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Published by estrellalove20, 2019-01-20 20:20:31







Student Book

Christina Latham-Koenig
Clive Oxenden




Christina Latham-Koenig
Clive Oxenden

Paul Seligson and Clive Oxenden are the original co-authors of OXFORD
English File 1and English File 2


Grammar Vocabulary Pronunciation

1 vowel sounds

4 A Mood food simple present and continuous, action food and cooking sentence stress, word
and nonaction verbs stress, adjective endings

8 B Family life future forms: present continuous, family, adjectives of
going to, w ill/ won't personality
Jg) each other

12 ■ < PRACTICAL ENGLISH Episode 1 Meeting the parents

2 present perfect and simple past money the letter o
14 A Spend or save?
18 B Changing lives present perfect + for/since, strong adjectives: exhausted, sentence stress, stress
present perfect continuous
22 REVIEW& CHECK 1&2 amazed, etc. on strong adjectives

On the street; Short movies Goodwill Industries

3 comparatives and superlatives transportation /ʃ/, /dy, and It,f/, linking
24 A Race across Miami articles: a/an, the, no article
28 B Stereotypes-or are they? collocation: verbs / /o/, sentence stress, /ðə/
adjectives + prepositions or /Nil?

32 PRACTICAL ENGLISH Episode 2 A difficult celebrity


34 A Failure and success can, could, be able to -ed / -ing adjectives sentence stress
j/j) reflexive pronouns phone language silent consonants, linking

38 B Modern manners? modals of obligation: must, have to,

^5) should have

42 REVIEW& CHECK 3&4 M i On the street; Short movies Citi bikes


44 A Sports superstitions past tenses: simple, continuous, sports hr/ and hr/
perfect relationships linking, the letters

48 B Love at Exit 19 usually and used to

52 ■ < PRACTICAL ENGLISH Episode 3 Old friends

104 Communication 132 Grammar Bank 165 Irregular verbs
113 Writing 152 Vocabulary Bank 166 Sound Bank
1 2 2 Listening

1A G simple present and continuous, action and nonaction verbs Do you drink
V food and cooking a lo t o f coffee? Yes, b u t I'm
P vowel sounds
trying to cut down
Mood food righ t now.

1 V O C A B U L A R Y food and cooking 3 LIS TE N IN G & SPEA K IN G

a Take the quiz in pairs. FOOD & EATING

FOOD QUIZ 1 Is there any food or drink that you
couldn’t live without? How often do you
Can you th in k of...? e a t/d rin k it?
o n e red fru it, o n e yellow fru it, o n e green fru it
t w o kinds o f food th a t some people are allergic to 2 Do you ever have
t h r e e kinds o f food th a t come from milk a ready-made food?
f o u r vegetables th a t you can p u t in a salad b take-out food? What kind?
f i v e containers th a t you can buy food in
s i x things th a t people sometimes have fo r breakfast 3 What’s your favorite
a fruit?
b > • p.152 Vocabulary Bank Food and cooking. b vegetable?
Are there any that you really don’t like?
c 14))) Listen to these common adjectives to describe
food. Do you know what they mean? Then say one kind *4 When you eat out do you usually order
o f food that we often use with each adjective. meat, fish, or vegetarian?

canned fresh frozen low-fat raw spicy take-out □ What food do you usually eat
a when you're feeling a little down?
b before playing sports or exercising?
c before you have an exam or some
im portant work to do?

2 P R O N U N C IA T IO N vowel sounds a 16))) Listen to five people talking. Each
person is answering one o f the questions in
a Look at the eight sound pictures. W hat are the words and sounds? Food & Eating above. Match each speaker
with a question.
squid chicken 5 sausage roast
11 spicy grilled "rr chocolate box [T\ Speaker A [__] Speaker D
2( p I I SpeakerB Q SpeakerE
beef steamed 6 ®5"p\v pork fork L J Speaker C
44*@ "r© beans breakfast \ boiled pour

grapes salmon 7 () cook sugar b Listen again and make notes about their
lamb cabbage ’Mqu pudding food answers. Compare with a partner.

margarine carton 8 l l j spoon zucchini c Ask and answer the questions with a partner.
jar warm ( C l j j fruit duck W hat do you have in common?

b Look at the words in each list. Cross out the word that doesn’t
have the sound in the sound picture.

c 1 5))) Listen and check.

d > - p.166 Sound Bank. Look at the typical
spellings o f the sounds in a.

4 READING We live in a stressfu l world, and daily life can sometimes
m ake us feel tired, stressed, or depressed. Some people go
a Are the foods in the list carb ohydrates to the doctor for help, others try alternative therapies, but
or proteins? W ith a partner, think o f four the place to find a cure could be somewhere completely
more kinds o f food for each category. different: in the kitchen.

cake chicken pasta salmon Dr. P a u l C layton, a food expert from Middlesex University, says
“The brain is affected by what you eat and drink, just like every
W ith a partner, answer the questions below other part of your body. Certain types of food contain substances that
with either carb ohydrates or proteins. affect how you think and feel."

What kind o f food do you think it is better For example, food that is high in carbohydrates can make us feel more
to eat...? relaxed. It also makes us feel happy. Research has shown that people on
• for lunch if you have an important exam diets often begin to feel a little depressed after two weeks because they
are eating fewer carbohydrates.
or meeting
• for breakfast On the other hand, food that is rich in protein makes us feel awake and
• for your evening meal focused. Research has shown that schoolchildren who eat a high-protein
• if you are feeling stressed breakfast often do better at school than children whose breakfast is

Look at the title o f the article. W hat do you lower in protein. Also, eating the right kind of meal at lunchtime
think it means? Read the article once to can make a difference if you have an exam in the afternoon or a
find out, and to check your answers to b. business meeting where you need to make some quick decisions.
In an experiment for a TV show, two chess players, both former
Read the article again. Then with a partner, champions, had different meals before playing each other. Paul
say in your own words why the had a plate of prosciutto and salad (full of protein from the red
following people are mentioned. meat), and his opponent Terry had pasta with a creamy sauce (full
Give as much information as of carbohydrates). In the chess match Terry felt sleepy and took
you can.
much longer than Paul to make decisions about what moves to make.
1 Dr. Paul Clayton The experiment was repeated several times with the same result.
people on diets Another powerful mood food could become a replacement
schoolchildren fo r some medications doctors prescribe fo r stress. In a
Paul and Terry study, Swiss researchers discovered that eating one dark
Swiss researchers chocolate candy bar (about 1.4 ounces) had beneficial
effects on highly stressed people. Not only did eating
Find adjectives in the article for the verbs the dark chocolate help reduce stress, it was also shown to
and nouns in the list. W hat’s the difference improve mood and reduce high blood pressure.
between the two adjectives made from stress?
Why does chocolate make people less stressed? First, it
stress (noun) (x2) relax (verb) wake (verb) causes the body to reduce the level of the stress hormone
sleep (verb) power (noun) benefit (noun) cortisol. Second, it reduces the “fight or flight” hormone—a hormone
that makes people want to start a fight or run away when they are very
Ask and answer the questions with a stressed. In addition, it contains other compounds that lower blood
partner. pressure and improve your mood. These three things, along with its
delicious taste, make chocolate a powerful mood changer.
1 What time o f day do you usually eat protein
and carbohydrates? How do they make Mood food - w hat the exp erts say
you feel?
How often do you eat chocolate? Does it • Blueberries and cocoa can raise concentration levels for up
make you feel happier? to five hours.
After reading the article, is there anything
you would change about your eating habits? • Food th at is high, in protein helps your brain to work more

• For relaxation and to sleep better, eat carbohydrates.
• D ark g reen vegetables (e.g., cabbage and spinach) and oily

fish (e.g., salmon) eaten regularly cam. help to fight depression.

Online Practice 1A

5 LISTE N IN G & SPEA K IN G STEVE ANDERSON has always had a passion for

a Ask and answer the questions with a food. He was first taught to cook by his mother, who is
partner. half Burmese. A fter studying physics in college, he got a
summer job helping with a cooking course in Italy, where he
RESTAURANTS met several famous chefs. One of them, Alastair Little, later
hired him as a trainee chef. Two years later, he moved to
1 How often do you eat out? Valencia in Spain and opened a restaurant, SeuXerea, now
2 What's your favorite...? one of the most popular restaurants in town.

a kind of food (Chinese, Italian, etc.)
b restaurant dish
3 How important are these things to
you in a restaurant? Number them 1-4
(1 = the most important).
[ 1 the food

] the service
] the atmosphere
] the price
4 Have you ever tried English food?
What did you think of it?

b 17))) Read the text about Steve Anderson.
Then listen to P a rt 1 o f an interview with
him, and number the photos in the order he
mentions them.

c Listen again. Why does he mention
each thing?

d 1 8))) Now listen to P a r t 2 and answer the
1 What does he say is the best and worst thing
about running a restaurant?
2 W hat’s the main difference between British
and Spanish customers?
3 What kinds o f customers does he find
4 How does he think eating habits in Spain
are changing?

e W hat about you? Answer the questions with
a partner.

1 What was your favorite food when you were
a child?

2 Is there anything that you like / don’t like

3 In your country, when people eat out would
they usually tell the chef what they really
think about the food?

4 Do you know anyone who is a “difficult
customer” in restaurants?

6 1A

simple present and continuous, action and nonaction verbs

a 19))) Listen again to some o f the things Steve said .(C ircle) the form o f the
verb he uses.

1 This week for example, I cook / I ’m cooking nearly every day. We usually close /
are usually closing on Sundays and Mondays, but this Monday is a public

2 The British always say / are saying that everything is lovely.
3 Actually, I think I prefer / 1am preferring that honesty, because it helps us to

know what people like.
4 Unfortunately, 1think they get / they're getting worse. People eat / are eating

more unhealthily.

b With a partner, say why you think he has chosen each form.

c ^ p.132 Grammar Bank 1A. Learn more about the simple present and the
present continuous, and practice them.

d Make questions to ask your partner with the simple present or continuous.
Ask for more information.

On a typical day Right now / nowadays
- What / usually have for breakfast?
- / drink soda? How many glasses / - I need to buy any food today?
- / want anything to eat right now?
drink a day?
- Where / usually have lunch? What?
- What / usually have for lunch
- I take vitamins or food
during the week? supplements right now?
- / ever cook? What / make?
- / prefer eating at home or - / try to cut down on anything
right now?
eating out?
- I the diet in your country / get
better or worse?



1 Men are better cooks than women.
2 Both boys and girls should learn to cook at school.
3 Cheap restaurants usually serve bad food.
4 On a night out with friends, where and what you eat isn’t important.
5 Not all fast food is unhealthy.
6 Every country thinks that their cuisine is the best in the world.

a 1J13))) Listen to two people discussing sentence 1. W ho do you agree with
more, the man or the woman? Why?

b 1 14))) Listen to the phrases in the Useful language box. Copy the intonation.

Useful language: Giving your opinion (1)

I agree. I’m not sure. For example,...
In my opinion...
I don’t agree. (I think) it depends.

c In small groups, say what you think about sentences 2 - 6 . Try to use the 7
U seful language phrases.

Online Practice 1A

G fu tu re forms: present continuous, going to, w ill / won’t Are you seeing
V fam ily adjectives o f personality your grandparents No, I’m going to
P sentence stress, word stress, adjective endings stay home. I'll
this weekend?
Family life probably see them
next weekend.

1 V O C A B U LA R Y & SPEA K IN G Changing -
for the better?
a Look at some photos showing family members.
W hat’s happening in each one? W hat do you think the Family life is changing in th e US, but not in th e way
relationship is between the people? we might think. The results of several different
US surveys expected to find th at family relationships
b With a partner, explain the difference between were suffering because of the decline in traditional
each pair. family structures.

1 a father and a parent However, some of th e resu lts were very surprising...
2 a mother and a stepmother
3 a brother and a brother-in-law of young of adults 30-34
4 a grandfather and a great-grandfather adults under still live at home
5 a nephew and a niece 25 and with their parents.
6 a child and an only child
7 your immediate family and your extended family of families eat together every day.

c Read Changing—f o r the better and try to guess what say they have the TV on during
the missing percentages are. Choose from the list. dinner.

11% 43% 60% 67% 75% think a new baby in
the family brings more
d ly 15))) Listen and check. Do any o f th e statistics happiness.
surprise you? Which ones do you think would be very
d iffe re nt if the survey was taken in your country?

e Work in small groups. Say what you think and give

Do you th in k that...?
• families should have a meal together every day
• children should leave home as soon as they can

afford to
• parents and their teenaged children should spend

a lot of time together
• parents should be friends with their children on

social networking sites, e.g., Twitter
• elderly parents should live with their children

when they are too old to live alone

Useful language:
Giving your opinion (2)
We often use should + verb to say what we think is the
right thing or a good thing (to do), e.g.,
I think families should have dinner together every day
I don’t think parents should be friends with their children
on Twitter because...

2 G R A M M A R future forms

a 1>16))) Listen to three dialogues between different family members. W ho is
talking to who (e.g., brother to sister)? W hat are they talking about?

b Listen again and match two sentences with each dialogue (1-3).

A I I I'll make you a cup o f tea. D [ ] I’m staying overnight there.
B I__I You'll drive too fast. E [__ | I'll drive really slowlv.
c D I'm not going to go to college yet. F Q It's going to be cold tonight.

c With a partner, decide which sentence (A -F ) is...

] a plan or intention [__][__] a prediction ’_] an offer

I I an arrangement Q

d V p.133 Grammar Bank IB . Learn more about future forms, and
practice them.

of adults are happy 3 P R O N U N C IA T IO N sentence stress
and enjoy their lives
without a lot of stress. P Sentence stress
An important aspect of speaking English is stressing the words in a sentence
of adults are not happy th a t carry the information, and not stressing the other ones. This will help you to
and have a lot of stress communicate better and to speak with good rhythm.
or worry in their lives.
a 121))) Listen to the rhythm in these three dialogues.
of teens feel close to
their family. 1 A Are you coming home for dinner tonight?
b No. fm going out with my friends.
of teens want to spend
more time with their 2 A What are you going to do in the summer?
parents. b we re going to rent a house with my sister and her husband.

of parents stay 3 a do you think they'll have children soon?
connected with their b ı don’t think so. Not for a few years anyway.
children on social
networks. b Practice them with a partner. Copy the rhythm.

of parents worry about c Ask and answer the questions below. Give as much inform ation as possible.
what their kids post on
social networks. ARE YOU...?
• having dinner with your family tonight
of elderly women • or is anyone in your family getting married soon
live with a relative • doing something with a family member this week
such as a daughter, • visiting a relative this weekend
daughter-in-law, or
grandchild. ARE YOU GOING TO...?
• have a new nephew or niece soon
• have a big family get-together soon
• go on vacation with your family this year
• buy a present for a member of your family this month

• the number of people getting divorced will go up or down in the future
• the birthrate will go up or down in your country
• anyone in your family will live to be 90 or more
• you will move away from (or back to) the area where your family lives

4 1 22>)) S O N G O ur H o u se

Online Practice ■ IB 9

5 READING Younger brother only child?

a W hich do you think has more advantages, THE YOUNGER BROTHER
being an only child, or having brothers and NOVELIST TIM LOTT
sisters? Why?
Rivalry between brothers is normal, but
b Work in pairs. A read The Younger Brother, there was a special reason for the tension
B read The Only Child. between us. 1was very ill when I was born,
and spent three months in the hospital
c Tell your partner about 1 and 2 below. with my mother. My brother did not see
W hose childhood sounds happier? her at all during that time because he
1 other family members who are mentioned went to stay with an aunt. When our
2 how the writer’s experience as a child mother returned home, it was with a sick
affects him / her now newborn baby who took all the attention.
No wonder he haled me (although if you
d Look at the highlighted words in the two askJeff, he will say that he didn’t - we
texts. Try to figure out their meaning remember things differently).
from the context. Then match them with
definitions 1-12. My brother and I were completely
1 ____________ adj ill different. We shared the same bedroom,
2 ____________ it’s no surprise that but he was neat, and 1 was really messy.
3 ____________ noun competition between He was responsible; I was rebellious. He
two people was sensible; I was emotional. I don’t
4 ____________ noun the time when you were have any positive memories of our childhood together,
a child though there must have been good moments. Je ff says we used to play
5 ____________ norm a meeting o f people, “Cowboys and Indians,” but I only remember him trying to suffocate
e.g., family me under the bedcovers.
6 ____________ norm people who are fully
grown My relationship withJe ff has influenced my attitude toward my own
7 ____________ adj knowing about or being four daughters. If the girls fight, I always think that the younger child
conscious o f something is innocent. But the good news about brothers and sisters is that when
8 ____________ noun a school where children they get older, they value each other more.Je ff is now one of my best
can live during the year friends, and I like and admire him greatly. For better or for worse, we
9 ____________ verb think that somebody or share a whole history. It is the longest relationship in my life.
something is important
10 ____________ verb divided something Adapted from T he Tim es
between two or more people
11 _____________verb try to hurt somebody else THE ONLY CHILD
12 ____________ noun a group o f friends JOURNALIST SARAH LEE

m each other I went to boarding school when 1 was seven, and the hardest thing I
When brothers and sisters get older they found was making friends. Because I was an only child, I just didn’t
value each other more. know how to do it. The thing is that when you’re an only child, you
Use each other to talk about an action spend a lot of your time with adults, and you're often the only child in
between two people or groups of people, e.g., a gathering of adults. Your parents go on living more or less
I don’t get along very well with my father. We the way they have always lived, only now you are there, too.
don't understand each other.
I found being an only child interesting because it gave me
e Talk to a partner. Do you have brothers and a view of the world of adults that children in a big family
sisters, or are you an only child? Do you feel might not get. And I know it has, at least partly, made me
positive or negative about it? the kind of person I am - 1 never like being one of a group,
for example. I f I have to be in a group, I will always try to go
10 IB off and do something on my own, or be with just one other
person —I’m not comfortable with being one of a gang.

My parents are divorced now and my mother lives in the US
and my father in the UK. I feel very responsible for them - I
feel responsible for their happiness. I’m the closest relative in
the world to each of them, and I am very aware of tiiat.

Adapted from T he G uardian

adjectives of personality

a Without looking back at The Younger Brother
text, can you remember who was neat,
responsible, and sensible and who was messy,
rebellious, and em otional? Do you know what
the adjectives mean? Would you use any o f
them to describe yourself?

b > - p.153 Vocabulary Bank Personality

c W rite down the first three adjectives o f
personality that come into your head. Don't
show them to your partner. Now go to
> - Communication Personality p.108.

7 PR O N U N CIATIO N a W hat’s your position in the family?
Are you the oldest child, a middle child, the
word stress, adjective endings youngest child, or an only child?

a 1 26))) Underline the stressed syllable in b 1 27))) Look at the cover o f Linda Blair’s
these mulitsyllable adjectives. Listen and book. Now listen to a journalist talking
check. about it on a radio program. Complete the
chart by writing four more adjectives of
1 jea lous an xious am bi tious personality in each column.
ge ne rous re bell ious
Oldest children Middle children Youngest children Only children I
2 so cia ble re li a ble
sensible relaxed outgoing self-confident
3 re spon si ble sen si ble
c Compare with a partner. Then listen to the four sections one by
4 com pe ti five tal ka five one. Check your answers. W hat reasons or examples does the
a ggre ssive sen si tive journalist give?

5 un friend ly in se cure d Look at the completed chart above. In pairs, say...
im pa tient i mma ture
...if you th in k it is tru e fo r you - and if not, w hy not?
b Listen again and answer the questions. ...if you th in k it is tru e fo r other people you know
1 Is -ou s pronounced /aus/ or /as/?
2 Is -a b le pronounced bb\l or /eibl/? (your brothers and sisters, friends, etc.)
3 Is -ib le pronounced /obi/ or /ibl/?
4 Is -ive pronounced /ov/ or /iv/?
5 Are -ou s / -a b le / -ib le / -ive stressed?
6 Are un- / in- / im - stressed?


> - p.113 Writing A d escription o f a person . W rite a description o f
a friend you know well.

Online Practice IB 11

Practical Engli Meeting the parents


a Look at the photos. Describe Jenny and Rob. a 1 29))) Watch or listen to Jenny introducing Rob to
her parents. W hat bad news does Rob have for Jenny?
W hat good news does Jenny have for her parents?

o American and British English

mom = American English
mum = British English

b Watch or listen again and mark the sentences T (true)
or F (false). Correct the F sentences.

1 Rob left the chocolates at the office.
2 Rob’s desk is usually very neat.
3 It's the second time that Rob has met Jenny's parents.
4 Sally has prepared a big dinner.
5 jenny’s new job is managing director.
6 jenny is going to be Rob's manager.

b 1 28)}) Watch or listen to Jenny and Rob talking. Fill
in the blanks.

Jenny Zielinski and Rob Walker work for a 1
called New York24seven. She’s American, and he's
2__________ . Rob came to New York a few 3__________
ago. He had met Jenny when she went to 4__________ on
a work trip. They got along very well, and he was offered a
job for a month in 5__________ . Later he was offered a
6__________ job. Jenny helped R o b 7___________ an
apartment, and they are enjoying life in the US, although
Rob misses his friends and 8__________ .

O American and British English

apartment = American English
fla t = British English


c 1 30))) Look at some extracts from the 3 ■ < H A RR Y FIN D S O U T MORE A B O U T ROB
conversation. Can you remember any o f the
missing words? Watch or listen and check. a 1 32))) Watch or listen to the after-dinner conversation. Does
the evening end well or badly?
1 Jenny Don’t forget the chocolates.
Rob OK. Oh,________ ! b Watch or listen again and answer the questions.
Jenny I don’t ________ it. Don't tell me you 1 What school did Jenny go to?
forgot them? 2 Is Harry impressed by Rob’s job? Why (not)?
Rob I think they’re still on my desk. 3 What does Harry like doing in his free time?
Jenny ________ kidding. 4 Who are most o f the photos in the dining room of?
5 Who are Miles Davis, John Coltrane, and Wynton Marsalis?
2 Jenny Mom, I’m really sorry - we bought 6 What surprises Harry about Rob?
you some chocolates, but we left
them at the office. c Look at the S o cial En glish ph rases. Can you remember any o f
the missing words?
Sally What a _________. _________mind. Social English phrases
Harry How do you______ your career?
3 Jenny But I also have some good news. Rob N o t______ . I’m more of a writer.
Sally ________ ? What’s that? Rob Oh, you know, interviews, reviews,_______like that...
Rob I_______, I like photography.
4 Sally So you’ve got a promotion?_______ Harry That’s ______ most of them are of Jenny.
fantastic! Harry How_______!
Rob Well, he's a really nice_______.
Harry That’s g re at________ ! Harry Go_______, son!

5 Sally Let’s go and have dinner.
Jenny What a ________ idea!

d 1 31))) Watch or listen and repeat the
phrases in the chart below. Copy the rhythm
and intonation.


What you say when you hear...

something surprising You’re kidding.
1don’t believe it.

something interesting Really?
some good news
How fantastic!
That’s great news!
What a great idea!

some bad news Oh, no!
What a pity.
Never mind.

O How + adjective, What + noun
We often use How + adjective or What + noun to
respond to what people say.
How interesting! How awful! How amazing!
What a pity! What a good idea! What terrible news!

e Practice the dialogues in c with a partner. d 1 33))) Watch or listen and complete the phrases.

f mm V C om m unication How aw ful! How e Watch or listen again and repeat the phrases. How do you say
fa n ta stic! A p.104 B p.109. them in your language?

^ Can you...?

react to good news, bad news, unexpected
news, and interesting news

introduce yourself and other people

use phrases th a t give you time to think,
e.g., you know, I mean, etc.

Online Practice 13

G present perfect and simple past Have you
V money
P the letter o paid th e phone

Spend or save? bill yet? Yes, I paid it

2A yesterday

1 V O C A B U L A R Y money Educated, 1____
H e’s well-dressed
a 1 34))) Listen to a song about money. Fill in N o t funny
the blanks with phrases A -G . A nd n o t much to say in
M ost conversations
A a material world B ut he’ll 2____ in
B comes with a fee A ll situations
C foot the bill ’Cause he pays fo r everything
D for free
E paper or plastic G irls do n ’t like boys, girls like cars and money
F shopping sprees Boys w ill laugh at girls when th e y’re n o t funny
G with money
D o n ’t m a tte r
b Listen again and read the lyrics. She’ll have it
Which phrase (A -G ) means...? Vacations
A nd 4____
1 rich These are a few
2 cash or credit cards O f her favorite things
3 you have to pay for it She’ll get w h a t she wants
4 pay the bill If she’s w illing to please
5 that you don’t have to pay for His type o f girl
6 buying a lot o f things at one time Always 5____
7 a consumer society Hey, now, th e re ’s nothing

c W hat do you think the song is saying? G irls don’t like boys, girls like cars and money
Do you think it is...? Boys w ill laugh at girls when th e y’re n o t funny
And these girls like these boys like these boys like these girls
• very cynical The girls w ith the bodies like boys w ith Ferraris
• sad, but sometimes true G irls don’t like boys, girls like cars and money
• offensive to women (and men)
A ll o f these boys, yeah get all o f these girls
d > • p.154 Vocabulary Bank Money. Losing th e ir souls in 7____


2 P R O N U N C IA T IO N the letter o ARE YOU A SPENDER
a Can you remember which word rhymes with m oney in
the song Girls & Boys? 1 You go shopping and you see som ething very
expensive th a t you really w a n t, b u t can ’t afford.
b Look at some more words with the letter o. Put them in Y o u ...
the correct column. a buy it w ith yo ur c re d it card. You can w o rry about the
clothes dollar done honest loan money go bill next month.
nothing owe shopping some sold won b already have some m oney in th e bank and plan to
save fo r a couple o f weeks and then buy the thing
c 1 38))) Listen and check. you want.
d Look at some words with the letters or. How is or c b o rro w the money and agree to pay back a small
amount every week.
usually pronounced when it’s stressed? W hich two are
different? 2 You get $100 for your birthday. You...
afford order worth organized mortgage store work a spend some o f it and save some,
b go straight to a shopping mall and spend it all.
e 1 39))) Listen and check. c p u t all o f it in y o u r bank account u n til you k n o w w h a t
f Practice saying these sentences. you want to spend it on.

Let's go shopping for clothes. 3 D o you always know how much m oney you have,
Can I borrow some money? how m uch m oney you have spent, and on what?
He won a million dollars. a Yes. I'm ve ry organized and k n o w exactly w h a t I have
They can’t afford to pay the mortgage. and w hat I've spent.
I work in a store. b N o. I have no idea. W h e n I have money, I usually just
I've done nothing wrong. spend it.
c I usually have a rough idea about w h a t I spend my
3 R EA D IN G & SPEA K IN G money on.

a Read the questionnaire and choose your answers, 4 You borrowed some money from a friend, but
b Compare your answers with a partner. Say why. you d o n ’t th in k th a t you’ll be able to pay it back
by the tim e you prom ised to. You...
c > - Communication Spender or saver? p.108. Find out if a don't w o rry about it. Hopefully your friend w ill forget
you are a spender or a saver. about it, too!
b figure o u t how much money you have and h o w much
4 LISTENING you owe. You speak to y o u r friend and explain the
situation and o ffe r to pay th e m oney back in small
a 1 40))) Listen to six people answering the question Are in sta llm e n ts.
you a spender or a saver? How many are savers? c talk to yo ur friend and prom ise that you'll pay him /
her back, but it might take a little longer than you
b Listen again and match speakers 1 -6 with A -F. W h o .. .? firs t thought.
A Q always has money in the bank
B [_I often ends up with no money 5 You have a friend who often borrows money
C □ thinks h e/she is careful with money, but not cheap fro m you and never pays you back. H e / She
D [_] enjoys spending money on his / her hobby wants to borrow $50. You...
E can save money if he / she needs to a lend him / h e r the money. You can afford it, and it
F L J prefers to live now than worry about the future doesn't m a tter if you don't get it back,
b say no; he / she owes you to o much already,
c lend th e money, b u t explain th a t it is th e last tim e,
u n til he / she has paid back this loan.

Online Practice 2A 15

5 G R A M M A R present perfect and simple past e In pairs, interview each other with the
questions. Ask for more information.
a Read the conversation. W hat are they arguing about?
b 1 4 1 ))) Read the conversation again, and put the verbs in the
present perfect or the simple past. Then listen and check. • bought or sold something on
eBay or a similar site

• lost a credit card or What?
your wallet

• saved for something for a
long time

• wasted money on something
you've never used

• won any money
(e.g., in a lottery)

• lent money to someone

who didn't pay When?
you back

• bought something online and then

discovered th a t it was a scam

• been charged too much in a restaurant

David 11haven’t seen (see) those shoes before. Are they new? How / What
Kate Yes. 12__________________ (just buy) them. Do you like them? much? happened?
D They're OK. How much3____________th e y ____________ (cost)?
K Oh, not much. They4______________ (be) a bargain. Under $100. Have you ever bought or Yes, I sold my
D You mean $99.99. That isn’t cheap for a pair o f shoes. sold something on eBay? old computer.

Anyway, we can’t afford to buy new clothes right now. Who did you sell it to? How
K Why not? much did you sell it for?
D 5____________________ you____________________ (see) this?
K No. What is it?
D The phone bill. I t 6_____________________ (come) this morning.

And w e 7____________________ (not pay) the electricity bill yet.
K Well, what about the iPad you8______________ (buy) last week?
D What about it?
K You9_____________________ (not need) a new one. The old one

10__________________________________ (work) just fine.
D But 111______________________________ (need) the new model.
K Well, 112___________________________ (need) some new shoes.

c Do we use the present perfect (PP) or simple past (S P )...?
1 for a completed action in the past ______
2 for recent actions when we don't ask / say exactly when ___

d > - p.134 Grammar Bank 2A. Learn more about the present
perfect and simple past, and practice them.

16 2A

a In pairs, answer the questions. Give as much
information as you can. John DeJoria, an American billionaire businessman, owns several
companies, including John Paul Mitchell Systems, a successful
1 Think o f two people you know personally or brand of hair products. However, DeJoria was not always wealthy.
have heard o f who are very rich. Did they...? He was the second son of immigrant parents and grew up in a
a earn their money (how?) very poor area of Los Angeles, California. Before forming his hair
b inherit their money (who from?) product company with only $700, he was a street gang member
c win it (how?) for some of his youth, he then worked at low-paying jobs including
encyclopedia salesman, janitor, and insurance salesman, and he
2 I f they earned their money, was it because...? was homeless twice. DeJoria's selfmade rise is an inspiring story.
a they were very lucky
b they worked very hard As a child, you were fairly entrepreneurial, weren’t you?
c they had a special talent My first job, at 9 years old, was selling Christmas cards door-to-
door. At 10 years old, my brother and I had paper routes. We got
b Now read an interview with a billionaire. How did up at 4 o’clock a.m., folded the papers, and delivered them, and
he become so rich? Why is his success surprising? then got ready for school.
W hat does he do to help homeless people?
As you got older, you continued to work. Is that right?
c Now read the interview again and number the The job that was one of the most influential experiences you can
events in the order in which they happened. imagine was door-to-door selling encyclopedias. Doors literally
slam in your face— maybe 30, 40 doors before the first customer
A L?| He was homeless again. will actually talk to you and let you in.
B [_I He delivered newspapers.
C Ld At1investor didn’t give him the money he You’ve been homeless, haven’t you?
Twice. Once, when I was about 22 years old. The other time was
had promised him. when I started John Paul Mitchell Systems in 1980. I wasn't
D [_] He sold encyclopedias from door-to-door. getting along with my wife at the time. So I had left and had
E Q He left his wife. given her all the money. We had a backer for John Paul Mitchell
F [_] He was homeless. Systems putting in a half-million dollars. That money was
G \T\ He sold Christmas cards from door-to-door. supposed to arrive that day. I never got a penny. So I just slept
H Q He started a hair product company with $700. in my car. And I slept in my car for the first two weeks when I
1 Ld He was able to pay his bills on time. started the company. So we started with humble beginnings.

d What do you think you can learn from John’s story? Do memories of the streets motivate you?
It sure makes you very appreciative of what you have in your
e Look at the highlighted words and phrases life. Those who are homeless— like people with kids who are
related to money and business. With a partner, homeless— I really have a heart for. So I participate in a lot of
try to figure out the meanings from context. charitable organizations that take the homeless off the streets.

f Complete the questions with one o f the What are the biggest problems you’ve faced in business?
highlighted words and phrases. Then ask and The biggest problem is rejection. Any business you start, be
answer the questions with a partner. ready for it. The difference between successful people and
unsuccessful people is that the successful people do all the
1 What brand o f hair product do you use? How things the unsuccessful people don’t want to do. When 10 doors
long have you used it?
are slammed in your face, go to door number 1 1 , with a smile.
2 Do you know anybody who sells encyclopedias or
other products_______ ? What does he / she sell? When did you know you had made it?
Does he / she enjoy his/ her job? I was in business two years, and we were able to pay every

3 If you needed a _______ to lend you money to single bill on time. We had a couple of thousand dollars
start a business, who would you ask? Why? in the bank— $4,000, to be exact. And we said, “ Man
we made it; it’s all downhill now.” It was really hard.
4 Have you ever experienced______ from a boss, It took a couple years.
a teacher, etc.? How did you feel?
What was the first thing you bought yourself at
5 Do you know anybody who has tried to that point?
succeed in a difficult career (like acting), but I went to a restaurant. This is the first
who hasn’t ______yet? Is he / she still trying, time I said I’m going to order off the left
or has he / she given up? side of the menu, not the right side. The
right side is where the prices are. Carne
asada, guacamole, whatever I wanted. 17
I didn't even look at the prices. That,
to me, was a pretty big deal.

Online Practice 2A

G present perfect + f o r / since, present perfect continuous How long Fora
V strong adjectives: exhausted, amazed, etc. have you been lon g tim e !
P sentence stress, stress on strong adjectives working here? Since 2001.

2B Changing lives

1 LISTEN IN G d 1 46))) Now listen to P a r t 2 . Correct the wrong information
in these sentences.
a Look at the photos. W here do you think
they were taken? W hat can you see in 1 Jane’s son chose the name Adelante Africa, which means
each photo? “G o forward, Africa” in Spanish.

b 1 4 5 ))) You are going to listen to an 2 The new school opened in 2012.
interview with Jane, talking about a trip she 3 Today the school has 75 children.
took in 2 008. Listen to P a r t 1. Where did she 4 Adelante Africa has also been trying to improve the
go? W hat did she decide to do after the trip?
children's English.
c Listen again. W hat does Jane say about: 5 They are building a home for the teachers.
6 Two o f Jane's children have been helping in Uganda.
1 her normal job 7 (ane says the school has changed children’s lives because it has
2 the vacation to Uganda
3 what happened when the lorry broke down given them an education.
4 the condition o f the school 8 Jane thinks that she gives more than she gets.
5 the children 9 The website has a video jane's daughter took o f her teaching
6 what the headmaster asked her for
the children.
G lo ss a ry
holiday BritE for vacation e Compare your answers with a partner. Then listen again to check.
lorry BritE for truck
f Do you know anybody like jane who does a lot o f work for a
18 headm aster BritE for principal charity? W hat do they do?

2 G R A M M A R present perfect + for/since, 4 SPEA K IN G
present perfect continuous
a Look at the circles, and
a Match the questions and answers. write something in as
1 How long has Jane been a writer?____ many as you can.
2 How long has A delaide Africa had a website?____
3 How long has she been working for Adelaide Africa?

A Since 2008.
B For about 22 years.
C For four years.

b Answer with a partner.
1 Are the three questions and answers in a about... ?
a a period o f time in the past
b a period o f time from the past until now'
c a period o f time in the present
2 W hat’s the difference in form between the first two
questions and question 3?

c > - p.135 Grammar Bank 2B. Learn more about the
present perfect withfo r / since and the present perfect
continuous, and practice them.

3 P R O N U N C IA T IO N sentence stress

a 1 49 >)) Listen once and try to write down the stressed
words in the large pink rectangles.

How long learning
French ?


3? b Compare circles with a partner.
4 Ask your partner at least three
5? questions about the things he or
she has written. One question must
6 be How long havey o u ...?

b Look at the stressed words and try to remember what How long have you For about a year.
the unstressed words are. Then listen again to check been using Twitter?
and write them in.
Do you write things on it or do you
c Listen again and repeat the sentences. Copy the ju s t read other people's tweets?
Why did you buy Because it's small,
d 1 50))) Listen and make questions. a Nissan Juke? and it ’s very “green/'

It's snowing. How long has it been snowing? How long have you had it?

Online Practice 2B 19

5 R EA D IN G & LISTE N IN G T V host’s Amazon

a In your country are there charity events to raise money Helen Skelton hopes to becom e the first
for a good cause? Have you ever taken part in one? w om an to kayak down the A m azon River.
W hat did you do? How much money did you raise? Helen Skelton is a 26-year-old TV host of Blue Peter, a
show for young people. She has never been afraid of a
b You’re going to read an article about Helen Skelton, challenge. Last year, she became the second woman to Adapted from The Telegraph website
who agreed to kayak down the Amazon for charity. complete the 78-mile Ultra Marathon in Namibia, running
Read the introduction and answer the questions. the three consecutive marathons in 23 hours and 50
minutes. But when Blue Peter decided to do something to
1 What did Helen do last year for charity? raise money for the charity Sports Relief (which sponsors
2 What is she hoping to do this year? projects around the world), Skelton said that she wanted
3 What is dangerous about the trip? an even bigger challenge. So they suggested that she
4 What experience does she have? kayak 1,998 miles down the Amazon from Nauta in Peru to
Almeirim in Brazil.
c Before you read the texts o f Helen’s first three phone
calls, imagine what kinds o f problems you think she This is a very risky trip. There are no roads and no towns,
had on her trip. Then read and check. Were you right? only rainforest and the river (which is sometimes more than
24 miles wide and infested with crocodiles). If she gets
d 151))) Read Phone calls 1 - 3 again and fill in the
blanks with the correct word. Then listen and check. sick, it will take around 11 hours to fly her to a hospital.

1 a in front b behind c back COL OMBI A
2 a freezing b hot c boiling
3 a exhausted b angry c lost ECUADOR
4 a down b up c over
5 a long b wide c short Nauta
6 a ice cream b coffee c chocolate
7 a sleep b paddle c rest PERU
8 a boring b interesting c worrying
9 a being b feel c feeling Phone call 1
10 a sick b well c hard
£ £ Everything went wrong. I only managed half
e 1 52))) Now listen to the rest o f Helen's trip down the a day on Wednesday, the first day, and on
Amazon. Did she manage to finish?
Thursday we started late, so I'm already 1____ ;.
f Listen again. Then answer the questions.
I've been suffering from the heat. It's absolutely
Phone call 4
1 Why hasn't she had any music for three days? 2____ , and the humidity is 100% at lunchtime.
2 What does she do to pass the time?
3 Why didn't she celebrate reaching the halfway point? I went the wrong way, and I had to paddle against

Phone call 5 the current. I was 3____ ! They asked me, ‘Do you
4 What have been driving her crazy this week? want to give 4____ ?' but I said, ‘No!' Because I've
5 What wildlife has she seen?
6 Why is she starting to feel a little sad? also been having a wonderful time! There are pink
dolphins - pink, not gray - that come close to the
The 6 :0 0 news boat. I think that if I can do 62 miles a day, trten
7 How many miles did she do altogether? I can make it.
8 How long did the trip take?
9 What did Helen miss?
10 What is the first thing she is going to do when she

gets home?

g Tell your partner about an adventure sport you've done
or an exciting experience you’ve had. Was it a positive
experience? W hy (not)? How did you feel?

20 2B

challenge 6 VO C A B U LA R Y & PR O N U N CIATIO N

Helen has only been kayaking once before in strong adjectives
her life, so she has been training four hours a
day. Last week, she arrived at the Amazon in p Strong adjectives
Peru. After two days of kayaking, she made the
first of her phone calls. Some adjectives have a strong meaning, e.g.,
I had to paddle against the current. I was exhausted! (= very tired)
GUYANA Ive had a fantastic time! (= very good)
With strong adjectives you can use absolutely or really, but NOT very.
Almeirim I’ve been suffering from the heat. It's absolutely boiling. NOT very-boiling.

BRAZIL a Complete the sentences with a regular adjective.

P h o n e c a ll 2 1 A Was Lisa's father angry about the car?
B Yes, he was furious!
66 I’ve been on the Amazon tor a week now,
2 A Is Oliver’s apartment______ ?
and I've been paddling for six out of the B Yes, it's really tiny - just a bedroom and a living room.

seven days. The river is incredibly5____ , 3 A Are you______ o f flying?
B Yes, I'm terrified! I never fly anywhere.
and it's very hard to paddle in a straight line.
The water is so brown that I can't see my 4 A Was the food______ ?
paddle once it goes under the surface. It B Yes, it was delicious.

looks like melted 6____ . I start at 5:30 in the 5 A Are you very______ ?
morning, and 1 7____ for at least 10 hours, B I’m starving! I haven’t eaten all day.

from 5:30 a.m. until dark, with only a short 6 A Is your parents' house______ ?
break for lunch. My hands have been giving B It’s enorm ous. It has seven bedrooms.
me problems - I have big blisters. I now
have them bandaged in white tape. 7 A Was i t ______ in Moscow?
I'm usually on the water for at least 10 hours; B It was freezing! Minus 20 degrees.

it's8___ at times, and exciting at others. I listen 8 A Was Jack's kitchen______ ?
B It was filthy. It took us three hours to clean it.
to music on my iPod. I've been listening to Don’t
Stop Me Now by Queen to inspire me! 9 A Are your parents______ about the wedding?
B They’re excited. In fact, they want to pay for everything!
P h o n e c a ll 3
10 A Was the movie______ ?
I haven't been 9____ very well this week. B It was hilarious. We laughed all the way through.

The problem is heat exhaustion. They 11 A Are you______ you locked the door?
say it’s because I haven't been drinking B I'm positive. I remember turning the key.
enough water. I've been traveling 62 miles a
day, which is my target. But yesterday after 12 A Were you______ to hear that Ted is getting married?
B I was absolutely am azed! I never thought it would happen.
52 miles, I was feeling 10____ , and my head
b 1 53))) Listen and check. How are the strong adjectives
was aching, and I had to stop and rest. pronounced? Practice the dialogues in pairs.

c > - Communication Are you hungry? A p.104 B p.109.

d Ask and answer with a partner. Ask for more information.

1 Have you ever been swimming in a place where the water was
absolutely freezing?

2 Is there anything that makes you furious about car drivers or bike
riders in your country?

3 Are there any animals or insects that you're terrified of?
4 W hat’s the most delicious meal you’ve had recently?
5 Is there a comedian or a comedy series on TV in your country that

you think is absolutely hilarious?

7 W R ITIN G 21

> - p.114 Writing An inform al em ail. W rite an informal email to
thank somebody you have been staying with and to tell him or her
what you have been doing recently.

Online Practice 2B

1&2 Review and Check


(Chxle)a, b, or c. a (.Circle)the word that is different.

1 My sister______ fish or seafood. 1 shrimp mussels duck squid
a doesn't like b don't like c doesn't likes 2 lamb crab beef pork
3 cherry pear peach beet
2 I have a quick breakfast because______ in a hurry. 4 raspberry cucumber pepper cabbagi
a I usually b I usually am c I’m usually 5 fried baked chicken roast

3 I ______ TV when I’m having a meal. b Write the opposite adjective.
a never watch b don’t never watch
c am never watching 1 honest ______ 4 hardworking ______
2 cheap ______
4 I usually drink a lot o f diet soda, hut right now 3 selfish ______ 5 quiet ______
to cut down.
c Write verbs for the definitions.
a I try b I'm trying c I’m triing
5 ______ any brothers or sisters? 1 to spend money on something that is not necessary______

a Are you having b Are you have c Do you have 2 to receive money from somebody who has died ______
6 W hat______ when you graduate from school?
3 to get money by working
a you are going to do b are you going do
c are you going to do 4 to get money from somebody that you will pay back______
7 I can’t see you this evening because______ some
friends. 5 to keep money so that you can use it later ______
a I'm meeting b I meet c I’ll meet
8 A Would you like something to drink? d Write the strong adjectives.
B Y es,______ some orange juice, please.
a I have b I'm having c I’ll have 1 tired ______ 3 cold ______ 5 an gry______
9 A I can’t open this jar. 2 hungry ______ 4 d irty ______
B ______ help you.
a I'll b I’m c I'd e Complete the phrasal verbs.
10 That's a pretty dress. W here______ it?
a have you bought b did you buy 1 Let’s eat______ tonight. I don't feel like cooking.
c did you bought 2 I’m allergic to milk, so I have to cu t______ dairy
11 ______ good at saving money.
a I've never been b I haven't never been products from my diet.
c I’ve never 3 We live______ my salary. My wife is unemployed.
12 I got $50 for my birthday, but I ______ . 4 I'll lend you the money if you promise to pay m e_____ .
a didn’t spend it vet b haven’t spent it yet 5 I took $ 2 0 0 ______ o f my bank account.
c yet I haven't spent it
13 I've had this computer______ . PR O N U N CIATIO N
a for about three years b since about three years
c for about three years ago (Circle)the word with a different sound.
14 A How long______ in Paris?
B Since last March. 1 ( j ) peach steak beef steamed
a is he living b has he living c has he been living
15 ______ the same gym for five years. 21 money shop positive honest
a I'm going to b I've been going to c I go to 3® roast
sociable owe account
4i filthy bill tiny chicken

5 afford pork worth organized

b Underline the stressed syllable.

1 sal mon 3 i mma ture 5 sen si ble
2 in vest 4 de li cious


a Read the article once. W hen did Bill Morgan's VIDEO
luck change?
When bad luck becomes
good luck! 1 54))) O n th e s tre e t Watch or listen to five people and
answer the questions.
You’ve had a lo t o f bad luck in the past— a bad accident
and some frightening health problems. Does th a t keep Max Andrew Samantha Zenobia Skylar
you from doing things in the future that involve luck, like
buying a lottery ticket? 1 Max says he______ .

Anyone who has bought a ticket for the $500-million a often made brownies for his sister in the past
US Powerball jackpot can only dream of having as b doesn’t mind sharing his brownies with friends who
much luck as Australian truck driver Bill Morgan. In
case you've never heard of Bill Morgan, his story actually are also feeling down
begins with some very bad luck. First, he was almost crushed c hasn't eaten brownies in a long time
to death by a truck accident at work. The accident did not
kill him, but it did leave Bill with a heart condition. When 2 Andrew likes Asian restaurants because______ .
he was given medication for the heart condition, Bill had an
allergic reaction that caused a powerful heart attack, which a he doesn't like cooking
b it's cheaper than eating at home
left him clinically dead for 14 minutes. After being revived by c he can't cook that type o f food at home
doctors, Morgan slipped into a coma for 12 days. During this
3 Samantha and her brother______ .
time, his family was advised to unplug his life support system
not once, but twice. Bill's luck began to change when he a talk to each other a lot b don't like each other at all
unexpectedly woke up from the coma without any permanent
damage. Bill's bad luck was ending and his heartwarming c don't like each other as much after spending a lot of
story was just beginning. time together

After getting better, the 37-year-old Morgan found a new, 4 Zenobia buys a bag______ .

higher-paying job, and asked his long-time girlfriend, Lisa a if it’s cheaper than usual b every three months
Wells, to marry him. Lisa said yes. A week later, Morgan c if she needs a new one
bought a scratch-off lottery ticket at his local newsstand.
Adapted from c e le b rity n e tw o rth .c o m Bill scratched the ticket off and realized he had just won 5 Skylar took part in a charity event______ .
a brand new car! A local TV news station was so amazed a when she was 15 b for people who are sick with cancer
by Bill's story that they sent a crew to do a human interest c that raised money for captains
story on Bill and his lucky streak. The news crew thought it
would be fun to re-create Bill's buying and scratching off the C A N Y O U SA Y T H IS IN ENG LISH?
ticket right on camera. No one could have predicted what
happened next. The ticket Bill bought for the re-enactment Do the tasks with a partner. Check ( / ) the box if you can
do them.
ended up being a $250,000 winner! And the best part is, it all
Can you...?
happened on live TV (almost causing another heart attack).
1 describe your diet and the typical diet in your
b Read the article again. Mark the sentences T (true), country, and say how it is changing
F (false), or D S (doesn't say).
2 □ agree or disagree with the following statement, and
1 Bill had a dream about winning the lottery. say why: Ourfavoritefo o d is usually something we
2 Bill's heart condition was caused by the accident. liked when we were children.
3 Bill was in a coma for 14 days.
4 Bill's new job was in an office. 3 □ describe members of your family, saying what they
5 The news crew bought Bill’s lottery ticket for the look like and what they are like

re-enactment. 4 __] describe some of your plans and predictions for the
6 Winning $ 2 5 0 ,0 0 0 did not cause Bill to have another future (e.g., your education, your family life)

heart attack. 5 □ ask and answer the following questions:
• Have you ever won any money? How much did you
c Choose five new words or phrases from the article. win? What did you do with it?
Check their meaning and pronunciation, and try to • How long have you been learning English?
learn them. Where did you first start learning?

Short movies Goodwill Industries 23
VIDEO Watch and enjoy the movie.



G comparatives and superlatives What’s the Probably the
V transportation best way to get subway although
around New York
P /J/, /d3/, and /tJ7, linking taxis are more
City? c o m fo rta b le .
Race across Miami

a You are going to read about a race that the car show Top
a In pairs, can you think o f four different forms o f G ear organized across the US state o f Florida. Read the
public transportation in towns and cities in your introduction and answer the questions.
country? 1 Where do they have to go from? Where to?
2 W hat are the three methods o f transportation?
b > - p.155 Vocabulary Bank Transportation. 3 Which one do you think will be the fastest? Why?
4 In what order do you think the other two will arrive? Why?
2 P R O N U N C IA T IO N /J/, /d 3/, and /tJ7
What’s the fastest way
a 2 4))) Look at the pictures. W hat are the words
and sounds? Listen and repeat.

b Write three words from the list in each column. On Top Gear, a very popular TV series about cars and driving,

adventure bridge catch crash dangerous they decided to organize a race across Florida to find the
each rush station tra ffic jam quickest way to cross a busy state. The idea was to start from
Miami, in the southw estern part of the tip of Florida, and to
c 2 5))) Listen and check. Practice saying the words. finish the race at the southern-m ost point of the US, Key West,
a trip of 160 miles. Three possible form s of transportation
d Look at the words in the columns. W hat are the were chosen: a motorboat, a car, and a combination of
typical spellings for these sounds? Go to the transportation. One of the show ’s hosts, Rutledge Wood, took
Sound Bank p.167 and check. the motorboat and his colleague Adam Ferrera took the car
(a 2010 Lotus Evora). Tanner Foust took different kinds of
e 2 6))) Listen to the pairs o f words. Can you hear transportation. His trip involved getting a taxi to the airport
the difference? Practice saying them. w here he fle w in a seaplane. Then he rented a scooter.

/tJ7 and /d3/ They set o ff from Jones Boat Yard on the Miami River...
1 a cheap b jeep
2 a chain b jane
3 a choke b joke

/J7and /tfl b chip
4 a ship b choose
5 a shoes b watch
6 a wash

2»7))) Listen andt^ircj^the word you hear.

g 2 8))) Listen and write five sentences.


Rutledge in the m otorboat b Now read about the trips by motorboat and car. Do
you still think your predictions in 3a are right?
His trip began in the Miami River. For the first hour there
was a speed limit of 7 miles an hour because of the c Read the two trips again and answer the questions
enforced no-wake zone in the river. Once the boat passed with R (Rutledge) or A (Adam).
through Biscayne Bay and went under the Rickenbacker W h o...?
Bridge, he entered open water. Rutledge increased the 1 □ went much faster in the later part o f his trip
boat’s speed to over 90 miles an hour and made up the time 2 Q ] did something illegal
he lost on the Miami River. Approximately 60 miles from 3 [_j went more slowly in the later part o f his trip
the finish line, Rutledge was ahead of Adam and Tanner, 4 Q had to stop for more gas
but he had to stop for gas if he wanted to reach the finish 5 I_] couldn’t understand the directions spoken by
line in Key West. In the 15 minutes it took to refuel the boat, the GPS
Adam passed Rutledge in the car and took the lead. Once 6 ŋ was in the lead for most o f the race
Rutledge was back on the open water, there were a lot of
big waves, but he was able to pass Adam near Seven Mile d Look at the highlighted verbs and verb phrases.
Bridge just outside of Key West. Unfortunately for both With a partner, figure out their meaning from
Rutledge and Adam, Tanner flew over both of them in the context.
seaplane at about the same time. Now Tanner was in the
best position to win. Each racer was only miles from the Tanner in the seaplane
finish line in Key West. Who would win?
e 2 9))) Now listen to what happened to Tanner.
Adam in the car Follow his route on the map.

Adam started off OK. He wasn’t driving fast because f 2 10))) With a partner, write down the order in which
he was going the speed limit. However, after an hour, you now think the three people arrived. Now listen to
Adam decided that he was going too slowly. He increased what happened. W hat order did they arrive in?
his speed to 75 miles an hour— 20 miles an hour over
the speed limit. As Adam passed through a small town, g > • Communication I’m a tourist - can you help me?
he was stopped by the police! They were angry that A p.104 B p.109.
Adam was speeding, and it meant that Adam lost many
valuable minutes! Another problem Adam had was that Glossary
his GPS was programmed to give directions in Spanish 1 mile the unit o f distance used in the US and the UK (=1.6
instead of English. This made finding his way to Key West kilometers); 160 miles = 257 kilometers
difficult. As Adam finally approached Key West, the traffic seaplane an airplane that can take off from the water or the land
was getting worse. He was worried about getting stuck so no-wake zone an area o f water where boats must travel slowly to
close to the finish line. Only three miles to go... avoid making waves

Online Practice ■ 3A 25

4 G R A M M A R comparatives and superlatives 6 LISTE N IN G

a Read the sentences. Are the highlighted phrases right or wrong? a Read the text and then talk to a partner.
W rite a check ( / ) or an X next to them and correct the wrong 1 Which o f these things do you (or people you
sentences. know) do when you are driving?

1 □ What's the quicker way to get around Miami? 2 Which do you think are the most
2 I ] Driving is more boring than going by train. dangerous? Number them 1-3 (1 = the most
3 Q The boat was almost as fast than the hike. dangerous).
4 L J West Hollywood is the same distance from Los Angeles as
3 Which one do you think is the least
South Gate. dangerous?
5 □ There aren’t as much trains as there were before on this line.
6 Q It was the more exciting trip I’ve ever taken. b 2 15))) Now listen to a safety expert.
7 Ld The worst time o f day to travel in New York City is between Number the activities 1-7. Were your top
three right?
7:30 a.m. and 9:30 a.m.
8 [ ] Women drive more careful than men. c Listen again for more information about
each activity and why it is dangerous.
b > - p.136 Grammar Bank 3A. Learn more about comparatives and
superlatives, and practice them.

5 P R O N U N C IA T IO N linking

We often link words together in English, especially when we speak
fast. We link words:

1 when a word ends in a consonant sound and the next word begins

with a vowel sound, e.g., more^exciting
2 when a word ends in a consonant sound and the next word begins

with the same consonant sound, e.g., the fastest^train
3 when a word ends in /t/ or /d/ and the next word begins with HI or

/d/, e.g., the biggest^dog

a 2 14))) Listen and repeat the sentences. Try to link the marked
words and copy the rhythm.

ı Ridings motorcyclej s morejexciting than driving.

2 Thefastestjtrairuonly ta k e ^ itjio u c a n o half.
3 it's more d iffic u lty drivq^t night than during the day.
4 My fa th e r’s worsq^tjdriving than my mother
5 The mostjdangerous roadjn my tow rljs the freeway.

b Talk to a partner. For each group o f three things compare them
using the bold adjective, i.e., for 1 decide which is the most
dangerous, and then compare the other two. Say why.

1 dangerous: riding a bike; riding a motorcycle; driving
2 easy: learning to drive; learning to ride a bike; learning to ride

a horse
3 relaxing: flying; traveling by train; driving
4 difficult: sleeping on a train; sleeping in a plane; sleeping

on a bus
5 boring: being stuck in a traffic jam; waiting at an airport;

waiting for a bus

I think riding a bike is the most dangerous because
sometimes drivers don’t notice bike riders. Riding
a motorcycle is more dangerous than driving.

26 3A

Which of these things 7 SPEA K IN G
is the most (and least)
a Look at the statements below and decide
dangerous whether you agree or disagree. Check ( / )
the ones you agree with and put an X next
when you're driving a car? to the ones you disagree with. Think about
your reasons.
A car magazine tested drivers in a driving
simulator. The drivers had to drive in the Slow drivers cause more accidents than
simulator and do the things in the list below. fast drivers.

A Eating or drinking □ People who drink and drive should lose
A Talking on a cell p h o n e (not hands free) □ their driver’s license for life.
A Setting or adjusting a GPS □
A Listenin g to your favo rite m usic □ Speed cameras do not stop accidents.
A Listening to m usic you don't know □
A Sending of receiving te x t m essages □ Drivers who are over 70 are as dangerous as
A D oing y o u f hair or p u ttin g on m akeup □ young drivers.

Bike riders should have to wear helmets.

The minimum age for riding a motorcycle
should be 25.

The speed limit on freeways should be lower.

b In groups, give your opinions about each
statement. Try to use expressions from the
box. Do you agree?

P Agreeing and disagreeing
I agree/don’t agree with this.
with Juan.
I th in k/d o n't think you’re right.
I com pletely/totally agree.


> - p.115 Writing An article for a
m agazine. Write a magazine article about
transportation in your town or city.

9 2 1B«) S O N G 500 M/'iesj:

Online Practice 3A 27

G articles: a / an, the, no article Do you think
V collocation: verbs / adjectives + prepositions women talk more

P bl, sentence stress, Ids/ or Idil? than men? Yes, in general

3B I think they

Stereotypes - or are they? probably do.

1 R EA D IN G & SPEA K IN G Men talk just as
much as women -
a In pairs, answer the questions.
can it really be true?
1 Are you a talkative or a quiet person?
2 Who is...? Research by psychologists at the University of
Arizona has shown that the stereotype that
a the most talkative person in your family women talk more than men may not be true. In
b the most talkative person you know' the study, hundreds of college students were fitted
3 Do you think that, generally speaking, women are with recorders, and the total number of words they
more talkative than men? used during the day was then counted.
4 What topics do...? The results, published in the New Scientist, showed that
a men talk about more than women women speak about 16,000 words a day and men speak
b women talk about more than men only slightly fewer. In fact, the four most talkative people
in the study were all men.
b Look at the definition o f stereotype. Then A read the article Professor Matthias Mehl, who was in charge of the
Men talkjust as much as women and B read the article research, said that he and his colleagues had expected to
Gossip with the girls? Find answers to questions 1-4. find that women were more talkative.

stereotype noun a fixed idea about a particular type GOSSIP WITH THE
o f person or thing, which is often not true in reality. > - stereotype
verb In advertisem en ts, w om en a r e o ften s tereo ty p ed as housew ives.
Women are experts at gossiping - and they often
1 What was the stereotype that the researchers wanted talk about trivial things, or at least that's what
to investigate? men have always thought. However according to
research done by Professor Petra Boynton, a psychologist
2 Where was the research done? at University College London,
3 How was the research done? when women talk to women their
4 What did the research show? conversations are not trivial at all, and
cover many more topics (up to 40) than
c In pairs, tell each other about your article, using when men talk to other men.
questions 1 -4 to help you.
Women's conversations range from
d Now read both articles again and look at the highlighted health to their houses, from politics to
words and phrases, which are commonly used in articles fashion, from movies to family, from
about research. Match them with definitions 1-10. education to relationship problems.
Almost everything, in fact, except
1 In fact adverb really soccer. Men tend to talk about fewer
2 ________ verb make less subjects, the most popular being work,
3 ________ usually do it sports, jokes, cars, and women.
4 ________ adverb a little bit
5 ________ linking word used to connect or contrast

two facts
6 ________ verb say that something is true
7 ________ as said or shown by somebody
8 ________ verb include several different things in

addition to the ones mentioned
9 ________ adverb nearly
10 not completely believed, doubted

e W hich o f the two pieces o f research do you think is ...?

1 more credible 3 more surprising
2 more important


Adapted from the New S cientist However, they had been skeptical of the 2 G R A M M A R articles: a / an, the, no article
common belief that women use three times as
Adapted from th e Daily Mail website many words as men. This idea became popular a Complete 1 -4 with a / an, the, or - (no article).
after the publication of a book called The 1 “Have you heard this joke?____ hamburger and____ French fry
Fem ale Brain (2006) whose author, Louann walk into a coffee shop.____ waitress says, “I'm sorry. We don't
Brizendine, claimed that “a woman uses about serve____ food here.”
20,000 words per day, whereas a man uses 2 “I just read____ article o n ____ Internet about how eating____
about 7,000.” strawberries makes you look younger..
Professor Mehl accepts that many people will 3 “I’m sure there’s something wrong between us because we never
find the results difficult to believe. However, he go out to ____ dinner or t o ____ movies anymore.”
thinks that this research is important because 4 “Did you watch____ game____ last night? I can’t believe that_____
the stereotype, that women talk too much and referee didn’t see that it was____ penalty..
men keep quiet, is bad not only for women but
also for men. “It says that to be a good male, it’s b According to the article Gossip with the girls?, who do you think
better not to talk - that silence is golden.” would probably say 1 -4 , a man or a woman?

Professor Boynton interviewed over 1,000 c p.137 Grammar Bank 3B. Learn more about articles and
women for her study. She also found that women practice them.
move quickly from one subject to another in
conversation, whereas men usually stick to one 3 PR O N U N CIATIO N
subject for longer periods of time. /ə/, sentence stress, /ðə/ or /di/?

Professor Boynton also says that men and women a 2 20))) Listen and repeat the sound and words.
talk for different reasons. In social situations,
women use conversation to solve problems and a about anniversary complain credible
reduce stress, while men talk to each other to problem talkative usually woman
laugh or to exchange opinions.
b 2 21))) Listen and repeat the sentences. Then practice saying
them with the /ə/ sound.

ı What are we going to have for lunch to day?
2 i'd like to see a good movie to night.
3 Please stop complaining about the weather.
4 The woman in the kitchen is very talkative.
5 There’s a problem with the computer.

c 2 22)}) Listen and underline five phrases where the is pronounced
/di/ (not /ðə/). Why does the pronunciation change?

the movies the end the other day the world the sun
the Internet the kitchen the answer the Earth


Prove that the research in Gossip with the girls? is wrong!
Work in pairs or small groups.

If you’re a woman, try to talk for two minutes about:

soccer cars computers

If you’re a man, try to talk for two minutes about:

fashion shopping your family

Online Practice 3B 29

5 R EA D IN G & LISTE N IN G d 2 23))) Listen to two men talking in the park
about the book and mark the sentences T (true)
a Do you think it is a stereotype that women are better or F (false).
than men at taking care o f small children? D o you
know any men who stay at home and take care o f their
children? How do they manage?

b Look at an illustration based on a new book about
taking care o f young children. Can you name some of
the things in the picture?

c Read the beginning o f an article about the book. Why 1 Miranda is older than Stephen.
did Neil Sinclair write it? In what way is it different 2 Miranda’s father slept badly the night before.
from other books about raising children? 3 Stephen’s father recommends sleeping pills.
4 Stephen’s father hasn't read Commando Dad.
5 He likes the website because he enjoys reading about

other men’s experiences.
6 Stephen’s father really likes the book because it helps

him and makes him laugh.
7 In Com mando D ad, B T means Baby Trooper and Base

Camp means the kitchen.
8 The author o f Com mando Dad thinks that women are

only better than men when the baby is small,

e Listen again and correct the wrong information.

f Do you think it’s a good idea to have a book and a
website on childcare especially for men?
Why (not)?

For six years Neil Sinclair served as a th at somebody needed to w rite such a m anual,
commando in the army. He had been in a and who better to w rite it th an m e? I had been a
lot of dangerous situations, but nothing commando, but I was now a stay-at-home dad. I was
prepared him for the day when he brought the m an for the job.”
his first baby home from the hospital.
“I put the car seat containing my two-day- His book, Commando Dad: Basic Training, is a set
old son Sam uel down on th e floor and said to of instructions th at explains with m ilitary precision
m y w ife, ‘W h at do w e do n o w ?” and diagram s how new fath ers should approach the
fir s t th r e e y e a rs o f th e ir child’s life to becom e a
When he left the a rm y Sinclair and his wife agreed first-rate father.
th a t he would sta y at home and tak e care of the baby,
while his wife went back to work. Adapted from The Times

“I have done a lot of c ra z y th in g s, but w hen I put Glossary
th a t baby down I thought: I have a tin y baby, and he is commando noun one o f a group of soldiers who are trained to make
crying. W hat does he w an t? W hat does he need? I did quick attacks in enemy areas
not know. It was one of the most difficult days of my stay-at-home dad noun a man who stays at home and takes care o f the
life.” children while his wife goes to work

It was at th at moment th at Sin clair had an idea.
“I found m y self th in k in g how m uch e a sie r life would
be if I had a basic training m anual for m y baby, like
the m anual you get when you join the army. I realized


a 2 24))) Listen to someone talking about stereotypes or true?
men and women, and fill in the blanks.
• Women worry more about their appearance than men.
“Generally_______, I think women worry • Women spend more time than men on social networking
more about their appearance than men.
They_______to spend hours choosing sites.
what to wear, doing their hair, and putting • Men talk more about things; women talk more about people.
on makeup. Women are also_______ • Men are more interested than women in gadgets like
better at making themselves look more
attractive. But I think th a t in _______ , men phones and tablets.
are more worried than women about their • Women are better at multitasking than men.
body image. They feel more insecure about • Men find it more difficult than women to talk to their
their hair, fo r instance, especially when
they’re going bald.” friends or family if they have a problem.
• Women spend more time than men talking about
b In small groups discuss if the statements
about men and women are stereotypes or celebrities and their lifestyles.
true. Try to use the highlighted expressions • Men are more interested than women in power.
for generalizing from a. • Women are less interested in sports than men.
• Men worry more about their health than women.

collocation: verbs / adjectives + prepositions

a Cover the statements above. Can you remember the missing
1 Men worry m ore___ their health than women.
2 Women are better___multitasking than men.
3 Men are more interested than women___power.

b > - p.156 Vocabulary Bank Dependent prepositions.

P When are prepositions stressed?
Prepositions are usually only stressed when they are the
last word, e.g., in a question. Compare:

we need to ta lk about our vacation.
What are you talking about?

Freddie is afraid of flying.
What are you afraid of?

THE BASICS c Complete the questions with a preposition. 31

Survive the first 24 hours 1 When you're with friends o f the same sex, what do you usually
Prepare and plan to prevent talk___ ?
poor parental performance
Maintain morale 2 Are there any sports or games that you’re good___ ?
Feed, clothe, transport and 3 Is there anything you're really looking forward___ ?
entertain your troops 4 Who in your family are you closest___?
5 What kind o f movies are you interested__ ?
l=ROM BIRTH TO 3 /EARS 6 Are there any animals or insects that you're afraid___?
7 What's your town famous___ ?
Foreword by Dr Jan M ag e r-Jo n e s MB ChB 8 Are there any superstitions that you believe___?

d 2 27))) Listen and check. Then ask and answer the questions with
a partner.
Online Practice 3B

Practical Engli A difficult celebrity

R O B ’S IN T E R V IE W 2 ■ < G IV IN G O P IN IO N S

VIDEO a 2 29))) Watch or listen to the conversation at lunch. W hat do they
disagree about?

b Watch or listen again. Answer the questions.
1 What does Kerri think about...?
a the waiters in New York City compared to London
b people in New' York City compared to London
2 Who agrees with Kerri? Who disagrees? What do they think?
3 Who calls Rob? What about?

a 2 28))) Watch or listen to Rob interviewing
Kerri. W hat is she happy / not happy to talk

b Watch or listen again. Mark the sentences
T (true) or F (false). Correct the F sentences.
1 Kerri’s song is about love.
2 Kerri plays in a band.
3 She used to go out with a member of
the band.
4 Only one o f her parents was a musician.
5 Kerri started playing the guitar when she
was six.
6 Her new album is very different from the
previous ones.
7 She’s been recording and touring recently.
8 She’s going to give a big concert in
New York City.


c 2 30))) Look at some extracts from the 3 ■ < A SU RPRISE FOR KERRI
conversation. Can you remember any o f the
missing words? Watch or listen and check. a 2 3 2 ))) Watch or listen to the end o f the lunch.
Why is Kerri surprised?
1 Kerri ________ , I th in k people in London
Don are a lo t more easygoing. London’s O American and British English
ju s t n o t as h ectic as New York.
Kerri Sure, we all like peace and quiet. cell phone = American English
Don But in m y _________, New York is mobile phone = British English
possibly... well, no, is d e fin ite ly th e b Watch or listen again and complete the information.
g re a te s t c ity in th e world. 1 Kerri thinks the waitress is friendly when they leave because
Don’t y o u _________? Don...
To b e _________ , I d e fin ite ly prefer 2 Jenny is worried because she thinks R ob...
London. 3 Kerri thinks that the taxi driver is very...
Come on, Rob. You've lived in both. c Look at the S o cial En glish ph rases. Can you remember any o f
W hat do y o u _________ ? the missing words?
Social English phrases
2 Don OK, I _________ , London has its Jenny Did y o u _______ w h a t you said in th e re staurant, Rob?
own peculiar charm. B ut if y o u _____ Jenny It’s _______ that... you seemed hom esick in there.
me, nothing compares w ith a city Rob O h,_______ on a m inute.
like New York. The whole w orld is Rob Our ta x i’s c o m e _______ .
here! Kerri That was s o _______ o f him!
d 2 33))) Watch or listen and complete the phrases.
Kerri But th a t’s th e problem. It’s too e Watch or listen again and repeat the phrases. How do you say
big. There are to o many people. them in your language?
Everybody’s so stressed out. And ^ Can you...?
nobody has any tim e fo r you.
interview someone or be interviewed
Jenny I don’t th in k th a t’s _________ , Kerri. [ give your opinion about something
New Yorkers are very friendly.
agree or disagree w ith o th e r people’s opinions
Kerri O h _________ , th e y can sound
frie n dly w ith all th a t “Have a nice
day” stuff.

d 2 3 1 ))) Watch or listen and repeat the
highlighted phrases. Copy the rhythm and

e Practice the dialogues in c with a partner.

f m m i In small groups, practice giving
opinions. Discuss the following sentences.

- The best place to live is in a big city.
- Riding a bike is the most practical way to

get around big cities.
- You only get good service in expensive

- It’s irritating when people in stores or

restaurants say Have a nice day!

Online Practice 33

G can, could, be able to Can you No, I’ve
V -ed / -ing adjectives
P sentence stress speak French? never been able

4A Failure and success l to learn a foreign


1 G R A M M A R can, could, be able to ivenever

a I f atfirst y o u d o n ’t succeed, try, try, try again is a been able to...
well-known saying. W hat does it mean?

b More recently other people
have invented different ways
o f continuing the saying.
W hich one do you like best?

If at firs t you don’t succeed,
...give up
...blame your parents
...destroy all th e evidence th a t you tried it th e way your m o th e r to ld you to
...skydiving is n o t fo r you

c Look at the definition o f b e able to. W hat other verb is Ireally wanted to learn. Maybe it was because of that
it similar to? scene in one of the very first James Bond movies, where a
beautiful actress comes out of the ocean looking fabulous,
be able to (do something) to have the ability, opportunity, time, with oxygen tanks on her back - I could see myself looking
just like her. So, two years ago I booked a vacation that
etc., to do something: Willyou be able to come to the meeting next week? included a week-long intensive course. On the first day of
the course, I was incredibly excited. First, we had two hours
d Read about three people who have tried (but failed) to of theory, and then we went into the ocean to put it into
learn something, and complete the texts with A -G . practice. But as soon as I went under the water, I discovered

A I was able to that I suffered from claustrophobia. 1_________ do it. After
B Not being able to
C I just wasn’t able to about half an hour I gave up. Every evening for the rest of
D I will never be able to my vacation I had to listen to my scuba-diving classmates
E I would suddenly be able to talking about all the wonderful things they had seen that
F I've always wanted to be able to
G we would never be able to day on their diving excursions. 2_________ join in the

e Read the article again. W hy did they have problems? conversation was very frustrating.
Have they completely given up trying? Have you ever
tried to learn something and given up? Why? I still love swimming and snorkeling, but I think that I have to

f Look at phrases A - G again. W hat tense or form is accept that3_________ scuba dive.
be able to in each one? W hat tenses or forms does
can have? Bea, the US

g >• p.138 Grammar Bank 4A . Learn more about can,
could, and be able to, and practice them.

h > - Com m unication Guess the sentence A p.105
B p.109.

4_________________ dance salsa, and when I was w orking in 2 P R O N U N C IA T IO N sentence stress
Ecuador there were free classes, so I joined. But the art o f salsa
is to keep your arms still and move your hips, and I just couldn't a 2 36))) Listen and repeat the sentences. Copy the
do it. When I hear music my arms start moving, but my hips rhythm.
don't. After about ten hours o f classes 5_________________ do
the basic steps, but I was dancing like a robot! I d id n't give up, ı i d love to be able to ski.
but soon everyone in the class was dancing, and I was just 2 w e won’t be able to come.
slowly moving from side to side and counting out loud “ one, 3 iv e never b e e n able to dance.
two, three, four.” It was a little embarrassing. I was sure that one 4 s h e hates not being able to drive.
d a y 6_________________ do it - but that never happened. I can
still remember the first tw o steps, and I still try to dance when I b 2 37))) Listen again. Make new sentences with the
hear a salsa tune - as long as nobody is watching! verbs or verb phrases you hear.
))) I’d love to be able to ski Ride a horse
Sean, Canada I'd love to be able to ride a horse.

We won’t be able to come. Park
We won't be able to park.


a Look at the topics. Choose two or three and think
about what you could say for them.

...speak Japanese Som ething you’ve trie d to learn, b u t have never been
able to do well.
love manga - Japanese comics - and I tried to learn Japanese,
but I found it incredibly difficult, and I gave up after two years. Something you learned to do a fte r a lo t o f effo rt.
I think Asian languages, which have symbols instead o f words, Som ething you can do, but you'd like to be able to
are extremely hard to learn for people w ho are more used to do better.
Roman letters. Also my teacher, a Japanese woman, didn't speak Som ething new th a t you would like to be able to do.
Spanish very well, which d id n't help! She was a very charming Som ething you are learning to do and th a t you hope you’ll
woman, but she was a little disappointed with us, and you could soon be able to do well.
see that she thought th a t7_________________ learn. However, Something you think all young people should be able to do
one day she invited us to dinner and gave us some delicious before they leave school.
traditional Japanese food, and since then I often go to Japanese
restaurants. So I learned to love the food, if not to speak the b Work with a partner. Tell him / her about the things
language! you chose in a . Give reasons or explanations for
each one.
Joaquin, Argentina /’ve never been able to ski and now I don't think lit ever learn.
I always wanted to learn, but I don't live near mountains...

Online Practice 4A 35

4 V O C A B U L A R Y -ed / -ing adjectives 5 R EA D IN G & SP EA K IN G

a Look at the photo. Complete the sentences with a D o you know anybody who speaks more than two
bored or boring. languages? W hich languages do they speak? How did
1 The movie was_______ . they learn?
2 The audience was_______ .
b 2 39))) You are going to read an article about Alex Rawlings,
P -edand -ing adjectives
Many adjectives for feelings have two possible who speaks 11 languages. Before you read, match the
forms, either ending in -ed or in -ing, e.g.,
frustrated and frustrating. languages below with words 1 -1 1 . Then listen and check.
We use the adjective ending in -ed for the person □ English
who has the feeling (I was very frustrated that I □ Spanish LH Greek □ German
couldn't scuba dive). We use the adjective ending □ Russian
in -ing for a person or situation that produces the J Dutch
feeling (/ couldn’t join in the conversation, which
was very frustrating). □m Afrikaans LH French □ Hebrew
Catalan □ Italian
b Read the information box. Then complete the
adjectives with -ed or -ing. c Read the article. W hich language(s)...?
1 What do you think is the most excit___ sport
to watch? 1 did he learn as a child
2 What's the most am az___scenery you've 2 is he studying in college
ever seen? 3 does he like best
3 What music do you listen to if you feel 4 is he planning to learn next
d e p re s s ___ ? 5 did he wish he had been able to speak when he was a child
4 Have you ever been disappoint___by a 6 was the first one he taught himself
birthday present? 7 did he find the most difficult
5 Which do you find more tir___, speaking
English or listening to English? He’s only 20,
6 What's the most em barrass___thing that’s but he can sp e a k
ever happened to you? eleven languages
7 Are you scare___ o f spiders?
8 Do you feel very tir___in the morning? oo<>oc«oo<x>«<x>oooooooooooo<x>ooo<>ooc>oooc->oocK>oooc<i<>o<x>oo<>ooo<>««<x>o<>oo««eoo<>oo<>coooooooooooc><x>ooooooc>oocooooo<><x><>o<>oo<><>ooo<>ooo««o<>o««o
9 Who’s the most bor___person you know?
In a competition run by a dictionary publisher,
10 Do you ever get fru strat___by technology? college student Alex Rawlings was named the
c 2 38))) Listen and check. Underline the stressed most multilingual student.

syllable in the adjectives. The G e rm a n a n d R u s s ia n stu d e n t, w ho is o n ly 20 y e a rs
d Ask and answer the questions in pairs. Ask for o ld , c a n s p e a k 11 la n g u a g e s flu e n tly . In a v id e o fo r a n e w s
w e b s ite , he d e m o n s tra te d h is s k ills by s p e a k in g in a ll o f
more information. th e m , ch a n g in g q u ick ly fro m o n e to an o th er. R a w lin g s sa id
36 4A th a t w in n in g th e c o m p e titio n w a s “a b it o f a s h o c k ." H e
e xp la in e d , “ I s a w th e co m p e titio n a d v e rtise d , an d I heard
s o m e t h in g a b o u t a fr e e iP a d . 1n e v e r im a g in e d t h a t it w o u ld
g e n e ra te th is a m o u n t o f m e d ia a tte n tio n .”

A s a ch ild , R aw lin g s' m other, w ho is h a lf G re e k, u s e d to
s p e a k to him in E n g lis h , G re e k , a n d F re n c h , a n d h e o fte n
v is ite d h is fa m ily in G re e c e .

H e s a id t h a t h e h a s a lw a y s b e e n in te r e s t e d in la n g u a g e s .
“ M y d a d w o rk e d in J a p a n fo r fo u r y e a rs , a n d I w a s a lw a y s
fru stra te d th a t I c o u ld n 't s p e a k to th e k id s b e c a u se o f th e
la n g u ag e ba rrie r.” A fte r v isitin g H o lla n d a t th e ag e o f 14, he
d e c id e d to le a rn D u tch w ith C D s a n d b o o k s . “W h e n I w en t
b a c k I c o u ld t a lk t o p e o p le . It w a s g r e a t .”

H e ta u g h t h im s e lf m a n y o f th e la n g u a g e s w ith “te a ch
y o u rs e lf” b o o k s, bu t a ls o by w a tch in g m o v ie s, lis te n in g to
m u sic, an d tra ve lin g to th e c o u n trie s th e m s e lv e s.

d Look at the highlighted words and phrases related to e Read the grammar information box. Then complete
language learning, and figure out their meaning from 1 -5 with a reflexive pronoun.
the context. Then ask and answer the questions with
a partner. P Reflexive pronouns
He taught himself many o f the languages with "teach
1 Can you or anyone in your family speak another yourself" books.
language fluently? We use reflexive pronouns (myself, yourself, himself,
herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves) when
2 Do you know any basic phrases in any other the object of a verb is the same as the subject, e.g., He
languages? taught himself Russian. = He was his own teacher.
We also use reflexive pronouns to emphasize the subject
3 Do you have a personal link to another country or of an action, e.g., We painted the kitchen ourselves.
language? Why?
1 I always test________ on new vocabulary. It’s a good
4 Have you ever traveled to another country and felt that way to remember it.
there was a real language barrier?
2 My uncle built the house________ . It took him
5 What other languages would you like to be able to three years.

3 This light is automatic. It turns________ on and off.

4 Did you fix the computer________ ? Good job!
5 My sister’s so vain! Everytime she passes a mirror, she

looks a t________ in it!

Adapted from O f all th e la n g u a g e s he s p e a k s , R a w lin g s s a y s th a t 6 LIS TE N IN G & SPEA K IN G
R u ss ia n , w h ich he h a s b e e n le a rn in g fo r a y e a r a n d a
h alf, is th e h a rd e st. H e s a id , “T h e re s e e m to b e m o re a 2 40))) You’re going to listen to six advanced students
e x c e p tio n s th a n ru le s!" H e a d d e d , “ I e s p e c ia lly like o f English giving a tip that has helped them to learn.
G re e k b e c a u s e I th in k it’s b e a u tifu l an d , b e c a u s e o f m y Listen once and complete their tip. Then compare your
m o th e r, I h a ve a s tro n g p e rs o n a l lin k to th e co u n try an d notes with a partner.
to th e la n g u ag e ."
TIP 1 : Change the language to English on all
“ E veryo n e sh o u ld le arn la n g u a g e s, e s p e c ia lly if th ey
tr a v e l a b r o a d . If y o u m a k e th e e f f o r t to le a rn e v e n th e th e ______ you have, for example on
m o s t b a s ic p h ra s e s w h e re v e r you go, it in s ta n tly s h o w s your______, o r______, o r______ .
th e p e rso n y o u 're s p e a k in g to th a t you re s p e c t h is or
h e r cu ltu re . G o in g a ro u n d s p e a k in g E n g lish lo u d ly an d TIP 2: Do things that you______
g e ttin g fru s tra te d w ith p e o p le is ta c tle s s a n d ru d e .” ______, but in English.

T h e n e xt la n g u ag e R aw lin g s h o p e s to le arn is A rab ic, TIP 3: Try to find an English-speaking
b u t “ o n ly o n c e I've fin is h e d m y d e g re e a n d g o t so m e ______o r______ .
m ore tim e on m y h a n d s. For now I n eed to co n ce n tra te on
m y G e rm an and R u ssia n , s o I ca n prepare fo r m y fin a ls." TIP 4: Get a ____________ app for
your phone.
G lo ss a ry
A frik a a n s a language that has developed from Dutch, TIP 5: Book yourself a ______in
spoken in South Africa a n ______-____________ .
C atalan a language spoken in parts o f northern Spain and
southern France TIP 6: Listen to as many______as
fin a ls the last exams that students take in college
possible in English, and then
___________________ them

b Listen again. Try to add more details about each tip.

c Talk to a partner.
• Do you already do any o f these things?
• Which do you think is th e best tip?
• Which tip could you easily put into practice? Try it!
• What other things do you do to improve your English
outside class (e.g., visit chat websites, listen to
audio books)?

Online Practice 4A 37

G modals o f obligation: must, have to, should Do I have Yes,
V phone language to bring a I think you
P silent consonants, linking present? probably

4B Modern manners? should.

phone language modals o f obligation: must, have to, should

a 2 4 1 ))) Listen and match the Read the extract from Debrett’s guide to cell phone
phone sentences with the sounds. etiquette. Then talk to a partner about questions 1 -4 .
1 Do you agree with what Debrett’s says?
aD He's dialing a number. 2 Do you ever do any o f these things?
B[ She's texting / messaging a friend. 3 Are they a problem where you live?
C□ She just hungup. 4 Are there any other things people do with their phones that
D□ She's choosing a new ringtone.
eD He’s calling back. annoy you?
fD She left a message on his voicemail.
gD The line’s busy. Debrett's, a well-known publisher, has been producing
guides on how people should behave since the 1900s,
b Can you explain what these are? including Debrett’s Etiquette and M odern M anners and The
English Gentleman. Nowadays it still offers advice on what
Skype a screensaver silent / vibrate mode (and what not) to do in social situations.
quiet zones instant messaging
c Use the questionnaire to interview another
student. Ask for more information. guide to

YOU AND YOUR PHONE cell phone etiquette

I W hat brand is your phone? How long 1 Think what your ringtone says about you
have you had it?
I f you're sometimes embarrassed by your ringtone, it's
j W ould you like to get a new one? almost certainly the wrong one and you should change it.
W hy (not)?
2 W hen in doubt, use silent or vibrate m ode
I W hat ringtone do you have?
It may surprise your companions when you suddenly
j W hat do you use your phone for (apart answer an invisible, silent phone, but at least they won't
from talking)? have to listen to your ringtone.

I W here and when do you usually turn off 3 Take notice o f who is around you
your cell phone?
Make sure your conversation is not disturbing other people.
Have you ever...? Intimate conversations are never appropriate in front
• lost your phone of others.
• sent a message to the wrong person
• forgotten to turn your phone off
(with embarrassing consequences)


b Read the text again. Match the highlighted phrases 3 P R O N U N C IA T IO N &
with their meaning. Two o f the phrases match the S P E A K IN G
same meaning. silent consonants, linking

A You don’t need to do this. It isn't necessary. a Each o f the words in the list has a silent
B Don’t do this. It isn’t allowed / permitted. consonant or consonants. W ith a partner,
C It’s necessary or required to do this. cross out the silent letters.
D It’s a good idea to do this.
shoigld ta lk wrong listen half dishonest
c >• p.139 Grammar Bank 4B. Learn more about must, knowledge design whole rhythm doubt
have to, and should, and practice them. foreign calm island

4 Respect quiet zones b 2 46))) Listen and check.

You must not use your phone in quiet zones on trains or in c 2 47))) Listen and repeat the sentences.
hotels. That is the reason why they exist. Try to copy the rhythm and to link the
marked words.
5 Never shout
1 You must t u r n j j f f your p h o n e ^ r c iti
Your phone is not a megaphone. You don’t have to shout. p la n e .
And don’t shout because you think reception is poor. It
won’t make any difference. 2 Youshouidj)nly call himjrLan^
6 People with you deserve m ore attention
than those at the end o f a phone 3 we h a v e to lea vQ _? u p le ve n .

Wherever possible, turn off your phone in social situations 4 y o u m u s t n o t j ) p e n j ) t h e r p e o p l e ’s ^
and at mealtimes, or put it on vibrate. I f you have to keep e m a ils.
your phone on because you are expecting an important call,
apologize in advance. 5 You s h o u ld n ’f j t a l k l o u d ly o r\^ c e ll

7 D on ’t continue on with p h on e conversations phone.
when you are in the m iddle o f something else
d Read the definition o f manners. Then
This is especially true if you are in banks, stores, etc. It is m ake sentences using sh ou ld / sh ou ld n ’t for
insulting not to give the people who are serving you your som ething that you think is a question o f
full attention. manners, and with must / must not / have to
for som ething that is a law or rule.
8 Think about where you are calling from
manners p i noun a way ofbehaving that is
Don’t make (or receive) calls in inappropriate places. Put
your phone on vibrate in meetings, movies, etc. I f you considered acceptable in your country or culture
must take a call in the car, use a hands-free set.
■ turn o ff yo u r phone in a theater
Adapted from D ebrett's M odern Manners ■ talk loudly on your phone in public
■ send text messages when you are

d riv in g
■ reply to a message on your phone

w hile you are talking to somebody
■ p la y noisy gam es on a phone in public
■ use your phone at a gas station
■ video people on your phone without
their permission
■ set your phone to silent mode on a train
■ send or receive texts at the movies
■ turn o ff your phone on a plane during
take-off and landing

Online Practice ■ 4B 39

4 READING c Find words or phrases in the article that m ean...

a Imagine that you have been invited to visit your 1 _________ noun a man to whom you are going to
partner’s family. Think o f three things that you feel be married
would be bad manners to do.
2 _________ adj unpleasant
b Read the article. Did Heidi do any o f those things? 3 _________ verb saying what is bad or wrong with
W hat did she do wrong (according to Mrs. Bourne)?
W hose side would you take? somebody or something
4 _________ noun not having enough o f something
News online 5 _________ noun a person who you invite to your house
6 _________ noun a person who receives a visitor
Two sides to every story 7 _________ verb sent an email or message you received

By NEWS ONLINE Reporter to another person
Everyone knows it can be difficult to get along with your in-laws,
but for 29-year-old Heidi Withers, it may now be impossible. should have
Heidi was invited to spend the weekend with her fiance Freddie's We use should have to talk about something that
family at their house. But soon after they returned home, Heidi happened in the past th a t you think was wrong, e.g., You
received a very nasty email from Carolyn Bourne, Freddie's should have written me a thank-you letter. = you didn’t
stepmother, criticizing her manners. write to me. I think this was wrong.

Here are a few examples of your lack of manners: d Now read some o f the comments that were posted on
• When you are a guest in another person’s house, you the Internet. Write H next to the ones that support
Heidi and C next to the ones that support Carolyn.
should not declare what you will and will not eat - unless
you are allergic to something. 1 Mrs. Bourne says Heidi should have sent a handwritten
• You should not say that you do not have enough food. thank-you note... however, she sends this letter by email!
• You should not start before everyone else. We are in the 21st century. Nobody sends handwritten
• You should not take extra helpings without being invited to letters anymore. 07/13/2011 6:52 p.m.
by your host.
• You should not lie in bed until late morning. 2 Why do we hear nothing about Freddie’s role in all this?
• You should have sent a handwritten note after the visit. Why didn't he prepare Heidi? He must know what his
You have never written to thank me when you have stayed. stepmother is like. He could also have prepared his
Heidi was shocked, and immediately sent the email on to family by telling them about any eating problems his
some of her close friends. Surprised and amused, the friends girlfriendhas. 07/13/2011 4:25 p.m.
forwarded it to other people, and soon the email had been
posted on several websites, with thousands of people writing 3 The email was a private communication. I don't think
comments about the mother-in-law. Heidi should have sent it on to her friends. It makes
me think that Mrs. Bourne might be right about her bad
Adapted from the Daily Mail website manners. 07/13/2011 12:40p.m.

4 The stepmother seems to be extremely jealous of Heidi.
Maybe she wants to keep Freddie all to herself. If I were
Heidi, I would leave him. 07/12/2011 10:15 a.m.

5 The mother-in-law may have a few good points, but she
should have spoken to Heidi face-to-face, and not sent
her an email. 07/11/2011 6:50 p.m.

6 I think that the one with the extremely bad manners is
Mrs. Bourne. 07/11/2011 2:10 p.m.

7 Mrs. Bourne, I agree with every word you say. Young
people just don't have any manners nowadays. I hope
Freddie comes to his senses and finds someone better.
07/11/2011 9:48 a.m.

e Write your own comment. Then compare with a
partner. Do you agree?

f > - C om m unication The big day p.105. Read about what
Heidi and Freddie did next.

40 4B


a 2 48))) Listen to Caroline Halloran, who In groups, talk about each thing in the G ood Manners? questionnaire.
is dating Jason Win, talking about the Do you think it’s good manners, bad manners, or not important /
differences between Burmese manners and not necessary. Why?
American manners. What was their problem I think it's very rude to criticize the
when they firs t met? How have they managed food if you are in somebody’s house.
to solve their differences about manners?
I think it depends. It’s OK if you know the person
b Listen again and mark the sentences T (true) very well or if it ’s a member o f your family...
or F (false).
7 2 49))) S O N G You Can’t Hurry Love Jl
1 Jason thought Caroline was rude when she
asked him to hang out with her. WHEN YOU ARE INVITED TO
2 In Burma it's OK to spend time alone with
someone at the beginning o f a romantic ] criticize the food (e.g., if it is too
relationship. cold, salty, etc.)

3 Burmese culture is not as open as American ] take a present
culture is. j write an email to say thank you
] arrive more than ten minutes late
4 Jason wrote long responses to Caroline’s
Facebook romantic posts. for lunch or dinner

5 Caroline wants Jason to stop bragging about
their relationship to his friends and family.

6 Jason sometimes gets confused about good
and bad manners in the US.

7 Caroline and Jason don't argue about
manners anymore.

c W hat would people from your country do in
these situations?

I use more formal language RESTAURANT...
when speaking to an
older person ] leave your cell phone on silent on
the table in front of you
□ kiss a woman on the
cheek when you meet her 1 answer or send a text or message
for the first time 1 make a phone call

] use your partner's ON SOCIAL NETWORKING
parents' first names SITES...

MEN AND WOMEN- ] post a private message or
A MAN’S ROLE... conversation on an Internet site

1 pay for the meal on a ] post an embarrassing photo
or video clip of a friend without
first date asking his or her permission
□ wait for a woman to go
] post all the details of your break­
through the door first up with a partner
□ accompany a

woman home

Online Practice 4B 41

3&4 Review and Check

GRAMMAR b Complete the compound nouns.

(C ircle)a, b, or c. 1 Slow down! The speed______ on this road is 55 mph, not 65 mph.
2 I won’t start the car until you have all put on your seat______ .
1 I walk to work. It's______ than driving. 3 It’s not a good town for bike riders - there are very few
a healthyer b as healthy c healthier
bicycle______ .
2 Riding a bike isn't______ people think. 4 Try to avoid using the subway during______ hour - between 8:00
a as dangerous as b as dangerous than
c so dangerous than and 9:30 in the morning.
5 There’s a taxi______ right next to the train station.
3 This is ______ time o f day for traffic jams.
a the most bad b the worse c the worst c Complete with the right word.

4 My wife is a much safer driver than______ . 1 We were late because we got s______ in a terrible traffic jam.
a 1 b me c my 2 I'm moving into a new apartment next week. I've rented a v______

5 W hat______beautiful day! so that I can take all my things there.
a a b - c an 3 The next train to New Haven is now waiting at pi______ 5.
4 We’re going to s______ o ff early because we want to get to the
6 I never drink coffee after______ dinner.
a - b the c an hotel before it gets dark.
5 How long does it t______ to get from here to the airport?
7 ______ are usually good language learners.
a The women b Women c Woman d (Circle) the right adjective.

8 We’ve decided to visit Peru______ . 1 The game ended 0 - 0 . It was really bored / boring.
a the next summer b next summer 2 It was the most am azed / amazing experience I’ve ever had.
c the summer next 3 We’re very excited / exciting about our vacation!
4 I’m a little disappointed / disappointing with my exam results.
9 We won’t ______ come to the party. 5 This show is too depressed / depressing. Turn it off.
a can b be able c be able to
e Complete the missing words.
10 When he was five h e______ already swim.
a can b could c was able 1 I’m not in right now. Please 1______ a message.
2 The line’s b______ . Please hold.
11 My mother has never______ cook well. 3 I was in the middle o f talking to him, and he just h______ up!
a been able to b could c be able to 4 1love the scr______ on your phone. Is it a photo o f your kids?
5 I hate it when people have really loud r______ on their cell phones!
12 Entrance is free. You______ pay anything.
a don’t have to b must not c shouldn't PR O N U N CIATIO N

13 I’ll ______ work harder if I want to pass. (Circle)the word with a different sound.
a must b should c have to
1 language want manners traffic
14 I don't think I ______ have a dessert. I’ve
already eaten too much! 2 the moon the sun the beginning the end
a must b should c have to
3 watch cheap machine each
15 You______ turn on your phone until the
plane has landed. 4 should crash permission gossip
a don’t have to b must not c shouldn’t
5 change message argue apologize
b Underline the stressed syllable.
a Complete with a preposition.
1 free way 3 pe des tri an 5 em barr ass ing
1 We arrived______Vancouver at 5:30.
2 I apologized______ being late. 2 dis a ppoint ed 4 vi brate
3 I’m not very interested______ horror movies.
4 My son is good______ speaking languages.
5 This song reminds m e______ my vacation.


a Read the article once. W hat kind o f concert was it? VIDEO
W hat happened?
Turn it off!
2 50))) O n th e s tre e t Watch or listen to five people and
Something historic happened at answer the questions.
the New York Philharmonic on
the evening of January 10,2012, Christopher Maria Harry Skylar Cristina
about an hour into Mahler's Ninth
Symphony. During the beautiful 1 Christopher likes using the subway because______ .
fourth movement, an audience
member’s cell phone loudly rang. a he only needs to take one train
And rang. And rang again. It was the kind of marimba riff we've b he gets to work in less than half an hour
all heard on the street from a stranger’s phone. c it runs all day and night

From my seat in Row L, I could see the horrified discomfort of 2 Maria thinks that women are better than men at taking
the other audience members from their body language. We all care o f young children because______ .
wondered whether the conductor Alan Gilbert would react, and
how. Suddenly there was silence. The orchestra had stopped a they have had a lot o f practice
playing. Mr. Gilbert had halted the performance. He turned to b they know when children are hungry
the man, who was seated in the front row, and said: c they know what to do when children are sick

“Are you going to turn it off? Will you do that?” 3 Harry says that men in her family______ .
There was some "discussion” between the conductor and the
cell phone owner, but we couldn’t hear it. a don’t enjoy telling stories
In the Avery Fisher Hall, many members of the audience stood b talk about the same things as women
and demanded that the man leave the hall. They were so furious c try to talk about things that interest them
that I could have imagined them dragging him from his seat on
to the stage, tying him to a stake, and setting him alight! 4 Skylar______ .
When the “power off" button on the man’s phone had finally
been located and put to use, Mr. Gilbert turned to the audience. a still paints, but just as a free-time activity
"Usually, when there’s a disturbance like this, it’s best to ignore b paints very well
it,” he said. “But this time I could not allow it.” c now does other things in her free time
The audience applauded as if Mahler himself, the orchestra’s
conductor from 1909 to 1911, had suddenly been resurrected 5 It annoys Cristina when people______ .
onstage. Mr. Gilbert neither smiled nor acknowledged the
Adapted from The New York Times cheers. Instead he turned to the orchestra, instructing the a check their phones for the time
players to resume, several bars back from the point at which b don’t interact with you while they're on the phone
he had stopped the performance. Just before, he raised his c use their phones when they are having dinner
baton and turned again to the audience and said, this time
with a smile, “We’ll start again.” A few seconds later, the fourth C A N Y O U SA Y T H IS IN ENG LISH?
movement resumed.
Mr. Gilbert’s brave decision that night brought new music to Do the tasks with a partner. Check ( / ) the box if you
the Philharmonic. can do them.

b Read the text again and answer the questions. Can you...?
1 F?] compare different methods o f public transportation
1 In what part o f the symphony did the phone ring?
What kind o f ringtone was it? in your town / country
2 Q agree or disagree with this statement, and say why:
2 Did the owner turn it off immediately?
All towns and cities should have a lot more bicycle lanes.
3 How did the audience react a) to the phone ringing, 3 FZ1 talk about typical stereotypes about men and
and b) to what the conductor did?
women, and say if you think they are true
4 Did the audience really drag the man onto the stage? 4 ^ describe something you would like to be able to do,

5 Did Mr. Gilbert restart the music from the same place but have never been able to
where he had stopped? 5 Ld talk about things that are / aren't good manners in

6 Does the journalist think Mr. Gilbert made the your country if you are staying with someone as a
right decision? guest, and what you think is the right thing to do

c Choose five new words or phrases from the text. Short movies Citi bikes
Check their meaning and pronunciation and try to v id e o Watch and enjoy the movie.
learn them.

G past tenses: simple, continuous, perfect Why did Because he
V sports he lose the wasn't feeling
P hr! and /or/
match? very w ell in
Sports superstitions the last set.

1 V O C A B U L A R Y sports 3 SPEA K IN G

a Take the quiz in small groups. In pairs, interview your partner about sports using the
SPORTS QUIZ questionnaire. Ask for more information.

What sport do you associate with...? Do you
like sports?
b > - p .l5 7 Vocabulary Bank Sports.
What sports! NO YES What
2 P R O N U N C IA T IO N hr/ and /or/ do /did you sport(s)
have to play at Do / Did How do you
a W rite the words in the correct column. Be careful you enjoy often do
with or (there are two possible pronunciations). school? you play play?
court four girl hurt score serve shirt it? sports?
shorts sport warmup world worse workout Have you
Do you do 1 Do you think Have you ever won
any kind of ever been a cup or a
exercise? you’re in shape? [injured playing trophy?
Would you like sports?
Do your to get in better Do you
family and prefer
friends like shape? playing sports
or watching
sports? Is there sports?
any sport
you don’t mind How many hours
watching on do you spend a
week watching
TV? sports on TV?

What Do you
sport(s) do you go to watch
hate watching a local sports

on TV? team?

Have you What’s the
ever found a most exciting
sports event
sports event
exciting? you have been


b 3 6))) Listen and check. Do you think Do you think Do you think
that there are physical education there is too much
c >• p.166 Sound Bank. Look at the typical spellings good sports should be optional
o f these sounds. facilities in your (or not enough)
or required at sports on TV?
d 3 7))) Listen and write six sentences. town? school?

4 READING e Look at the photos o f four more famous sports people
who are superstitious. Do you know what any o f their
a Do you know o f any sports players who are superstitions are or were?
superstitious? W hat do they do?
f > - Communication Other sp orts superstitions
b Read an article about sports superstitions and A p.104 B p.108. Read and tell each other about the
people in the photos.
complete it with A-F.
g Do y o u have any superstitions, e.g., when you are
A It is not only the players who are superstitious playing or watching sports, or before an exam?
B A good example is Serena Williams
C Superstitions and rituals are very common among fans
D After my wife had left the room, Murray lost the

fourth set
E The superstitions and rituals are not confined

to the court
F Tennis players-are-strartge-people

c Read the article again. W ho does the article say
are superstitious: sports players, sports fans, TV
spectators, or all o f them?

d Underline five words or phrases you want to remember
from the article.

If I bounce the ball five times... F-
MATTHEW SYED writes about ________________ . Goran Ivanisevic, ________________ . She returned,
sports superstitions Wimbledon champion in 2001, was and he won the fifth. I laughed at £0)
convinced that if he won a match, he her, and then remembered my soccer §-
1 Tennis players are strange people. Have had to repeat everything he did the team, Spurs, who were losing 1-0 in
you noticed how they always ask for previous day, such as eating the same the Carling Cup. "If I leave the room
three balls instead of two; how they food at the same restaurant, talking now, Spurs will score/’ I told my kids,
bounce the ball the same number of to the same people, and watching the after 27 minutes of overtime. I left the
times before serving, as if any change same TV shows. One year this meant room and they scored. Twice.
from their routine might result in that he had to watch Teletubbies
disaster? every morning during his Wimbledon Glossary
campaign. “Sometimes it got very Teletubbies a television series for
boring/’ he said. very young children
Spurs Tottenham Hotspur, a London
________________ . As we were soccer team
watching tennis player Andy Murray
play the fourth set at Wimbledon, my
wife suddenly got up and went to the
kitchen. “He keeps losing games when
I’m in the room/' she said. “If I go out
now, he’ll win.”

________________ , the number ________________ . Last year, a
1 female tennis player. When she survey of British soccer supporters
was once asked why she had played
so badly at the French Open she found that 21 percent had a lucky
answered, “I didn't tie my shoe laces
right, and I didn't bounce the ball five charm (anything from a scarf
times, and I didn’t bring my shower to a lucky coin), while another
sandals to the court with me. I didn't questionnaire revealed that
have my extra dress. Ijust knew it was 70 percent of Spanish soccer fans
fate; it wasn’t going to happen.” performed pre-match rituals (like
wearing “ lucky” clothes, eating the
same food or drink, or watching
games with the same people).

5 LISTENING 6 G R A M M A R past tenses: simple,
continuous, perfect
a In your country, are referees a) well-paid b) respected c) unpopular?
W hy do you think somebody would want to become a referee? a In your country, is cheating considered a
serious problem in sports? In what sports
b 3 8))) You’re going to hear an interview with an ex-Champions do you think cheating is most common?
League soccer referee from Spain. Listen to P a rt 1 and choose a, W hat kinds o f things do people do when
b, or c. they cheat?

b Read Taking a Short Cut about a marathon
runner who cheated. How did she cheat?

1 Why did he become a referee? c Look at the highlighted verbs in the text.
a His father was a referee. W hich o f them are used for...?
b He liked sports, but wasn't good at them,
c He was always attracted by the idea. 1 a completed action in the past
2 an action that happened before the past time
2 What was the most exciting game he ever refereed?
a His first professional game. we are talking about
b He can't choose just one. 3 an action in progress (or not) at a particular
c Real Madrid against Barcelona.
moment in the past
3 The worst experience he ever had as a referee was when_______
attacked him. d > - p.140 Grammar Bank 5A. Learn more
a a player b a woman c a child about past tenses and practice them.

4 Why does he think there is more cheating in soccer today? e Read T he H and o f G od? and complete it
a Because soccer is big business. with the verbs in the right tenses.
b Because the referees are worse,
c Because soccer players are better at cheating.

5 How does he say soccer players often cheat?
a They fall over when no one has touched them,
b They accept money to lose games,
c They touch the ball with their hands.

c 3 9))) Now listen to P a r t 2 . Complete the sentences with one to
three words.

1 The most difficult thing for him about being a referee is making
during a game.

2 One o f the reasons why it’s difficult is because soccer today is
so _________________ .

3 Making correct decisions often depends on the referee’s
interpretation o f_________________ .

4 He thinks that players who cheat are still_________________ .
5 A study that was done on Leo Messi shows that he can run

exceptionally fast_________________ .
6 He thinks Messi isn't the_________________ soccer player.

d Do you agree with the referee that there is more cheating in
soccer than before? Is it true in other sports as well? Would you
like to be a sports referee (or umpire)? Why (not)?

46 5A

Famous (cheating) 7 SPEA K IN G
moments in sports
a You are going to tell your partner two
Although it isn’t true that everybody anecdotes. Choose two o f the topics below
in sports cheats, it is certainly true that and plan what you are going to say. Ask your
there are cheaters in every sport... teacher for any words you need.

Taking a short cut TELL YOUR PARTNER ABOUT...

On A p r il2 1 ,1 9 8 0 ,2 3 -year-old R osie • a time you cheated (in a sport/game
R u iz w as th e firs t w om an to c ro s s th e or on an exam)
fin ish lin e a t th e B o sto n M arath o n . When and where did this happen? What were
S h e fin ish e d th e ra ce in th e th ird -fa s te s t tim e you doing? Why did you cheat? What happened in
fo r a fe m a le ru n n e r (tw o hours, 31 m in utes, the end?
5 6 seconds). B u t w hen th e o rg a n ize rs
co n g ra tu la te d R o sie a fte r th e race, th ey w ere • a really exciting sports event you saw
s u rp rise d b e ca u se sh e w a sn ’t sw e a tin g very Where and when was it? Who was
m uch. S o m e sp e cta to rs w ho w ere w atch in g playing?
th e race to ld them w hat had re a lly happened. What happened? Why was it so
D u rin g th e la s t h a lf m ile, R o sie su d d e n ly exciting?
ju m p e d o u t o f th e crow d and sp rin te d to
th e fin ish lin e. T h e m a ra th o n o rg a n ize rs • a time you had an accident or
to o k R u iz's title aw ay and aw arded it to the got a sports injury
re a l w in n er, Ja c q u e lin e G a re a u . It w as la te r
d isco v e re d th a t th re e m o n th s earlier, R o sie had When and where did this happen?
a ls o ch e a te d in th e N ew Y ork C ity M a ra th o n What were you doing? How did the accident
w here she had taken the subway! happen? What part o f your body did you hurt?
What happened next? How long did it take you
The hand of God? to recover?

It w a s J u n e 2 2 ,1 9 8 6 . A r g e n t in a • a time you saw or met a celebrity
tw os p la y in g (play) E n g lan d in th e q u a rte r­ When was this? Where were you? Who were
fin a ls o f th e W o rld Cup, and b o th te a m s you with? What was the celebrity doing?
2_________ ( p la y ) w e ll. T h e s c o r e 3__________ (b e ) What was he / she wearing? Did you speak to
0 - 0 . In th e 5 1 st m in u te, th e A rg e n tin ia n him / her? What happened in the end?
c a p t a in , D ie g o M a r a d o n a , 4_________ ( s c o r e ) a
g o a l. T h e E n g lis h p la y e r s 5_________ ( p r o t e s t ) , • a time you got lost
b u t t h e r e fe r e e 6__________( g iv e ) t h e g o a l. Where were you going? How were
How ever, T V ca m era s show ed th a t M aradona you traveling? Why did you get lost?
7_________ ( s c o re ) t h e g o a l w it h h is h a n d ! What happened in the end?
M a r a d o n a e__________ (s a y ) t h e n e x t d a y “ I t w a s
p a rtly th e hand o f M aradona, and p a rtly the b Work with a partner. Tell each other your
hand o f G od.” two stories. Give as much detail as you can.

L a t e r in t h e g a m e , M a r a d o n a 9_________ (s c o re ) P Starting an anecdote
a n o t h e r g o a l, a n d A r g e n t in a 10__________ (w in ) I'm going to tell you about a time when...
th e gam e 2 -1 . T h e y w en t on to w in the This happened a few years ago...
W o rld Cup. When I was younger...


> - p.116 Writing T e llin g a s to r y . W rite a story about something
that happened to you.

9 3 14))) S O N G We Are the Champions

Online Practice 5A 47

G usually and used to How do
V relationships
P linking, the le tte r s you usually get I used to
to work?
Love at Exit 19 take the bus,

but now I ride

my bike.


a How do you think people usually meet friends and
partners nowadays? Number the phrases 1-5
(1 = the most popular). Then compare with a partner.
Do you agree?

bnA D at work
at school or college
c D on the Internet (e.g., on forums, on social

networking sites, etc.)
d D in a cafe, dub, etc.
E ŋ through friends

b 3 15))) Read and listen to an article about Sonya Baker
and Michael Fazio. Why did their relationship almost
never happen?

Love at Exit 19

He was a tollbooth collector, and she was a soprano who sang cone in front of his lane. He thought, “It will be like putting a candle Adapted from The Times
in Carnegie Hall. Their eyes met at Exit 19 of the New York State in a window.” Sonya saw it, and their romance started up again. “I
Thruway, when he charged her 3?ct. The romance that followed almost crashed my car on various occasions,” she said, “trying to
was even less likely than the plot of an opera! cross several lanes to get to his exit/’ Finally, she found the courage
to give Michael a piece of paper with her phone number as she
Sonya Baker was a frequent commuter from her home in the passed through the toll. Michael called her and for their first date
suburbs to New York City. One day, when she was driving to they went to see the movie Cool Runnings, and then later they
an audition,she came offtheThruway and stopped atthe went to an opera, La Boheme, and to a Yankees game.
tollbooth where Michael Fazio was working. She talked with him as
she paid to go through, and thought he was cute. For the next three They are now married and living in Kentucky, where Sonya is a
months, they used to exchange a few words voice and music professor at Murray State
as she handed him the money, and he raised College and Michael runs an activity center
the barrier to let her pass. “It was mostly at a nursing home. It turned out that she had
‘What are you doing today? Where are given him her number just in time. A short
you going?”' she said. They learned more while later, she moved to New Jersey and
about each other, for example that Sonya stopped usingthe New York State Thruway. “I
loved Puccini and Verdi, while Michael’s might never have seen him again,” she said.
love was the New York Yankees. But their
conversations suddenly came to an end when Glossary
Michael changed his working hours. “He used atollbooth a small building by the side o f a road
to work during the day/’ said Sonya, “but he
changed to night shifts/'Although Michael still where you pay money to use the road
looked out for Sonya’s white Toyota Corolla, he
did not see her again for six months. Carnegie Hall a famous concert hall in New York

When Michael's working hours changed back City
to the day shift, he decided to put a traffic
New York State Thruway a road
48 New York Yankees a baseball team based in the

Bronx in New York City

atraffic cone a plastic object, often orange and

white, used to show where vehicles can or can’t go

c Read the article again and number the events in the order 3 PR O N U N C IA TIO N &
they happened. S P E A K IN G linking

a D Michael changed his working hours. ^ 3 used to
B □ Michael tried to find Sonya.
C LH They got married. Remember th a t used to and use to are usually
D □ Sonya moved to New Jersey. linked and pronounced /'yusta/.
E Ld Sonya gave Michael her phone number.
F □ Michael changed his working hours again. a 318))) Listen and repeat the sentences.
G CD Sonya talked with Michael. Copy the linking and the sentence rhythm.
H Ld They stopped seeing each other.
I □ They had their first date. ı ı usedjo livejn Los Angeles.
J I 1 Sonya and Michael moved to Kentucky. 2 she didn’t ussjo wear glasses.
3 Where did you usqjo work before?
d Read the article again and look at the highlighted words and 4 They usecjjo see eachj)theua lot.
phrases. Try to figure out what they mean. Then match them with 5 Didn’t you usqjo haveja beard?
1-10 below.
b In pairs, tell each other about three o f the
1 __________ a period o f time worked by a group o f workers following. Give as much information as you
2 __________ a person who travels into a city to work every day can. How do you feel about these people and
3 __________ attractive, good-looking things now?
4 __________ what had happened was
5 __________ manages Is there...
6 __________ probable
7 __________ something that is used to give light, made o f wax • a kind of food or
8 __________ have short conversations drink you didn't
9 __________ they looked at each other romantically use to like at all, but
10 __________ was brave enough that you now like?

2 G R A M M A R usually and used to • a TV series you used to
be addicted to?
a Think o f a couple you know well, e.g., your parents or friends. Why did you like it?
How did they meet? Do you know any couples who met under
unusual circumstances? • a singer or a kind o f music you used
to listen to a lot (but don’t anymore)?
b 3/16))) Listen to four people talking about where they met their
partner. Match each one with a place from la . • a sport or game you used to play a lot, but
Speaker 1 LH Speaker 2 LH Speaker 3 L j Speaker 4 LD th a t you’ve given up?
• a place you used to go
c Listen to each story again and take notes on how the people during summer vacation,
met. Compare your notes with your partner and listen again if and th a t you’d like to go
necessary. W hich meeting do you think was the most romantic? back to?
• a machine or
d Look at two extracts from the listening. Answer the questions gadget you used
with a partner. to use a lot,
but th a t is
We used to go to clubs together on Saturday night. now out of
It used to be difficult to meet people. date?

1 When do we use used to? How do you make negatives and I used to hate most vegetables, especially
questions? spinach and cauliflower, but now I love them
and usually eat a lot o f vegetables every day...
2 How would you change these sentences (using usually) if you
wanted to talk about present habits or situations?

e >• p.141 Grammar Bank 5B. Learn more about usually and used
to, and practice them.

Online Practice 5B 49

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