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Published by scmsm2021, 2021-12-17 22:24:55

PROGRAMME BOOK

SCMSM2021 PROGRAMME BOOK

Keywords: VIRTUAL CONFERENCE,UPSI

BPP002B
Adsorption Behaviour of p-Nitrophenol in Aqueous Medium on Non-treated Saba and Lady
Finger Banana Peels
Norlaili Abu Bakar1*, Wan Rusmawati Wan Mahamod1, Norhayati Hashim1,2, Yusnita Juahir1, Aiza
Harun3 and Alizar Ulianas4
1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris,
35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia

2Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan
Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia

3Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Mara, 26400 Bandar Jengka, Pahang, Malaysia
4Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, Universitas Negeri Padang,
Sumatera Barat 25131, Indonesia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract
The adsorption behaviour of p-nitrophenol (pNP) was studied on two types of banana peels (Saba banana
and Lady Finger banana) in an aqueous medium. The results showed that, the optimum mass of banana
peels to adsorbed p-NP was 0.1 g (Saba banana) and 0.02 g (Lady Finger banana). The adsorption
exhibits higher uptake of p-NP onto Saba and Lady Finger banana peels at pH 7. The adsorption of p-NP
on both types of banana peels achieved equilibrium at 480 minutes contact time. The adsorptions of p-
NP onto banana peel are well fitted with Freundlich isotherm (R2 > 0.9). The FESEM micrograph showed
that both peels have an irregular shape and porous texture which contributed to the adsorption behaviour
of p-NP in aqueous medium on banana peels.
Keywords: Phenolic compound, Plant waste, Banana peel, Langmuir, Freundlich, porous

97

BPP003B
The Effects of Various Electrolytes on Nano Porous Anodic Aluminium Oxide Formation in
Anodization Process
Muralidharan Sundararajan1, Mutharasu Devarajan2 and Mariatti Jaafar3*
1,3School of Materials and mineral resources engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong
Tebal, Penang, Malaysia
1,2Materials Center of Excellence, Packaging Engineering, PTDI, Western Digital Corporation, Batu
Kawan, 14100 Seberang Perai Selatan, Penang, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract
In recent days, nano porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) structure is receiving great interest from
various researchers owing to its potential impact on thermal management in electronic packages. The
dimensions such as pore diameter, pore height and inter-pore distance of nano porous AAO are high
influencing factors on the effective heat dissipation. In order to fulfil the demands in proper AAO
dimensioning, this research work intended to fabricate the nano porous structure on Al5052 using three
different types of electrolytes. In the two-step anodization process, the nano porous template was
fabricated using phosphoric acid (0.3M), sulfuric acid (0.3M) and oxalic acid (0.3M) and the morphology
was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The result shows that the
oxalic acid forms uniform and satisfactory nano porous dimensions over other electrolytes. Further, this
electrolyte resulted in 22% of porosity, 36-50nm pore diameter, and ~2.6m pore height that is suitable
for thermal management application.
Keywords: Nano porous, Anodic aluminium oxide (AAO), Porosity, Two-step anodization, FESEM

98

BPP007B
Anticorrosion Performance of Self-Healing Polymeric Coating on Low Carbon Steel Substrates
in 3.5 wt. % NaCl Medium
Mohd Fauzi Mamat1*, Amierul Daniel Mohamad Hanafiah2 and Nur Hazwani Mokhtar3
1Department of Industrial Technology, Faculty of Engineering Technology Mechanical and
Manufacturing, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Kampus Teknologi, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100
Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia
2Department of Manufacturing Engineering Technology, Faculty of Engineering Technology Mechanical
and Manufacturing, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Kampus Teknologi, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100
Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia
3Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Faculty of Engineering Technology Mechanical
and Manufacturing, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Kampus Teknologi, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100
Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract
In this study, Urea-Formaldehyde (UF) capsules containing linseed oil were prepared via in-situ
polymerization and incorporating 10wt.% synthesized microcapsules into a commercialized epoxy paint.
The linseed oil encapsulated urea-formaldehyde (UF) microcapsules had ∼85wt. % core content with
∼200um diameter. The influence of embedded microcapsules on the anticorrosive property of the self-
healing coating had been studied by weight loss and corrosion rate measurement. The complete self-
healing coating exhibited excellent anticorrosive property as the complete epoxy coating without
microcapsule, while the adding of microcapsules into the epoxy matrix resulted in a higher water uptake
and reduced the strength. The scratched self-healing coating showed excellent healing ability and
corrosion inhibition purpose for defects such as micro cracks, porosity etc. The failure of the scratched
self-healing coating had been analysed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive
spectroscopy (EDS). The overall results and test revealed a proper corrosion resistance of self-healing
coating compared to the coating without microcapsules.
Keywords: Low carbon steel, Self-healing coating, Microcapsule, Linseed oil

99

BPP008B
Effect of E7018 Filler Metal on Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Behaviour of Low Carbon
Steel Produced by Shielded Metal Arc Welding
Mohd Fauzi Mamat1* and Ameer Hakim Mohd Sumairi2
1Department of Industrial Technology, Faculty of Engineering Technology Mechanical and
Manufacturing, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Kampus Teknologi, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100
Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia

2Department of Manufacturing Engineering Technology, Faculty of Engineering Technology Mechanical
and Manufacturing, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Kampus Teknologi, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100

Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract
In this study, the effects of E7018 on mechanical properties and corrosion behaviour in low carbon steel
that having the 12 mm thickness of base metal by using the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) are
investigated. The quality, microstructure and micro-hardness were measured for each specimen after the
welding process and the effect of it was studied. The immersion test was study through weight loss and
corrosion rate measurement for 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks in absent and present of 3.5wt.% NaCl. As a result,
the microstructure shown the different grain boundaries of each parameter that affected of the welding
parameters. The surface morphology and corrosion behaviour areas on the welded substrate are
characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The
corrosion rate showed welded sample immersed in 3.5wt. % medium higher than the absence of NaCl.
The SEM results showed the aggressive role of NaCl in inducing the corrosion process and producing
significant pits on welded joint specially on HAZ area. This study may provide a significant understanding
of the welding process; filler metal and low carbon steel metal caused the corrosion behaviour in marine
environment especially for oil and gas application.
Keywords: Welded joint, Corrosion rate, Micro hardness, Heat-affected zone

100

BPP009B
Investigation on Activated Carbon Derived from Municipal Solid Waste for Leachate Treatment
Alya Naili Rozhan, Aliah Nordin, Ahmad Zahirani Ahmad Azhar* and Hadi Purwanto
Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering, Kulliyyah of Engineering, International Islamic
University Malaysia, Jalan Gombak, 53100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract
In recent years, Malaysia has been facing an alarming situation of municipal solid waste (MSW) issue
that is becoming worse to date. Population growth is causing Malaysians to also have increasing domestic
waste generation that is estimated to exceed 25,000 metric tons per day. Management systems for waste
disposal is very limited, and the main approach in Malaysia is landfilling which has many problems
including little to no leachate treatment. This paper presents a proposal to add benefit to the MSW to be
a new precursor to produce activated carbon that can be used to replace non-renewable fuels such as
coal and crude oil as a precursor, for leachate treatment. In this study, the composition of MSW used
were 77.6% organics and food waste, and 22.4% plastics. The proximate analysis shows that the MSW
is suitable to be used as a precursor to produce activated carbon due to its high carbon content which is
45%. Physical activation method was implemented by heating the MSW-derived carbon using CO2 gas.
After activation, morphology of the MSW-derived activated carbon indicates a presence of pore structure.
From this study, it has been observed that the higher the activation temperature, the greater the surface
area and pore volume of the MSW-derived activated carbon. The average pore size of MSW-derived
activated carbon was less than 5 nm, that would be able to filter out heavy metals found in the leachate
which has an average diameter of 10 nm, hence suitable to be used for leachate treatment.
Keywords: Activated carbon, Municipal solid waste, Leachate treatment

101

BPP010B
Correlation of Langmuir Isotherm, Optical, Surface Potential and Morphological

Characterizations of Two Functionalized Dihydroxycalix[4]Arene for Lead Cation Entrapment
Faridah Lisa Supian1*, Noor Azyyati Azahari1, Yusnita Juahir2, Nur Farah Nadia Abd Karim1 and
Abdullah F. Naim3

1Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900
Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia

2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris,
35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia

3Department of Physics, College of Science, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract
The versatilities of calixarenes have been known primarily in the host-guest world. In this work, two
calix[4]arenes, namely C-DHC4 and N-DHC4, possess the same lower rim but are distinct in the upper
rim. The Langmuir Isotherm and optical properties have been carried out using Langmuir–Blodgett trough
and UV-Visible spectroscopy, respectively. The topographical image of the calix[4]arenes has been
observed using FESEM and lead cation entrapments of these calix[4]arenes have been inspected by
using the surface potential sensor. The isotherm graph revealed the size of each calixarene; C-DHC4 ~
1.9 nm2 and N-DHC4 ~ 2.1 nm2. The UV-Visible result demonstrated that each calix[4]arene has two firm
absorption peaks where C-DHC4 has two broad peaks which lie in 261 and 330 nm while N-DHC4 has
two shoulders at 275 and 282 nm. FESEM images have shown the formation of calix[4]arene cluster.
Further monitoring on the surface potential and effective dipole moment indicate that C-DHC4 perform
significant and stable results in detecting Pb2+ cations as compared to N-DHC4. This study has
demonstrated that detection limit as low as 1.25x10-2 mM, making the ∆V and µ̝ measurements are
reliable for detecting Pb2+ ions and their potential in this nanosensor field.
Keywords: Calixarenes, Surface pressure, Surface potential, FESEM, Lead sensor

102

BPP011B
Synthesis of Facetted Gamma Alumina Nanoparticles from Waste Beverage Aluminium Cans for

Potential Catalyst Support Applications
Rozita Yahaya1*, Ismail Zainol1, Anwar Ul-Hamid2, Hasliza Bahruji3, Raja Mazuir Raja Ahsan Shah4,

Muhammad Hafiz Jasinih @ Jasri5 and Radiah Salleh1
1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris,

35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia
2Core Research Facilities, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
3Centre of Advanced Materials and Energy Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link,

BE 1410, Brunei Darussalam
4Institute for Clean Growth and Future Mobility, Coventry University, CV1 5FB, UK
5Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, University Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah,

Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract
Green synthesis of gamma alumina (-Al2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) with facetted and cubeoctahedral
morphologies was undertaken from waste (beverage aluminium cans) via precipitation technique and
calcination at the temperature of 1000 oC. The structural properties of -Al2O3 were determined with a
combination of techniques including BET surface area, field emission scanning electron microscopy
(FESEM) with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and
x-ray powder diffraction (XRD). XRD analysis confirmed the formation of -Al2O3 NPs by comparing with
the standard of -Al2O3 structure. The BET surface area measured was 129 m2/g. High-resolution
transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis provided evidence of surface-enhanced contrast in
facetted -Al2O3 NPs structures similar to the commercial -Al2O3 NPs.
Keywords: Green synthesis, -Al2O3 nanoparticles, Waste aluminium cans, XRD, TEM

103

BPP012B
Effect of Dehydrothermal (DHT) Treatment on the Physicochemical and Mechanical Properties of

3D Porous Chitosan-Collagen-Glycerol Membrane for Potential Wound Dressing Applications
I. Zainol1*, C.N.A Jaafar2 and S. Ullah1

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris,
35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia

2Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,
Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43000 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract
The aim of this study was to develop 3D porous scaffolds from blending of chitosan/fish scales
collagen/glycerin. The 3D porous scaffolds were fabricated via freeze dry technique. The effects of
dehydrothermal (DHT) treatment on the physicochemical and biological properties of porous scaffolds
were investigated. The tensile properties were carried out using universal testing machine (UTM) while
porosity and swelling ratio of scaffolds were investigated by using common procedure. The crosslinking
density was calculated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) technique. Scanning electron microscope
(SEM) was used to observe the morphology of the 3D porous structure. The results showed that the 3D
scaffolds were porous with interconnected pores with pore size between 100 to 200 microns. The ester
band due to crosslink increased with increasing DHT temperature from 90°C to 105°C and 120°C but
decreased with increasing temperature from 105°C to 120°C. The tensile modulus of scaffolds increased
with increasing DHT temperature with exposure period of 24 and 48 hours, however decreased on
exposure period of 72, 96 and 120 hours. The swelling ratio of scaffolds decreased with increasing
temperature on exposure period 24 hours and 48 hours (120°C) however, did not affect upon DHT
treatment at 105°C with exposure period 48 hours. In conclusion, the 3D scaffolds treated with DHT
exhibited excellent biostability and sufficient mechanical strength which suitable for wound dressing
applications.
Keywords: Wound dressing, Chitosan, Fish collagen, Porous 3D scaffold

104

BPP013B

Improvement of Tensile Properties of 3D Printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene by Altering Part
Orientation

Abdul Manaf Abdullah1*, Dasmawati Mohamad2, Tuan Noraihan Azila Tuan Rahim3, Hazizan Md Akil4
and Zainul Ahmad Rajion5

1School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah
Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

2School of Dental Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan,
Malaysia

3AT Glove Engineering Sdn Bhd, No. 9, Jalan Seramik Chepor 11/7, Kawasan Perindustrian Seramik
Chepor, 31200 Chemor, Perak

4School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains
Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

5Kulliyyah of Dentistry, IIUM Kuantan Campus, Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota,
25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia

*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract

Part orientation during 3D printing process affects various characteristics such as accuracy, production
cost and surface quality. This study aims to explore the effect of part orientations on tensile and
morphological properties of 3D printed acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). The tensile specimen was
initially designed using a computer-aided design software (Solidworks 2013, Solidwork, USA). The
designed specimen was 3D printed at x-y, y-z and x-z orientations (n=5/orientation). The tensile
properties of the 3D printed specimens were assessed using a universal testing machine (Shimadzu
AGX-2plus, Shimadzu, Japan) and statistically analysed using a parametric test of One-Way ANOVA.
The fractured surfaces and side walls of the tensile specimens were observed using a field emission
electron microscope (FESEM). The tensile strength and modulus of the specimens printed at x-y and y-
z orientations increased by approximately 113 and 105% respectively, in comparison to the x-z oriented
specimens. The superior mechanical properties presented by x-y and y-z oriented specimens were
attributed by robust layer arrangements as observed in FESEM micrographs. Part orientation seemed to
significantly affect the mechanical properties of the 3D printed part. This finding could be used as a guide
to print functional 3D printed part with improved mechanical performance.

Keywords: Part orientation, Tensile properties, 3D printing

105

BPP014B
Porous Copper Fabrication via Powder Metallurgy Approach in Combination with a Space
Holder Technique
Shaiful Anwar Ismail1*, Muhammad Hussein Ismail2 and Russell Goddall1

1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Engineering Faculty, University of Sheffield, Mappin
St, Sheffield City Centre, Sheffield S1 3JD, United Kingdom

2Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract
Fabrication of porous metal receives a lot of attention due to low cost and lightweight structures. These
unique materials have great high mechanical strength, acoustic barrier, excellent thermal behaviours,
good permeability and suitable for wide range of application such as automotive industry, building
industry, biomedical industry, aerospace industry and electronics industry. The fabrication of porous
copper receives a lot of attention for heat sinks and suitability heat exchangers due to its large specific
surface area and good permeability for fluids and suitable for portable electronics. Several fabrication
routes have been developed and one of the promising techniques for the production of porous is the use
of a combination of powder metallurgy approach and space holder (SH) technique. The SH technique is
not only capable of producing porous parts with high precision and a variety of shapes, but can also
control the development of pores. Space holder materials are used to' reserve' space inside the structure
resulting in pore formation and porosity. In compare to conventional methods, the incorporation of high-
speed mixing techniques and modifications to the water leaching process has reduced fabrication time
by about 50%-60%. Porous coppers with different porosity percentages were achievably made, ranging
from 25% to 55%, and then studied using various analysis techniques. Optical microscopy and scanning
electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical compression testing were used to characterize the porous
structure and determine the strength of porous metal. Thermogravimetry (TGA) and Differential Scanning
Calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to investigate the thermal behaviours of porous copper.
Keywords: Porous metal, Porosity, Space holder, Water leaching

106

BPP016B

Synthesis of Imprinted Polymer of Bisphenol a Glycerolate Dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA-IMP) for
Formaldehyde Recognition System in Aqueous Medium

Almajed Asaad Abdullah Sfoog1, Norlaili Abu Bakar1*, Nurulsaidah Abdul Rahim1, Wan Rusmawati Wan
Mahamod1, Norhayati Hashim1,2, Siti Kamilah Che Soh3,
Aiza Harun4 and Alizar Ulianas5

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris,
35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia

2Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan
Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia

3Faculty of Science and Marine Environmental, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus,
Terengganu, Malaysia

4Faculty of Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi Mara, 26400 Bandar Jengka, Pahang, Malaysia
5Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, Universitas Negeri Padang,
Sumatera Barat 25131, Indonesia

*Corresponding Author: [email protected]

Abstract

Imprinted Polymer of Bisphenol A Glycerolate Dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA-IMP) was synthesized using
bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA) (functional monomer), triethylene glycol-
dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) (cross linker) and formaldehyde (CH2O) as a template molecule via
photopolymerization (380 – 515 nm) for 60 seconds. Elimination of template from polymer was done
with methanol/acetic acid (9/1) for 8 hours. The FTIR spectrum showed that the broad peak at 1650 –
1750 cm-1 region in Bis-GMA-IMP/FA become sharp after washing demonstrate the elimination of
excessive carbonyl group (formaldehyde). The surface morphology of Bis-GMA-IMP/FA showed the
presence of pores as compared to non-imprinted polymer (Bis-GMANIP). The recognition study
demonstrates that Bis-GMA-IMP/FA with 0.1% template exhibit higher binding capacity (0.19 mg/g) for
formaldehyde as compared to others Bis-GMA-IMP/FA and Bis-GMANIP. Freundlich isotherm showed
good heterogeneity (1/n = 0.72) of Bis-GMA-IMP/FA and formaldehyde in aqueous medium.

Keywords: Imprinted, Formaldehyde, Molecular recognition, Rebinding, Isotherm

107

BPP017B

Effects of Temperature and Concentration of Simulated Body Fluid on Bone Apatite Formation
using Electrospun Poly(Ε-Caprolactone) Fibre Substrate

Nur Aqilah Ibrahim1, Nor Dalila Nor Affandi1*, Ahmad Mukifza Harun2, Mohammad Khursheed Alam3,4
and Noor Najmi Bonnia1,5.

1Textile Research Group, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam,
Malaysia

2Engineering Faculty, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
3College of Dentistry, Jouf University, 72721 Sakaka, Saudi Arabia

4Department of Dental Research Cell, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of
Medical and Technical Sciences, 600077 Chennai, India

5Materials Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450
Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract

A versatile synthetic matrix material for bone regeneration using electrospun fibres was introduced in this
study. In this work, the electrospinning parameters were controlled to produce favourable porous fibre
substrate that can aid in forming calcium phosphate during an in vitro biomineralisation process. The fibre
substrate underwent two concentrations of simulated body fluid (SBF) to incubate the electrospun poly(ε-
caprolactone) (PCL) fibre substrate at different temperatures (37 °C and 25 °C) for 7, 14, and 21
incubation days. The resultant substrate exhibited a large pore diameter (11.06 ± 30 µm) and uniform
thick layer (0.36 ± 0.04 mm). From SEM analysis, a ball-shaped apatite structure was formed. An increase
in bone apatite was observed when the SBF concentration increased from 1.0 x to 3.0 x. The EDX
analysis showed that by increasing the incubation days to 21, the resultant crystal apatite decreased at
body temperature of 37 °C. The estimated amount of calcium (Ca) decreased from 2.11 to 0.30 wt %,
whereas the amount of phosphorus (P) reduced from 1.94 to 1.60 wt % at SBF 3.0 x. However, at room
temperature of 25 °C, more crystal apatite was observed under the SEM as the incubation days
increased. The current study suggested that the bioactivity of electrospun PCL substrate can be done at
body temperatures as well as room temperature.

Keywords: Electrospinning, Poly(-caprolactone), Simulated body fluid, Bone apatite, Temperature

108

BPP018B
Cellulose Nanofibre Dope with an Antimicrobial Compound Produced through the Multi-Solvent

Technique
Mohamad Zaki Abdullah1, M Shuaib B M Saheed1, Mohd Fazli Mohammat2, Shahrul Nizam Md

Salleh13*
1Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Persiaran UTP, Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia

2Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA, Level 3, Block C, UiTM 40450 Shah Alam,
Selangor, Malaysia

3Centre of Innovation in Nanotechnology, SIRIM KULIM, Lot 34, Jalan Hi-Tech 2/3, Kulim Hi Tech Park,
09000 Kulim, Kedah

*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract
This paper presents a preliminary study of the multi-solvent effect on the formation of cellulose nanofibre
dope with antimicrobial compounds through the electrospinning method. The study aims to compare the
surface morphology of undoped and doped cellulose nanofibre with an antimicrobial compound. The
cellulose nanofibre doped with an inhouse synthesized antimicrobial compound was developed as an air
filter membrane specifically targeting the spreading of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
(MRSA). The prepared solution was characterized using a contact angle tensiometer, and the electrospun
nanofibers were characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The undoped and doped
cellulose nanofibre were successfully produced through the tri-solvent technique. The difference in
morphology between both fibres may be due to the antimicrobial doped in the solution altering the surface
tension of the solution, therefore affecting the surface of the nanofibres.
Keywords: Electrospinning, Nanofibre, Cellulose

109

BPP019B
Synthesis, Characterisations, X-Ray Structure, DFT Studies and Antibacterial Activity of 3-
Bromo-5-chloro-2-hydroxybenzylidene hydrazone Ligand
Yusnita Juahir1*, Wan Mohd Hilmey W Mohd Arifin1, Uwaisulqarni M. Osman2,
Noorshida Mohd Ali1, Suzaliza Mustafar1 and Sivaranjan Kuppan1
1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris,
35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia

2School of Fundamental Science, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu,
Malaysia

*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract
The present study involves a synthesis of Schiff base ligand namely 2’-(3-Bromo-5-chloro-2-
hydroxybenzylidene) benzenesulfonohydrazide (3Br5ClSALBSH) derived from the simple condensation
reaction of benzenesulfonylhydrazine and 3-bromo-5chlorosalicylaldehyde. The synthesized ligand is
characterized by various analytical techniques such as XRD, DFT and FESEM analyses. XRD result
shows the molecule crystallized in the triclinic system unit cell (space group P-1) contains twelve
molecules in two groups of six independent molecules with unit cell dimensions; a = 14.8824(2)Å, b =
16.4981(2)Å, c = 19.2761(3)Å, α = 82.7180(10)°, β =74.6040(10)° and γ = 72.7080(10)°. The molecular
geometry was also optimized using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with the 6-311G(d,p)
basis set and compared with the experimental data. Additionally, the ligand is characterised by FESEM
analysis. The FESEM images shows the ligand are irregular in shape and size. From the optimized
geometry of the molecule, vibrational frequencies, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) distribution,
non-linear optical properties, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) of the ligand have been calculated in the
ground state theoretically. Further the synthesised ligand was screened for the antibacterial activity
against gram positive bacteria. The Schiff base ligand exhibited significant antibacterial activity against
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria.
Keywords: Benzenesulfonohydrazide, Triclinic, Density Functional Theory (DFT), FESEM, Antibacterial
activity, MRSA

110

BPP022B

Water and Air Permeability of Melt-Blown Polypropylene Filled Recovered Carbon Graphene
Oxide

Nor Dalila Nor Affandi1, Noor Najmi Bonnia2*, Zurianti Abd Rahman3 and Engku Zaharah Engku
Zawawi4

1Textile Research Group, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam,
Selangor, Malaysia

2Materials Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450
Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

3Industrial Physics, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam,
Selangor, Malaysia

4Polymer Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam,
Selangor, Malaysia

*Correspondence author: [email protected]

Abstract

Recent studies revealed the surgical masks appeared to be incapable of blocking the dispersal of virus
from the patients to the outer face mask surface and environment completely. This is because particles
with the size of 0.04 to 0.2 μm are believed can penetrate the surgical masks meanwhile the size of the
virus was estimated as 0.08 to 0.14 m. Hence, this study was carried out to enhance the filterability of
face masks with the addition of graphene oxide (GO). This research is about dispersing GO that
synthesized from a recovered carbon from waste tire using Hummer’s meth-od on PP fabric.
Polypropylene (PP) melt-blown fabric was used due to its non-absorbent properties for the basic medical
masks. PP fabric filled with GO is expected to enhance the fabric face mask properties with the benefits
of GO. Produced GO powder was dispersed on a polypropylene fabric through the sonication method.
This is an environmentally friendly method that helps to turn waste into wealth. Raman spectrometer
analysis peak proved that graphene oxide was successfully synthesized from a waste carbon tyre. The
peaks showed the D band at 1367cm-1 and G band at 1593 cm-1 respectively. The intensity ratio of the D
band relative to the G band (ID/IG) is 0.92. The morphological analysis of graphene oxide was
characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with an electron diffraction X-ray
spectrometer (EDX). The result shows that GO particles stalked together on the surface of the sample
structure, bumping pieces, and coarse surfaces. The elemental composition of carbon (C) is higher than
oxygen (O) which showed a good composition of graphene oxide. While on the PP fabric -GO, results
show that GO successfully attached to the fabric and exhibited good air and water permeability as
compared to control PP fabric. This result confirmed that graphene oxide possibly could be used as a
filler to improve the filterability properties of fabric PP

Keywords: Melt blown polypropylene, Recovered carbon black, Water permeability, Air permeability

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Thank you for your generous sponsorship for 29th Scientific Conference of Microscopy Society
of Malaysia (SCMSM2021). We would like to extend our gratitude and appreciation for your
continuous support and sponsorship in this conference

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