and Production Engineering, Ahsanullah University of Science and
Technology, Dhaka -1208, Bangladesh

5Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla
University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, 90112, Thailand

*Corresponding author: [email protected]


The growing concern on the environmental issue has increased the demand for eco-friendly and
sustainable biodegradable composite. Natural fibre provides an alternative to the usage of non-
degradable fibre such as glass and carbon fibre but their mechanical properties are still inferior. Thus, in
this present work, an attempt has been carried out to produce biocomposites with high strength that are
potential to be used in structural applications. The uniaxial composites were fabricated by drawing the
pineapple leaf yarn in polylactic acid (PLA) solution via the pre-pregging method followed by hot
compression moulding. The chemical analysis of the fibres was carried out using Fourier transform
infrared spectroscopy. Flexural properties with different fibre loadings were tested. Results showed the
composite with 60 wt. % of alkali-treated pineapple leaf fibre has the optimum flexural strength and
stiffness, which are 145.1 MPa and 9.35 GPa respectively, significantly higher than the neat PLA. In
contrast, the flexural strain reduced as the fibre loading increase. Surface morphology observed using
SEM indicated that the composite failed due to fibre breaking and favourable interfacial adhesion is
present in the composites. These findings suggesting that fabrication methods used in this study able to
improve the matrix impregnation around the fibres hence contribute to their high mechanical

Keywords: Pineapple leaf fibre, Polylactic acid, Continuous yarn, Pre-preg, Flexural properties,
Compression moulding


Effect of Milled Graphite Composition on the Mechanical Properties and Morphology of High-
Density Polyethylene (HDPE)/Graphite Composite
Cheah Sook Fong1, Engku Abd Ghapur Engku Ali1,2* and Mohd Aidil Adhha Abdullah1,2
1Faculty of Science and Marine Environment, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu,
21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia
2Advanced Nano Materials (ANoMa) Research Group, Faculty of Science and Marine Environment,
21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Effects of milled graphite composition on the physical and tensile properties of high-density polyethylene
(HDPE)/graphite composite were investigated. The milled graphite powders were mixed with the HDPE
by using melt blending process. The microstructure evolution of the milled graphite and fracture surface
of the HDPE/graphite composites were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning
electron microscope (SEM). XRD analysis showed that the graphite peak and crystallite size of graphite
decreased from 17.82 nm to 15.15 nm with increasing of milling time. SEM micrograph shows that when
milling time increased, the reduction in particle size of graphite was observed. The mechanical properties
study of HDPE/graphite composites represents the considerable effect of milled graphite on the
increasing of Young's modulus. For HDPE/graphite composite with 4wt% of 50 hours milled graphite
mixed with HDPE, the value of the young’s modulus was 1295 N/mm2 which about 24 % higher than the
HDPE without graphite filler. The addition of milled graphite has improved mechanical properties of
HDPE/graphite composite.
Keywords: Mechanical milling, Milled graphite, HDPE, Tensile properties, Graphite/polymer composite


Microstructure Development and Tensile Properties of ADC12 Al-Si Alloy with Different Content

of Praseodymium (Pr)
Nurfatin Dalilah Roslan, Hamidreza Ghandvar and Tuty Asma Abu Bakar*
School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor

Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

The research aims to investigate the effects of praseodymium (Pr) addition on the microstructure
alterations and the tensile properties of the ADC12 Al-Si alloys. The ADC12 Al-Si alloys with a different
percentage of Pr (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 wt. %) were prepared using the casting technique. The
microstructural analysis and tensile properties were conducted using an optical microscope (OM), energy
dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and tensile tests. The ADC12 Al-Si alloy with 0.5 wt. % of Pr
demonstrates the best aspect ratio composition and tensile properties. The eutectic Si grain size
decreases at 0.5 wt. % Pr where the value of aspect ratio is the lowest. There is an increment in ultimate
tensile strength (UTS) and elongation by 20.05% and 40.35%, respectively, with the addition of 0.5 wt.
Keywords: ADC12 Al-Si alloy, Pr addition, Microstructure, Mechanical properties, Modification


The Effect of Compatibilizer on the Fracture Surface Morphology of Nylon Fiber Reinforced
Thermoplastic Natural Rubber Composites
Engku Zaharah Engku Zawawi1*, Sahrim Ahmad2, Rozaidi Rashid2 and Noor Najmi Bonnia1
1Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam 40450, Selangor,
2School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,
43650 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

In this study the tensile and fracture surface morphology of Thermoplastic Natural Rubber (TPNR)
composites reinforced with different vol% of nylon textile fibres (PA6) compositions were investigated.
The composite was melts blending using an internal mixer and their properties were analysed. The TPNR
was prepared from blending of high-density polyethylene, natural rubber and liquid natural rubber
(HDPE/NR/LNR) at the ratio of 50:50:10. This study focuses on the effect of fibre loading and
compatibilizer, maleic anhydride-grafted polyethylene (MAPE) on the tensile and morphological
properties of composites. The addition of fibre loading from 0-20 vol% in composites resulted in increasing
of tensile strength and young’s modulus. Incorporation of MAPE in the composites increased the modulus
up to 7% at the same fibre loading as compared to the composite without compatibilizer. Scanning
electron micrograph of fracture surfaced showed that there was good adhesion between the fibres and
the polymer matrix of TPNR.
Keywords: Thermoplastic natural rubber, Tensile strength, Fracture surface, Surface morphology


Crystallization-Mechanical Technique for Oil Extraction from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fibre

Kessnia Ira Ng and Coswald Stephen Sipaut @ Mohd Nasri1*
Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

*Corresponding Author: [email protected]

Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibre is currently wasted as a sustainable resource since its 2 to 7%
residual oil content results in reduced compatibility as a filler matrix product. This research investigated
the removal of residual oil from EFB fibre using a crystallization-mechanical technique. EFB fibre was
crystallized using liquid nitrogen for 1, 3, and 5 minutes and then shaken in a mechanical collector for 5
minutes. All products were characterized and analysed for oil removal capacity using Fourier transform
infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Images of EFB fibre samples were obtained using scanning electron
microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that EFB fibre processed with the crystallization-mechanical
technique had an oil content of 1.9890 ± 0.1786%, whereas unprocessed EFB fibre had an oil yield of
2.7126 ± 0.1628%. The dislodged brown powder had an oil yield of 1.3350 ± 0.0585%. %. FTIR analysis
showed that the extracted oil from brown powder had an FTIR spectrum similar to that of crude palm oil.
SEM images showed the changes in the EFB fibre’s surface pores over the different crystallization times.
Keywords: Liquid nitrogen, Crystallization time, Oil removal, Mechanical collector


Morphological Characterization of Carbon Fibre Epoxy Composite Coated Graphene
Mohd Roshdi Hassan1*, Belal Alemour2* and Omar Badran3
1Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia,
43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bahrain Polytechnic, Manamah, Bahrain
3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Al-Balqa Applied University, FET, Amman, Jordan
*Corresponding authors: [email protected], [email protected]

Developing a conductive composite using graphene is very important in manufacturing aircraft’s
structures toward enhancing their electrical properties for future aviation application. Consequently, this
study was conducted to develop a method to coat carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composite (CFRE) with
reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and functionalized graphene nanoplates (FGNP) to improve and enhance
the electrical conductivity and self-heating properties of CFRE in order to obtain an outstanding
conductive composite .The painting method was used in this study to coat CFRE with rGO, while inkjet
printing method was used to coat CFRE with FGNP, after that the conductive composites (CFRE/rGO
and CFRE/FGNP) was fabricated using hot press mold. Morphological characterization using atomic
force microscopy has been carried out to understand the behaviour of the different multiscale laminates
manufactured. The results showed that rGO and FGNP coating layers were uniformly and
homogeneously distributed over the surface of CFRE, and there was no flaws or creation of voids
between the coating layers and CFRE surface. In addition to that, the electrical conductivity of CFRE
coated with rGO and FGNP was enhanced and increased significantly.
Keywords: Electrical conductivity, Carbon fiber, Composites, Graphene, Lightning strike


A Review on the Effect of Printing Parameters of FDM Metal Composite Parts on Mechanical
Properties and Surface Roughness
Nor Aiman Sukindar*, Muhammad Afif Md Azhar, Sharifah Imihezri Syed Shaharuddin, Shafie
Kamaruddin, Yang Chuan Choong and Ahmad Zahirani Ahmad Azhar
Manufacturing and Materials Department, Kulliyyah of Engineering, International Islamic University
Malaysia, 53100 Gombak, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is a three-dimensional (3D) printing method in which melted filament
is deposited layer by layer to build the model on a printing bed. Recently, various types of materials have
been made and used as filament material that imparts numerous functions and properties. Metal
composite is considered a new type of material in the FDM process that can be used for a wide range of
industrial applications. The use of metal composite in FDM has been a challenge due to its shortcomings
in mechanical and surface roughness properties. Tensile and compression studies of FDM printed parts
are influenced by the anisotropic property imparted during the printing process. Scanning electron
microscopy (SEM) images show that there is a correlation between surface finish with the filament
material used. Figure 1 shows the example of a SEM micrograph for a copper-PLA printed composite.
Additionally, the mechanical properties and the surface roughness are also influenced by the FDM printing
parameters such as infill density, infill patterns, extrusion temperature, layer thickness, raster angle, and
build orientation. In this work, a review was conducted to identify the correlation between the effect of
printing parameters of FDM metal composite parts with the mechanical properties and surface roughness.
The review highlights the optimal printing parameters for a metal composite that can be used to fabricate
high-quality products. The outcome of this review work is expected to contribute to the development and
production of 3D metal composite parts in the manufacturing industry.
Keywords: Fused deposition modelling, Metal composite, 3D printing


Comparison Study on Mechanical Properties of 3D Printed PLA and PLA/Aluminium Composites

using Fused Deposition Modeling Technique
Nor Aiman Sukindar*, Sharifah Imihezri Syed Shaharuddin,
Shafie Kamruddin, Ahmad Zahirani Ahmad Azhar, Yang Chuan Choong5 and Erry Yulian Triblas Adesta
Manufacturing and Materials Department, Kulliyyah of Engineering, International Islamic University

Malaysia, 53100 Gombak, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

3D printing technology has been developed to produce prototype and end used parts. The demand is
increasing recently making this technology a popular choice for the industry especially using fused
deposition modelling (FDM) method. A common material used for this FDM technology is polylactic acid
(PLA) as it is sustainable, low cost, and compatible with the system. However new materials need to be
developed for a specific application for example PLA composite to improve the existing PLA. The need
to study the mechanical properties and effect of printing parameters on the printed parts of different
materials is essential to achieve the desired output. This study intends to compare the tensile strength of
PLA and PLA/Aluminium composite by manipulating several printing parameters using Taguchi's design
of experiment (DOE) method. The result shows that PLA exhibits better tensile performance compared
to PLA/Aluminium composite. The ANOVA analysis also shows that the number of shells provide the
main factor in affecting the tensile strength for both materials.
Keywords: Fused deposition modelling, Tensile strength, PLA/Aluminium


Effect of Simultaneous Addition of Ba and Sb on Microstructural and Phase Reaction
Characteristics of Al-20%Mg2Si Alloy
Hamidreza Ghandvar1, Ahmed G. Hassan1,2 and Norhayati Ahmad1*

1School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor
Bahru, Johor, Malaysia

2Faculty of Engineering, University of Thi-Qar, Thi-Qar, Iraq
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

In the present research the influence of different (Ba-Sb) (0, 0.2 and 0.5 wt. %) on microstructural
alteration and solidification behaviour of Al-20%Mg2Si alloy is investigated. Scanning electron microscopy
(SEM) equipped with electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to characterize the microstructure
of the alloys. In addition, the solidification behaviour of Al-20%Mg2Si-x(Ba-Sb) alloys during cooling was
monitored using cooling curve thermal analysis (CCTA) approach. The results showed that addition of
(Ba-Sb) with various concentrations resulted in transformation of primary Mg2Si crystals from coarse
dendritic (0 wt. % (Ba-Sb)) to defective truncated octahedral (0.2 wt. % (Ba-Sb)) and finally to coexistence
of perfect truncated octahedral and flat truncated octahedral (0.5 wt. % (Ba-Sb)) with decreasing in the
average size from 65 to 25 and 15 µm respectively. Besides, thermal analysis revealed that the nucleation
temperature (TN) of primary Mg2Si phase increased when different (Ba-Sb) additions were added to the
Al-20%Mg2Si alloy.
Keywords: Al-Mg2Si alloy, Ba, Sb, Microstructure, Modification, Thermal analysis


Mechanical Characterization for Producing Stainless Steel (SS16L) Foam with Hydroxyapatite
(HA) via Slurry Method
Yarshine Rani, Sufizar Ahmad*, Hamimah Abdul Rahman, Muhamad Azham Azmi, Shahrudin Mahzan
and Azzura Ismail
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering,Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400
Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

The SS316L stainless steel is one of the most commonly available commercial implant materials with a
few limitations in its ease of biocompatibility and long-standing performance. While hydroxyapatite seems
to be the most suitable ceramic material for hard tissue replacement implants. The aim for this study is to
characterize the mechanical properties of SS316L foams added with HA for biomedical application. In
this study were successfully produce SS316L-HA foam by using slurry method for implant materials. The
composition of SS316L is 60 wt% fixed and the hydroxyapatite compositions were 1 wt%, 3 wt%, 5 wt%,
7 wt%, and 10 wt% has been chooses. In this research Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) and Carboxymethyl
Cellulose (CMC) were used as a binder. The polyurethane (PU) foam has been used as template with
dimensions of 27-28mm length and 13-12mm diameter. The SS316L-HA slurry were mixed by using
mechanical stirrer for 2 hours before coated the PU foam. The coated PU foam was dried inside a drying
oven at 40°C for 24 hours before being sintered at five different temperatures. There are 1150°C, 1200°C,
1250°C, 1300°C and 1350°C in vacuum furnace. The morphological analysis of the SS316L-HA foam
was carried out by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The figure below shown the pores
structure at temperature 1150˚C by using 1 wt% of SS316L-HA foams compositions. The pore size of
SS316L-HA foam was analysed by using ImageJ software. The result of yield strength and modulus
elasticity in range of (3.01Mpa-18.85Mpa) and (0.02GPa-0.49GPa), respectively. While the pore sizes for
SS316L-HA foam was suitable for size required in bone implants application.
Keywords: Fabrication, Microstructure, Corrosive, Material, Bone


Composition of Surfactants and Ionic Elements from Diesel and Petrol Exhaust Particulate

Muhammad Afiq bin Mohd Nor1, Nurul Bahiyah Abd Wahid1*, Suzita Ramli1, Azi Azeyanty Jamaludin1
and Anggi Tias Pratama2

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900
Tanjung Malim, Perak, Malaysia

2Department of Biology Education, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta,
Kampus Karangmalang Jl.Colombo No.1 Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Emission from vehicular exhaust is an important source of particulate matter especially in urban
environment. This study was conducted to determine the compositions of surfactants and ionic elements
from diesel and petrol exhaust particulate matter (exhaust soot). The soot sample was collected from
various types of diesel and petrol vehicles, using a soft brush during dry days. Anionic surfactants as
Methylene Blue Active Substances (MBAS) and cationic surfactants as Disulphine Blue Active
Substances (DBAS) were determined by the colorimetric method using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer.
Whereas, ionic elements were detected using ion chromatography (IC). In addition, morphological study
of exhaust soot was also analysed using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). Results
indicated that the concentration of surfactants were dominated by MBAS compared to DBAS for all types
of vehicles studied. In addition, heavy duty vehicles/ lorries showed the highest concentration of MBAS
(1.50 ± 0.10 µmol/g) and DBAS (0.28 ± 0.04 µmol/g). The ionic elements followed the trend of SO42- >
Ca2+ > Na+ > K+ > NO3- > Cl- > NH4+ > Mg2+ > F- for all types of soot samples. FESEM analysis shows
that soot particles are presented as agglomerates of many fine spherical primary particles in the form of
cluster soot particles The emission from diesel and petrol vehicles should be concern as they could pose
the negative effects to human health as well as towards environment.
Keywords: MBAS, DBAS, Ionic composition, Air pollution, Vehicle emission



One-step MACE Fabrication for Large-scale Texturing on Silicon Wafer Solar Cells Surfaces
Nurul Huda Abdul Razak1*, Ahmad Zaki Zaini2, Nowshad Amin3, Kamaruzzaman Sopian4 and Md.

1Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600

UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
2Unit Mikroskopi Elektron, Fakulti Sains dan Teknologi, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
3Institute of Sustainable Energy, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
4Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor,


*Corresponding author: [email protected]


In this study, one-step metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) technique is used to texture silicon wafer
(n-Si (100)) surfaces at room temperature. This wet-chemical technique is suitable for large scale
texturing on silicon wafer surfaces for solar cells or any semiconductor devices such as sensors,
thermoelectric and lithium-ion batteries because it can texture the whole surface areas. The experimental
results shown that the formation of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) has less porous and long nanowires when
the low concentration of the solution hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is applied. Less porous but long nanowires
can reduce the reflectance on silicon wafer surfaces thus increase the cells optical performance.
Therefore, the adjusting of H2O2 concentration is needed in order to get less porous and long of SiNWs
structures. Hence, the effects of the H2O2 solution to texture silicon wafer surfaces were investigated
thoroughly in this paper. The SiNWs were form with different H2O2 concentrations which is 0.2M, 0.3M,
0.5M and 0.7M and 1.0M. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) results show that the
silicon nanowires formation are perpendicularly and vertically on silicon wafer [100] surfaces due to the
fact that the anisotropic reaction is higher when silicon wafer [100] orientation is used. It was found that
the optimize SiNWs structure with high aspect ratio, vertically aligned and less porous on silicon wafer
surfaces was obtained at 0.5M of H2O2 concentration. In addition, X-Ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the
SiNWs in this study has high crystal nanowires than untreated silicon (Si) wafer.
Keywords: Texturing, Silicon wafer, Silicon nanowires, Chemical etching, Optical properties,
Metal assisted chemical etching


Important Parameters of Laser Welding Process for Fuel Cell Interconnect Metallic Materials: A

Short Review
Mohd Faizal Tukimon1, Hamimah Abd. Rahman1*, Shahrin Hisham Amirnordin1, Umira Asyikin Yusop1,

Zolhafizi Jaidi1, Azzura Ismail1, Sufizar Ahmad1 and Aiman Mohd. Halil2
1Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400

Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia
2Faculty of Mechanical & Automotive Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26600

Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

The development of laser welding application is a critical innovation in accomplishing urbanity objectives
whilst guaranteeing first class measures for mechanical and electrical associations to generate electro-
mobility components. Generally, laser emission welding is utilized for cutting metals, fabricating cell
container, and fuse conductor materials to battery and fuel cell applications. However, the application of
laser welding has some constraints in parameter settings, such as laser beam oscillation, welding power,
and speed, thereby indicating a different mechanical and morphology analysis. Several results of welding
analysis have been reviewed from the previous research to identify the best parameter for laser welding
application with metallic materials. Amongst the parameters studied, infinity laser beam oscillation was
the best parameter in minimizing porosity in the welding area, increasing the mechanical properties.
These mechanical properties were also proven to improve as the parameter of laser power increased.
Therefore, this study can serve as a guideline in selecting suitable parameters for the application of laser
welding in fuel cell interconnect metallic materials.
Keywords: Joining process, Laser welding, Metallic, Microstructure


Insights into Kinetics and Isotherm Analysis of Visible-Light-Driven MXene/g-C3N4
Heterostructure Photocatalysts
Muhammad Syahmi Irfan Nasri1, Mohamad Fakhrul Ridhwan Samsudin1 and
Suriati Sufian1, 2*

1Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, 32610 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak,

2Centre of Innovative Nanostructures & Nanodevices, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, 32610 Bandar Seri
Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia

*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Recently, the increased in water pollution crisis stemmed from the rapid growth of textile industries has
disrupt the wellness and the quality of the clean water sources. Herein, this study aimed to explore the
effects of MXene loading on g-C3N4 photocatalyst for augmenting the photocatalytic degradation of
Methylene Blue. As such, a series of MXene/g-C3N4 heterostructure photocatalyst (1, 4, 8 and 12 wt.%)
was synthesized via a wet impregnation method. The methylene blue degradation results revealed that 1
wt% of g-C3N4/Mxene presented the best photocatalytic performance of 69.40%. Thereinto, the obtained
photocatalytic degradation results revealed that the Methylene Blue degradation followed intraparticular
kinetic model with the highest value of R2 to be 0.9899. This research also shows that the photocatalytic
degradation follows the Temkin model in adsorption with the highest value of R2 to be 0.9974. This works
provides a new inside towards the application of Mxene/g-C3N4 toward the improvement in photocatalytic
Keywords: Photocatalytic degradation, g-C3N4, Mxene, Methylene blue, Kinetic modelling


Modification of Nylon 66 / Graphene Nanoplatelet Composites via Silane Treatment and Electron

Beam Irradiation
Mohammed Iqbal Shueb1,2, Mohd Edeerozey Abd Manaf1*, Noraiham Mohamad1, Nurhernida Abdullah

Sani1 and Adel Ali Alkaseh1,3
1Faculty of Engineering Technology Mechanical and Manufacturing, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia

Melaka, Kampus Teknologi, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia
2Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang,

Selangor, Malaysia
3School Polymer Research Centre, Tripoli, Libya

*Corresponding author: [email protected]

As electrical and electronic devices are becoming an integral part of our life, problems related to
electromagnetic interference (EMI) have increased. EMI shielding is therefore highly recommended to
protect the vulnerable components within the electric and electronic devices from any interference. As
shielding materials, polymer-based composites are highly promising to substitute metal-based materials
due to their unique features such as light weight, flexible and excellent corrosion resistance. In this study,
we aim to enhance electrical conductivity and shielding effectiveness of nylon 66 composites by improving
the dispersion of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) in the polymer matrix via silane functionalization and
electron beam irradiation techniques. Silane treatment of GNP was found to significantly improve the
electrical conductivity of the composites with a significant increase of 10 orders of magnitude from 10-13
to 10-3 S/m. However, no improvement in the shielding effectiveness was observed. Subsequent
exposure to electron beam irradiation at 50 kGy and 100 kGy dosage was found to effectively improve
EMI shielding effectiveness over a frequency range of 0.5–18 GHz. Microscopic observation indicated
changes in GNP layers of the irradiated samples. Multi-layered GNP was found in the non-irradiated,
whereas single layered GNP sheets were observed in the samples irradiated with 50 kGy and 100 kGy
dosage of electron beam.
Keywords: Nylon 66, Graphene nanoplatelets, Electrical properties, Shielding material, Electron beam



The Effect of Heat Treatment on Hardness Properties and Microstructure of 9Cr-Mo-V T91 Alloy

Che Nor Aiza Jaafar1*, Mat Husin Saleh2, Nurul Zawanah Noraslan1, Ismail Zainol3 and Temitope T-

1Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra
Malaysia, 43000 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

2Techtizen Sdn. Bhd., 18-7-18, Jalan Pahat K15/K, Kompleks Otomobil, Seksyen 15, 40200 Shah
Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

3Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900
Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia

4Department of Mechatronics Engineering, College of Engineering and Technology, Achievers
University, Owo, Nigeria

*Corresponding author: [email protected]


The effect of heat treatment on hardness properties and microstructure of T91 alloy steel have been
investigated. In this study, the alloy steel underwent austenitizing at 1050 °C for 40 minutes and
quenched into different mediums such as forced air, air, sand and furnace. The austenitization was
followed by tempering at 730 °C for 40 minutes with two different quenching mediums which were water
and air. The hardness of all T91 steels with different conditions was monitored using Micro-Vickers
hardness test. The microstructure analysis was investigated by using optical microscope and Field
Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) while Electron Dispersive X-ray (EDX) was used to
analyse the chemical compositions of T91 alloy steel. From the results, the after-austenitized T91 steel
cooled in furnace had shown large grain boundaries of ferrite in a martensitic structure which causes the
hardness to decrease. The after-tempered results showed that the hardness of T91 steel had decreased
significantly compared to the after-austenitized condition due to the coarsening of carbides and
breakdown of martensitic laths during quenching. Based on EDX analysis, it was verified that chromium
was indeed the highest alloying element in T91 alloy steel and carbide precipitations of M23C6 are
dispersed along the PAGB and sub-grains. In conclusion, slowest quenching rate after austenitization,
such as furnace cooling is proven to produce ferrite in the martensitic structure which would cause
premature failure of T91 alloy steels used in power plant industries.

Keyword: Heat treatment, T91 alloy steel, Hardness, Microstructure


A Study on Formation and Characterization of Microencapsulated Geraniol Oil

Siti Nadiah Shamsul Anuar1, Nor Dalila Nor Affandi1*, Nur'Ain Yusof1 and Muhd Fauzi Safian2
1Textile Research Group, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam,

Selangor, Malaysia
2School of Chemistry & Environmental, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450

Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

A study on the formation of microencapsulated Geraniol oil was investigated in this research. Geraniol oil
is one of the essential oils (EOs) which can acts as natural antimicrobial. Geraniol oil exhibits good
chemopreventive action, that could represent a new class of cancer treatment agent, opening up new
avenues for research. One of the concerns of the Geraniol EOs is the EOs are very volatile. Due to the
problem, the current study has investigated the formation of microencapsulated Geraniol oil powder to
protect them against degradation and evaporation, so that their stabilities are enhanced. This study
emphasising the implementation of the worthwhile material and techniques. In the study, both natural
sources of Arabic gum and sodium alginate were used as wall material to prepare Geraniol oil
microcapsules by spray drying technique. Spray drying is relatively simple and continuous technique. The
effects of three different formulations of microencapsulated Geraniol oil on morphological structures and
oil content were investigated in the study. From the SEM analysis in Figure 1, the microcapsules have a
spherical form with concavities or ‘flat ball’ effect and surface deflations but no indication of cracks or
fissures with various sizes ranging from 40-90 µm. The combination between EOs and microcapsules is
the solution to let EOs increase its durability and maintain the presence of its chemical compound.
Keywords: Geraniol essential oil, microencapsulation, spray dry, SEM, optimal formulation



Fabrication of Bimetallic Ni-Zr Silica Nanocomposites via Sequential In-Situ Electrolysis for
Hydrogen Production

Siti Munirah Sidik1*, Aishah Abdul Jalil2, Nur Hazirah Rozali Annuar3, Norhayati Hashim4 and Mohamad
Saufi Rosmi1

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris,
35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia

2School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,
81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia

3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi Mara Johor, Pasir Gudang
Campus, 81750 Masai, Johor, Malaysia

*Corresponding author: [email protected]


Hydrogen production via carbon dioxide reforming of methane (CRM) is a promising technology in solving
the environmental problems and global energy. Consequently, development of a highly efficient, low-cost
and stable catalysts seem to be crucial in accelerating the commercialization. In this study, a bimetallic
Zr-Ni catalyst supported on MSN (Zr-Ni/MSN) was successfully prepared via consecutive in-situ
electrolysis method. An investigation on the physicochemical properties was conducted using XRD,
FESEM-EDX, N2 adsorption-desorption, and CO2-TPD analyses. The XRD results prove the successful
incorporation of Ni and Zr in the MSN catalysts, and the calculated size of Ni particles were decreased
upon the sequential addition of Zr into the catalyst. FESEM and EDX elemental mapping analyses
showed that, uniform distribution of spherical MSN particles was distorted to a greater extent upon the
addition of Zr in the Zr-Ni/MSN catalyst, due to the formation coral-like mesoporous structure and
pyramidal Zr-Ni metal structure. While, N2 physisorption and CO2-TPD analyses demonstrated that Zr
promoter increased the textural properties and basicity of the catalyst. In the CRM, the Zr-Ni/MSN
exhibited highest activity up to 97.5% CH4 conversion. The bi-functional pyramidal structure of Ni-Zr on
the surface of the catalyst was responsible as a one stop center to give higher activity and maintain the
stability of the catalyst in CO2 reforming of CH4.

Keywords: Nickel, Zirconia, Mesoporous silica, CO2 reforming of CH4, in-situ electrolysis


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