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Published by Rinki Dhadwal, 2020-04-05 07:51:46

world map

world map

ATLAS
4TH EDITION
Mantesh



ATLAS

LONDON, NEW YORK, MELBOURNE,
MUNICH, AND DELHI

2

LONDON, NEW YORK, MELBOURNE,
MUNICH, AND DELHI

FOR THE FOURTH EDITION
Cartographic Manager David Roberts
Senior Cartographic Editor Simon Mumford
Cartographers Paul Eames, Encompass Graphics Limited
Designers Nimbus Design Editors Ben Hoare, Margaret Parrish,
Cambridge International Reference on Current Affairs (CIRCA)
3D Globes Planetary Visions Ltd., London
Systems Co-ordinator Philip Rowles Production Imogen Boase
Art Director Bryn Walls Publisher Jonathan Metcalf

Associate Publisher Liz Wheeler

FOR PREVIOUS EDITIONS
Cartographic Director Andrew Heritage
Cartography Roger Bullen, Rob Stokes, Iorwerth Watkins
Project Editor Sam Atkinson Art Editor Karen Gregory

First published in Great Britain in 2001 by
Dorling Kindersley Limited, 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL

A Penguin Company
Fourth Edition 2010
Previously published as the Ultimate Pocket Book of the World Atlas & Factfile
Copyright © 1996, 1998, 2001, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2010
Dorling Kindersley Limited

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
or transmitted in any form or by any other means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording

or otherwise, without the written permission of the copyright owner.

A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN: 978-1-4053-5039-6

Printed and bound in Singapore by Star Standard
Discover more at

www.dk.com

3

Key to map symbols

ELEVATION DRAINAGE FEATURES
River
6000m / 19,686ft Seasonal river
4000m / 13,124ft Canal
2000m / 6562ft Lake
1000m / 3281ft Seasonal lake
500m / 1640ft
250m / 820ft SETTLEMENTS
100m / 328ft Capital city
0 Major town
Below sea level Minor town
Major port
Mountain
Depression COMMUNICATIONS
BORDERS Major road
Rail
Full international International airport

Disputed de facto Insight; facts, figures, and
amazing information from
Territorial claim around the world

Cease-fire line

Undefined

State/Province

Mantesh

4

Atlas contents

The Political World . . . . . . . . . . 8-9 The Atlantic Ocean . . . . . . . . 48-49
The Physical World . . . . . . . . 10-11 Africa 50–51
Time Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-13
Atlas Opener . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-15

North & Central Northwest Africa . . . . . . . . . . 52-53
America 16–17 Northeast Africa . . . . . . . . . . 54-55
West Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56-57
Western Canada & Alaska . . . 18-19 Central Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . 58-59
Eastern Canada . . . . . . . . . . . 20-21 Southern Africa . . . . . . . . . . . 60-61
USA: The Northeast . . . . . . . . 22-23
USA: Central States . . . . . . . . 24-25 Europe 62–63
USA: The West . . . . . . . . . . . 26-27
USA: The Southwest . . . . . . . 28-29 The North Atlantic. . . . . . . . . 64-65
USA: The Southeast . . . . . . . . 30-31 Scandinavia & Finland. . . . . . 66-67
Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-33 The Low Countries . . . . . . . . 68-69
Central America . . . . . . . . . . 34-35 The British Isles . . . . . . . . . . . 70-71
The Caribbean. . . . . . . . . . . . 36-37 France, Andorra,

South America & Monaco. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72-73
38–39 Spain & Portugal . . . . . . . . . . 74-75
Germany &
Northern South America . . . . 40-41
Peru, Bolivia, & North Brazil 42-43 the Alpine States . . . . . . . . . 76-77
Paraguay, Uruguay, Italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78-79
Central Europe . . . . . . . . . . . 80-81
& South Brazil. . . . . . . . . . . 44-45 Southeast Europe. . . . . . . . . . 82-83
Southern South America . . . . 46-47 The Mediterranean . . . . . . . . 84-85

5

Atlas contents

Bulgaria & Greece. . . . . . . . . 86-87 Mainland Southeast Asia . . 118-119
The Baltic States Maritime Southeast Asia . . 120-121

& Belarus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88-89 The Indian Ocean . . . . . . . 122-123
Ukraine, Moldova,
Australasia &
& Romania . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90-91 Oceania 124–125
European Russia . . . . . . . . . . 92-93
The Southwest Pacific . . . . 126-127
North & West Western Australia . . . . . . . 128-129
Asia 94–95 Eastern Australia . . . . . . . . 130-131
New Zealand . . . . . . . . . . 132-133
Russia & Kazakhstan . . . . . . . 96-97
Turkey & the Caucasus . . . . . 98-99 The Pacific Ocean . . . . . . . 134-135
The Near East Antarctica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Arctic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
& West Bank . . . . . . . . . . 100-101
The Middle East . . . . . . . . 102-103
Central Asia. . . . . . . . . . . . 104-105

South & East Country Factfiles
Asia 106–107 138–359

Western China See overleaf for contents
& Mongolia. . . . . . . . . . . 108-109
Overseas territories . . . . . . 360-365
Eastern China & Korea. . . . 110-111 International organizations . . . 366
Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112-113
South India & Sri Lanka. . . 114-115 Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
North India & Pakistan . . . 116-117 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368-432

6

Factfile contents

A Chad . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Guatemala. . . . . . . . . 226
Chile . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Guinea . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Afghanistan . . . . . . . . 153 China . . . . . . . . . 192-193 Guinea–Bissau. . . . . . 228
Albania . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Colombia . . . . . . . . . 194 Guyana . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Algeria. . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Comoros . . . . . . . . . . 195
Andorra . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Congo . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 H
Angola. . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Congo, Dem. Rep. . . 197
Antarctica . . . . . . . . . 158 Costa Rica . . . . . . . . . 198 Haiti . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Antigua & Barbuda . . 159 Côte d’Ivoire . . . . . . . 199 Honduras . . . . . . . . . 231
Argentina. . . . . . . . . . 160 Croatia . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Hungary . . . . . . . . . . 232
Armenia . . . . . . . . . . 161 Cuba . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Australia . . . . . . 162–163 Cyprus. . . . . . . . . . . . 202 I
Austria. . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Czech Republic . . . . . 203
Azerbaijan. . . . . . . . . 165 Iceland . . . . . . . . . . . 233
D India . . . . . . . . . . 234-235
B Indonesia. . . . . . . 236-237
Denmark . . . . . . . . . . 204 Iran . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
Bahamas . . . . . . . . . . 166 Djibouti. . . . . . . . . . . 205 Iraq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Bahrain . . . . . . . . . . . 167 Dominica . . . . . . . . . 206 Ireland. . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Bangladesh . . . . . . . . 168 Dominican Republic . 207 Israel . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Barbados . . . . . . . . . . 169 Italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Belarus . . . . . . . . . . . 170 E
Belgium. . . . . . . . . . . 171 J
Belize . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 East Timor . . . . . . . . . 208
Benin. . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Ecuador . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Jamaica . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Bhutan. . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Japan . . . . . . . . . . 244-245
Bolivia. . . . . . . . . . . . 175 El Salvador . . . . . . . . 211 Jordan . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Bosnia Equatorial Guinea . . . 212
Eritrea . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 K
& Herzegovina . . . . 176 Estonia. . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Botswana. . . . . . . . . . 177 Ethiopia . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Kazakhstan . . . . . . . . 247
Brazil. . . . . . . . . . 178-179 Kenya . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Brunei . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 F Kiribati . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Bulgaria. . . . . . . . . . . 181 Korea, North . . . . . . . 250
Burkina . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Fiji. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Korea, South . . . . . . . 251
Burma . . . . . see Myanmar Finland . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Kosovo . . . . . . . . . . . 252
Burundi . . . . . . . . . . . 183 France . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Kuwait . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Kyrgyzstan . . . . . . . . . 254
C G
L
Cambodia . . . . . . . . . 184 Gabon . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Cameroon . . . . . . . . . 185 Gambia . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Laos. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Canada . . . . . . . . 186-187 Georgia . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Latvia . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Cape Verde . . . . . . . . 188 Germany . . . . . . . . . . 222 Lebanon . . . . . . . . . . 257
Central African Ghana . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Lesotho . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Greece . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Liberia . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Republic . . . . . . . . . 189 Grenada . . . . . . . . . . 225

7

Factfile contents

Libya . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 Panama . . . . . . . . . . . 295 Sweden . . . . . . . . . . . 329
Liechtenstein . . . . . . . 261 Papua New Guinea . . 296 Switzerland . . . . . . . . 330
Lithuania . . . . . . . . . . 262 Paraguay . . . . . . . . . . 297 Syria . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
Luxembourg . . . . . . . 263 Peru. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Philippines . . . . . . . . 299 T
M Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
Portugal . . . . . . . . . . . 301 Taiwan. . . . . . . . . . . . 332
Macedonia . . . . . . . . 264 Tajikistan . . . . . . . . . . 333
Madagascar . . . . . . . . 265 Q Tanzania . . . . . . . . . . 334
Malawi . . . . . . . . . . . 266 Thailand . . . . . . . . . . 335
Malaysia . . . . . . . . . . 267 Qatar. . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 Togo . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
Maldives . . . . . . . . . . 268 Tonga . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Mali. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 R Trinidad & Tobago . . . 338
Malta. . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Tunisia. . . . . . . . . . . . 339
Marshall Islands . . . . 271 Romania . . . . . . . . . . 303 Turkey . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Mauritania. . . . . . . . . 272 Russian Turkmenistan . . . . . . . 341
Mauritius . . . . . . . . . . 273 Tuvalu . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . 274 Federation . . . . . 304-305
Micronesia . . . . . . . . 275 Rwanda . . . . . . . . . . . 306 U
Moldova . . . . . . . . . . 276
Monaco. . . . . . . . . . . 277 S Uganda . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Mongolia. . . . . . . . . . 278 Ukraine . . . . . . . . . . . 344
Montenegro. . . . . . . . 279 St. Kitts & Nevis . . . . 307 United Arab Emirates. 345
Morocco . . . . . . . . . . 280 St. Lucia . . . . . . . . . . 308 United Kingdom . 346-347
Mozambique . . . . . . . 281 St. Vincent & the United States . . . . 348-350
Myanmar (Burma) . . . 282 Uruguay . . . . . . . . . . 351
Grenadines . . . . . . . 309 Uzbekistan . . . . . . . . 352
N Samoa . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
San Marino . . . . . . . . 311 V
Namibia . . . . . . . . . . 283 São Tomé & Príncipe . 312
Nauru . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 Saudi Arabia . . . . . . . 313 Vanuatu. . . . . . . . . . . 353
Nepal . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 Senegal . . . . . . . . . . . 314 Vatican City. . . . . . . . 354
Netherlands. . . . . . . . 286 Serbia . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 Venezuela . . . . . . . . . 355
New Zealand . . . . . . 287 Seychelles . . . . . . . . . 316 Vietnam. . . . . . . . . . . 356
Nicaragua . . . . . . . . . 288 Sierra Leone . . . . . . . 317
Niger . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 Singapore . . . . . . . . . 318 Y
Nigeria . . . . . . . . . . . 290 Slovakia. . . . . . . . . . . 319
Norway . . . . . . . . . . . 291 Slovenia . . . . . . . . . . 320 Yemen . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
Solomon Islands . . . . 321
O Somalia . . . . . . . . . . . 322 Z
South Africa. . . . . . . . 323
Oman . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 Zambia . . . . . . . . . . . 358
Sri Lanka . . . . . . . . . . 325 Zimbabwe . . . . . . . . . 359
P Sudan . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
Suriname . . . . . . . . . . 327
Pakistan . . . . . . . . . . . 293 Swaziland . . . . . . . . . 328
Palau . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294

8 D

The Political World

A BC

Svalbard Franz Josef Land Severnaya Zemlya
(Norway) New Siberian Islands

Novaya Zemlya

1 Jan Mayen

(Norway)

ICELAND AY VIETNAM
FINLAND
W N

DENMARK NOR RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Faeroe Islands WEDE

(Denmark) S ESTONIA

IRELAND UNITED LATVIA
KINGDOM LITHUANIA

NETH. 1 POLAND BELARUS
3 UKRAINE
BELGIUM 2 4 56 MOLDOVA K A Z A K H S TA N MONGOLIA
LUXEMBOURG
SWAIPTNOZDERORTLRUARMGNAADOLROMSCFOPCRANOAAINNCCTOUE NIIS11TI347MAAA8L1LYA1TG9LARB1EM.0CERYA1COPC2EMR.BUUAASLTNRGUIMAARRESKNIAYEILARYEIIGBRAEAAONQROAAGNZZIIAE.RRTBUAARIUJANKAZFMNGBEEHNKA.INSITSATANKNYTRAGJNZIKSEITPSCAATNAL NHBHUI TANN
2

A N. KOREA
S. KOREA JAPAN

ISRAEL KUWAIT STAN MYANMAR
ALGERIA L I B YA PAKI (BURMA)
WESTERN JORDAN QATAR
SAHARA EGYPT INDIA LAOS
(disputed) BAHRAIN U.A.E. TAIWAN

SAUDI

CAPE MAURITANIA NIGER ERITREA ARABIA BANGLADESH Northern Mariana
VERDE MALI OMAN Islands (US)

GAMBIA SENEGAL BURKINA CHAD SUDAN YEMEN DJIBOUTI THAILAND PHILIPPINES

3 GUINEA- GUINEA NIGERIA OMALIA CAMBODIA Guam (US)
BISSAU BENIN C.A.R. ETHIOPIA
SRI BRUNEI MICRONESIA
SIERRA LEONE CAMEROON LANKA MALAYSIA PALAU

LIBERIA TOGO CONG O UGANDA KENYA S MALDIVES
RWANDA
CÔTE D’IVOIRE GHANA

SAO TOME & PRINCIPE DEM. REP. BURUNDI SINGAPORE INDONESIA PAPUA
EQUATORIAL GUINEA GABON CONGO NEW
TANZANIA SEYCHELLES GUINEA

Cabinda

ATLANTIC (Angola) ZAMBIA MALAWI COMOROS EAST
ANGOLA TIMOR

OCEAN ZIMBABWE MADAGASCAR

Tropic of Capricorn NAMIBIA BOTS. MAURITIUS

4 MOZAMBIQUE INDIAN AUSTRALIA

KEY TO NUMBERS SOUTH SWAZILAND OCEAN
1. Germany AFRICA LESOTHO

2. Liechtenstein

3. Czech Republic

4. Austria French Southern
5. Slovakia & Antarctic Territories
6. Hungary
7. Slovenia (France)

8. Croatia

9. Bosnia & Herzegovina

10. Serbia
5 11. Montenegro

12. Kosovo (disputed) SOUTHERN OCEAN
13. San Marino

14. Vatican City ANTARCTICA

A B CD

9

E F GH

ARCTIC Greenland 1
OCEAN (Denmark) 2
3
Alaska CANADA Arctic Circle 4
(US)
ATLANTIC
Aleutian Islands (US) OCEAN

PA C I F I C UNITED STATES

OCEAN OF AMERICA

Bermuda (UK)

Midway Islands MEXIC DOM. REP. Puerto Rico (US)
(US) BAHAMAS ST KITTS & NEVIS
ANTIGUA & BARBUDA

Hawaii BELIZE CUBA DOMINICA Tropic of Cancer
(US) ST LUCIA
O

MARSHALL Wallis & Futuna (France) GUATEMALA HAITI BARBADOS
EL SALVADOR JAMAICA
ST VINCENT &
ISLANDS Palmyra Atoll (US) HONDURAS COSTA RICA THE GRENADINES

NICARAGUA VENEZUELA GRENADA
PANAMA TRINIDAD & TOBAGO
Galapagos Islands COLOMBIA French Guiana (France)

NAURU K I R I B AT I (Ecuador) GUYANA SURINAME Equator
Tokelau ECUADOR
TUVALU BRAZIL
SOLOMON (NZ) Cook PERU
ISLANDS Islands
(NZ)

VANUATU French BOLIVIA

FIJI Niue (NZ) Polynesia Pitcairn CHILE PARAGUAY
(France) Islands

TONGA American (UK) Tropic of Capricorn
New Samoa (us)
Caledonia PA C I F I C ARGENTINA
(France) SAMOA
URUGUAY
OCEAN

NEW CONTINENTAL KEY Falkland Islands (UK)
ZEALAND North & Central
America South Georgia &
South America Europe CHILE South Sandwich Islands

Africa NW/SE Asia (UK) 5
Australasia
& Oceania

Antarctic Circle

EF GH

10 D

The Physical World

A BC

Spitsbergen Franz Josef Severnaya A R C T I C
Land

Zemlya New Siberian

1 Greenland Novaya Islands
Sea Laptev Sea
Zemlya

Barents Kara

Arctic CoCfiarCncAalaenrzcMyoaeIrrrIcaeksdseBlSaelIirntarsridanaltsPeiidBBtseIsbianhsNyeicnrSaAoioysfaturnllaSwaasNeMeSMaogereAatithdEhsal.inpt esUar rBadaNniDnRroaeanratvuhnbiaOEeaSBAuleiranloacapkPteSSDoaSCeylenairaseaiPuEeaaclrPnaaVtAseaougnlrsgraioanCsbPIrMlsiaaaauSnsttnelsipeaaa.ainuaSnAeraandluSKeauDHsOhebTicGP’icmaelananTMngtaeiSeosbalhueAunyaa2Mtltn9taoyo,a0iufin3ans5YtfsetElG(vl8oe8r5eos0vtYembra)LniagktMezeBaanPiTcklCaahaEShiliuaenwisnar(KtEiaaahSJanrKanseepPtabyaeSohunHtHefuisCarlohOS)hoinuSpekakrsepkkhshaahkiounioaotdglsefoioknYenis ew Ri
Tropic Lena
Denm
A F R I C A A S I AS i b e r i a2 Scan Am

ltic Sea
in

Ural Mountains

ZN
Red Seae
Hi
Niger Indus

PhiIlsilpapnidnse
Mekong
Cape Verde S a h e l Arabian Bay of South Sea
Islands Bengal China Mela
Ethiopian Sea
3 Highlands Horn of Sea
Malay
Africa Sri Lanka Peninsula

Equator Gulf of Congo ValleyLake Victoria Somali Borneo Celebes
Kilimanjaro Basin
Guinea ongo Basin Rift Sumatra E a st In d i e s New
C Guinea
ATLANTIC 19,340ft Seychelles Ninetyeast Ridge Java Sea
Great (5895m)
MozambiMqaudeagCahsacanrnel Java
Angola
Zambezi INDIAN Timor Sea G
Basin Great
Namib Desert Mauritius reat Dividing Range
OCEAN
Kalahari Réunion Sandy Desert

Tropic of CapricornMid-AtlanticRidge Desert OC EAN

4 Cape Southwest Indian Ridge Nullarbor Plain ling

Basin Dar

Cape of S AUSTRA
Good Hope
Kerguelen
o u t Tasmania

h e a s

t Indian Ridge

5 South Indian Basin

Antarctic Circle SOUTHERN OCEAN
ANTARCTICA

A B CD

11

E F GH

OCEAN Ellesmere Island

East Siberian Sea Queen Elizabeth Greenland 1
Islands 2
Arctic Circle 3
Beaufort Sea B a ff Baffin 4
sland Bay 5
Chukchi Sea Brooks Range in I

Kamchatka Mack Great Bear
Strait Lake
Bering Coas enzie

Bering Sea Mount McKinley Great Slave Hudson Labrador
(Denali) Lake Bay Sea
20,322ft (6194m) Gre
Rt Mooucntakinys
Aleutian Islands Gulf of NORTH
Alaska
Great Lakes Mts.
Northwest at A M Grand Banks Ridge
Pacific M E R I C Alachian of Newfoundland
Basin
P P
o
Mid-Pacific Mountains C

nesia lai Mississippi North American tlantic
Solomon un Appa
Islands
oast Mid-A

ns Basin

HIsalawnadisian tain Gulf of
Ranges Mexico
PACI
a OCE s West Indies Tropic of Cancer
i Caribbean
s AT L A N T I C
e Sea
n
y F I C Galapagos OCEAN Equator
l
o Islands A mazon
Amazon Basin
Micronesia AN e
And
Coral Fiji East Pacific Rise Peru SOUTH Brazil
Sea Basin AMERICA Basin
s
New Caledonia

Easter Island Cerro ParaCnháaGcroan Tropic of Capricorn
Aconcagua
Tasman North Southwest Pampas Argentine
Sea Island Pacific 22,831ft Basin
Basin (6959m)
LASIA
Patagonia
South New
Island Zealand

Falkland Islands

Tierra del Fuego South Georgia

Cape Horn s sa ge South Sandwich
Drake Pa Islands

Antarctic Antarctic Circle
Peninsula

E F GH

12 C D

Time Zones

AB

–2 –1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8 +9 +10

1 +1 ARCTIC
+3 +7 O C E A N
0
+10
–3
–1

+1
+11

0 +2 +5 +7 +9 +10

+3 +8
0 +4
2 +2 +6

+10

+1 +5

–1 0 +2 +8 +9
+31/2 +41/2
–1 0 +2 +53/4 +6 +10
3 –1 0 +1 +3 +5 +51/2 +6 +61/2 +9 +11
+4
+7
+3

+6 +8
+8

+2 +3 +4 +7 +8
+8
ATLANTIC Greenwich Meridian +3 +61/2
OCEAN +91/2 +10
+1 INDIAN
4 +2 OCEAN

0 +5

+5 +5

5
11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00

A B CD

13

E F GH

+11 InteDrantaetliionneal–11 –10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2
+12
1

–4 0
–3 –1

–9

–10 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 2
–31/2 3
4
PA C I F I C ATLANTIC
OCEAN OCEAN

–11 –5
–10 –4

+12 –10 –41/2

+13 +14 –5 Equator
–4
–91/2 –3
+11 –10 –10
+13
–8 –6
+111/2

+101/2 –4 –3

+12 PA C I F I C –3 –4
+123/4 OCEAN

–2

5

23:00 24:00 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 09:00 10:00

–3

E F GH

14

The
world's
regions

15

A B C DE
1
95 I A Arctic Circle 94 16 NORTH AMERICA

AS EU North & Central America

PE 1
O
Franz Josef Land R
(to Russia)

A R C T I C North Svalbard
Pole (to Norway)

134 OCEAN 62 2
Bering Sea

2 Bering Strait
Gre
Rocky Mou Queen Elizabeth Jan Mayen
(to Norway)
Aleutian Isl
ands Yukon Beaufort Islands
Sea
ALASKA(US) ICELAND

Mount McKinley

(Denali)Mackenzie Baffin Greenland 3
20,322ft (6194m) Baffin Bay
(Denmark)
Gulf of
3 Alaska Arctic Circle

Great Bear Island

Lake

Great Slave Lake

PACIFIC Lake Athabasca Labrador
OCEAN Sea

C Reindeer H u d s o n Labr
A Lake Bay
4 NADA ador 4
LMa uorue nn tt ai ai nn s
Snake Lake Winnipeg

ntains at Great St. St Pierre &
Mount Whitney Lake Lakes enceLawr Miquelon
14,495ft (4418m) Superior
Lake Huron (France)
UNITED STATES
Missouri
5 Death Valley Lake Lake Ontario 5
-282ft (-86m) Pl Michigan
Mountains
olorado rOF AMERICA Lake Erie ATLANTIC
C A Ohio OCEAN
ai kansas i Appalachian
Tropic of Cancer Mississipp Bermuda
ns (UK)
SierRraioSMGierarMardnadreeMOaEcdcriedXeOnrtiaelnI talC
Sargasso Sea

Virgin Islands (US)

6 Gulf of Mexico Turks & Caicos British Virgin 6
Islands (UK) Islands (UK) 7
Clipperton Island
(French Polynesia) BAHAMAS DOMINICAN Anguilla (UK)
7 REPUBLIC
ST KITTS

O CUBA HAITI Puerto & NEVIS
Cayman Islands Rico
(UK) (US) ANTIGUA &
BARBUDA
BELIZE JAMAICA Montserrat (UK)
DOMINICA Guadeloupe
(France)

ST LUCIA

GUATEMALA HONDURAS Martinique (France)

ST VINCENT & THE GRENADINES BARBADOS

EL SALVADOR NICARAGUA Aruba (Neth.) GRENADA
COSTA RICA
Netherlands TRINIDAD
Antilles & TOBAGO
(Neth.)

134 Equator PACIFIC PANAMA 48 NORTH AMERICA 17

OCEAN Andes SOUTH Equator

0 km 1000 Galapagos Islands AMERICA

8 1000 (Ecuador) 8
0 miles

135 38

AB CDE

18 NORTH AMERICA D

Western Canada & Alaska

A BC

97 ARCTIC

RUSSIAN

1 FEDERATION Wrangel I.

In 1867 William Henry Seward negotiated Arctic Circle
the purchase of Alaska from Russia for
the price of $7,200,000, which amounted
to around two cents per acre (0.4 hectares).

Attu I. Bering
Sea
Bering Strait

2 135 Rat Is Aleut St. Lawrence I. Bro oks Prudhoe
3 Bay
4 135 LA SK
A Ra n g e

A
kon (part of USA)
ian Nunivak I. Yu

Mt McKinley

Umnak I. I s l a (Denali) Fairbanks
20,322ft (6194m)
Dutch Harbor
n d s Alaska Range
Anchorage
Unalaska I.

Kodiak I. Valdez YUKON
Kodiak Cordova TERRITORY

The Aleutian Islands span some 1200 miles WHITEHORSE Rocky
(1800 km) and by crossing the 180º line of
longitude, form both the most easterly Gulf
and westerly extents of the United States.
of JUNEAU
Alaska

PACI FIC Ketchikan

OCEAN Prince Rupert
Queen Charlotte Is.

BRITISH

On July 9, 1958, a massive landslide COLUMBIA

Queen Charlotte
Sound
dropped 40 million cubic yards
Port Hardy
5 (30.6 million cu m) of rock into Lituya Bay, Vancouver I.
creating a wave 1720 ft (524 m) high.
0 km 400

0 miles 400 135 VICTORIA

A B CD

NORTH AMERICA 19

E F GH

OCEAN 64
Greenland

Islands (Danish external 1
2
Ellesmere territory) 3
4
Queen Elizabeth Axel Island 5

Heiberg Despite an area of 808,109 sq miles
Island (2,092,993 sq km), the northerly province
of Nunavut has only 530 miles (850 km)
of roads and highway.

Bathurst I. Devon Sound Baffin Bay
Resolute
Melville Island Baffin Island Davis Strait 64
Island Lancaster

Beaufort Banks Viscount Somerset
Sea Island Melville Prince Island

Sound of

Wales I.

Amundsen Victoria

Gulf Island King Arctic Circle

Inuvik William I. IQALUIT
(Frobisher Bay)

Kugluktuk NUNAVUT Hudson Strait
(Coppermine)

Great Bear Lake Southampton I.

NORTHWEST

TERRITORIES

Mackenzie YELLOWKNIFE Dubawnt Rankin QUÉBEC
Hay River Great Slave Lake 20
Inlet H u d s o n
Fort Smith Bay

ALBERTA Lake Churchill
Athabasca
MANITOBA
Fort
McMurray AD
Fort

C A NSt. John
Mountains SASKATCHEWAN

Thompson A
ONTARIO
Grande Prairie Flin Flon
Only just over 1% of Canada’s
Prince Leduc EDMONTONskatPchreiwnacne Albert Lake 3.5 million sq miles (9.1 million sq km)
George Winnipeg land area is devoted to grain production,
yet this yields around 25 million tons
Sa (tonnes) of wheat every year.

Red Deer Saskatoon

Kamloops Calgary REGINA Yorkton WINNIPEG

Vancouver Lethbridge Estevan Brandon

Kelowna 25 U S A

E F GH

20 NORTH AMERICA C D

Eastern Canada

AB

Southampton I. Salisbury I.
19 Nottingham I.

Coats I. Ivujivik

1 NUNAVUT

Hudson Mansel I.

Bay Péninsule

The largest hydroelectric d'Ungava
complex in Canada at

19 M A N I T O B A James Bay produces Inukjuak
over 16,000 megawatts (Port Harrison)
2 of power.
The Trans-Canada Highway,
running from St. John’s in Belcher Is. L. Minto
the east to Victoria in the
west, is 4990 miles (Nunavut)
(8030 km) long.
Peawanuck Kuujjuarapik
Severn (Poste-de-la-Baleine)

Winisk James
Attawapiskat Bay

C A N A3
A t t aw apisk at Albany Akimiski I. Eastmai n
L. Seul (Nunavut)

O N T A R I O Q U ÉKenora
Armstrong Moosonee L. Mistassini

Lake L. Nipigon

of the Thunder Bay Cochrane Rés. Gouin
Woods Timmins

MINNESOTA Lake Superior Wawa

4 25 Sudbury Ottawa

Lake Superior is the largest freshwater Sault North BayOTTAWA
lake in the world, covering an area Sainte Marie Lake
of 31,820 sq miles (82,413 sq km). HKuirtocnhTeOnRePOeOrNtesThrbOaoHwroaaumghiOltLnoatnakreiKoinNgEsWton

W I S C O N S I N Lake YORK
UNITED STATES Michigan M I C H I G A N

I O W A OF AMERICA London
Lake Erie St. Catharines
5 ILLINOIS Windsor

22 INDIANA OHIO PENNSYLVANIA

A B CD

NORTH AMERICA 21

E F GH

Baffin I. 64

Hudson Strait Labrador 1
Sea 48 2
Akpatok I.
(Nunavut) Canada has the world’s longest coastline
(including tens of thousands of islands), with a
Ungava total length of 151,019 miles (243,042 km).
Bay
Labra ATLANTIC
Kuujjuaq
Caniapisc Nain
au
Schefferville Hopedale OCEAN

dor Makkovik
Cartwright

Réservoir Smallwood NEWFOUNDLAND Strait of Belle Isle
Caniapiscau Reservoir & LABRADOR

D Réservoir A Newfoundland
Manicouagan
Havre- Gander 3
Saint-Pierre
B E C Sept-Îles Grand Falls ST.JOHN'S
Île d’Anticosti Corner Brook

L. Saint-Jean St. LawrenceGaspé Gulf of St. CLawrena cbeo t Channel-Port- Cape Race
Jonquière aux-Basques
PRINCE
Chicoutimi Bathurst EDWARD Strait St Pierre
NEW ISLAND & Miquelon
(French territorial
Sydney collectivity)

QUÉBEC BRUNSWICK Moncton CHARLOTTETOWN

FREDERICTON NOVASCOTIA 48 4
Trois-Rivières

Sherbrooke Saint John Dartmouth

Montréal MAINE HALIFAX ATLANTI C
Yarmouth

NEW The Bay of Fundy has the world’s O C E A N
HAMPSHIRE
highest tidal range, with water’s rising
VERMONT

MASSACHUSETTS 20–56 ft (5–17 m) every high tide as

RHODE ISLAND around 115 billion tons (tonnes) of 0 km 300 5
CONNECTICUT water flows into the bay. 0 miles 300

48

E F GH

22 NORTH AMERICA D

USA: The Northeast

A BC

20 CA

MINNESOTA Lake Superior

1

Superior ONTARIO

Ironwood Marquette

Sault Ste Marie

Iron Mountain

Ladysmith Cheboygan

WISCONSIN Lake Huron

2 25 Eau Claire MICHIGAN

Miss Green Bay Traverse
City
issippi La Crosse Oshkosh
Lake

Michigan Bay City

IOWA MADISON Grand Rapids Saginaw Flint

Milwaukee

The Chicago River Waukegan LANSING
originally flowed into
3 Rockford Chicago Ann Arbor Detroit
Lake Erie Erie
Lake Michigan, but was Aurora

reversed in 1900 by Joliet South Toledo Cleveland
Gary Bend
the completion of Rock Island Youngstown
a canal. Galesburg Fort Wayne Akron

Peoria Mansfield Canton

I L L I N O I S INDIANA Muncie O H I O Wheeling
Champaign

4 25 SPRINGFIELD Decatur INDIANAPOLIS Dayton COLUMBUS

Effingham Terre Haute Cincinnati

East St Louis abash Bloomington Ohio

Mt. Vernon W Louisville Huntington
FRANKFORT
Evansville CHARLESTON
Owensboro WEST
MISSOURI Carbondale Lexington
Richmond VIRGINIA
Ohio
KENTUCKY
5
ARKANSAS Paducah Hopkinsville Bowling London
30 Green

A B CD

NORTH AMERICA 23

E F GH

NADA 21 NEW 1
Presque Isle BRUNSWICK 2
QUÉBEC 3
MAINE 4
f Fundy 5
At times of peak flow, around Calais
45 million US gallons (170 million litres) Bangor
of water plunge over the167 ft (52 m) Bay o N O V A
drop of Niagara Falls every minute. SCOTIA

E

Burlington T AUGUSTA
MONTPELIER IR
Ogdensburg
N ine 21
SH Lewiston

Watertown Rutland MO Portland Gulf of M
AMP a

R CONCORD
H

Lake Ontario Utica E ATLANTIC
W
Syracuse
V Manchester
NE

Buffalo Rochester R KALBSApNriYngfieWldorcester BOSTON OCEAN
Niagara Cape Cod
NEW YO
MASSACHUSETTS
Binghamton
Falls Elmira HARTFORD PROVIDENCE
RHODE ISLAND
n
Williamsport Scranton M CONNECTICUT
ts.
New Haven
Hudson
hNi aewark New York
PENNSYLVAN IA l a c Long Island
Allentown
Pittsburgh App a TRENTON In 1626, the Dutch bought Manhattan Island
HARRISBURG from the local Native Americans in exchange
for goods worth around US$1000. Today, this
Gettysburg Philadelphia NEW JERSEY would buy around 50 sq in (325 sq cm) of
Wilmington
prime New York City real estate.
Cumberland Baltimore
DOVER Atlantic City 48
DELAWARE
Arlington
ANNAPOLIS

an WASHINGTON, D.C.
ns

i
i

h MARYLAND The Pentagon building in Arlington, Virginia,
a contains nearly 100,000 miles (161,000 km) of
Fredericksburg telephone cable, enough to go around the
pMpoaul an tc circumference of the Earth almost four times.
Charlottesville

A VIRGINIA RICHMOND 0 km 200
Chesapeake Bay 200
Roanoke 0 miles
Newport News 31
Danville Norfolk

NORTH CAROLINA

E F GH

24 NORTH AMERICA D

USA: Central States

A BC

BRITISH 19
COLUMBIA ALBERTA

1 WASHINGTON S A S K A T C H E WA N

Havre Malta

At 20,016 ft (6104 m), Kalispell Minot
or almost 4 miles (6 km)
in length, the Fort Peck Missoula Great Falls Missouri Fort Peck L. Williston
Dam is the largest earth-
filled hydraulic dam in M ONTA NA Glendive L. Sakakawea
the United States.
Butte HELENA NORTH
2 26
Bozeman YellowstoPowder ne
BighMortns. Dickinson

Rocky Miles City

Billings

OREGON Sheridan SOUTH
Gillette
IDAHO Black
WYOMING H i l l s Rapid City
The Great Salt Lake is a remnant of the M o u n t ains
prehistoric Lake Bonneville, which once
covered almost 20,000 square miles
(51,800 sq km) of western Utah.

3

The world’s largest Casper

known organism is a Rock Torrington Scottsbluff
100 acre (43 hectare) Springs
grove of aspen trees Great Ogden N E BN. Platte
in Utah. Derived from Salt Lake

a single tree, it contains SALT LAKE Laramie CHEYENNE
over 47,000 stems CITY
Orem Fort Collins Ogallala
Provo
and weighs over
4 6000 tons (tonnes). UTAH Boulder

Grand DENVER
Lakewood Aurora
27 Junction

C O L O R A D ORichfield
do
Colora Colorado Springs
N E VAD A Pueblo
Durango
L. Powell Arkansas

CALIFORNIA
5 ARIZONA
NEW MEXICO

28 T E X A S

A B CD

NORTH AMERICA 25

E F GH

C ANAD A 20

MANITOBA Lake of the Woods 1

ONTARIO

MINNESOTA Lake Superior

Grand Forks Virginia

DAKOTA Moorhead Duluth 22

BISMARCK Fargo Brainerd Access to the St. Lawrence Seaway 2
via the Great Lakes makes Duluth 3
4
the most westerly Atlantic port in 5

Aberdeen St Cloud the US, some 1100 miles (1770 km)

SAINT from the Atlantic ocean. M
IC
DAKOTA Minneapolis PAUL W I S C O N S I N

Watertown Lake
Michigan
Rochester
PIERRE HIGAN
Mitchell Sioux Falls
Missis
Arkansa Mason City

Missouri Dubuque

Sioux City IOWA Cedar Rapids OHIO

RASKA DES MOINES ILLINOIS INDIANA
Davenport
North Columbus
Omaha Council Bluffs Burlington The deadliest tornado in US
Platte LINCOLN history struck Missouri on
Platte March 18, 1925. Leaving a

Hastings Kirksville sippi continuous 219 mile (352 km)

Oakley St Joseph track, the tornado crossed three
Hays states and killed 695 people.
Independence
KANS Kansas City Saint 22
TOPEKA Missouri Louis

Kansas City

AS JEFFERSON CITY

MISSOURI KENTUCKY

Pratt Wichita Springfield
Dodge

City Ozark Plateau TENNESSEE

s ARKANSAS 30 0 km 200

OKLAHOMA

0 miles 200

E F GH

AB CDE

26 NORTH AMERICA19 19

USA: The WestCANADA ALBERTA

1 Vancouver Bitterroot RangeBRITISH COLUMBIAThe Boeing aircraft factory in1
Island Everett is the world’s largest 2
Coast Bellingham building by volume at 3
Cascade Range Columbia 472 million cu ft (13.3 million cu m), 4
covering 100 acres (40 hectares).

Port Angeles Everett

Seattle Bellevue Spokane Coeur d'Alene

Tacoma M O N T A N A 24

2 135 OLYMPIA Ellensburg Hells Canyon is the
Aberdeen deepest in the US,
WASHINGTON with cliffs up to 7993 ft
Yakima (2436 m) high.
Richland Walla Lewiston
Longview Walla Mts.
Astoria
Ranges Kennewick
Vancouver Columbia Blue
Snake
Portland Pendleton La Grande

SALEM
Range
Newport Albany Baker Hells Canyon

3 Corvallis IDAHO

Eugene Springfield Bend
Cascade
Coos Bay Coast Burns Caldwell BOISE Idaho Falls
Bandon
OREGON Nampa American
4 Falls Res.
Crescent Pocatello
City
Medford Snake
Twin Falls

Klamath Falls

Alturas Goose Lake Great
Weed Basin

RangesRedding Susanville Humboldt Winnemucca UTAH
Elko

5 Pyramid Lake At Black Rock Desert 5
Ukiah on October 15, 1997,
N E V A D AChico ThrustSSC, driven
S Reno Sparks by Andy Green,
Fallon became the first land
vehicle to break the
Yuba ierra Lake Tahoe Ely sound barrier by
City CARSON CITY achieving a speed
of 763 mph
SACRAMENTO Hawthorne (1228 km/h).
Santa Rosa

Berkeley Stockton Nevada Tonopah
San Francisco Oakland

Modesto

6 San Jose San Merced Bishop 6

Santa Cruz Joaquin V Fresno Death Valley

Salinas Coa

Monterey alley Mt Whitney
14,495 ft
s Visalia (4418m) -282 ft Lake Mead

t C A L I F O R N I A(-86m)

The Golden Gate Bridge, Las Vegas

completed in 1937, has Rang Bakersfield ARIZONA
Mojave
80,000 miles (129,000 km) of Desert 28
Death Valley is not
7 wire in its two main cables, es Mojave Barstow 7
weighing a total of Lancaster 8

22,200 tons (tonnes). Santa Barbara only the lowest point
in North America, at
135 Oxnard Pasadena Colorado NORTH AMERICA 27
Santa Rosa I. Los Angeles
San Bernardino 282 ft (86 m) below

Riverside
Long Beach Santa Ana Palm Springs
PACIFIC Channel Huntington Beach sea level, it is also
OCEAN Islands Santa Catalina I. Oceanside the hottest, with
a maximum air
San Nicolas I. San Salton temperature of
Clemente I. Sea 134ºF (57ºC)

San Diego

8 0 km 200 Chula Vista M E X I C O recorded in 1913.
0 miles 200

32 32

AB CDE

28 NORTH AMERICA D

USA: The Southwest

A BC

NEVADA 24 U T A H COLORADO

The Colorado River has L. Powell

1 cut down some 6242 ft Painte

(2000 m) into the Colorado rand Canyon Farmington
Colorado Plateau G
to form the Grand L. Mead Colorado d Desert
Canyon, exposing Rio Grande
Los Alamos
rock strata over Plateau Gallup SANTA FE Pecos
2 billion years old.
Flagstaff Albuquerque

2 27 Prescott NEW

ARIZONA

CALIFORNIA Glendale Scottsdale MEXICO
Mesa
PHOENIX
Sonoran Roswell
Yuma Artesia
Carlsbad
D e s e r t Casa Grande Alamogordo
Las Cruces
Tucson

3 Douglas El Paso

Meteor Crater was formed when a Rio
meteor about 150 ft (46 m) across
struck the desert at about 40,000 mph
(64,372 km/h) creating a bowl-shaped
depression 4,150 ft (1,265 m) wide and
570 ft (174 m) deep.

4 135
GrandeThe first atomic bomb was
California tested at Trinity Site near
Alamogordo on July 16, 1945,
de yielding an explosive force
Golfo equivalent to 20,000 tons
(tonnes) of TNT from around
2.2 lbs (1 kg) of plutonium-239.

PACIFIC MEXI
OCEAN
CD
5 0 km 200

0 miles 200 32
B
A

NORTH AMERICA 29

E F GH

KANSAS 25

Ponca City 1

Enid Tulsa

Broken Arrow

OKLAHOMA

CanAadmianarilBloorger OKLAHOMA CITY Shawnee

Pampa Norman ARKANSAS

Clovis Red River Lawton Red River 30 2
Vernon Paris 3
On January 10, 1901, 4
the Lucas Gusher blew

Lubbock Wichita Falls oil 150 ft (46 m) into the
Denton air, flowing at 100,000
barrels a day until it was
Brownfield Fort Worth Arlington Longview eventually capped nine

Hobbs Abilene Dallas days later.
Sweetwater Tyler
Br Jacksonville
Big Spring
es
Odessa Midland Colorado Waco Toledo Bend Res.
Pecos azos San An Nech
San Angelo Rio Gran
XAS LOUISIANA
TE
Bryan Beaumont
L. Travis

Edwards AUSTIN Houston Port Arthur

Plateau Victoria Pasadena
San Antonio tonio
Texas City
Del Rio Galveston 30

Freeport

Eagle Pass

CO Corpus Christi Gulf
of
Laredo Kingsville

Padre Island Mexico

de 5

Brownsville 33

E F GH

30 NORTH AMERICA D

USA: The Southeast

A BC

25 M I S S O U R I ILLINOIS KENTUCKY

1 Fayetteville Walnut Ridge Clarksville NASHVILLE

OKLAHOMA Murfreesboro

Fort Smith ARKANSAS Tennessee TENNESSEE

North Little Rock Memphis Chattanooga

LITTLE ROCK Florence Huntsville
Columbus
Hot Springs ArPine kansas Rome
Oua Bluff Gadsden

2 29 Texarkana chita Yazoo ATLANTA

Birmingham

Monroe MISSISSIPPI Demopolis MONTGOMERY

Shreveport LOUISIANA JACKSON

Re Mississippi Meridian Columbus

TEXAS Pearl ALABAMA
d R.
Alexandria Hattiesburg

Dothan

3 Lake Charles BATON ROUGE Mobile TALLAHASSEE
Pensacola
Lafayette Gulfport
Biloxi Panama City
Metairie
New Orleans

Mississippi
Delta

4 29 In August 2005 Hurricane Katrina The Mississippi/Missouri river system
cut a swath through New Orleans drains around one-third of the US,
with winds of up to 175 mph (278 km/h). covering 1,245,000 sq miles
At least 1836 people lost their lives (3,225,000 sq km) including 31
and the area sustained over US$100 states and two Canadian provinces.
billion of damage.

0 km 200 Gulf of
0 miles 200 Mexico
5

33

A B CD

NORTH AMERICA 31

E F GH

an Mts. VIRGINIA 23

KAnshoexvKviilnlielglespGoAarspttpoanNliaacOhGiRreCTeSWhHnaaislnerblCsmoottroAtoneR- O Durham Roanoke Cape Hatteras 1
RALEIGH 2
Havelock 3
LINA 4
5
Fayetteville

Greenville Spartanburg

COLUMBIA Florence Wilmington

Athens S O U T H C A R O L I N A Cape Fear 48
48
L. Marion The carnivorous Venus flytrap plant,
Augusta found only on the wet coastal plains of
North and South Carolina, can count.
Macon Savanna Charleston It requires two separate stimuli on
trigger hairs before the trap is sprung
GEORGIA h to avoid “false alarms” caused by
raindrops, twigs, etc.
Savannah

Albany

Valdosta Brunswick ATLANTIC

Jacksonville OCEAN

FLORIDA During the Apollo Space Program
NASA launched a total of 13 Saturn V
Daytona Beach rockets from the Kennedy Space Center.
Each rocket was 363 ft (111 m) high,
Orlando weighed around 3000 tons (tonnes)
and generated 7,648,000 lbs (34 MN)
Tampa Cape Canaveral of thrust at launch.
Melbourne
Clearwater

St Petersburg

Lake West Palm Beach
Okeechobee

Fort Myers The Pompano Beach Grand Bahama I.
Everglades
Fort Lauderdale
Miami
Miami Beach B A H A M A S
Florida
Florida Keys Straits of New Providence
Key West Andros I. 36

E F GH

32 NORTH AMERICA B C D
NEW MEXICO
1 Mexico 28 UNITED
ARIZONA Ciudad Juárez Rio
A

Mexicali

Tijuana Desierto
de Altar
Ensenada

Grande

I. Ángel MS i e r r a M a d r e O c c i d e nChihuahua adre
de la M
Sierra
Guarda

Hermosillo
Baja
I. Cedros Golfo de Yaqui

2 135 Ca Conchos

Large examples of the Monclova
Saguaro cactus, found in the
Altar Desert, can take nearly Calif Ciudad
150 years to grow to their full
height of around 45 ft (14 m), lifo o r Obregón
and can hold several tons
3 (tonnes) of water. r nia Gómez Palacio
Torreón
Tropic of Cancer n

i Los Mochis

a

Culiacán E

La Paz Durango

Mazatlán Xt a l
Fresnillo
Zacatecas

Gray whales have one of the longest migrations of any Islas Aguascalientes
mammal, traveling some 12,500 miles (20,000 km) Marías Tepic
every year from the Arctic Ocean to their winter
breeding grounds in the Golfo de California. Guadalajara

4 135 PA C I F I C Puerto Vallarta

L. de Chapala

OCEAN Islas Revillagigedo
(part of Mexico)

0 km 200 The cliff divers of Acapulco must time their dive from the
5 0 miles 148 ft (45 m) cliff at La Quebrada to coincide with the

200 incoming swells to avoid being dashed on the rocks

135 in the shallow inlet.

A B CD

NORTH AMERICA 33

E F GH

30

STATES OF AMERICA LOUISIANA 1

Rio Grande TEXAS In spring 2001, the Rio Grande stopped flowing
into the Gulf of Mexico for the first time in
Nuevo Laredo recorded history, allowing illegal immigrants 36
to simply walk into the US. 2

Reynosa Gulf of Tropic of Cancer
Mexico
Monterrey Matamoros

Saltillo

O It is thought that “The Ballgame,” a ritual sport
r
i e Ciudad Victoria played by Maya and Aztec civilizations, and a

n t al forerunner of volleyball, often ended Cancún 3
Isla 4
with members of the losing team Cozumel 5

San Luis Tampico being sacrificed. Mérida
Potosí Ciudad Valles

Río Verde Yucatan

Dolores Hidalgo Poza Rica Campeche Peninsula

León Bahía de Campeche
I Querétaro
Pachuca Tulancingo

Xalapa 34

Morelia MEXICO Veracruz U AT E M A L A
BELIZE
Cuernavaca CCITY Puebla Coatzacoalcos Villahermosa

Uruapan Minatitlán

S ie r Balsas Tehuacán O

r a Ma Tuxtla

d r e del Oaxaca

Acapulco Sur

Golfo Tapachula HONDURAS
de

Tehuantepec 34 G

EL SALVADOR

E F GH

34 NORTH AMERICA

Central America

AB C D

33

1 MEXICO Belize City

Usu Flores BELMOPAN

San Ignacio
NICARAGUA
GUATEMAL A BELIZE Islas de la Bahía
macinta
ca
Gulf of Honduras Trujillo
Puerto Cortés

2 33 Huehuetenango Cobán Lago Puerto San Pedro La Ceiba
Barrios Sula
Quezaltenango de Izabal
Zacapa Patu

GUATEMALA CITY Santa Rosa HONDURAS

de Copán Comayagua Juticalpa
Escuintla La Esperanza
TEGUCIGALPA Coco
Santa Ana

SAN SALVADOR San Miguel

EL SALVADOR Choluteca Somoto

3 Gulf of Fonseca Estelí Jinotega
Chinandega Matagalpa
PA C I F I C León
Corinto Juigalpa

MANAGUA Lago de

OCEAN Granada Nicaragua
Rivas
San Juan

For many years it was thought that the sharks in Península de Liberia
Lake Nicaragua were a unique freshwater species.
4 135 However, research has shown that they are in fact Nicoya Alajuela

Bull Sharks that have swum 120 miles (190 km) up Puntarenas
the San Juan River from the Caribbean Sea.
SAN JOSÉ

5 0 km The strongest living creature is the Rhinoceros Beetle,
0 miles found in the jungles of Costa Rica. It can support
up to 850 times it’s own body weight, equivalent to
a human carrying about 70 tons (tonnes).

200

200 135

A B CD

NORTH AMERICA 35

E F GH

The Great Blue Hole in Lighthouse Reef, a submerged 36 HAITI 1
cave some 1000 ft (303 m) in diameter and
400 ft (120 m) deep, was originally explored by Greater Antilles
Jacques Cousteau, co-inventor of the aqualung.

Islas Santanilla JAMAICA
(part of Honduras)

Bajo Nuevo 36 2
(part of Colombia)

Mosquito C oastCayos Miskitos Caribbean

COI. de ProvidenciaSea
(part of Colombia)

I. de San Andrés 3
(part of Colombia) 4
5
Islas del Maíz

Bluefields Each chamber at Gatun Locks on the Panama Canal
is 110 ft (33 m) wide and 1000 ft (303 m) long.

COSTA The locks took four years to build and required
2 million cubic yards (1.5 million cu m)
of concrete.

RICA 40

Limón

Cartago
P A N A M Ade TCaolradmilalenrcaaColón
Gulf
PANAMA CITY of LOMBIA
Panama
David Penonomé Isla del Darien
Rey 40
Canal

Golfo Santiago Chitré Golfo
de de
Las Tablas
Chiriquí Panamá

E F GH

36 NORTH AMERICA C D

The Caribbean

AB

Gulf 31 Grand Freeport
Bahama I.

o f UNITED STATES Florida Great Abaco

1 c o OF AMERICA

C U B A2 HAVANA
AMexiofNASSAUNew Providence
HAndros I. Eleuthera I.
Tropic of ACancerStraitsaren Chan
33 B Cat I.
Pinar del
Snta
n Channel
Yucata Matanzas Great MLong I.
Exuma I. Acklins I. A
Río Santa Clara nel Mayaguana

Cienfuegos S

Isla de la Juventud Holguín Great
Inagua
Camagüey
G r e a Bayamo
Guantánamo

Cayman Islands George Town t Santiago Cap-Haïtien
e de Cuba
(UK dependent Gonaïves
territory) r
HAITI
Montego Bay
A3 PORT-AU-PRINCE

The Bee Hummingbird, found in Cuba, KINGSTON Jérémie Jacmel
is the smallest bird in the world. An adult
n tmale measures around 2 inches (5 cm)
i lfrom beak to tail and weighs about

0.06 oz (1.8 gms).
JAMAICA

Navassa Island
(US unincorporated
territory)

HONDURAS Caribbean

4 35 Sea

GUA
NICARA
0 km 200
5 0 miles 200

35 COLOMBIA

A B CD

NORTH AMERICA 37

E F GH

48 1
Tropic of Cancer
ATLANTIC
OCEAN

Turks & Milwaukee Deep, which lies 84 miles (135 km) 48 2
Caicos Islands off the north coast of Puerto Rico, is the deepest point 48 3
in the Atlantic Ocean. It is 28,231 ft (8605 m), or just 4
(UK dependent over 5 miles (8 km), below sea level. 5
territory)

Monte Cristi Leeward

l e sPuerto Plata Virgin Islands British Virgin Anguilla Isla
Santiago (US unincorporated Islands
(UK dependent territory)
territory) (UK dependent The Valley
territory)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
Road
San Juan CharlotteTown ANTIGUA nds
& BARBUDA
SANTO La Romana Amalie Barbuda

DOMINGO Puerto Rico BASSETERRE Antigua

(US commonwealth ST KITTS & NEVIS ST JOHN'S
territory)
Montserrat Plymouth
(UK dependent territory) Guadeloupe
(French overseas
Basse-Terre department)
The deadliest volcanic eruption W
of the 20th century took place on
L

ind ROSEAU DOMINICA

May 8, 1902, when Mount Pelee es Martinique
erupted on Martinique, killing Fort-de-France (French overseas
30,000 people, around 15% wa
ST LUCIA department)
se

r

r

d

of the island’s population. ST VINCENT & CASTRIES
THE GRENADINES
Aruba L e s s BARBADOS
(autonomous e Islands
part BRIDGETOWN
r Antilles KINGSTOWN
Antilles
of Netherlands) GRENADA

Oranjestad Netherlands Antilles ST GEORGE'S
Willemstad (autonomous part
of Netherlands) Tobago TRINIDAD
& TOBAGO
Isla de Margarita

VENEZUELA PORT-OF-SPAIN
41 San Fernando

E F GH

AB CDE

17 48 38 SOUTH AMERICA

1 Grea 1 South America

Jamaica t e r Hispaniola Puerto
Rico
Antilles Less ATLANTIC
OCEAN
Caribbean Sea er Antilles
gdalena
2 17 a Trinidad 49 2
ca M (claimed by
Cau Orinoco Venezuela)
Llanos
Meta VENEZUELA French

G u GUYANA Guiana
(France)
i
a n SURINAME
COLOMBIA a
Highlands
Equator Equator
Rio Negro (claimed by
ECUADOR Represa Suriname) Araguaia zon
Am Balbina Ama Tocantins
on
az
Chimborazo antanalNapoum ayoIçá
20,702ft (6310m)
3 AltiplanoB A maazon s 3
4
M arañón U iTapajós n
Put R eUcayali Madeira
Beni PuJuruáBrus R A Z I Planalto
Ed da
Pn S
A L Borborema
Xingu ão Francisco

Chapada dos Parecis Represa de
P Sobradinho

n

s a
s
Lake
4 Titicaca i
d

il
n

z
a

Planalto de ra
hl

BOLIVIA Mato Grosso B
g

i

H

s

Tropic of Capricorn Atacama Ande Chaco Serra Geral Serra do Mar Tropic of Capricorn
Isla San Ambrosio Desert PParAaRguAaGy UAY
n Pilcomayo
5 (Chile) Isla San Félix Paraná
(Chile) ra ay 5
6
PACIFIC Cerro OjosG 7
OCEAN del Salado 8
22,572ft A
Islas Juan Fernández (6880m)
(Chile) I LE N Paraná
o tUraugmui a
6
I p
Isla de Chiloé Cerro Aconcagua
22,835ft o Lagoa dos Patos
(6959m) Mirim Lagoon
s

NT e Negro

as M

CH E Pamp URUGUAY ATLANTIC
OCEAN
G Rio de la Plata

R RCíooNloergardoo Bahía Blanca

a Golfo San Matías

ni Península
Valdés
A

o

g 0 km 1000
0 miles
a DeseadGoulf of San Jorge

t 1000
49
a Chic o Bahía Grande

P

7 135 West Falkland Falkland Islands
(UK)

East Falkland

Tierra del Fuego South Georgia SOUTH AMERICA 39

Strait of CapDe rHaokrenPassage (UK)
Magellan
South Shetland Islands Scotia Sea

South Sandwich
Islands
(UK)

South Orkney Islands

8

ANTARCTICA

136 136

AB CDE

40 SOUTH AMERICA D

Northern South America

A BC

36 Gulf Lesser
of
Caribbean Santa Marta Ríohacha Venezuela Coro
Maicao
Sea Barranquilla CARACAS
1 Cartagena Valledupar Maracaibo Maracay
Cabimas
Ciudad Ojeda

Sincelejo Lago de Barquisimeto Valencia
Montería Maracaibo Valera
PANAMA Acarigua

ca Mérida Guanare San Juan
Cau de los Morros
Magd a lena oBarinas anare
Cúcuta Ll
Gu
San Cristóbalá San Fernando
Arauc a A pure
2 35 V E N EBucaramanga
Bello Barrancaberneja Arauca

Medellín Itagüí Tunja s Puerto Carreño

PA C I F I C Quibdó Yopal
Meta
Manizales

Pereira d
Armenia e
AO C E A N
BOGOTÁ
Ibagué

Villavicencio
IBuenaventura Guaviare
B3 Cali
M
Popayán Neiva San José Negr

A del Guaviare
n C
Esmeraldas Pasto Florencia O Mitú
Mocoa L
Tulcán O

Equator Ibarra A guarico The first coffee
QUITO seedlings were
brought to
4 135 Santo Domingo DOR Caquet Colombia in
Manta de los Colorados 1804 by Jesuit
missionaries;
Portoviejo Ambato today, Colombia
produces over
Guayaquil Riobamba A Putumayo 700,000 tons
Milagro (tonnes) of
C U Nestling between snow capped coffee beans
Cuenca E peaks, at 9350 ft (2850 m) every year.
Golfo de Quito is the second highest

Guayaquil Machala

P E R U5 Loja capital in the world.

42

A B CD

SOUTH AMERICA 41

E F GH

Antilles GRENADA 37

Isla de Margarita ATLANTIC

CumanáBarceloCManraaútpuaTnrhíone Serpent's&TRTINOIBDAAGDO OCEAN 1
Mouth 2
El Tigre sOrinoco Tucupita The Guiana Shield is one of the 3
Earth’s oldest surfaces, formed 4
ano Ciudad Guayana around 2 billion years ago.
Ciudad Bolívar
(claimed by Venezuela)

Embalse
Z U E L Ade Guri
Cuyuni GEORGETOWN Nieuw 49
Amsterdam
Bartica New Amsterdam
St.-Laurent-
Salto PARAMARIBO du-Maroni
Ángel
Car Linden Sinnamary
CourantyneRockstone Kourou

AcaGUYANA

oníGuiana W.J. van
Paragua Blommesteinmeer

Caur S U R I N A M E FrenchCAYENNE
Highlands
Guiana
Essequibo
Orinoco Angel Falls Marowijne (French overseas
department)

(Salto Ángel) arai Mts. (claimed by Suriname)
plunge a total
of 3212 ft

(979 m) to form (claimed by The European Space Agency launch
the world’s Suriname) facility at Kourou takes advantage
highest waterfall. of the Earth's spin near the

equator to gain 10 percent Equator

Amazon more payload than an equivalent
launch at Cape Canaveral in the US.

BRAZIL 43

Basin

2.47 acres (one hectare) of Amazon rain forest 0 km 200
can contain more than 750 types of trees and
1500 plant species, amounting to around 0 miles 200 5
900 tons (tonnes) of living plant material.

43

E F GH

42 SOUTH AMERICA

Peru, Bolivia & North Brazil

A B CD

40 V E N E Z U E L A GUYANA

1 COLOMBIA Guiana Highlands

0 km 400 Boa Vista

0 miles 400

Equator Rio Negro Represa
Balbina

Pu
Na
ECUADOR p o tumayo Amazon

Iquitos Amazon Manaus

2 135

Juruá deira
Ma
P
Mar a ñ ón Moyobamba Amazon Basin

Piura Tarapoto yali
Uca
Chiclayo us A
B RPur
Saña R
d Porto Velho
Trujillo Pucallpa
En
3 Chimbote
A
Huaraz Rio Branco Dios

Huánuco Puerto adre de Riberalta
Maldonado Guapore
Huacho La Oroya M
Beni
Callao
ULIMA
Huancayo
eP A C I F I C
Ayacucho Cusco Trinidad
Puno
Pisco

sO C E A N Ica
B O L I V I A4 135
Nazca

Arequipa Lake LA PAZ Montero
Titicaca Cochabamba

Lake Titicaca is the largest lake in South Tacna Oruro Santa Cruz
America at 3220 sq miles (8340 sq km).
With an altitude of 12,500 ft (3810 m) Lago Poopó SUCRE Puerto Suárez

it is also the world’s highest navigable lake. Potosí

BOLIVIA'S TWO CAPITALS PARAGUAUyuniTupiza
CHILE Tarija
5 La Paz - legislative and

administrative capital

Sucre - legal capital 46 Y

ARGENTINA

A B CD

SOUTH AMERICA 43

E F GH

SURINAME French Guiana 48

(French overseas department) The Amazon River is 4049 miles (6516 km) long, with
an average flow of 7.7 million cubic feet (219,000 cu m)
of water entering the Atlantic Ocean every second. 1

Macapá Ilha Caviana de Fora ATLANTIC
Equator
Amazon Ilha de Marajó OCEAN

Belém

Santarém São Luís San Fernando
de Noronha
Paranaíba 49 2
(part of Brazil) 3
Represa de Fortaleza
Tu c u r u í
Tapajós
AraguaiaXingu Imperatriz Teresina Mossoró

Tocantins Natal

Z I LCarolina Juàzeiro do Norte Campina João
Grande Pessoa

Teles Pire Represa de Sao Francisco Recife
Sobradinho Maceió
s Juàzeiro

Taguatinga Aracaju
Feira de Santana
Mato Grosso
Salvador
Brazilian

Cuiabá Itabuna
BRASÍLIA
Anápolis 49 4
Goiânia H i g h l a n d s Vitória da Conquista 5

Montes Claros Governador Valadares

Uberaba Uberlândia

Belo Horizonte

Campo Divinópolis Vitória

Ribeirão Preto
Grande Paraná
Nova Campos
Marília
Londrina Campinas Iguaçu Juiz de Fora

Sorocaba Taubaté Rio de Janeiro 44 Tropic of Capricorn
H
São Paulo

E FG

44 SOUTH AMERICA

Paraguay, Uruguay & South Brazil

A B CD

BOLIVIA 42

1 C BRA
h
aco São José do Rio Preto

General Eugenio A. Garay Campo Grande

G Fuerte Olimpo Presidente
ran
Mariscal Dourados Para Prudente Marília

Estigarribia ná

P A R A G U A Y46 Bauru

Ourinhos

2 Tropic of Capricorn Pozo Colorado Concepción
Pilcomayo
Paraguay Maringá Londrina
ASUNCIÓN
Coronel Ciudad Ponta Grossa
Oviedo del Este

Lambaré Villarrica Guarapuava Curitiba
Iguaçu Joinville
Formed by river deposits washed Caazapá

down from the Andes and Brazilian San Juan Urugu
aná
3 Shield, the Gran Chaco is virtually Bautista Par Pelotas Blumenau Mar
free of stones. It is composed of Pilar Encarnación
sand and silt sediments that are
Erechim Florianópolis
up to 10,000 ft (3050 m) thick.
Lajeserra
ay Carazinho do
Passo Fundo
The Itaipú hydroelectric project is
able to produce more power than São Borja Caxias do Sul
10 average nuclear reactors; it supplies
19% of the electrical power consumption Uruguaiana Santa Maria S
Canoas

of Brazil and 90% for Paraguay. Artigas Porto Alegre
4
Rivera Bagé Lagoa dos Patos
46 A R G E N T I N A
Salto Pelotas
Tacuarembó

gro
Paysandú Ne Melo Rio Grande

Fray Bentos URUGUAY Mirim Lagoon

Mercedes Durazno Chuy

Trinidad

5 Las Piedras

MONTEVIDEO San Carlos
46 Río de la Plata

A B CD

SOUTH AMERICA 45

E F GH

Uberlândia Governador 43

ZI L Valadares
Uberaba 1
Belo Horizonte Vitória 2
Rio Grande Divinópolis
Franca Represa de Furnas

Ribeirão Preto Cachoeiro de

Juiz de Fora Itapemirim

Volta Redonda Campos
Campinas Nova Iguaçu

Sorocaba Taubaté Rio de Janeiro 49
São Paulo

Santos Tropic of Capricorn

The famous statue of Cristo Redentor (Christ the Redeemer),
built on top of the 2300 ft (700 m) Corcovado Mountain in 1931,
stands 100 ft (30 m) tall and weighs 700 tons (tonnes).

The population of greater Sao Paulo is close to 22,000,000, 3
over twice the entire population of Portugal, the country
that originally colonized Brazil in the 16th century.

ATLANTIC 49 4

OCEAN

Lagoa dos Patos is the largest lagoon in Brazil and the second
largest in South America. The lagoon is 180 miles (290 km) long
and up to 40 miles (64 km) wide, with an area of more than
3900 sq miles (10,100 sq km).

0 km 400 400
0 miles 49

5

E F GH

AB CDE

P E R U 42 44 BR 46 SOUTH AMERICA
The driest place on Earth is the Atacama Desert
Southern South America
1 in Chile, with an average rainfall of 0.004 inches 1
(0.1 mm) per year. Until recently, some places had ZIL
A
Arica received no rain for over 400 years.
One of the world’s largest copper mines at

PACIFIC Desierto de Atacama BOLIVIA Chuquicamata has produced around
29 million tons (tonnes) of copper over
Iquique its 90-year history. The huge opencast pit
is 2.6 miles (4.3 km) long, 2 miles (3 km)
OCEAN wide, and over 2788 ft (850 m) deep.

Tocopilla Chuquicamata Pilcom PARA
2 135 San Salvador ayo G 44 2
Tropic of Capricorn Antofagasta Calama de Jujuy Tropic of Capricorn
A
ndesSalta Gran U
A
Chañaral ParanáChaco BermejoY
Urugu
San Miguel Formosa
A
ZIL
Copiapó de Tucumán Paraná
Resistencia
Santiago Corrientes Posadas
Vallenar del Estero Salado
3 3
C H I L ELa Serena ay
La Rioja Vera

Laguna Mar
B RCoquimbo
Cerro Chiquita

Aconcagua San Juan
22,831ft Córdoba Santa Fe
Illapel (6959m) Concordia

La Ligua Mendoza Paraná
Godoy Cruz
Viña del Mar Río Rosario URUGUAY

Valparaíso SANTIAGO Cuarto Gualeguaychú

San Antonio Rancagua Villa Mercedes Junín
A R G E N T I N A4 4
Pilchilemu Pampas BUENOS AIRES
Islas
Juan Fernández Talca Curicó La Plata
Río de
(to Chile) Linares Dolores la Plata

Talcahuano Chillán Santa Rosa Olavarría Azul

Concepción Lebu Zapala Tres Arroyos Mar del Plata
Neuquén Bahía
5 Temuco Andes San Bahía Blanca Necochea 5
Valdivia 6
AnOtoenstieoRíoCNoleogrraod o Blanca 7
Osorno 8
San Carlos Viedma

Puerto Montt de Bariloche

Ch Península

Castro Esquel Trelew Valdés ATLANTIC
Isla de Chiloé SOUTH AMERICA 47
Rawson
do
Archipiélago LagoPatagoniaubut OCEAN
de los Chonos Musters

6 Puerto Aisén Comodoro Rivadavia
Coihaique
A group of 150 Welsh settlers arrived
Lago Buenos Aires
Chile Chico Caleta Olivia in Patagonia on July 28, 1865, seeking
a new life away from cultural and
Cochrane Desea Puerto religious oppression in the UK.

Isla Deseado Today the area has one of the largest
Wellington Welsh populations outside of Wales.

Puerto San Julián

El Calafate Falkland Islands

7 135 P A C I F I C Río Gallegos (UK dependent territory) 49

Puerto Natales West Stanley
Falkland East
O C E A N Punta Arenas Falkland

Porvenir The Strait of Magellan was named after
Tierra Ferdinand Magellan, who passed through
del Fuego the straits during the first circumnavigation
Strait of of the globe in 1520. Of the five vessels and
Ushuaia 237 men that set out, only one ship and 18

Magellan

0 km 400 Cabo de Hornos survivors returned to Spain after the three-year
8 400 (Cape Horn) voyage. Magellan himself was killed
in the Philippines.
0 miles

136 136

AB CDE

AB CDE

137 A R C T I C O C E A N 137 48 OCEANS

11 The Atlantic Ocean

Baffin Greenland Greenland Svalbard
Bay Sea (Norway)
(Denmark)
Davis Barents
Arctic Circle ark Strait Jan Mayen Sea
2 16 Strait Denm (Norway)
Scandin av ia Arctic Circle
Faeroe Is. c Sea 94 2
(Denmark)

Hudson Labrador North Balti
Bay Sea The North Atlantic Deep Water Sea

Current is an oceanic “river”

that moves around 20 million Rotterdam

NORTH cubic yards (15.3 million cubic m) EUROPE

Great Lakes St Lawrence of water every second. Alps

3 AMERICA Grand Banks Newfoundland Ridge D a nube 3

New York Basin Black Sea

Azores

The Gulf Stream travels across (Portugal) Mediterranean Sea
the Atlantic Ocean at up to Port Said
Mississippi 135 miles (217 km) a day. Gibraltar
Atlas Mts.
Bermuda (UK) Madeira
M i d - A t l antic (Portugal)

Canary Is.

Gulf of Sargasso Sea (Spain) Sahara Tropic of Cancer
Mexico anaarsyin 4
C
4 Tropic of Cancer
B Nile Red Sea

Caribbean CAPE VERDE N AFRICA
Sea Cape Verde Basin
iger Lake
Cristóbal Chad


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