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Published by scmsm2021, 2021-12-17 22:24:55

PROGRAMME BOOK

SCMSM2021 PROGRAMME BOOK

Keywords: VIRTUAL CONFERENCE,UPSI

PERSATUAN

29th SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE OF
MICROSCOPY SOCIETY MALAYSIA 2021
(29 th SCMSM2021)

‘ADVANCES IN 21st CENTURY RESEARCH AND
EDUCATION THROUGH MICROSCOPIC IMAGING’

20th – 21st DECEMBER 2021
VIRTUAL CONFERENCE

PROGRAMME BOOK

https://29scmsm2021.com/





Foreword by the Vice Chancellor, UPSI
Welcoming Message by President, Microscopy Society Malaysia (MSM)
Welcoming Address by Chairman SCMSM2021
Welcoming Speech by Co-Chairman SCMSM2021
Organising Committee
Programme Tentative
Keynote Abstract 1
Keynote Abstract 2
Plenary Abstract 1
Plenary Abstract 2
Plenary Abstract 3
Abstracts

Life Sciences
Physical Sciences

Assalamu’alaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh and Salam Sejahtera.

Alhamdulillah, we have been granted the opportunity to organize the 29th
Scientific Conference of Microscopy Society of Malaysia (SCMSM
2021). The aim of this conference is to provide a platform for
researchers from both fields (life sciences and physical sciences) to
showcase the importance of microscopy in contributing towards the
development of their research findings.

At this juncture, I would like to extend a warm welcome to all delegates
attending the 29th SCMSM 2021. I strongly believe that delegates will
take this opportunity to share recent development and advanced
techniques and instrumentation employed in life science and physical
science research and provide collaborative and networking platform for
scientists in the field of microscopy. We believe that this event will be an ideal platform for knowledge
interchange and sharing in terms of research, development and innovation among researchers and
scientists in the field of microscopy.

I would like to extend our gratitude to Microscopy Society of Malaysia (MSM). Thank you for giving trust
to Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris as the organizer of this annual conference. I would also like to extend
our gratitude to the sponsors, Hi-Tech Instruments Sdn. Bhd., Carl Zeiss Sdn. Bhd., JEOL (Malaysia)
Sdn. Bhd., Novatiq Scientific Sdn. Bhd., Atomic Solutions Sdn. Bhd., Bruker Malaysia, Crest
Nanosolutions (M) Sdn. Bhd., Histocenter (M) Sdn. Bhd., Thermo Fisher Scientific, Oxford Instruments
Pte. Ltd. and Gaia Science (M) Sdn. Bhd. Thank you for your most generous contribution and we look
forward to a prosperous future together.

Finally, I would like to express my deepest gratitude and thanks to the keynote speakers, plenary
speakers, invited speakers, authors, session chairs, reviewers, participants and the organizing
committees of SCMSM 2021 in making this conference a success. May this conference will give fresh
impetus for the participants to stimulate advanced research and explore new knowledge in the near future.

Thank you.

Prof. Dato’ Dr. Md. Amin bin Md. Taff
Vice Chancellor
Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris

1

Assalamu’alaikum Warahmatullahi wabarakatuh and Salam Sejahtera.

On behalf of Microscopy Society of Malaysia (MSM), I would like to
extend our warmest welcome to all our distinguished speakers, fellow
participants and supporting vendors to the 29th Scientific Conference
of Microscopy Society of Malaysia, which will be run virtually for the
first time ever. This annual national event under the auspices of MSM
is its 29th annual conference and is organized by Universiti Pendidikan
Sultan Idris (UPSI) in collaboration with MSM.

The Microscopy Society of Malaysia was formally established in 1991
and was centred at Unit Mikroskopi Elektron, Fakulti Veterinar dan Sains
Penternakan, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia (now known as Universiti Putra
Malaysia - UPM). The society was named “Electron Microscopy Society
Malaysia (EMSM)”. The society served as an active non-governmental organisation NGO focusing on
imaging and analysis techniques including, not only electron microscopy, but also other imaging devices,
such as optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, aquatic microscopy, secondary ion mass
microscopy, confocal microscopy and many others. As the importance of microscopic analysis and
microanalysis became increasingly important over the years and being in line with the changing trend
over the world, the name of the society was formally changed to “Microscopy Society of Malaysia” in
2010.

With the theme of Advances in 21st Century Research and Education through Microscopic Imaging,
we hope that the conference presents a great opportunity for participants to interact albeit virtually and
gain experiences, leading to networking and collaborations in the multidisciplinary areas of microscopy
studies. I would like to express my deepest gratitude to the diligently, hardworking and committed
organizing committees that was led by Professor Ismail Zainol (Chairman SCMSM 2021) and Assoc.
Professor Dr Che Nor Aiza Jaafar (Co-Chairman SCMSM 2021) that have contributed to making SCMSM
2021 a reality. I take this opportunity to also extend my deepest appreciation and thank you to Prof. Dato’
Dr. Md. Amin bin Md. Taff, the Vice Chancellor of UPSI as well as the Faculty of Science and Technology
UPSI for supporting this jointly organized conference, making a successful event despite the challenges
and obstacle due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Last but never the least, my utmost thanks you to our ever
supportive vendors for the continuous support, financially as well as providing experts to provide update
on latest technology on microscopy. Wishing all participants, a wonderful and fruitful time and the
conference a success.

Thank you.

Prof. Dr. Ahmad Fauzi bin Mohd Nor
President

Microscopy Society Malaysia

2

Assalamu’alaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh and Salam Sejahtera.

First and foremost, it is a great pleasure to welcome all of you to the 29th
Scientific Conference of Microscopy Society Malaysia which is held on
20th to 21st December 2021. For this time, the annual conference is
jointly organized by Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) and
Microscopy Society Malaysia (MSM).

On behalf of the organizing committee, I would like to thank MSM for
giving UPSI an opportunity to host this prestige conference that aims
to bring together the microscopy experts from all over the country. I am
very proud that this conference manages to attract 100 participants, both
on national and international levels, regardless of being the first time it is
held virtually.

I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to the keynote speakers, plenary speakers, invited speakers
from the industry, oral and poster presenters, and participants for joining this conference. I would also
like to extend my earnest appreciation to all sponsors, namely Hi-Tech Instruments Sdn. Bhd., Carl Zeiss
Sdn. Bhd., JEOL (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd., Novatiq Scientific Sdn. Bhd., Atomic Solutions Sdn. Bhd., Bruker
Malaysia, Crest Nanosolutions (M) Sdn. Bhd., Histocenter (M) Sdn. Bhd., Thermo Fisher Scientific,
Oxford Instruments Pte. Ltd. and Gaia Science (M) Sdn. Bhd.. Your most generous contributions are
greatly appreciated and we look forward to a prosperous future together.

With the theme of Advances in 21st Century Research and Education through Microscopic Imaging,
this conference provides a platform for the biologists, chemists, physicists, environmentalists,
researchers, industrialists, interested parties, and those in life science, physical science and related
technologies to showcase the importance of microscopy in contributing towards the development of their
research findings. Hence, it becomes the initiator to trigger networking and collaborations among
researchers, instrument manufacturers and vendors from local and international universities and
industries.

Finally, my deepest appreciation goes to every person in the organizing committee for their hard work
and strong commitment and not forgetting, the tremendous support from UPSI in making this conference
a great success. Wishing all of you an enlightening discussion and enjoy the wonderful moment.

Thank you.

Prof. Ts. Dr. Ismail bin Zainol
Chairman SCMSM2021
Faculty of Science and Mathematics
Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris

3

Assalamu’alaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh and Salam Sejahtera.
Alhamdulillah, praise to Allah for His generous favours and blessings to
us all. On behalf of the organizing committee, it is my pleasure to
welcome all speakers and participants to the 29th Scientific Conference
of Microscopy Society of Malaysia (SCMSM 2021).
The Scientific Conference of Microscopy Society Malaysia (SCMSM)
is a national key annual event. The SCMSM 2021 highlights the efforts
of the Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan
Sultan Idris (UPSI) and Microscopy Society of Malaysia (MSM) to
promote innovative research activities and inculcate the culture of

scientific publication particularly among the academics, scientists and
researchers in microscopy research. Through this conference, current
discoveries in microscopy studies are gathered, addressed and integrated to empower innovative and
creative minds among the delegates.
As it is the first time that this conference is held virtually (online), there are many challenges that the
parties involved have to go through. However, with the strong spirit and sense of responsibility, these
hurdles are tackled in the best way possible. I strongly believe that to be the best, we must do our best.
InshaAllah, success will be in our hands.
Finally, I would like to take this opportunity to thank all those involved in making this event a great success.
I wish everyone a rewarding time and a fruitful engagement during the conference. It is my fervent hope
that this conference will be able to contribute pertinent ideas to accelerate our national transformation
agenda.
Thank you.
Assoc. Prof. Ts. Dr. Che Nor Aiza binti Jaafar
Microscopy Society Malaysia

4

Patron Prof. Dato’ Dr. Md. Amin Md. Taff
Advisors Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Faizal Nizam Lee Abdullah
Chairman Prof Dr. Ahmad Fauzi Mohd Nor (MSM)
Co-Chairman Dr. Yusnita Juahir
Secretary I Prof. Ts. Dr. Ismail Zainol
Secretary II Assoc. Prof. Ts. Dr. Che Nor Aiza Jaafar (MSM)
Treasurer I Dr. Siti Munirah Sidik
Treasurer II Dr. Mohd. Mokhzani Ibrahim
Dr. Nurulsaidah Abdul Rahim
Committee Dr. Norlinda Daud

Sponsorship & Members
Exhibition Mrs. Rozita Yahaya (Leader)
Dr. Mazlina Musa
Publicity & Mrs. Norasmeda Amri
Documentation Mr. Rafiuz Zaman Haroun (MSM)
Mrs. Normalawati Shamsudin (MSM)
Dr. Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi W Salleh (Leader)
Dr. Mohamad Saufi Rosmi
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Muhammad Azwadi Sulaiman (UMK)
Dr. Zubaidah Abu Hassan (MSM)
Mr. Redzuan Shah Datu Sahadun
Mr. Ibrahim Saidin
Dr. Mohamad Termizi Borhan
Dr. Syazwan Saidin
Dr. Adibah Abu Bakar
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nor Zila Abd. Hamid
Dr. Shazlyn Milleana Shaharuddin

5

Scientific Assoc. Prof. Dr. Saripah Salbiah Syed Abdul Azziz (Leader)
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nor Nafizah Mohd Nor
Programme Book Assoc. Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aqil Aryan Wong
Registration, Certificates & Assoc. Prof. Dr. Azmi Mohamed
Gifts Assoc. Prof. Dr. Norjan Yusof
Prof. Dr. Azlan Kamari
Technical, Visual & Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Azlan Nafiah
Parallel Session Prof. Dr. Illyas Md Isa
Dr. Azi Azeyanty Jamaludin
Logistics, Protocol & Food Mrs. Johana Jumiran
Judging Mrs. Radiah Idris
Official Photographer
Dr. Suzaliza Mustafar (Leader)
Dr. Wan Haslinda Wan Ahmad

Dr. Noorshida Mohd Ali (Leader)
Dr. Aisyah Mohamad Sharif

Dr. Mohamad Syahrizal Ahmad (Leader)
Dr. Muhd Ibrahim Muhamad Damanhuri
Dr. Mohamad Idris Saidin
Dr. Muhammad Danial Ramli (MSM)
Dr. Zolkapli Eshak (MSM)
Dr. Siti Nur Akmar Mohd Yazid
Dr. Maizatul Najwa Jajuli
Dr. Sharifah Norain Mohd Sharif
Mr. Ahmad Isa Hamizi
Mr. Ahmad Supian Abdullah
Mr. Mohamad Fairuz Misdi
Mr. Mohd Zaimiruddin Mohamed
Mr. Wan Hazwan Wan Mohammad Roslan

Dr. Yuhanis Mhd Bakri (Leader)
Dr. Lee Tien Tien
Mr. Iskandar Zulkarnain Mohamed Ridzuan
Mrs. Aryani Adnan

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Norhayati Hashim (Leader)
Dr. Norlaili Abu Bakar
Dr. Wan Rusmawati Wan Mahamod
Dr. Hafsah Taha

En Hashimi Maani

6

8:00 – 9:00 OVERALL SCHEDULE
9:00 – 10:15 20TH DECEMBER 2021 (MONDAY)
10:15 – 10:55
10:55 – 11:05 Opening Ceremony
11:05 – 11:10 Keynote Speaker 1 & Plenary Speaker 1
11:10 – 12:55
12:55 – 14:00 Invited Speaker 1 & 2
14:00 – 15:25 Activity 1: Lucky Draw / Quiz
15:25 – 15:35 Break / Preparation for Parallel Session
15:35 – 15:45
Parallel Session 1
15:45 – 17:00 Break / Lunch

8:15 – 9:30 Plenary Speaker 2 & Invited Speaker 3 & 4
9:30 – 11:00 Activity 2: Lucky Draw / Quiz
11:00 – 11:10
11:10 – 11:15 Break / Preparation for Parallel Session
11:15 – 13:15 Parallel Session 2
13:15 – 14:00
14:00 – 15:00 Poster Session Evaluation
15:00 – 15:10
15:10 –15:20 21ST DECEMBER 2021 (TUESDAY)
15:20 – 16:00 Keynote Speaker 2 & Plenary Speaker 3
Invited Speaker 5, 6, 7 & 8
16:00 – 17:00 Activity 3: Lucky Draw / Quiz
Break / Preparation for Parallel Session
Parallel Session 3
Break / Lunch
Invited Speaker 9, 10 & 11
Activity 4: Lucky Draw / Quiz
Break
Invited Speaker 12 & 13
Closing Ceremony
Award Announcement

7

7:30 – 8:00 20th DECEMBER 2021 (MONDAY)
Online registration
8:00 – 9:00
https://upsi.webex.com/upsi/j.php?MTID=mcf2da8658ffb116eae21a7b8d6b7e277
9:00 – 9:45 Password : scmsm2021
9:45 – 10:15 Opening Ceremony
10:15 – 10:35 Welcoming Remarks
10:35 – 10:55
10:55 – 11:05 National Anthem ‘Negaraku’
11:05 – 11:10 UPSI Anthem ‘Ibu Kandung Suluh Budiman’

Doa Recitation
Speech by the Chairman of the 29th SCMSM 2021

Prof. Ts. Dr. Ismail Zainol
Speech by the President of Microscopy Society of Malaysia

Prof. Dr. Ahmad Fauzi Mohd Noor
Speech and Official Opening by VIP

Prof. Dr. Marzita Puteh
Deputy Vice Chancellor (Academic and International)

Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
Opening Montage

Video by Platinum Sponsor: Hi-Tech Instruments Sdn. Bhd.
Chairperson: Prof. Dr. Ahmad Fauzi Mohd Noor (USM)

Keynote Speaker 1
Development of Metal-Carbon Nanocomposites at Lower Temperatures

Based on In-Situ TEM Observation
Prof. Dr. Tanemura Masaki (Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan)

Plenary Speaker 1
Value and Importance of Palynology in Plant Systematics

Prof. Emeritus Dato' Dr. Abdul Latiff Mohamad
(Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia)

Chairperson: Mr. Rafiuz Zaman Haroun (UPM)
Invited Speaker 1

World's Highest Resolution FESEM for Atomic Lattice Observation,
Extreme EDS Sensitivity and Low Voltage EELS Analysis
Ms. Seow Siew Siew (Hi-Tech Instruments Sdn. Bhd.)
Invited Speaker 2

Atomic Resolution Surface (SEM) to Bulk (STEM) Correlative Imaging
and Analysis (EDS/EELS) with Aberration-Corrected Optics
Dr. Abby Soo (Hi-Tech Instruments Sdn. Bhd.)
Activity 1: Lucky Draw / Quiz
Break / Preparation for Parallel Session

8

11:10 – 12:55 Parallel Session 1
12:55 – 14:00 Break / Lunch

14:00 – 14:30 Chairperson: Assoc. Prof. Ts. Dr. Che Nor Aiza Jaafar (UPM)
Plenary Speaker 2
14:30 – 15:00
Aluminum Matrix Composites Produced by Infiltration Method
15:00 – 15:25 Prof. Dr. Recep Calin (Kirikkale University, Turkey)
15:25 – 15:35 Invited Speaker 3
15:35 – 15:45
15:45 – 17:00 In-Situ Heating on Metal Oxides and Novel Materials for Morphological Studies
Mr. Mohamad Hasnul Naim Abd Hamid (Carl Zeiss Sdn. Bhd.)
Invited Speaker 4

The Next Level of Analytical Intelligence in FE-SEM JSM-1 T800 HSL
Dr. Rizuan Mohd Rosnan (JEOL (M) Sdn. Bhd.)
Activity 2: Lucky Draw / Quiz
Break / Preparation for Parallel Session
Parallel Session 2
Poster Session Evaluation

9

8:15 – 9:00 21st DECEMBER 2021 (TUESDAY)
Online registration
9:00 – 9:30
https://upsi.webex.com/upsi/j.php?MTID=m264bb988e2f4f48722151c16fed25df8
9:30 – 9:55 Password : scmsm2021

9:55 – 10:15 Chairperson: Dr. Muhammad Hakimi Mohd Kassim (UPSI)
Keynote Speaker 2
10:15 – 10:35
Cytoophidia: Polymerisation and Filamentation of Metabolic Enzymes
10:35 – 11:00 Prof. Dr. Ji-Long Liu (Shanghai Tech University, China)
11:00 – 11:10 Plenary Speaker 3
11:10 – 11:15
11:15 – 13:15 Development of Toughened Epoxy/Natural Hydroxyapatite Composite
13:15 – 14:00 for Potential Biomedical Applications
14:00 – 14:20
Prof. Ts. Dr. Ismail Zainol (Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia)
14:20 – 14:40 Chairperson: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Tuty Asma Abu Bakar (UTM)
Invited Speaker 5
Advanced Microscopy Techniques by Tescan
Mr. Charles Hooi (Novatiq Scientific Sdn. Bhd.)
Invited Speaker 6

Performing Sub 10nm Element and Crystallography Analysis in a SEM
Dr. Yu Baojun (Bruker Malaysia)
Invited Speaker 7

Rapid Microstructure Characterization of Addictively Manufactured
Alloys using EBSD and EDS

Dr. Wu Jiang (Oxford Instruments Pte. Ltd. (Nanoanalysis))
Invited Speaker 8

Advanced DualBeam Applications in Materials Science
Dr. Zhou Yong Kai (Thermo Fisher Scientific)
Activity 3: Lucky Draw /Quiz
Break / Preparation for Parallel Session
Parallel Session 3
Break / Lunch

Chairperson: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Durriyyah Sharifah Hasan Adli (UM)
Invited Speaker 9

Surface Roughness Profiling via Areal Characterization of
Confocal Laser Microscopy

Mr. Low Ping Chien (Crest Nanosolutions (M) Sdn. Bhd.)
Invited Speaker 10

Advanced in Atomic Force Microscopy in Real-Life Application
Dr. Sang-Joon Cho (Gaia Science (M) Sdn. Bhd.)

10

14:40 – 15:00 Invited Speaker 11
15:00 – 15:10 New Age for Fast Automation Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
15:10 – 15:20
15:20 – 15:40 Imaging and EDS Mapping Analysis - Thermo Fisher Scientific
Axia ChemiSEM and Pharos G2
15:40 – 16:00
16:00 – 17:00 Mr. Ahmad Rafiqan Nayan (Atomic Solutions Sdn. Bhd.)
Activity 4: Lucky Draw / Quiz
Break

Chairperson: Dr. Yusnita Juahir (UPSI)
Invited Speaker 12

AFM with Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM) for
Ferroelectric Materials

Mr. Simon Fong (Oxford Instruments Pte. Ltd. (Nanoanalysis))
Invited Speaker 13

Next Generation Multimodal Raman Microscope for Fast Confocal
Imaging and Nano-Raman

Mr. Tok Hong Yuan (Hi-Tech Instruments Sdn. Bhd.)

Closing Ceremony

Remarks
Speech by the Chairman of the 29th SCMSM 2021

Prof. Ts. Dr. Ismail Zainol
Speech and Official Closing by VIP
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Faizal Nizam Lee Abdullah
Dean, Faculty of Science and Mathematics
Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris

Closing Montage
Awards Announcement

Lucky draw
Best Oral Presenter (Physical Science – Researcher)

Best Oral Presenter (Physical Science – Student)
Best Oral Presenter (Life Science – Researcher)

Best Oral Presenter (Life Science – Student)
Best Poster Presenter (Physical Science)
Best Poster Presenter (Life Science)
Best Micrograph

9 Physical Science – SEM (3), TEM (3), OPTICAL (3)
9 Life Science – SEM (3), TEM (3), OPTICAL (3)
Travel Grant Award

11

PARALLEL SESSION 1

https://upsi.webex.com/upsi/j.php?MTID=m5bdf838ccc186a20e3ef3a000d7b9210

Password : room1

Physical Sciences

Chairperson : Dr. Siti Munirah Sidik (UPSI)

Microstructure Evaluation of Service Aged and Rejuvenated Nickel Super

11:10 – 11:25 PR003 Alloys using Hot Isostatic Pressing Treatment
Ms. Saidatul Akmal Biyamin

TNBR

Investigation of Microbiologically Influence Corrosion of Dissimilar Welded

11:25 – 11:40 PR005 Joint by Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Dr. Mohd Fauzi Mamat

UTEM

Morphology Studies of ZnO Doped Al Nanoparticles for Potential Use in

11:40 – 11:55 PR006 Sensing Applications
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Muhammad Azmi Abdul Hamid

UKM

Development of Self-Disinfection TiO2-PVA Based Coating for Steel

11:55 – 12:10 PR007 Surfaces Application
Ms. Nurul Fatiha Mohd Padzli

USM

Effect of Transition Metal Element Doping on Barium Strontium Cobalt

12:10 – 12:25 PR008 Ferrite-Based Composite - A Short Review
Ms. Umira Asyikin Yusop

UTHM

Chloride-Less Synthesis and Effect of Crystallinity on Cr(VI) Removal via

12:25 – 12:40 PR009 Photoreduction of UiO-66
Ms. Anis Muneerah Shaiful Bahari

UNITEN

Structural, Thermal and Rheological Studies of Virgin Coconut Oil-Based

12:40 – 12:55 PR014 Lamellar Liquid Crystals from Mixed Tween 85 and Tween 65
Ms. Norzakiatul Husna Isnolamran

UPSI

12

PARALLEL SESSION 1

https://upsi.webex.com/upsi/j.php?MTID=mfc94aaf66db89ff2f5cb12d1c12c552e

Password : room2

Physical Sciences

Chairperson : Dr. Mazlina Musa (UPSI)

Preparation and Characterization of Beads of Fish Collagen / Fish Scales

11:10 – 11:25 PR011 Hydroxyapatite / Silver Nanoparticles by using Infiltration Method
Dr. Mustafa Mudhafar

Faculty of Altuff Collage

The Effect of Virgin Coconut Oil Content on the Rheological Profile of

11:25 – 11:40 PR015 Virgin Coconut Oil-Based Lamellar Liquid Crystal of Mixed Tween 80:Brij
30 Systems

Ms. Nor Ain Mohamed Arifin

UPSI

Investigation of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) Process Parameter for

11:40 – 11:55 PR016 Ultrafine-Grained Aluminium 5083 Alloys
Mr. Muhamad Nabil Faizul Hilmy

USM

Si-Mo-Modified Aluminide Slurry Coating for High Temperature Protection

11:55 – 12:10 PR017 of Austenitic Stainless Steel
Ms. Syamimi Abu Kassim

USM

Different Concentrations of Sodium Hydroxide Caustic Leaching for

12:10 – 12:25 PR018 Refinement of Calcium Source from Dental Mould Waste
Mrs. Nur Liyana Mohd Rosli

USM

A Comparative Study of Graphenated-Carbon Nanotubes Cotton and

12:25 – 12:40 PR022 Carbon Nanotubes as Catalysts for Counter Electrode in Dye-Sensitized
Solar Cells

Mrs. Yusnita Yusuf

UPM

Catalytic Ketonization of Fatty Acids Over MgO / ZrO2 : Characterization

12:40 – 12:55 PR024 and Optimization via Response Surface Methodology
Ms. Shamina A Aleem

PETRONAS

13

PARALLEL SESSION 1

https://upsi.webex.com/upsi/j.php?MTID=m9e7d025fdc328c9209c99c89259fb83c

Password : room3

Life Sciences

Chairperson : Dr. Zubaidah Abu Hassan (UM)

Regulatory Analysis of Pseudomonas Sp. Polycyclic Aromatic

11:10 – 11:25 LR001 Hydrocarbons Degradation Proteins by LC-MS / MS
Ms. Suzana Adenan

UPSI

Subchronic Toxicity Analysis of Mixtures of Christia vespertilionis (L.f.)

11:25 – 11:40 LR002 Bakh. F. Leaf and Morinda citrifolia L. Fruit Ethanolic Extracts in Male
Sprague Dawley Rats

Ms. Nurul Syahirah Ahmad Sayuti

UPM

11:40 – 11:55 LR004 Ultrastructural Observation of Pollen Mites on Tetragonula fuscobalteata
Dr. Zubaidah Abu Hassan

UM

Pollen Calendar of Stingless Bee at Taman Pertanian Sekayu,

11:55 – 12:10 LR005 Terengganu
Ms. Siti Nur Syafiqah Mohamad Hanapi

UMT

Taxanomic Implications of Leaf Micromorphology in the Genus Heritiera

12:10 – 12:25 LR006 (Sterculiaceae)
Ms. Nabilah Mohammad

UKM

The Stele Anatomy of Stipe and its Taxonomic Significance for Genus

12:25 – 12:40 LR010 Diplazium in Peninsular Malaysia
Ms. Affina Eliya Aznal Affenddi

UKM

The Morphology and Functional Histology of the Respiratory System of

12:40 – 12:55 LR014 Reticulated Python (Malayopython reticulatus)
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Intan Shameha Abdul Razak

UPM

14

PARALLEL SESSION 2

https://upsi.webex.com/upsi/j.php?MTID=m5bdf838ccc186a20e3ef3a000d7b9210

Password : room1

Physical Sciences

Chairperson : Dr. Aisyah Mohamad Sharif (UPSI)

Investigating the Structural Transformation of Individual Au-Incorporated

15:45 – 16:00 PR010 CNF Interconnect
Dr. Mohamad Saufi Rosmi

UPSI

Electrospinning of Aligned Nanofibers for Biomedical Application using a

16:00 – 16:15 PR023 Rotating Drum Collector
Mr. Ham Wen Jun

UTHM

Morphological Characterization of Carbon Fibre Epoxy Composite Coated

16:15 – 16:30 PR035 Graphene
Dr. Mohd Roshdi Hassan

UPM

Structural and Mechanical Characterization of Producing Stainless Steel

16:30 – 16:45 PR039 (SS316L) with Hydroxyapatite (HA) via Slurry Method
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Sufizar Ahmad

UTHM

A Study on Formation and Characterization of Microencapsulated

16:45 – 17:00 PR049 Geraniol Oil
Ms. Siti Nadiah Shamsul Anuar

UiTM

15

PARALLEL SESSION 2

https://upsi.webex.com/upsi/j.php?MTID=mfc94aaf66db89ff2f5cb12d1c12c552e

Password : room2

Physical Sciences

Chairperson : Dr. Norlinda Daud (UPSI)

Post-Coating Treatment Effect on the Physicomechanical and Corrosion

15:45 – 16:00 PR021 Resistance of Plasma-Sprayed Hydroxyapatite (FsHA) and FsHA-Doped
YSZ on Ti-13Nb-13Zr Alloy for Biomedical Applications

Mr. Anene Franklin Amaechi

UPM

Effect of Milled Graphite Composition on the Mechanical Properties and

16:00 – 16:15 PR030 Morphology of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) / Graphite Composite
Dr. Engku Abd Ghapur Che Engku Ali

UMT

Crystallization-Mechanical Technique for Oil Extraction from Oil Palm

16:15 – 16:30 PR034 Empty Fruit Bunch Fibre
Ms. Kessnia Ira Ng

UMS

Comparison Study on Mechanical Properties of 3D Printed PLA and PLA

16:30 – 16:45 PR037 / Aluminium Composites using Fused Deposition Modeling Technique
Dr. Nor Aiman Sukindar

UIAM

Composition of Surfactants and Ionic Elements from Diesel and Petrol

16:45 – 17:00 PR040 Exhaust Particulate Matter
Mr. Muhammad Afiq Mohd Nor

UPSI

16

PARALLEL SESSION 2

https://upsi.webex.com/upsi/j.php?MTID=m9e7d025fdc328c9209c99c89259fb83c

Password : room3

Life Sciences

Chairperson : Assistant Prof. Dr. Mohd Shukri Baba (UIAM)

Leaf Epidermal Micro-Morphological Characteristics in Pentace L. and its

15:45 – 16:00 LR007 Taxonomic Significance
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Noraini Talip

UKM

SEM and TEM Analysis of Lactococcus garvieae and Enterococcus

16:00 – 16:15 LR008 faecalis during Conjugation
Ms. Nur Ainaa Nabihah Mohd Ghazali

UPM

Film Thickness, Diametral Tensile Strength and Fracture Surface of

16:15 – 16:30 LR011 Alumina Reinforced Dental Cement
Dr. Noor Huda Ismail

USM

Capturing Anthocyanin Immobilization to the Rice Core through the Ultra-

16:30 – 16:45 LR013 High Resolution Electron Lenses
Dr. Arniza Ghazali

USM

Efficacy of Vibrio alginolyticus Whole Killed Cell Vaccine on the Immune

16:45 – 17:00 LR017 Response of White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)
Dr. Laith A Abdul Razzak

UMT

17

PARALLEL SESSION 3

https://upsi.webex.com/upsi/j.php?MTID=m5bdf838ccc186a20e3ef3a000d7b9210

Password : room1

Physical Sciences

Chairperson : Dr. Nurulsaidah Abdul Rahim (UPSI)

Microwave-Assisted Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using

11:15 – 11:30 PR002 Azadirachta indica Leaf Extract along with Collagen as Stabilizing Agent
Ms. Mira Azah Najihah Zainurin

UPSI

Effect of Stand-Off Distance on Alzn Pseudo-Alloy Coating Properties

11:30 – 11:45 PR020 Prepared Via Wire Arc Spray Process
Mrs. Nur Suhaili Ismail

UTM

Synthesis and Characterization of Polyvinylidene Flouride (PVDF) / Silica

11:45 – 12:00 PR028 Aerogel (SA) Composites as Floating Cover
Mrs. Rozalina Amran

UTM

Important Parameters of Laser Welding Process for Fuel Cell Interconnect

12:00 – 12:15 PR044 Metallic Materials: A Short Review
Mr. Mohd Faizal Tukimon

UTHM

Modification of Nylon 66 / Graphene Nanoplatelet Composites via Silane

12:15 – 12:30 PR047 Treatment and Electron Beam Irradiation
Dr. Mohd Edeerozey Abd Manaf

UTEM

The Effect of Heat Treatment on Hardness Properties and Microstructure

12:30 – 12:45 PR048 of 9Cr-Mo-V T91 Alloy Steel
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Che Nor Aiza Jaafar

UPM

Fabrication of Aligned Pineapple Leaf Fibre Reinforced Polylactic Acid for

12:45 – 13:00 PR029 High Performance Biocomposites
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Zaleha Mustafa

UTEM

18

PARALLEL SESSION 3

https://upsi.webex.com/upsi/j.php?MTID=mfc94aaf66db89ff2f5cb12d1c12c552e

Password : room2

Physical Sciences

Chairperson : ChM. Dr. Noorshida Mohd Ali (UPSI)

11:15 – 11:30 PR004 A Review on -Al2O3 and Thiol Roles for Mercury Adsorption
Ms. Nur Iraizzati Shaifudin

UPSI

Microstructure Development and Tensile Properties of ADC12 Al-Si Alloy

11:30 – 11:45 PR031 with Different Content of Praseodymium (Pr)
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Tuty Asma Abu Bakar

UTM

The Effect of Compatibilizer on the Fracture Surface Morphology of Nylon

11:45 – 12:00 PR032 Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastic Natural Rubber Composites
Dr. Engku Zaharah Engku Zawawi

UiTM

A Review on the Effect of Printing Parameters of FDM Metal Composite

12:00 – 12:15 PR036 Parts on Mechanical Properties and Surface Roughness
Dr. Nor Aiman Sukindar

UIAM

Effect of Simultaneous Addition of Ba and Sb on Microstructural and

12:15 – 12:30 PR038 Phase Reaction Characteristics of Al-20%Mg2Si Alloy
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Norhayati Ahmad

UTM

Insights into Kinetics and Isotherm Analysis of Visible-Light-Driven MXene

12:30 – 12:45 PR046 / g-C3N4 Heterostructure Photocatalysts
Mr. Muhammad Syahmi Irfan Nasri

UTP

Large-Scale Texturing Fabrication on Silicon Wafer Surfaces for Solar

12:45 – 13:00 PR041 Cells Application
Ms. Nurul Huda Abdul Razak

UKM

19

PARALLEL SESSION 3

https://upsi.webex.com/upsi/j.php?MTID=m9e7d025fdc328c9209c99c89259fb83c

Password : room3

Life Sciences

Chairperson : ChM. Dr. Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi W Salleh (UPSI)

Thymol and Carvacrol Treatments Changed Actin and Microtubule

11:15 – 11:30 LR003 Cytoskeletons of the Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Durriyyah Sharifah Hasan Adli

UM

Histological Effect of Aquilaria subintegra Leaves Aqueous Extract on

11:30 – 11:45 LR012 Several Organs in ICR Mice
Mr. Azam Muzafar Ahmad Mokhtar

UPSI

Two-Step MACE Texturing Technique to Fabricate Silicon Nanowires on

11:45 – 12:00 LR015 Silicon Wafer Surfaces for Solar Cells Application
Ms. Nurul Huda Abdul Razak

UKM

Antifungal Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Syzygium polyanthum (Wight)

12:00 – 12:15 LR016 Walp. Leaves Extract against Several Types of Filamentous Fungi and
Candida Species

Mr. Wong Jun Xian

UPSI

12:15 – 12:30 LR018 Hericium erinaceus as a Treatment for Memory Deficits in Zebrafish
Model of Alzheimer’s Disease: A Neurobehavioral Study

Ms. Nur Arissa Syazwani Md Nazrey

MSU

Physicochemical Characterization of Biomass Wastes as Potential Growth

12:30 – 12:45 LR019 Substrate for Wild Schizophyllum commune Cultivation
Mrs. Siti Aminah Mohd Hassan

UNIMAP

12:45 – 13:00 LR020 Siam-Weed Based Gelatine Electrospun Scaffolds
Mr. Ham Wen Jun

UTHM

20

15:45 – 17:45 PP001 POSTER EVALUATION SESSIONS
PP002 Venue : Poster Room 1
PP003 Physical Sciences
PP007
PP008 Fabrication of Bimetallic Ni-Zr Silica Nanocomposites via Sequential In-
PP009 Situ Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production
PP010 Dr. Siti Munirah Sidik
PP014 UPSI

Adsorption Behaviour of p-Nitrophenol in Aqueous Medium on Non-
Treated Saba and Lady Finger Banana Peels
Dr. Norlaili Abu Bakar
UPSI

The Effects of Various Electrolytes on Nano Porous Anodic Aluminium
Oxide Formation in Anodization Process
Mr. Muralidharan Sundararajan
USM

Anticorrosion Performance of Self-Healing Polymeric Coating on Low
Carbon Steel Substrates in 3.5 wt.% NaCl Medium
Dr. Mohd Fauzi Mamat
UTEM

Effect of E7018 Filler Metal on Mechanical Properties and Corrosion
Behaviour of Low Carbon Steel Produced by Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Dr. Mohd Fauzi Mamat
UTEM

Investigation on Activated Carbon Derived from Municipal Solid Waste for
Leachate Treatment

Dr. Alya Naili Rozhan
UIAM

Correlation of Langmuir Isotherm, Optical, Surface Potential and
Morphological Characterizations of Two Functionalized
Dihydroxycalix[4]Arene for Lead Cation Entrapment
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Faridah Lisa Supian
UPSI

Porous Copper Fabrication via Powder Metallurgy Approach in
Combination with a Space Holder Technique
Mr. Shaiful Anwar Ismail
University of Sheffield

21

15:45 – 17:45 PP011 POSTER EVALUATION SESSIONS
PP012 Venue : Poster Room 2
PP013 Physical Sciences
PP016
PP017 Synthesis of Facetted -Al2O3 Nanoparticles from Waste Aluminium Cans
PP018 for Potential Catalyst Support Applications
PP019 Mrs. Rozita Yahaya
PP022 UPSI

Effect of Dehydrothermal (DHT) Treatment on the Physicochemical and
Mechanical Properties of 3D Porous Chitosan-Collagen-Glycerol
Membrane for Potential Wound Dressing Applications
Prof. Ts. Dr. Ismail bin Zainol
UPSI

Improvement of Tensile Properties of 3D Printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene
Styrene by Altering Part Orientation
Dr. Abdul Manaf Abdullah
UiTM

Synthesis of Imprinted Polymer of Bisphenol a Glycerolate Dimethacrylate
(Bis-GMA-IMP) for Formaldehyde

Mr. Almajed Asaad Abdullah Sfoog
UPSI

Effects of Temperature and Concentration of Simulated Body Fluid on
Bone Apatite Formation using Electrospun Poly(-caprolactone) Fibre

Substrate
Dr. Nor Dalila Nor Affandi

UiTM
Cellulose Nanofibre Dope with an Antimicrobial Compound Produced

through the Multi-Solvent Technique
Mr. Shahrul Nizam Md Salleh
SIRIM

Synthesis, Characterisations, X-Ray Structure, DFT Studies and
Antibacterial Activity of 3-Bromo-5-chloro-2-hydroxybenzylidene

Hydrazone Ligand
Dr. Yusnita Juahir

UPSI
Water and Air Permeability of Melt-Blown Polypropylene Filled Recovered

Carbon Graphene Oxide
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Noor Najmi Bonnia

UiTM

22

15:45 – 17:45 LP003 POSTER EVALUATION SESSIONS
LP007 Venue : Poster Room 3
LP008 Life Sciences
LP009
LP010 A Comprehensive Trichome Investigation and its Taxonomic Significance
LP011 of Vitex L. (Lamiaceae Martinov) in Peninsular Malaysia
Mrs. Syanawiyyah Md Zin
LP012 UPSI
LP013
LP014 Microscopic Analysis of POME Microbial Community Established in
Chlorophenol-Fed Microbial Fuel Cell
Dr. Huzairy Hassan
UNIMAP

Comparative Analyses Of Stomata And Epidermal Cell Among
Different Species In Genus Premna (Lamiaceae)
Mrs. Ain Najwa Amran
UPSI

Taxonomic Values of Trichomes in Malvaceae subfamily Bombacoideae
and Helicteroideae

Mrs. Noor Solihani Shamsuddin
UKM

Orthopaedic Metal Implant Coated with Silver (OMICS) in Six Hours
Golden Rules: An Overview of Histology Analysis
Dr. Nurul Hafiza Mohd Jan
UIAM

Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopic Changes in Liver
Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells of Monosodium Methylarsonate (MSMA)-

Exposed Rats
Dr. Shahida Saharudin

UIAM
A Study on Gentamicin Impregnated Biomaterials for Treating Induced-

Osteomyelitis in the New Zealand White Rabbit Animal Model: An
Overview of Microscopic Analysis
Prof. Dr. Ahmad Hafiz Zulkifly
UIAM

Cytotoxic Effect of -, -, and -Carrageenan Extracts on Human Breast
Cancer Cells

Mrs. Nooraini Mohd Ain
UPM

Foxtail Palm Fruit, Wodyetia bifurcate as Potential Material for Production
of Activated Carbon

Ms. Nisrina Nadia [email protected]
UMK

23

Development of Metal-Carbon Nanocomposites at Lower Temperatures Based on In-Situ TEM
Observation

Subash Sharma1, Lin Wei Ming1, Shinsuke Ozeki1, Takumi Yoshida1, Yazid Yaakob2, Mohd Zamri
Mohd Yusop3, Mohamad Saufi Rosmi4 and Masaki Tanemura1*

1Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso–Cho,
Showa–Ku, Nagoya 466-8555, Japan

2Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor,
Malaysia

3Department of Materials, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310
Skudai, Johor, Malaysia

4Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris,
35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia

*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract

Graphitized nanocarbon, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene, is one of the hottest materials
in nanotechnology and nanomaterials science. Huge effort has been devoted to their controllable growth
in quality, size, position and temperature for their practical applications. In general, they are synthesized
at elevated temperatures. So, their synthesis is the high-temperature process. However, for the eco-
friendly (environmentally friendly) synthesis and also for the realistic applications, the lower- temperature
process, ideally room-temperature process, is preferable. This talk will deal with a basic idea for the lower-
temperature synthesis of carbon-based nanocomposites using an ion-beam technique, together with their
position and crystallinity control based on the in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
observations of their graphitization process. In the talk, their energy-related application, the nano-
soldering of CNTs towards the interconnection application, and the highly sensitive detection of COVID-
19 virus using ion-induced nanostructures will be also demonstrated.

24

Cytoophidia: Polymerisation and Filamentat Ion of Metabolic Enzymes
Ji-Long Liu*

School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 201210, China
Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT, United

Kingdom
*Corresponding author: [email protected], [email protected]

Abstract
Subcellular sequestration of proteins within membrane bound compartments is widely acknowledged to
be an important mode of enzymatic regulation. Recently a novel paradigm for metabolic enzyme
compartmentation has become apparent with the identification of several proteins which are able to form
filamentous structures in vivo. Multiple studies independently identified the essential de novo pyrimidine
biosynthesis enzyme CTP synthase as a major constituent of a novel filamentous structure which has
been termed ‘the cytoophidium’. Cytoophidia have been observed to form in multiple organisms including
bacteria, archaea, yeast and fruit fly as well as in human cells. Recently, we have successfully pushed
the resolution to near-atomic levels (2.48 Å) to analyse the polymer structure of CTP synthase with all its
substrates. Our findings not only delineate the structure of CTPS in the presence of all substrates but
also complete our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the allosteric regulation and CTP
synthesis.

25

Value and Importance of Palynology in Plant Systematics

Abdul Latiff Mohamad*

Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor,
Malaysia

*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract

Pollen morphology started with the advent of light microscopes when only the type, shape and size of
pollen grains could be utilized and discerned as taxonomic evidence. In the 1970s Scanning and
Transmission Electron Microscopes were developed that revolutionized pollen morphology and its
significance to plant taxonomy and systematics was realised. When Scanning Electron Microscope was
used the fine structures of the exine ornamentation were able to observe in understanding the function of
pollen grains in pollination mechanism and more importantly as new evidences used in both plant
classification and phylogeny. In Malaysia the use of both electron microscopes was introduced in the
1980s as the machines were expensive and maintenance was not available. Furthermore, the practicing
taxonomists then did not study palynology and use palynology as evidence in systematics. The author
will highlight the past and current trends in post-graduate studies at the Faculty of Science and
Technology which used both light and electron scanning microscopy in their research works in plant
families such as Vitaceae, Acanthaceae, Sapindaceae and genera such as Barringtonia and Abdulmajidia
(Lecythidaceae), Madhuca (Sapotaceae) and Vatica (Dipterocarpaceae), among others. In the Vitaceae,
pollen morphology did not show much variations in exine ornamentation to differentiate genera and
species studied, however, it was found very useful and significant in both Sapindaceae and Acanthaceae.
Within these families exine ornamentation was found very significant in differentiating both at the generic
and specific levels. In addition, in genera such as Barringtonia and Abdulmajidia, Madhuca and Vatica
they are very useful in differentiating different species, hence valueable for both taxonomic diagnosis,
identification and classification. The importance and significance of palynology in taxonomy, systematics,
archaeology and historical biology will be discussed in light of the impending future challenges in science
and technology in Malaysia.

26

Aluminum Matrix Composites Produced by Infiltration Method

Recep Çalin*

Department of Metallurgy and Material Science Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture,
Kirikkale University, 71450 Kirikkale, Turkey

*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract

In metal matrix composites, a metal is often combined with another non-metallic phase to produce a new
material with unique engineering properties. These are widely used in wide range of industrial applications
especially in automotive and transport technology. Aluminum matrix composites (AMCs), despite their
low weight, have properties such as high strength, hardness, energy-efficiency and wear resistance.
These properties have made AMCs one of the most preferred materials for use in a wide range of
engineering applications. Reinforcement such as B4C, SiC, MgO, TiB2 and Al2O3 are generally used in
AMCs. Researchers have been recently carried out to develop composites using numerous recycled
wastes. Many environmentally friendly agro-wastes are used as reinforcing fillers in production of
composites. One of these many waste products, Rice husk ash (RHA) is an agricultural waste by-product
plentifully available. Melting metallurgical processes are widely used as outstanding candidates these are
more cost-efficient and could be easily integrated with many other traditional casting methods for the
fabrication of MMCs. Infiltration method which has additionally several different techniques. Pressureless
(free) infiltration, pressure infiltration and vacuum infiltration techniques take part in producing MMCs.
Vacuum infiltration process ensures enhanced wetting, and thus the good metal-ceramic interface
bonding could be achieved. Heat treatment can also increase the mechanical properties of AMCs. The
increment in matrix yield strength by means of heat treatment allows for more effective load transfer from
matrix to reinforcement. Present paper reports an overview on vacuum infiltration method, mechanical
behaviour and applications of aluminium matrix composites. In the end, commercialization challenges,
industrial aspects and future research directions are also briefed.

27

Development of Toughened Epoxy / Natural Hydroxyapatite Composites for Potential Biomedical
Applications

I. Zainol1*, A.A. Majhool1, S.S.S.A. Azziz1 and C.N. Aiza Jaafar2
1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris,

35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia
2Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra

Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract
Epoxy is one of the most important thermosetting materials, widely used in coatings, adhesives, electrical
laminates, and structural components because of their versatility, low cure shrinkage, good solvent and
chemical resistance, excellent adhesion and mechanical properties. Epoxy is also widely used in medical
products such as dental, catheters, diagnostic probes, medical-grade disposable, reusable devices like
catheters and surgical instruments. However, the application of epoxy materials is often limited by their
intrinsic brittleness. The toughening of epoxy materials is very important and has long been the focus of
many research investigations. In this study epoxy resin was mixed with hydroxyapatite to improve
mechanical properties and the biocompatibility of the composites. Liquid natural rubber (LNR) was
synthesized using photodegradation technique and was used as toughening agent. The fracture
toughness of the epoxy was increased up to 24-fold (16.2 MPa m1/2) when modified with 20%
hydroxyapatite and 4 phr liquid rubber. The scanning electron micrograph (SEM) shows uniform
dispersion of rubber particles within the epoxy matrix with average particle size between 168 to 455 nm
in diameter. The epoxy / HA / LNR was found suitable for medical device applications.

28

BLR001B

Regulatory Analysis of Pseudomonas sp. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Degradation
Proteins By LC-MS/MS

Suzana Adenan1, Chee Fah Wong1*, Saripah Salbiah Syed Abdul Azziz2, Som Cit Si Nang1, Rosmilah
Misnan1, Iffah Izzati Zakaria3, Mardiana Mohd Ashaari4, Dhilia Udie Lamasudin5 and Raja Noor Zaliha

Raja Abd. Rahman6

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan ldris, 35900
Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia

2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan ldris,
35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia

3Synthetic Biology and Cell Factory Section, Malaysia Genome Institute, National Institutes of
Biotechnology Malaysia, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia

4Department of Biotechnology, Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, Bandar
Indera Mahkota, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia

5Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences,
Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

6Enzyme and Microbial Technology Research Center, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular
Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract

The uncontrolled release of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) had warned of some
environmental issues. A bioremediation method by introducing PAHs-degraders bacteria into the
contaminated area had issued with a few limitations including survival of strains and against international
legislation which we believed that the problems can be reduced with biocatalysis remediation strategies.
Biocatalysis of PAHs was detected from biostimulated-PAHs degrading enzymes (PDEs)
from Pseudomonas putida strain B4. PDEs were identified through several methods involving
biostimulation using petroleum crude and BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene), 2D-
Electrophoresis (2DE), Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) and protein identifications
utilizing SEQUEST HT software. Extracellular PDEs were determined by production of 9,10
anthraquinone from laccase assay. 2DE analysis was done to compare the expression level of
biostimulated and non-stimulated protein. A spot was detected as an upregulated protein while 3 spots
were found to be downregulated proteins. These spots undergo LC-MS analysis for protein identification

29

purposes utilizing SEQUEST HT software against the most recent Uniprot database. The results revealed
that the upregulated proteins are chaperonin protein (WP_010952474.1), ATP synthase subunit beta
(WP_003253197.1) and two dehydrogenase proteins, which are dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase
(WP_010954949.1) and malate dehydrogenase (WP_004575488.1). While downregulated proteins were
identified as azurin (WP_003249580.1) and cold-shock protein (WP_003250656.1). In future, these
proteins will be further expressed and tested for their ability to work together to achieve the best enzymes
consortium for biocatalysis remediation.
Keywords: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Biodegradation, Laccase, Pseudomonas, LC-MS, 2D-
Electrophoresis

30

BLR002B

Subchronic Toxicity Analysis of Mixtures of Christia vespertilionis (L.f.) Bakh. f. Leaf and
Morinda citrifolia L. Fruit Ethanolic Extracts in Male Sprague Dawley Rats

Nurul, S.A.S.1, Hazilawati, H.1*, Rosly, S. M.2, Farhan, H.M.R., Aliyu, A., Shanmugavelu, S.2, Noordin,
M.M.1, Mazlina, M.1 and Azrina, A.3

1Department of Veterinary Pathology & Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra
Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

2Animal Livestock Research Centre, MARDI Headquarters, Persiaran MARDI-UPM, 43400 Serdang,
Selangor, Malaysia

3Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 43400 UPM Serdang,
Selangor, Malaysia

*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract

Christia vespertilionis (L.f.) Bakh. f. (CV) leaves and Morinda citrifolia L. (MC) fruits have acquired much
attention among Malaysians and already been commercially distributed. Practitioners are concerned on
the effectiveness and safety of the products, thus the study’s goal is to evaluate the toxicity effects of
mixtures of CV and MC in male Sprague Dawley rats in a 90-day subchronic oral toxicity study. A total of
36 rats were divided equally into six groups; control, 5% DMSO (vehicle), mixture of low dose CV and
MC (75 mg/kg), mixture of low dose CV (75 mg/kg) and medium dose MC (125 mg/kg), mixture of medium
dose CV (125 mg/kg) and low dose MC (75 mg/kg) and mixture of medium CV and MC (125 mg/kg). The
extracts were orally gavaged daily for 90 days. At day 91, the rats were humanely sacrificed, and
abnormalities in the blood profiles and organs were evaluated. There were no mortality observed in
groups of rats received mixtures of CV and MC. Weekly body weights, haematology and serum
biochemistry also showed no significant (p>0.05) differences compared to control. However, significant
(p<0.05) differences were observed for hepatic necrosis and number of activated kupffer cells in all herbal
treated groups compared to control (from very mild to moderate scores). Kidneys showed significant
(p<0.05) score for granular cast (very mild). In conclusion, mixtures of CV and MC induced hepatotoxicity
and renal toxicity, and the no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAEL) of CV and MC mixture is lower
than 150 mg/kg.

Keywords: Christia vespertilionis (L.f.) Bakh. f leaves, Morinda citrifolia L. fruits, Subchronic toxicity,
Hepatotoxicity

31

BLR003B

Thymol and Carvacrol Treatments Changed Actin and Microtubule Cytoskeletons of the
Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Durriyyah Sharifah Hasan Adli1,2*, Mohd Suhaimi Draman1 and Nurul Kabir1

1Neuroscience Research Group, c/o Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science,
Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

2Centre for Civilisational Dialogue, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract

Pathological disturbances of tissue regeneration are a hallmark of many diseases affecting human life.
Because of stem cells regenerative abilities, research on it offers elucidation of knowledge in treating
such diseases, e.g., research related to its microtubules and actin cytoskeleton. This study investigated
the morphological changes of the cytoskeleton and the nucleus of the stem cells after treatment with
thymol and carvacrol, two bioactive constituents of the Nigella sativa (Habbatus Saudaa).
Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from the bone marrow of femur and tibia of adult Sprague
Dawley rats and cultured in complete Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium. They were treated with
different concentrations of carvacrol and thymol. Triple-label immunocytochemistry was performed
post-treatment to observe each affected cell's nucleus, actin, and microtubules using DAPI, Alexa Fluor
488-labelled phalloidin and Cy3-labelled anti-tubulin antibody, respectively. Triple-channel high-
resolution fluorescence microscopy images along with phase contract ones were taken under a multi-
channel fluorescence microscope (Leica DM6000 B microscope). Observed various morphologies of
the cytoskeleton in the control most likely reflected the stem cells multipotent nature. Actin was in stress
fibres or as lamellipodia and filopodia, while microtubules showed regular arrangements spread out
around a lightly stained nucleus. These arrangements of the actin and microtubules were severely
disrupted after higher concentration treatments. Morphological nuclear changes suggestive of cell
death were also seen. The treatments also disrupted the cytoskeleton in other various ways. Hence,
these morphological changes indicated that thymol and carvacrol could exert negative effects leading
to potential control over survival of cells.

Keywords: Stem cells, Microtubule, Actin, Cytoskeleton, Nigella sativa

32

BLR004B
Ultrastructural Observation of Pollen Mites on Tetragonula fuscobalteata

Zubaidah Abu Hassan1, 2, Shamsul Bahri Abdul Razak2*, Junedah Sanusi3 and Nur Azura Adam4
1Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur,

Malaysia
2Special Interest Group for Apis and Meliponine, School of Fishery and Food Sciences, Universiti

Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia
3Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
4Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM

Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract
Mites are common inhabitants in the nests of eusocial and solitary bees, including stingless bees. In this
study, mites associated with Tetragonula fuscobalteata were examined using Scanning Electron
Microscopy. Stingless bee’s specimens were collected in the month of April for pollens studies. The sizes
of this mites are in the range of 370-400µm length and 200-250µm. They have four pairs of segmented
hairy legs with a claw on each leg. The dorsal body has unique lining pattern. The mouth part has
structures known as pedipalp. They were observed on several areas of stingless bee’s exoskeleton which
are on anterior dorsolateral abdomen, intertagmal region between thorax and abdomen; and dorsal
trochanter of femur. It is believed that these locations are the place where the mites can easily use their
piercing mouthparts to penetrate the exoskeleton of their host and where mites are less likely to be
removed by the bee’s grooming activity. On pollen observation the mites were predominantly found
together with citrus, Citrofortunella microcarpa’s pollens. This can be postulated that those mites were
closely associated with pollen and transferred from pollen to the nest when the bees foraged the flowers.
Keywords: Mites, Tetragonula fuscobalteata, Thorax, Abdomen, Pollen

33

BLR005B
Pollen Calendar of Stingless Bee Species at Taman Pertanian Sekayu, Terengganu
Siti Nur Syafiqah Mohamad Hanapi* and Shamsul Bahri Abd Razak*

Special Interest Group for Apis and Meliponine, Faculty of Fisheries and Food Science, Universiti
Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract
Stingless bee is a eusocial insect from Meliponine family that live in a perennial colony consist of queen,
worker (sterile female bees), and drone (male bees). The objective of this study was to identify flower
preferences by several stingless bee species (Geniotrigona thoracica, Heterotrigona itama, Lepidotrigona
terminata, Tetragonula fuscobalteata, Tetragonula minor, and Tetragonula testaceitarsis). The
experiment was carried out for 12 months in Taman Pertanian Sekayu, Kuala Berang, Terengganu. At
the end of this study a pollen calendar for full 12 months was successfully recorded. Pollen samples were
collected from stingless bees’ corbicula from returning foragers without killing them. The bee samples
were collected once a month. The pollens were dispersed in distilled water, and observed under a
compound microscope to record pollen morphology. Microscopy observation showed the variation of
pollen in terms of size and shape that indicated the stingless bees foraged a variety of flowers throughout
a year (from October 2019 until September 2020). Two species (L. terminata and T. fuscobalteata)
showed similar preferences in flowers (Citrofortunella microcarpa). There were 80 plant species identified
based on the pollen referene collected at the sampling site and also from journals. The dominant pollens
preferred by G. thoracica, H. itama, T. minor, and T. testaceitarsis were Emilia sonchifolia, Muntingia
calabura, Ardisia crispa, and Lantana camara respectively. These identified plants had one similar
characteristic which was flowering all year round. The outcome of this study could help beekeepers to
provide food sources for stingless bee and useful for meliponiculture industry in Malaysia.
Keywords: Stingless bee, Pollen, Eusocial, Dominant, Meliponiculture

34

BLR006B
Taxanomic Implications of Leaf Micromorphology in the Genus Heritiera (Sterculiaceae)
Nabilah Mohammad*, Noraini Talip and Noor Solihani Shamsuddin
Department of Earth Sciences and Environmental (JSBAS), Faculty of Science and Technology,
University Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract
A microscopic analysis study was conducted on the leaf micromorphology of six Heritiera species using
observation under light and scanning electron microscope. Heritiera is a genus under Sterculiaceae,
however based on new evidences the families of the Malvales order were re-positioned into nine
subfamilies. Thus, it is important to continuously document additional anatomical and micromorphological
information especially with advancement in microscopy technologies. The objective of this study is to
identify taxonomically significant leaf micromorphology characteristics that can be used to assist species
identification and classification. Methods involved were leaf clearing and staining for observation under
light microscope, whilst dehydration, critical point drying and gold coating for observation under scanning
electron microscope. The results have been presented in a matrix based on four foliar epidermal
characters which were epidermal anticlinal wall shape, presence of cuticular waxes, types of stomata and
trichomes. Several diagnostic characteristics were found in this study. These diagnostic characteristics
which can be useful in species identification are the shape of epidermal anticlinal walls in H. elata,
cuticular stellate wax sheet in H. littoralis and cyclotetrasitic stomata in H. simplicifolia. Among the 18
types of trichomes observed, nine can be used in Heritiera species identification. In conclusion, leaf
micromorphological characteristics in Heritiera have significant taxonomic value which can be useful in
species identification.
Keywords: Sterculiaceae, Heritiera, Leaf micromorphology, Light Microscope, Scanning electron
microscope, Trichome

35

BLR007B

Leaf Epidermal Micro–Morphological Characteristics in Pentace L. and its Taxonomic
Significance

Noraini Talip1*, Che Nurul Aini Che Amri2, Nurhanim Mohd. Nor1,
Mohd. Norfaizal Ghazalli3, Syazwani Basir1 and Hamidun Bunawan4

1Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti
Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

2Department of Plant Science, Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia Kuantan
Campus, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia

3Programme of Resource Utilization and Agrobiodiversity Conservation, Agrobiodiversity and
Environment Research Centre, 43400, MARDI Serdang, Malaysia

4Institute of Systems Biology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia

*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract

We assessed the micro-morphological of the leaf epidermis of 18 Pentace taxa from Malaysia. The leaf
surface features were observed under scanning electron microscope. Variations of the micro-
morphological features of the leaves can be seen in stomatal type, epidermal anticlinal wall patterns, wax
types, cuticle ornamentation patterns, stomatal shape and trichome types. Six types of stomata were
observed anomocytic, parasitic, diacytic, anisocytic, tetrasitic and staurocytic. Pentace hirtula was
identified with anomocytic and P. erectinervia with tetracytic stomata. Heterostomatically present only in
P. macrophylla, P. borneensis and P. chartacea. The shape of guard cells in P. excelsa is elliptic while
the other species were round. Only P. grandiflora has clear and embossed stomata frames. Study has
shown that P. erectinervia and P. excelsa have wax-coated stomata. Four species show the presence of
cuticular striae on the stomata, namely P. acuta, P. eximia, P. rigida and P. strychnoidea. Three types of
waxes, film, crust and granules were found and the presence of crustose wax can be observed only in P.
strychnoidea, P. triptera, and in P. chartacea. There were 22 types of trichomes found in Pentace. Radial
trichomes were present in P. acuta, P. eximia, P. floribunda and P. strychnoidea. Radial trichomes were
classified into epicallic radial, fan radial and palmatifid radial trichomes. Pentace acuta and P. eximia were
identified with epicallic radial trichomes, P. floribunda with fan radial and P. strychnoidea with palmatifid
radial trichomes. Pentace grandiflora can be identified by the presence of clustered peltate glandular
trichomes. Some other types of trichomes found in this study were simple trichomes. non-cushioned
armed (2 - 4 arms), stellate, cushioned stellate (short arm, thick wall), cushioned stellate (long arm, thick
walls), cushioned stellate (long arm, thin walls), rotate stellate, lepidote stellate, dentate, lepidote,
multiradiate clump trichomes, multicellular glandular trichomes, stellate rotate, capitate glandular, capitate
glandular (muticellular head), capitate glandular (multicellular stalk) and peltate glandular. In conclusion
the micro-morphological characteristics of the leaf epidermis in Pentace definitely have taxonomic value
and can be used in differentiation and identification up to species level.

36

Keywords: Leaf micro-morphological, Leaf epidermis, Pentace

BLR008B
SEM and TEM Analysis of Lactococcus garvieae and Enterococcus faecalis During Conjugation

Nur Ainaa Nabihah Mohd Ghazali1, Hasnah Bahari2, Rosni Ibrahim1 and Azmiza Syawani Jasni1*
1Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra

Malaysia, 43000 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia,

43000 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract
Many studies reported bacterial conjugation as the main transfer mechanism of antibiotic resistance gene.
The search for specific conjugation inhibitors is significant to inhibit bacterial conjugation thus preventing
the widespread of antibiotic resistance. This study aimed to investigate the microscopic observations of
Lactococcus garvieae and Enterococcus faecalis during conjugation prior to exposure towards potential
conjugation inhibitor. L. garvieae KHS-97051 (donor) and E. faecalis JH2-2 (recipient) were used during
filter-mating experiment. E. faecalis JH2-2 transconjugants were selected on brain heart infusion agar
supplemented with tetracycline and gentamicin antibiotics. Conjugation experiment produced successful
E. faecalis JH2-2 transconjugants carrying tetracycline-resistant gene (tetM) with transfer frequency of
8.977 × 10-4 transconjugant per donor and 8.650 x 10-10 transconjugant per recipient. PCR amplification
detected presence of tet(M) gene in E. faecalis JH2-2 transconjugant. Morphological and ultrastructural
characteristics of cells were elucidated using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Conjugal
transfer was confirmed through observation of cells protrusion and formations of long, thin, conjugative
pili sized between 0.113 µm and 0.437 µm. Smooth, continuous cell wall and membrane were also
observed during mating experiment. The microscopy analysis highlighted in this study provided
knowledge on cells morphology and ultrastructure of L. garvieae and E. faecalis prior to treatments using
particular compounds that can inhibit conjugation between the two strains.
Keywords: Lactococcus garvieae, Enterococcus faecalis, Conjugation

37

BLR010B
The Stele Anatomy of Stipe and its Taxonomic Significance for Genus Diplazium in Peninsular
Malaysia
Affina Eliya* and Noraini Talip
Department of Biological and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of
Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract
Anatomical study on transection of stipe in parenchyma cortex were carried out in 15 taxa of Genus
Diplazium from Peninsular Malaysia. The aim of this study is to examine stele anatomical characters for
supporting species delimination in Genus Diplazium. Shape of the stele is varying among species.
Methods includes cross sections of pinnae, stipe and rhizome. Findings in anatomy study have shown
that present of varies stele shaped of vascular in species studied which are D. accedens, D. angutipinna,
D. cordifolium, D. crenatoserratum, D. esculentum, D. kunstleri, D. montanum, D. pallidum, D.
polypodioides, D. procumbens, D. simplicivenium, D. sorzogonense, D. tomentosum, D. velutinum and
Diplazium sp A. The shape of vascular bundle categorized into three main types: primitive, dorsiventral
and onoclea stele shape which onoclea shape were subcategory into three shapes (Onoclea I, Onoclea
II and Onolcea III). Each type is diversifying into different forms of derivative that determine the
nomenclature of species. Additionally, findings in this study are also useful in knowledge enhancement
for taxonomic significance that used for Genus Diplazium as one of source in classification.
Keywords: Stipe anatomy, Stele shape, Diplazium esculentum, Vascular, Parenchyma cortex,
Parenchyma cells

38

BLR011B
Film Thickness, Diametral Tensile Strength and Fracture Surface of Alumina Reinforced Dental

Cement
Noor Huda Ismail1, Raja Azman Raja Awang1, Kannan Thirumulu Ponnuraj1, Zuratul Ain Abdul Hamid2

and Mariatti Jaafar2*
1School of Dental Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kota

Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia
2School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus,

Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract
An ideal film thickness and optimum diametral tensile strength are important for the longevity of dental
cement. This study aims to investigate the effects of different concentrations of alumina on the properties
of dental cement derived from silica obtained from rice husk. Then, 3 and 10 wt% of alumina
reinforcements were used in the formulation. Negative control specimen (0 wt% alumina) and commercial
dental cement Rely-X (3M ESPE) were also prepared for comparison purpose. All the specimens were
analysed for film thickness (FT), diametral tensile strength (DTS) and fracture surfaces. One-way ANOVA
and post-hoc Tukey's test were used to analyse the data. Results showed that FT was significantly
increased with the addition of alumina reinforcement (3 and 10 wt%) (p < 0.05). DTS increased with the
addition of alumina compared to negative control (0 wt% alumina) (p > 0.05), however the differences
were not statistically significant for 3 wt% and 10 wt% alumina (p > 0.05). Fractographic analysis showed
the presence of crack branches with reinforcement of alumina which indicates the deviation of stress
distribution to support force applied.
Keywords: Dental cement, Rice husk, Alumina, Tensile strength, Fracture surface

39

BLR012B
Histological Effect of Aquilaria subintegra Leaves Aqueous Extract on Several Organs in ICR
Mice

Azam Muzafar Ahmad Mokhtar1, Haniza Hanim Mohd Zain1*, Husni Ibrahim1 and Mohammed Muayad
TA2

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900
Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia

2Environmental Research Centre, University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract
The study was conducted to investigate the histological effects of agarwood, or specifically Aquilaria
subintegra aqueous extract (ASAE) leaves on several organs in ICR mice. An acute toxicity study was of
ASAE was studies. 39 male and 39 female mice with age of 12 weeks old were used. The mice were
divided into 7 groups and each group contained only 12 mice (6 males and 6 females). All mice orally
received the ASAE at a certain concentration which are 4000, 5000, 6000, 7000, 8000, 9000 mg/kg body
weight and only one group was used as control which was treated with normal saline. The extract was
administered only once on the first day. Results showed a significant difference in male mice body weight.
Signs of abnormality such as breathing condition, salivation, drowsiness, fur, faeces, skin, and eyes
condition were observed in all treated mice. All treated mice fur on their body seems to be affected while
female mice face appeared to be balding. Not only that, drowsiness was also detected in all treated mice
indicating an adverse reaction in their behaviour. The histology of liver, kidney and stomach were also
affected. Only one female ASAE treatment group portal liver vein was filled with blood. All treated mice
kidney’s glomerulus expanded and the length of mucosa located in the stomach tissue also seemed to
be reduced. Based on the data obtained, it can be stated that Aquilaria subintegra if taken at dosage of
4000 mg/kg is toxic to the ICR mice in this study due to the harmful effect it caused on mice appearance,
behaviour and organ tissues.
Keywords: Agarwood, Aquilaria, Tissues, Light Microscope, Toxicity

40

BLR013B

Capturing Anthocyanin Immobilization to the Rice Core Through the Ultra-High Resolution
Electron Lenses

Arniza Ghazali1*, Rabeta Salleh2, Mohd Qasimie Ahmad2, Nurhaffizah Azhar1 and Muhammad
Fadhirul Abd Malik3

1Division of Bioresource Technology, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia
11800 USM Penang, Malaysia

2Division of Food Technology, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia 11800
USM Penang, Malaysia

3Science and Engineering Research Centre, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal,
Penang, Malaysia

*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract

Coating parboiled rice grains (PRG) with pigment-immobilized nanometer thickness cells abbreviated
"pinacell" offered rice grains with more uniform Clitoria ternatea (flower) pigment distribution. The
resultant blue pinacell, predominantly of delphinidin anthocyanin, was then examined for its penetration
into the rice grain using an ultra-high resolution Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM)
and soft peeling from polystyrene surface. Pinacell-polystyrene surface tension occurring at 50oC
facilitated delamination, signalling another prospectus commercialization candidate and the possibility
of a zero-waste process. Analysis of the coated grain cross-section via XHR FESEM shows pigment
penetration to the core of the grain plausibly delivered first, by the nanofibrils slipping into the inter-
granular gaps, IGS. Next, the anthocyanin adhered to the PRG core, driven by its biochemical affinity
for starch and proteinaceous structures of the PRG. The thermal canopy effects arising from the
muffling web of pinacell and the thermo-pockets forming at PRG surface IGS during the 50oC drying,
coupled with the antimicrobial characteristic of Clitoria ternatea pigment, rendered profound
preservation measures. The identified coating and penetration mechanisms account for better grain
longevity, colour uniformity, and an enhanced shelf-life placing the coated parboil rice closer to market
readiness.

Keywords: Food nanotechnology, Anthocyanin, Multifunctional coating, Biomass, FESEM

41

BLR014B

The Morphology and Functional Histology of the Respiratory System of Reticulated Python
(Malayopython reticulatus)

Joash Shane Benedict1, Intan Shameha Abdul Razak1* and Azlan Che’ Amat2

1Department of Veterinary Pre-Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra
Malaysia, 43000 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

2Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,
Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43000 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract

Respiratory tract disease is one of the most common syndromes affecting pythons worldwide. Treatments
may appear inefficient due to improper knowledge of the anatomy of the system itself. Moreover, to date,
there is no functional histology of reticulated python (Malayopython reticulatus) has been reported,
specifically in Malaysia. Once the basic understanding of the functional histology of the system has been
established, the expansion of new ideas and techniques can be explored to assist in the treatment of
respiratory diseases more effectively. Therefore, we aim is to provide the details of the reticulated python
respiratory system histomorphology and its relation to the function. A total of 6 reticulated pythons were
obtained opportunistically for this experiment. The gross morphology of the respiratory organs was
measured and recorded before samples were processed and stained accordingly for routine histology.
The respiratory system comprises the nares, glottis, trachea, lungs, and air sacs with the diaphragm
abstinent. The lungs are elongated spongy cylindrical structures with multi chambers branching from the
main bronchi and appear longer on the right side. The lung is connected with the diaphanous, transparent
and hollow air sacs The central lumen is occupied by many trabeculae giving the honeycomb appearance
of the inner walls. Histologically, the lungs parenchyma displays the ediculae and faveolae. The air sacs
are lining by the pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium. The possible functional significance of
these structures was also discussed. Thus, this study provides information about the histomorphology of
the respiratory system of reticulated python that could be useful for veterinarians and future reference.

Keywords: Reticulated python (Malayopython reticulatus), Respiratory system, Morphology, Functional
histology

42

BLR015B

Two-step MACE Texturing Technique to Fabricate Silicon Nanowires on Silicon Wafer Surfaces
for Solar Cells Application

Nurul Huda Abdul Razak1*, Idris Sharif2, Nowshad Amin3, Kamaruzzaman Sopian4 and Md.
Akhtaruzzaman4

1Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600
UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

2Unit Mikroskopi Elektron, Fakulti Sains dan Teknologi, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
3Institute of Sustainable Energy,Universiti Tenaga Nasional, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
4Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor,

Malaysia

*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract

Silicon nanowire (SiNWs) have been found that can improve the optical properties of semiconductor
devices. In this study, two-step metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) technique is used to texture
silicon solar cells surfaces. This two-step MACE technique used silver as metal catalyst to pre-deposited
on the clean silicon wafer surfaces through bath chemical method. Then, the subsequent anisotropic
etching which is HF/H2O2 as oxidant mixed in one container is conducted. In this two-step MACE process,
the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plays an important role in SiNWs formation which gives affects not only on
the etching rate, but also orientation, morphology and nanostructure of SiNWs on silicon wafer surfaces.
The metal catalysts are used to facilitate the H2O2 during etching session. The field emission scanning
electron microscopy (FESEM) cross-section images shows the SiNWs in this study has grown up to 15
μm long perpendicular vertically aligned on silicon wafer surfaces. From the results, it shown that the two-
step MACE method is able to make silicon nanowires lengths ranging from 0.2 to 15 m. The morphology
also shown that the SiNWs structures turned into porous nanowires based on the H2O2 concentration
used as etching solution. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement is used to see the peak patterns between
the untreated silicon (Si) wafer and SiNWs. Here, XRD peak shown that the SiNWs were perfectly has a
sharp peak at 69° which indexed to silicon wafer [100] orientation. These results also had shown that two-
step MACE method able to fabricate good quality of silicon nanowires although at the edge of silicon
wafer.

Keywords: Texturing, Silicon wafer, Silicon nanowires, Chemical etching, Optical properties, Metal-
assisted chemical etching (MACE)

43

43

BLR016B
Antifungal Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp. Leaves Extract
against Several Types of Filamentous Fungi and Candida Species
Jun Xian Wong1, Suzita Ramli1*, Yaya Rukayadi2,3, Nik Khairunnisa Khir Juhari1, Son Radu2 and Nurul
Bahiyah Abd Wahid1
1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900
Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia
2Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia,
43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
3Laboratory of Natural Products, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM
Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the antifungal activity of Syzygium polyanthum extract against
opportunistic filamentous fungi and pathogenic Candida species by using standard method of Clinical and
Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI). All fungi were susceptible to S. polyanthum extract with minimum
inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) ranged between 0.63 - 1.25
mg/mL, 1.25 - 5.0 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the extract of S. polyanthum inhibited more ≥ 90%
conidia germination of tested filamentous fungi. Killing time of S. polyanthum extract on C. albicans, C.
glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. krusei was fast acting where it showed 3 log10 CFU/mL reduction at 4×
MIC in 4 h. Morphology changes had been viewed on treated strains included changing in cell wall
thickness, rupture and leakage of the cells cytoplasm. The maximum cell constituents release was
observed at 4× MIC for 72 h incubation for A. niger with an absorbance 0.381 whereas 0.435 for C.
albicans after 4 h incubation at 4× MIC. Therefore, results suggest that S. polyanthum extract had
antifungal activity and might be able to develop as a natural antifungal agent.
Keywords: Syzygium polyanthum, Antifungal, Filamentous fungi, Candida species, Susceptibility test

44

BLR017B
Efficacy of Vibrio alginolyticus Whole Killed Cell Vaccine on the Immune Response of White
Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)
Laith A.A1*, Adlin B. H.B. H1 and Moayad M.A.1, 2
1Faculty of Fisheries and Food Science, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu,
Terengganu, Malaysia
2College of Sciences, Al Hussein bin Talal University, 71111 Ma'an, Jordan
*Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract
Vibrio alginolyticus cause high mortality in white shrimp, leading to significant worldwide losses to the
aquaculture industries. Vaccine development has become a priority to prevent the spread of disease by
activating the immune responses of aquatic organisms. This study aims to compare the efficacy of two
types of whole killed Vibrio alginolyticus cells vaccines; formalin killed cells (F.K.C.) and heat-killed cells
(H.K.C.), on the immune responses of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) via oral administration. The
shrimp immunization for seven days, the vaccine provided with food twice per day. All shrimps challenged
by injection with 0.1 mL of culture contain 1.5 × 106 CFU mL-1; of V. alginolyticus and monitored for ten
days. Total hemocyte count (T.H.C.) and the relative percent of survival (R.P.S.) recorded. The shrimp
immunized with H.K.C. showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in T.H.C. than shrimp immunized with
F.K.C. and the shrimp in control groups. In addition, the R.P.S. values show significantly higher survival
rates, 82.14% and 60.71%, in the immunized groups with H.K.C. and F.K.C., respectively, compared to
the control group 6.68%. This study found that the H.K.C. vaccine offered a good immunity in shrimp
against the virulent V. alginolyticus infection.
Keywords: Aquaculture, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vaccine, Litopenaeus vannamei, Hemocyte, Survival rate

45

BLR018B
Hericium erinaceus as a Treatment for Memory Deficits in Zebrafish Model of Alzheimer’s
Disease: A Neurobehavioural Study
Nur Arissa Syazwani Md Nazrey¹, Muhammad Danial Che Ramli¹*, Mahathir Uzid¹, Anita Zara
Weinheimer¹, Nur Batrisyia Nizam¹ and Muhamad Hussin²
¹Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Management and Science University, 40100 Shah Alam,
Selangor, Malaysia

²Toxicology and Pharmacology Unit, Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute of Medical Research,
50588 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

*Corresponding Author: [email protected]

Abstract
Hericium erinaceus, also known as the Lion’s Mane Mushroom is a popular fungal species that is used
in culinary and medicine, specifically traditional Chinese medicine. This edible fungus is widely known to
have multiple benefits for the human body such as anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, antioxidant and
neuroprotective properties. This study was investigated on the antioxidant and neuroprotective activity of
the mushroom against Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Aluminium chloride – induced zebrafish was used as
the model for the memory deficits. Hericium erinaceus extracts were given as treatment for 14 days. The
efficacy of the treatment was evaluated through memory tests using a novel tank diving test and a T-
maze test. Histological studies on the zebrafish model’s brain were also performed. 40% of the zebrafish
model tested had shown an improved memory after the Hericium erinaceus treatment through results
from the behavioural tests. A significant increase in the number of purkinje cells and nucleus elongation
of oligodendrocytes were also observed from the histological test. The results obtained suggests that the
Hericium erinaceus extract exhibits strong potential in treating memory deficits in aluminium chloride –
induced zebrafish model of AD.
Keyword: Alzheimer’s disease, Hericium erinaceus, Neurodegenerative, Alternative treatment, Zebrafish
model

46


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