marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #4 - 2018 49
IMPORTANT LOCK PROJECT AT
The 129 year old Nesserlander Schleuse is a lock located in Donut Fenders are the largest that were produced in our
Emden, Northern Germany. The lock is very important for the production facility in Rechlin, Germany yet. Inside the lock
area because barges and recreational vessels use it to enter chamber Komposite Fenders protect the vessels during
the port of Emden. During the time of the reconstruction all the operation. Their combined energy absorption with low
ships had to go through a different lock which is usually only friction is indispensable for vessel safety in locks.
used by bigger ships.
After the reconstruction the lock has a length of 170 meter,
The reconstruction work started in 2006 by a joint venture of it is 18 meter wide and the depth is minus 7 under the sea
several companies. In order to ensure a safe entry for vessels level. Emden Port can now finally use its main transport
to the lock, Donut Fenders were chosen. Donut Fenders artery again.
are self-adjusting to changing water levels, the installation
costs are low and they are generally maintenance free. ShibataFenderTeam is proud to enable the safe operation
With a size of 3300 mm diameter and 4500 mm length these of this year’s water sports season in the area. n
50 ISSUE #4 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
ABSORBVIBRATORY DAMPER n Easily and efficiently
TGHAEMSEHCOHCAKNGER to cranes
n Maximizes the
safety of the crane
work being done
n Minimal set-up
n Extends the life
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all model cranes
To purchase, contact Jay Mooncotch, 708-870-0884, [email protected]
www.PileDrivingSmaorilnuectoinostnrusct.iocnommagazine.com ISSUE #4 - 2018 51
JOE WAGNER EARNS $1,000 DSC
DREDGE BEST PAPER AWARD AT WEDA
Reserve, Louisiana – For over five years, DSC Dredge LLC “The selection of Joe Wagner’s paper aligns with WEDA’s
has sponsored the Western Dredging Association (WEDA) goals of promoting the exchange of dredging knowledge
Best Paper Award at its annual Dredging Summit & Expo. and emphasizing the importance of developing solutions
WEDA, a non-profit technical association devoted to the related to the protection and enhancement of the marine
exchange of knowledge in fields related to dredging, environment. This paper is a prime example of ‘Why
navigation, marine engineering and construction, held the Dredging is Good’ and illustrates how dredging creates a
2018 conference in Norfolk, Virginia. Always with the theme strong economy and cleaner environment.” He continued,
“Why Dredging is Good” and a $1,000 award, the selection “DSC Dredge is proud to support WEDA and the outstanding
committee named Joe Wagner the 2018 winner at this year’s work and research it generates, such as this paper written by
Dredging Summit & Expo. Joe Wagner is a Senior Dredging Mr. Wagner.”
Engineer with Amec Foster Wheeler in Jacksonville, Florida.
DSC Dredge is a longtime sustaining member of the
Entitled “Save Our Lagoon Project Plan Funded Muck Western Dredging Association. Thomas J. Wetta II received
Removal, Brevard County, Florida,” Joe Wagner outlined the WEDA Lifetime Achievement Award posthumously in
details of how dredging was deemed the proper solution 2007 and Bob Wetta received the WEDA Dredger of the
to meet water quality targets and improve aesthetic Year Award in 2014. Bob Wetta served on the WEDA Board
appeal, health, productivity and economic value of the of Directors for over 10 years and served as President and
Indian River Lagoon. In the paper’s introduction, Wagner Chairman during his tenure.
writes, “The Indian River Lagoon (IRL) is among the most
biologically diverse estuaries in North America. While the DSC is a global leader in the dredge manufacturing
IRL’s environmental importance is apparent, the IRL is also industry, engineering superior customized dredging solutions
a vibrant economic engine, generating more than $7.6 to meet specific application needs, while continuing to
billion per year to the state of Florida, much of that within exceed customer expectations. DSC Dredge designs
Brevard County.” After 50 years of muck build-up in the and manufactures high quality, durable cutter suction
Indian River Lagoon, sales tax revenues were dedicated to and underwater pump mining dredges. At DSC Dredge,
sediment removal through dredging. Recent results from an we help customers make THE RIGHT CHOICE. Quality,
environmental restoration dredging effort seem to validate Innovation, Service, Commitment and Customization are
dredging to remove undesirable sediments is the primary key DSC attributes which explain the reasons customers
component of the overall restoration plan. (The complete choose to work with DSC. DSC Dredge operates from three
paper is available for download on the WEDA website manufacturing facilities located in Reserve, LA, Poplarville,
at https://westerndredging.org/phocadownload/2018_ MS, and Greenbush, MI. For more information about
Norfolk/Proceedings/5b-1.pdf.) the company and its products, services and customized
solutions, please visit www.dscdredge.com and follow us on
Bob Wetta and Charlie Johnson attended the 2018 WEDA Social Media.n
Dredging Summit & Expo in Norfolk, Virginia. Wetta said,
52 ISSUE #4 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
54 ISSUE #4 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #4 - 2018 55
Need Domestically Produced Sheet Pile?
Look no further than the NZ hot-rolled sheet pile exclusively from Skyline Steel.
The NZ sections are produced domestically by Nucor-Yamato. Team that with
the Larssen interlock, the only interlock with published values for the hydraulic
conductivity of the locks, and you have a great partner for your watertight
sheet pile needs. To learn more, visit www.skylinesteel.com/nz.
Flange Web Pile Wall Section Moment
Width Height Thickness Thickness Weight Weight Modulus of Inertia
Section in in lb/ft2
lb/ft in3/ft in4/ft
13.39 in in
NZ 14 30.31 16.16 0.375 0.375 55 21.77 25.65 171.7
NZ 19 27.56 16.20 0.375 0.375 57 24.05 35.08 283.1
NZ 20 27.56 17.32 0.394 0.394 61 24.82 36.24 292.8
NZ 21 27.56 17.38 0.433 0.433 71 26.56 38.69 313.4
NZ 26 27.56 0.500 0.500 78 30.99 48.50 419.9
NZ 28 27.56 19.69 0.560 0.560 33.96 52.62 457.4
NZ 38* 27.56 0.689 0.500 37.45 70.84 697.3
*The New NZ-38 is the largest domestically produced steel sheet pile section available.
Visit www.skylinesteel.com/nz or call 888.450.4330.
© 2018 Skyline Steel, LLC. Skyline Steel is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Nucor Corporation, the largest producer of steel in the United States.
PILING AND THE
DUTIES OF A “PILE INSPECTOR”
When the test piles have been driven and the final contractor) and checked (by the appropriate agency/
pile lengths of a project have been authorized, owner) before driving is started. Where driving within a
inspection of the foundation pile driving is still a cofferdam, the pile lines should be marked off in both
very important function of a Bridge or Marine Construction directions on the cofferdam walers and struts, with proper
Inspector. Not only does the inspector make certain that allowance for batter when necessary.
the piles are driven to adequate bearing and penetration,
but also avoids excessive driving which may result in severe 2. That the pile material has been inspected in accordance
damage to the piles. Either extreme may render the piles with the requirements. The final inspection and
useless, and could result in the failure of a foundation. acceptance will be at the site of the work. Even though
In general, appropriate bearing capacity criteria for the material may have passed previous inspection, it
foundation piling is established from test pile data and may have been damaged in handling or shipment (this
application of criteria for substantial refusal to driving of is particularly true of timber piles). The thickness of the
foundation piling is not appropriate. steel in H-piles and shells should be checked, and a visual
inspection made of the general condition of the piles,
Make certain that all piles for a unit have been including welds on welded Steel Shells, and the flange to
satisfactorily driven and re-driven where required, before web connections on H-piles.
indicating approval of the driving for that unit. Do not delay
the contractor unnecessarily, but do not let him pressure you Review the Mill Test Reports to verify that the material is of
into making a premature determination. If in doubt, consult domestic origin.
with the Engineer.
3. That the equipment meets requirements (hammer is
Establish cut-off elevation and measure and record qualified).
the cut-off length for each pile. Require the specified
preservative treatment for the top of treated timber piles. 4. That the piles are properly prepared for driving.
Following is a list of some of the responsibilities and duties 5. That the welder (if steel H-piles or shells are to be used)
of the inspector on a pile driving operation. has passed all agency/owner required qualifying tests.
All splices should be made in accordance with approved
MAKE CERTAIN: standard details for the type of pile.
1. That the pile locations have been staked (by the
6. That the length and diameter of the pile is measured and
recorded before being placed in the leads.
7. That the pile is properly positioned (usually by digging a
small hole for the tip of the pile with a pointed shovel at
the staked location for timber piles).
8. That the pile is plumb, or at the specified batter.
9. That the driving cap fits properly on the head of the pile.
An improperly fitting pile cap, particularly on a timber
pile, could create a hazard in addition to damaging
the pile. “Chasers” are not permitted as transmittal of
hammer impact to the pile cannot be assured.
10. That the pile is properly supported laterally so as to avoid
“whip” when driving, particularly if there is a noticeable
bow in the length of the pile.
11. It is sometimes necessary to secure the leads with guy
ropes to control their position.
12. When possible, to insist on starting the pile with reduced
energy until the pile is well seated, particularly for timber
13. To observe the action of the pile very closely as it starts
downward, and insist on immediate correction if it moves
out of position, plumbness, or specified batter.
14. To observe the operation of pile hammers and determine
whether or not they are functioning properly when full
power is supplied. Energy reductions in excess of 25
percent may be necessary if hammer is not operating
58 ISSUE #4 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
15. To note whether or not the pile and the hammer are in responsibility.
alignment. A pile can be easily damaged when not
properly aligned with the hammer, and the damage 23. As the top of the pile approaches cut-off elevation,
may be blamed by the foreman to “overdriving.” inspect it visually for evidence of damage, and avoid,
if possible, the inclusion of damaged areas below cut-
16. To observe the pile closely, especially timber piles, for off. Slightly deformed steel sections are not necessarily
evidence of cracks, splits, or fractures, which may cause considered as damaged.
sudden failure and perhaps an accident. Timber piles
may release splinters large enough to cause serious injury 24. To observe piles which have been driven to determine
when dropping from considerable height. whether or not they may be heaving when driving
adjacent piles. Order re-driving of piles which have
17. To observe any strain that may be created on the heaved. Plastic soils sometimes have this characteristic,
equipment due to high booms and/or heavy loads. particularly with closely spaced tapered piles.
18. That “penetration per blow” readings are taken well in 25. To require removal of earth that may have swelled above
advance of final penetration, when this is possible or the bottom of footing elevation during pile driving.
practical, particularly when approaching the “substantial Areas which were over-excavated may be backfilled
refusal” range. with approved material and compacted or filled with
19. That timber piles are not driven to cut-off length since
some damage is done to the top wood fibers by the 26. When obstructions, such as rocks or boulders, are
hammer impact even though this may not be visible. encountered near the surface they should be removed.
Provide for at least 150 mm (6 in.) of cut-off. Steel, piles If this cannot be done, then the pile pattern may have to
or shells may be driven to cut-off if the top of the pile is in be modified. Consult the Project Engineer, if necessary:
reasonably good condition.
The inspection procedure for trestle type piles is much the
20. That final penetration measurements are made by the same as for foundation piles, with the following additions:
inspector and are not delegated to the worker.
1. Require that guides or templates be used when necessary
21. To drive all piling to the bearing capacity satisfactory in order to keep the piles in proper alignment and at the
to the Engineer, to substantial refusal or to the required correct batter. The tolerances are necessarily more rigid
penetration. Do not continue driving a pile after than are those for foundation piles.
substantial refusal has been obtained merely to reduce
cut-off length, unless a shallow hard layer is suspected, 2. Timber or plank guides, set to correct grade and slope,
or unless the contract specifies a minimum depth of should be used when timber pile cut-offs are made, since
penetration. the pile cap should fit snugly on the pile without the use
of shims or fills. Cutting off trestle piles should be done
22. To signal the foreman when the pile has been driven to only by experienced sawyers or welders. Super-elevated
the required penetration or substantial refusal. If there roadways, or skewed bridges on grade, often require that
is a failure to signal the operator immediately, and a the caps be placed on a slope, thereby necessitating
failure occurs as a result, the accident is the contractor’s that the cutoff guides also be placed on a slope. n
marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #4 - 2018 59
Sheet Piles coated with Protal 600 CTE
being driven into place
Completed application of
Denso Protal 600 CTE onto sheet piles.
Application of Protal 600 CTE using a
single leg airless spray pump
DENSO PROTAL 600 COAL TAR EPOXY
COATED SHEET PILES FOR HARRIS
COUNTY, TX FOR FLOOD CONTROL
Houston, TX has experienced a major construction boom coating failures once the sheet piles are in service.
in recent years. With the recent devastation of Hurricane
Harvey, a large number of steel sheet pile projects have been The Protal 600 CTE (Coal Tar Epoxy) was chosen for this sheet
included in this construction for added flood control. Many pile project in Harris County, TX due to its high build one coat
of the city’s waterways are being revamped in the hopes application, excellent adhesion, abrasion resistance and
it will help prevent another catastrophic flooding event like fast cure time. The coating was spray applied using a Graco
Harvey. Corrosion protection for sheet piles is paramount to 70:1 Single Leg Airless Pump by an extremely experienced
their long-term service life as they are extremely difficult to and qualified spray applicator. The applicator, CPS Houston,
repair once corrosion has begun. was impressed with the efficient one coat application and
fast cure time, which dramatically increased their production
For decades, the most popular method to protect sheet rates. The owner was very pleased with the quick delivery,
piles has been coal tar epoxy coatings due to the low cost success of installation, and quality of the coating. The owner
and excellent water resistance. However, many problems and applicator have made the Protal 600 CTE their coating
arise during the application of these standard coal tar of choice for sheet pile protection. Denso also manufactures
epoxies such as delamination between multiple coats, poor an alternative Protal 650 CTR which is a replacement to coal
adhesion, and long cure times. These issues can cripple tar epoxies. To find out more about Denso’s Coal Tar Epoxy
the applicator’s production rates and lead to premature Coatings, call us toll-free at 1-888-821-2300 or visit us on-line
at www.densona.com. n
60 ISSUE #4 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
“Elevate Your Craft”
We are presently looking for Dealers & Installers
“Elevate Your Craft”For information on becoming a Hi-Tide Boat Lift Dealer please contact:
Hi-Tide Sales, Inc.
Phone: 800-544-0735 • Email: [email protected]
Hi-Tide Sales, Inc. | Fax: 772-461-2298 | Email: [email protected]
Hi-Tide Sales, Inc. | Fax: 772-461-2298 | Email: [email protected]
marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #4 - 2018 61
As a Marine Contractor you know what an issue it is when encountering
Coquina or similar Rock Formations when attempting to install a piling.
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62 ISSUE #4 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #4 - 2018 63
CONSTRUCTING A SHEET PILE WALL
The following article addresses various considerations and flanges of the sheet piling due to soil drawdown. Typically,
for sheet pile wall construction; more specifically, these voids are first pumped free of any water present, either
bulkheads and seawalls. Its intent is to give contractors due to seepage or rain, and then backfilled with a cement-
and engineers a brief overview of sheet pile installation and its bentonite-sand slurry. The slurry should be fluid enough to fill
effect on any potential design. the voids and strong enough to approximate the strength of
SHEET PILING the insitu material.
Sheet piling is a manufactured construction product with Backfill - It is recommended that clean sands and gravels be
a mechanical connection “interlock” at both ends of the used as backfill for retaining walls whenever possible. Material
section. These mechanical connections interlock with one placed behind the wall should be compacted to prevent
another to form a continuous wall most commonly referred to settlement. The amount of compaction required depends on
as “sheeting”. Sheet pile applications are typically designed the material used. Over compaction could induce additional
to create a rigid barrier for earth and water, while resisting lateral pressures that may not have been accounted for in the
the lateral pressures of those bending forces. The shape or design. Typically, granular fill is placed in thin lifts, with each
geometry of a section lends to the structural strength. In lift compacted before the next is placed. There are some
addition, the soil in which the section is driven has numerous situations in which the use of clay backfill is unavoidable, as
mechanical properties that can affect the performance. in backfill for walls in levees. Under these circumstances very
Performing work over water has always been more difficult strict controls on compaction are required. It is very important
and costly than performing the same work on land. With the to have proper drainage behind the wall as it is critical to the
construction of bulkheads and seawalls, a contractor will performance of retaining walls. Drainage materials will reduce
encounter both scenarios. or eliminate the hydrostatic pressure and will therefore greatly
SITE CONDITIONS improve the stability of the material behind the wall.
Site conditions should be evaluated during the EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES
reconnaissance phase, with effort increasing as the design General - The most common methods of installing steel sheet
progresses. Overhead and underground obstructions, such
as pipes, power lines, and existing structures, may dictate pile walls include vibrating, impact driving, hydraulic pushing,
special construction techniques. Some situations may even jetting, and trenching. The type of sheet piling often governs
necessitate a change in wall alignment. The effects of pile the method of installation. Contract specifications at times
driving on nearby structures or embankments should also be may prohibit the installation of sheet piling until the contractor’s
considered. methods and equipment are approved.
Hammers - Types of driving hammers used for the installation
Interim protection - Construction of a new bulkhead or of steel sheet piles include vibratory pile hammers, diesel, air-
seawall sometimes requires removal of the existing protection. steam, hydraulic impact pile hammers, hydraulic sheet pile
In that situation it is necessary to provide interim protection or “pushing rigs”, a high pressure jet w/jet pump or a simple drop
to construct the new wall in stages. Interim protection should hammer. Vibratory Pile hammers are widely used because
be to the same level as the removed protection line. Staged they usually can drive sheet piles faster, do not damage the
construction should limit the breach to one that can be closed top of the pile, and can easily extract piling when necessary.
should floodwaters approach. Provided of course the soils are granular, a vibratory hammer
can drive steel sheet piling far faster than impact hammers.
Relocations - Overhead utility lines are relocated temporarily When a hard driving condition is encountered, there have
for most sheet pile walls. Subsequent to pile driving, the lines can been situations whereby a vibratory hammer can cause the
usually be placed back in their original position. Underground interlocks to literally emit flames and melt. If the penetration
lines are removed for pile driving and then placed back rate is 1 foot or less per minute, it might be best to reconsider
through the sheet pile. the use of a vibratory hammer as an impact hammer may be
Temporary bypass lines are necessary for some situations.
Permanent relocation through the wall must allow for
differential settlement between the wall and the utility lines.
Excavation - Excavation consists of the removal and disposal
of material to the grades and dimensions provided on the
plans. Excavation is generally required when capping or
trenching sheet pile and for placement of tie rods or anchors.
A dewatering system consisting of sumps and pumps or wells
may be required depending on subsurface conditions. An
excavation and dewatering plan should be submitted by the
contractor for review prior to commencement of work.
Voids due to driving – Sometimes during the driving of heavier
steel sheet piling sections, voids may form adjacent to the webs
64 ISSUE #4 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
The selection of the type or size of the hammer is based on ¡¡ Blocking for Heavy (.500 Wall) Steel Sheet Pile Sections
the soil in which the pile is driven. The designer should be aware should be spaced no more than 15 feet apart and no more
of the soil stiffness and possibility of obstructions which could than 2 feet from the ends.
cause failure or weakening of the sheet pile during driving.
When installing lighter weight aluminum, vinyl sheet piling or ¡¡ Blocking for Flat Web Sheet Piling Steel Sheet Pile Sections
composite sheet piling obviously the aforementioned does not should be spaced no more than 10 feet apart and no more
apply. These lighter weight sheet piling sections have become than 2 feet from the ends.
increasing popular for residential, municipal bulkheads and
retaining walls and more. Some of the more effective hammers ¡¡ Blocking for Standard (.375 Wall) Steel Sheet Pile Sections
utilized for these installations are small air hammers as well as should be spaced no more than 12 feet apart and no more
excavator mounted vibratory pile driver/extractors. than 2 feet from the ends.
Guides and Templates - To ensure that piles are placed and ¡¡ Aluminum, Vinyl and Composite Sheet Pile sections should
driven to the correct alignment, a guide structure or templates be stored and handled according to the manufacturer’s
should be used. Many contractors recommend at least two recommendations.
templates be used in driving each pile or pair of sheet piles.
Templates should also be used to obtain the proper plumbness ANCHORS
of the sheet pile wall. Sheet pilings properly placed and driven Improperly planned construction methods may produce
generally are interlocked throughout their length.
loads which exceed those used for design. Anchor forces,
Accessories - A protective cap should be employed with soil pressures, and water loads are affected by the method
impact hammers to prevent damage to the tops of sheet of construction and construction practices. The sequence of
piling. Protective shoes to protect the tip are also available tightening tie rods should be specified to prevent overstresses in
so that driving through harder soil strata is possible. If an isolated sections of the wale or the sheet pile wall. Anchors and
obstruction is encountered during driving, it should be removed tie rods should be placed and tightened in a uniform manner
or penetrated with a chisel beam. During driving, the piling so that no overstresses may occur. Backfilling above the anchor
next to the one being driven may tend to follow below the elevation should be carefully controlled to prevent bending
final design elevation; in this case it may be necessary to pin in of the tie rods. The backfill material should be controlled, and
place piles together before the next pile is driven. Extraction, the thickness of compacted layers should be limited to ensure
or pulling of specific piles for inspections, may be required if proper compaction and drainage of the backfill material.
damage to the pile or interlocks is suspected or if excessive drift
occurs. The circumstances should be carefully investigated to TIPS FOR INSTALLING SHEET PILES
determine the cause of damage, and remedial action should ¡¡ Always set-up a template system
be taken before re-driving. ¡¡ Rule of thumb: When driving long, heavy sections of Steel
STORAGE AND HANDLING Sheet Piling, Crane Boom length should be twice that of the
Steel Piling - Steel piling may be damaged when mishandled sheets one is driving
¡¡ Drive the Sheets with the “male” interlock leading in order
or stored improperly, resulting in permanently bent sheets. to avoid annoying soil plugs
Piling stored on site should not exceed stack height and weight ¡¡ If the “female” interlock must lead, place a bolt or other
as shipped from the mill. Blocking is used to maintain piling in object at the bottom to avoid debris filling the female end
a level position. Blocking between bundles should be located ¡¡ A panel of sheet piling should be threaded and set prior to
directly over any blocking placed immediately below. driving any sheets to grade
¡¡ Align and plumb the first two sheets and drive carefully and
Slings or other methods that prevent buckling during lifting accurately
are typically used on longer lengths of steel piling. Sheets ¡¡ Drive sheets in pairs when possible placing the hammer in
generally should be handled using a minimum of two pick-up the center of the pair
points when being moved and stacked. (Handling holes are ¡¡ Some contractors recommend not driving a sheet more
generally used for the single line pick-up point for installation of than 1/3 its length before driving the adjacent pile
a sheet) Additional care is required when handling piling with ¡¡ Letting the sheets "free-fall" and drop in order to aid in
protective coatings, as any damaged area will require repairs penetration will generally cause the sheets to fall "out of
prior to driving. plumb"
¡¡ Sheet piling should be threaded and allowed to “slide” until
The following are suggested blocking procedures for general it stops by its own weight. A hairpin can be used to assist
sheet piling sections: penetration at this point.
¡¡ When walls are being constructed, sheet piling should be
checked periodically (at a minimum, every 5th single sheet
or 3rd double) as to ensure the wall is plumb.
¡¡ Never rush the Pile Foreman. n
marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #4 - 2018 65
GEOSTRUCTURAL SYSTEMS MANUAL
66 ISSUE #4 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
& BARGESBOAT WORKS
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www.inlandboats.com www.fmaacreinbecooonkstr.uccotimon/mianglaaznined.cboomats/ ISSUE #4 - 2018 67
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68 ISSUE #4 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
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Drill & Excavatmoarrineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #4 - 2018 69
R NEWS Used 225 Tons of Pile
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These small and c perfect for the mining and
diesel power pack and sep9a2r0a-te7 8d8ril-le5r2c3o8ntrIol tphaonfeflmanadn @el xupnlodraatcioonninsdtur sutrcy.t iTohen .KcmoBmand KmN underground drills
are specifically designed for underground core drilling. The are the industry standard and are built with the highest
chuck style drill head and chuck pipe clamp with 28,000 lbs quality materials.n
(12.700kg) of clamping force, make underground drilling
JUNE 2013 I I 45w w w. m a r i n e c o n s t r u c t i o n m a g a z i n e . c o m
70 ISSUE #4 - 2018
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• UL Listed* – 3 year warranty.
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Marine Contractors are tradesmen who perform determined primarily by payroll. At the inception of the
a variety of jobs, including bulkheads, piers, policy you will be asked to estimate your payroll for the
dredging and install pilings for boat slips and coming year. You will pay a deposit premium based on your
homes for both new and old construction. A few insurance estimate. At the end of the policy the insurance company
companies have developed special insurance programs to will contact you to review your payroll records and general
address the insurance needs of Marine Contractors. Usually, ledger to see how much you paid to subcontractors. If
these programs offer broad liability coverage at low rates your original estimate was low, you will receive a bill for
and are available to small to mid-sized companies (less additional premium. If your estimate was high, you will
than $10,000,000 in receipts). Larger Contractors are offered receive a return premium. Like taxes, it is usually better to
coverage under different terms. over-estimate rather than under-estimate. As a Marine
The most important policy to a Marine Contractor is the Contractor, your employees may be eligible for U.S. Harbor
commercial liability insurance policy. The (1)Commercial Workers Compensation benefits. This is a Federal law that
liability insurance policy will defend you and pay on your mandates coverage for harbor workers and the benefit
behalf when you are found legally liable for bodily injury level is higher than that allowed under most states workers
or property damage that is caused by your business compensation laws. An injured employee decides which
operations. This is a very broad policy and therefore contains law to pursue coverage under. The New Jersey Workers
many exclusions. Most of the exclusions are necessary as compensation policy can be endorsed to provide these
other policy types are needed to satisfy a more specific Federal coverage’s in addition to the State mandated level
insurance need such as: automobile, watercraft, workers of benefits.
compensation, aircraft and mobile equipment to name a
few. One of the most significant exclusions is damage to If you hire sub-contractors, you must be very careful when
your product. While it covers damage you cause to the selecting them and you must make certain that they have
property of others, it does not cover loss or damage to your workers compensation coverage that includes the owners
product. The liability portion of personal types of policies (individuals, partners or members of an LLC), if not you will
(such as homeowners) specifically excludes coverage for be charged premium just as if they were employees.
any business operations, hence the need for specific (2)
Business liability insurance. As a tradesman, you will be asked If you have employees that are considered crewmen
to provide proof of insurance to general contractors and (captain / crew), they are not eligible for workers
add them as an additional insured on your general liability compensation coverage. They are eligible for benefits under
policy. Generally, this is not a problem and the insurance the Jones Act (a Federal Law that mandates benefits).
companies that have developed these special programs, This coverage can be obtained under the Protection and
allow automatic coverage (within underwriting guidelines) Indemnity (P&I) policy. While a limited amount of coverage
for this type of request. Work boats and barges can be insured ($25,000) can be purchased under the New Jersey Workers
under a Protection and Indemnity (P&I) endorsement. This is Compensation policy, we do not recommend obtaining this
a broad coverage and provides much broader coverage coverage under that policy as it is woefully deficient.
than the watercraft endorsement offered by non-marine
insurance programs. Another important coverage is the (4)Business automobile
Additionally, the better insurance programs offer coverage insurance policy. It is not a good idea to have commercial
enhancements that can include: Personal Injury Liability vehicles insured on a private passenger automobile
(libel, slander, false arrest, etc.), Per Job Aggregate limits insurance policy, as it cannot provide all of the coverage
(very important), Employees as Additional Insured, Wavier of you need. Also, it is not a good idea to insure private
Subrogation, and Blanket Additional Insured.
Another important coverage is (3)Workers compensation
insurance. This covers your statutory obligation to pay
employee’s medical bills and lost wages from job related
injuries and sickness. In New Jersey, business owners
(individuals, partners or members of an LLC) can decide
if they want to include or exclude themselves for workers
compensation benefits. If you decide to include yourself, you
will be covered just as if you were any other employee. You
will be charged a premium based on your compensation
(same as payroll but includes profit). If you decide not to
include yourself for benefits, there is no premium charged for
your compensation. However, General Contractors that hire
you might be charged additional premiums on their workers
compensation policy, as you are eligible for some benefits
under their policy in the event you are injured on their job.
Premiums for Workers Compensation policies are
74 ISSUE #4 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
Offering routine drilling &
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marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #4 - 2018 75
passenger cars on a business auto policy unless the cars are own it, but until that happens, they are yours. The policy that
actually used in business. Employers must make certain that covers this material is called an Installation Floater. It covers
they also protect themselves from liability that stems from materials in transit, on the job to be installed and installed
employees that may use their own vehicles for any errand of awaiting acceptance. It will also cover the damage you
their employer. Many companies that have special Business may cause to property belonging to others that you are
Automobile insurance programs for contractors offer an installing (boat lifts, lights, plumbing parts, hardware, etc.).
enhancement endorsement that can include; Employees
as Insured, Loss of Earnings, Towing Reimbursement, Wavier On occasion, Marine Contractors are asked to provide
of Collision Deductible, and Rental Reimbursement. a performance bond to guarantee that the work they are
contracted to do will be performed in accordance with
If a Marine Contractor owns their own shop they will the job specifications and on time. A bond of this type is
need additional coverage’s. Many contractors use the underwritten by examining the contractor’s financial status,
garage of their home as their shop to make things or store his ability to do the job and his track record on completing
tools, equipment, hardware or materials. We need to make similar jobs. This process can take several weeks and, for
note of a condition found in any homeowner’s policy that this reason, a contractor who knows or thinks he will need
EXCLUDES all coverage for a detached garage that is used a performance bond should start the underwriting process
in any way for business. In short, the homeowner’s policy will sooner rather than later. If a contractor does a lot of bonded
not cover a detached garage that is used in part or whole work, he can establish a bonding program with his agent and
by your business. To cover this you will need a (5)Commercial surety company and only need go through the underwriting
property insurance policy, which can be written to include process once a year rather than on a per-bond basis.
the building, contents, business interruption and much
more. Depending on how you handle money, you may If a Marine Contractor wants to carry limits in excess of
also need employee dishonesty insurance coverage to $1,000,000 the (8) Umbrella liability policy is usually the most
protect the contractor from the loss of property or money if affordable way to get this coverage. Limits up to $5,000,000
an employee steals from them. Some insurance companies are common. When boats and barges are involved, the
bundle a series of additional coverage’s and offer them better policy is called an Excess P&I policy and it specifically
in one endorsement and charge a flat fee rather than addresses the marine exposures. Higher limits are available,
price each coverage individually. These enhancement but underwriters usually want to see a valid reason why a
endorsements can include: outdoor property, computers, contractor wants limits above $5,000,000.
personal property of others, coverage for cash, mobile
equipment, property in transit, sewer back-up, spoilage, lock Marine Contractors have some exposure to errors and
replacement and a variety of other losses. This endorsement omissions. It is common for a Marine Contractor to design
is usually inexpensive. the bulkhead, pier or to make a decision in the field (size
of piling type of materials, size of hardware, depth to
If the building has boilers, a separate form of coverage excavate, length of sheathing, etc.) that, if wrong, can
is needed to cover damage caused to the building as a result in a financial loss to the project owner. If a loss results
result of an explosion from the buildup of pressure. Also in someone getting hurt, that is covered by the commercial
any buildings with expensive or special machinery should liability insurance policy. If a financial loss occurs (business
consider purchasing separate coverage called Equipment must close, opening is delayed, things don’t work like they’re
Breakdown Insurance. The standard property policy does supposed to, work needs to be removed and replaced, etc.)
not do a good job of protecting this type of equipment or those types of losses are not covered. This type of insurance
the resultant business interruption. is nearly impossible to obtain for contractors, so the best
advice is to avoid making these types of decisions and get
Marine Contractors usually have a fair investment in hand,
stationary and specialized tools. They can be in the shop,
on a trailer, a barge, in a truck or on a job. Because these
tools move around, the best way to insure them is with an (7)
Inland marine insurance policy. The commercial automobile
policy only covers the truck; it does not cover the tools,
materials or equipment inside, so if you want coverage for
the equipment inside the truck, this is where you insure it.
If you have larger pieces of mobile equipment, such as a
track-hoe, forklift, backhoe, front end loader, mechanical
lift, etc., they can be listed individually on the policy for a
lower rate than the other smaller tools which do not have to
be specifically listed. Machinery that is on water (machinery
on a barge or in a boat) needs broader coverage as the
standard Inland Marine policy does not provide coverage
when equipment is on the water (waterborne).
An exposure that is somewhat unique to Marine
Contractor is materials left on the job. It is not uncommon
to find thousands of dollars of material that belongs to the
contractor left on the jobsite. After the work is accepted
by and paid for by the owner or general contractor they
76 ISSUE #4 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #4 - 2018 77
good detailed specifications from the architect, engineer, other similar employment actions. This policy will pay the
building owner or general contractor. cost of defending an alleged wrongful act. That benefit in
itself, makes this a very valuable insurance policy.
Marine Contractors need to be cautious about creating
any type of pollution. This exposure can only be assessed If you offer any benefit plans to your employees, you
after a careful review of your operations. In many cases, should consider purchasing (10) Employee benefits liability
coverage will not be available for this risk. The only option insurance.
may be to implement a program to minimize the risk as you 1. Commercial Liability Insurance
cannot completely avoid the risk and run a business. While
coverage is not readily available, contractors can be held The commercial general liability policy will defend you
liable for a host of pollution events. Oil spills from an on-site and pay judgments against you when you are found
fuel tank, removing a fuel tank, pollutants on the job (paint, legally liable for bodily injury or property damage that is
solvents, asbestos, fiberglass, fuel in machinery or vessels, caused by your business operations. This is a very broad
and supplies) are just a few examples. policy and therefore must contain many exclusions. Most
of the exclusions are necessary as other policy types
Rented equipment can create its own insurance are needed to satisfy a more specific insurance need
needs. Contracts with equipment rental companies for such as: automobile, watercraft, workers compensation,
lifts, specialized equipment and the like, often require aircraft and mobile equipment to name a few. One of
the contractor to provide liability and physical damage the most significant exclusions is damage to your product.
insurance for the rented unit. The only safe way to know if you While it covers damage you cause to the property of
are in compliance with the rental agreement requirements others, it does not cover loss or damage to anything
is to call your agent and give him a copy of the rental you have built. The liability portion of personal types of
agreement, BEFORE YOU SIGN IT. Some of these agreements policies specifically excludes coverage for any business
contain hold harmless agreements that cannot be covered operations, hence the need for specific business liability
by insurance. insurance. ++
2. Business Liability Insurance
Hiring subcontractors is another area of potential problems
for contractors. While Marine Contractors (as used in this The commercial general liability policy will defend you
discussion) are not general contractors, there may be times and pay judgments against you when you are found
when they hire a subcontractor to help out when he has legally liable for bodily injury or property damage that is
too much work or needs the expertise of another craftsman. caused by your business operations. This is a very broad
When this happens, you need to be aware that you are policy and therefore must contain many exclusions. Most
held responsible for the actions of the sub and for overall of the exclusions are necessary as other policy types are
job site safety. Also, you become responsible for providing needed to satisfy a more specific insurance need such as:
workers compensation for any of his employees if the sub automobile, watercraft, workers compensation, aircraft
has failed to secure workers compensation insurance. You and mobile equipment to name a few. One of the most
cannot avoid this responsibility. Your best protection is to significant exclusions is damage to your product. While
obtain certificates of insurance for commercial liability it covers the property of others, it does not cover loss or
insurance and workers compensation insurance, before the damage to anything you have built. The liability portion of
sub-contractor sets foot on the job site. All certificates of personal types of policies specifically excludes coverage
insurance are not the same. It is critical that the sub you have for any business operations, hence the need for specific
hired has the correct coverage. If he doesn’t your insurance business liability insurance.
company may consider him uninsured and charge you a 3. Workers Compensation Insurance
premium just as if he were an employee. This can cost you
thousands of dollars in additional premium, which can be This is an insurance policy which provides benefits to
avoided by hiring properly insured subs. It is a good idea to employees for any injury or contracted disease arising
have your insurance agent review certificates of insurance out of and arising from employment. All states have
that you get from subcontractors before you let them do laws which require such protection for workers and
work for you. prescribe the length and amount of benefits provided.
Not all workers compensation insurance companies are
Employers should consider purchasing (9) Employment the same. Many agents advise their customers that “all
practices liability insurance to cover them for suits from workers compensation is the same”. This certainly isn’t
employees alleging wrongful termination, age discrimination, true in New Jersey.
sexual harassment, failure to hire, failure to promote, non-
compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act, and This definition is an abbreviated description of the
coverage provided by this type of insurance policy. The
actual policy consists of multiple pages and contains
many terms and conditions.
4. Business Automobile Insurance
This is coverage designed to provide insurance for
commercial vehicles (other than private passenger cars).
While cars can be added to the business automobile
insurance policy, your agent needs to guide you through
the maze of options and limitations that apply when cars
are added to this type of policy. Available coverage
78 ISSUE #4 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
“We have the Rental Equipment for your next Marine Construction Project!”
Vibratory Hammers Pushboats/Workboats Barge Pushers/Thrusters
Flexilfloat Sectional Barges of All Sizes - Complete w/Spuds, Raked Ends, Etc.,
Contact: Daryn Ball of Boyer Equipment, LLC, at: 281-598-0378
Email: [email protected]
8904 Fairbanks N., Houston, TX., 77074
Website – boyereq.commarineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #4 - 2018 79
includes liability, comprehensive, collision, medical arising from providing incorrect advice concerning an
payments, uninsured motorist, and more than a dozen employee’s pension plan or failure to enroll employees
other options. Not all business auto policies are the same. under a benefit program such as health, live, dental,
Careful consideration must be given to securing the or vision insurance plans offered by the employer are
correct coverage’s for your specific needs. covered under this insurance.
5. Commercial Property Insurance In Summary
Sound confusing? It is. Please note, the aforementioned
A commercial property policy provides coverage for article is focused primarily on the requirements in the State
real and personal property that is used in a business. This of New Jersey. Every State differs in requirements for Marine
policy is often referred to as a fire and hazard policy. Construction insurance. This is why it is best you to speak with
All forms of this insurance cover much more than fire an experienced professional prior to purchasing any policy.
and hazard. Coverage is available in several levels of Anderson insurance agency was formed in 1967 with its
protection, ranging from the least expensive which covers headquarters on Long Beach Island and Manahawkin New
the fewest types of events to the “special” form, which Jersey. Our mission is to provide our clients with a choice
provides the broadest coverage. This form of coverage of coverage’s from a variety of insurance companies to
does not provide automatic extensions of coverage’s best fulfill their insurance needs and budget. We pride
like those found on personal policies (contents, garages, ourselves on providing superior service after the sale with
loss of income, tools, etc.). Because of this, you need an policy administration and particularly in assisting clients
agent who takes the time to thoroughly understand your after they have suffered a loss. Our greatest resource is
business and then offer the many options available to our employees. Our staff of professionals includes Certified
you. Insurance Counselors, Accredited Insurance Advisors,
6. Employee Dishonesty Insurance Certified Insurance Service Representatives and Accredited
Customer Service Representatives.
A separate policy or endorsement to the commercial We have been insuring marine contractors for almost
package policy to cover losses caused by employee 40 years. We represent some of the most respected and
dishonesty. It can cover the loss of money, check forgery, competitive insurance companies that specialize in
or goods. Without this extension of coverage, theft or insurance programs designed for marine contractors. For
dishonest acts of employees are not covered. further information please contact: Anderson Insurance
7. Inland Marine Insurance Agency, 295 Route 72 East, Manahawkin, NJ 08050 Phone:
800-444-8507 or 609-597-8507, Fax: 609-978-9649, E-mail:
This is the insurance of property (generally on an “all-risk” [email protected] n
[special form] basis) that is in the course of transportation
or is of such a nature that it may easily be transported.
Also includes some risks at fixed locations considered
“instruments of transportation or communication,” such
as bridges, tunnels, neon signs, and street clocks, etc. The
term “inland marine” originally meant the insurance of
goods in transit “inland” instead of at sea.
8. Umbrella Liability Insurance
This is a form of liability insurance protecting
policyholders for claims in excess of the limits of their
primary policies. This form is sometimes referred to as a
commercial umbrella liability policy. The term umbrella
comes from the fact that this policy provides coverage
over your other commercial liability policies. The purpose
of this type of policy is to provide higher limits of insurance
at the lowest possible cost. Commercial umbrella policies
can be cheaper than purchasing higher limits on your
primary liability policies as these policies use the primary
policies as deductibles. These forms are not standardized,
unlike many coverage forms in the insurance industry.
Because of this fact, you need an agent who takes the
time to thoroughly understand your business and then
offer a policy that is right for you.
9. Employment Practices Liability Insurance
Coverage is available for legal costs to defend claims
involving sexual harassment, wrongful termination and
discrimination including legal liability for such acts.
10. Employee Benefits Liability Insurance
This form of insurance covers an employer against
claims made against him by employees caused by a
negligent act, error or omission in the administration of
the insured’s employee benefit programs. Typical losses
80 ISSUE #4 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
MEEVER USA MFOAOTRRERRSEIAANLLTSE!
SHEET PILES • PIPES • H-BEAMS
Materials delivered from several stock locations inside
and outside the USA or directly from production. We also
oﬀer various pile accessories, connectors, coatings and
We have wide variety of sheet piles and other materials
available for rent and we also oﬀer buy-back options.
Our team will provide the best service possible.
Project Design & Construct
Our engineering department helps to ﬁnd the most
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project. We provide shop drawings and the required
Meever USA is part of a global organization focusing on the
production and supply of piling products. We are privileged
with a very wide range of piling products delivered from
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FESTIVE OPENING CEREMONY OF
RUBBER MIXING FACILITY FOR
On August 29, 2018 the Shibata Industrial Management The opening of two new ShibataFenderTeam offices in
Board celebrated the inauguration of the Group’s cutting the past two years (Malaysia, 2016 and Spain, 2017) has
edge, fully owned mixing plant for rubber compounds and accelerated the company’s growth and demand for
fender production in Malaysia with a group of invited guests. additional production resources.
The investment of USD 7 Million in predominantly Japanese-
made rubber mixing equipment for the new factory is finally Situated in Klang, Malaysia, the factory building is a new
in operation after months of detailed planning. three storey complex which hosts the mixing facilities, office
space, a thermal insulation room, and additional fender
The obligatory factory visit was followed by the Japanese production. ShibataFenderTeam will be the first fender
traditional ceremony “Kagami Biraki” which is a Sake Barrel manufacturer to use the latest-generation compound mixers
Ceremony meaning ‘Good luck’ in Japan, after which Mr. and associated technology. After almost a decade of very
Atsuki Shibata (President of Shibata Group) ceremonially close cooperation with Shibata Industrial the new factory is
opened the new factory. The day ended with lunch and an important milestone and a clear sign of SFT’s commitment
many networking possibilities. The second part of the opening to both the production location and the market.
ceremony took part at the next day by a lunch invitation for
over 130 guests including suppliers, customers and business Adjacent to the mixing equipment the fully equipped
partners. The many guests used the opportunity to visit the laboratory is located. Information from the production floor
factory and spent the day with networking and relationship is swiftly relayed to the R&D and vice versa. This will further
building. extend and strengthen the group’s R&D capabilities. Rubber
compounds, and especially their production, are critical
“The steep growth in demand for SFT’s high quality rubber to ShibataFenderTeam’s ethos of highest quality fender
fenders was the catalyst for this far-reaching investment manufacturing. With its recently published white paper about
decision, which will further strengthen our global position rubber compounding, SFT further emphasizes their expertise
as a leading fender manufacturer,” explains Hiroto Suzuki, in this field. They wish to advocate more transparency in
Director at Shibata Industrial in Japan and Managing fender production in order to ensure quality standards that
Director of the ShibataFenderTeam office in Malaysia. are driven by a commitment to high-performance products
and a clear sense of responsibility. n
82 ISSUE #4 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #4 - 2018 83
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84 ISSUE #4 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
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marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #4 - 2018 85
GENERAL MARINE CONSTRUCTION
GENERAL MARINE CONSTRUCTION Barge Access
Safety Practices 1. Ramps for access of vehicles to or between barges shall
When pile driving over water or performing any type of be of adequate strength, provided with side boards, well
marine construction, there are numerous safety precautions maintained, and properly secured.
one should consider. While the following is only a brief synopsis 2. Unless employees can step safely to or from the wharf,
of some of the more common areas of concern, anyone float, barge, or river towboat, either a ramp, or a safe
performing such work should always proceed with caution. walkway, shall be provided.
General 3. Jacob's ladders (marine rope or chain ladder) shall be
1. Ring buoys shall be provided and readily available at of the double rung or flat tread type. They shall be well
maintained and properly secured.
intervals not exceeding 200 feet on all structures over 4. A Jacob's ladder shall either hang without slack from its
water under the course of construction. lashings or be pulled up entirely.
2. Safety nets and safety harnesses are required 5. When the upper end of the means of access rests on or is
3. Where employees are concentrated in groups, there flush with the top of the bulwark, substantial steps properly
shall be additional ring buoys consisting of not less than secured and equipped with at least one substantial hand
1 additional buoy for each 25 employees in that area. rail approximately 33 inches in height, shall be provided
Portable standards or equivalent means to hold the ring between the top of the bulwark and the deck.
buoys in plain view shall be provided. 6. Obstructions shall not be laid on or across the gangway.
4. Protection against such hazards as reptiles (snakes), 7. The means of access shall be adequately illuminated for
alligators, sharks and other animals. its full length.
5. Life vests, life preservers, and life (ring) buoys; 8. Unless the structure makes it impossible, the means of
6. All floating rigs, with the exception of small work rafts or access shall be so located that the load will not pass over
pontoons, shall be equipped with at least 2 ring buoys. employees.
7. Lifesaving boats, manned boats (motor driven if necessary) Barge First-Aid and Lifesaving Equipment
shall be provided. 1. Provisions for rendering first aid and medical assistance
8. Adequate toilets, wash stations and the like are readily shall be in accordance with Subpart D of this part.
available on board. 2. The employer shall ensure that there is in the vicinity of
Anchor Handling Barge each barge in use at least one U.S. Coast Guard-approved
1. Vessels meeting the definition of anchor handling barge 30-inch lifering with not less than 90 feet of line attached,
should have: and at least one portable or permanent ladder which will
a. All deck surfaces of the pontoon or barge shall be above reach the top of the apron to the surface of the water.
the water. If the above equipment is not available at the pier, the
b. Means for limiting the applied load, such as mechanical employer shall furnish it during the time that he is working
means or marking the draft of the barge corresponding the barge.
to the rated load, shall be provided. Calculations shall be 3. Employees walking or working on the unguarded decks
available and the barge shall be tested to verify rated of barges shall be protected with U.S. Coast Guard-
load. approved work vests or buoyant vests.
c. A ratchet and pawl shall be provided for releasing the Barge Material Handling
load from the hoisting machinery brake. Operations fitting the definition of "material handling" shall
2. An operating manual/procedure shall be available for be performed in conformance with applicable requirements
use by the operator. The operator shall be trained in the of Part 1918, "Safety and Health Regulations for Long Shoring".
anchor handling barge systems operation. The term "Long Shoring Operations" means the loading,
a. If additional external load is superimposed above unloading, moving, or handling of construction materials,
that which can be hoisted with the onboard hoisting equipment and supplies, etc. into, in, on, or out of any vessel
machinery, then a chain stopper shall be used to remove from a fixed structure or shore-to-vessel, vessel-to-shore or
the external load from the A-frame and hoist machinery. fixed structure or vessel-to-vessel.
b. An anchor handling barge may be used for anchor Barge Working Surfaces
handling low lifting of loads such as anchor buoys/weights, a. Employees shall not be permitted to walk along the sides of
dredge pipe, submerged pipeline, pontoons, and other covered lighters or barges with coamings more than 5 feet
loads provided they do not exceed the load rating of the high, unless there is a 3-foot clear walkway, or a grab rail, or
anchor barge. If used for any other lifting application, the a taut hand line is provided.
work platform will be considered a floating derrick. b. Decks and other working surfaces shall be maintained in a
86 ISSUE #4 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
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c. Employees shall not be permitted to pass fore and after, 4. Load charts shall be generated based on the crane load
over, or around deck loads, unless there is a safe passage. rating for floating service. In addition, the load charts for
floating service shall comply with the specific standard it
d. Employees shall not be permitted to walk over deck loads was designed to and clearly explain the floating platform
from rail to coaming unless there is a safe passage. If it is and dynamic/environmental parameters that apply to
necessary to stand at the outboard or inboard edge of the load chart.
the deck load where less than 24 inches of bulwark, rail,
coaming, or other protection exists, all employees shall The load chart should, at a minimum, identify the following:
be provided with a suitable means of protection against a. Draft limits (with deck cargo considered),
falling from the deck load. b. Vessel motion limits,
c. Vessel and crane list/trim limits, and
Cofferdam Work d. Vessel condition (e.g., dry bilges, watertight integrity, etc.).
Cofferdam work presents safety problems unique to this e. Crane manufacturer Notes, or reference to them.
f. Safe Working Load Chart with:
type of construction. Among them are limited access, ¡¡ Mode of operation,
limited work areas, damp or wet footing, and deep ¡¡ Environmental limits,
excavations. Provisions must be made for safe access in ¡¡ Capacity (net or gross),
terms of adequate walkways, rails, ladders, or stairs into and ¡¡ Load, boom elevation, radius
out of the lower levels.
(with list/trim considered), and
The work may be within a waterway, in which case ¡¡ Crane configuration, such as:
additional safety regulations may apply. These would
include provisions for flotation devices, boats, warning • Boom length,
signals, and suitable means for a rapid exit. The Construction • Amount of counterweight,
Safety Orders should be consulted for specific requirements. • Parts of wire, and
Crane Barges, Floating Derricks, etc. • Block size.
During lifting operations, the stability of the floating crane/ All crane manufacturer capacity tables should include
derrick or vessel with an auxiliary shipboard crane shall meet the boom elevation in degrees from the horizon at each
the USCG requirements for “Lifting”. noted capacity. Additionally, the capacity should be clearly
defined (i.e., net or gross).
The load rating of a floating crane/derrick shall be the
maximum working loads at various radii as determined by Stability - operating list or trim. Unless the crane or derrick
the manufacturer or qualified person considering list and manufacturer recommends a lesser value, the following
trim for each installation. The load rating shall specifically shall be the maximum allowable list or trim:
reflect the: design standard; machine trim; machine list;
and dynamic/environmental loadings anticipated for 1. Cranes, designed for barge or pontoon mounting,
the operational envelope of the floating crane/derrick or rated at 25 tons (22,680 kg) capacity or less shall have a
auxiliary shipboard crane. A Naval Architectural Analysis maximum allowable list or trim of 5º.
shall be performed to determine these parameters that shall
be used in generating the load rating. 2. Cranes, designed for barge or pontoon mounting,
1. The load rating is dependent upon the structural rated at 25 tons (22,680 kg) capacity or more shall have
a maximum allowable list or trim of 7º, although 5º is
competence of the crane or derrick, rope strength, hoist recommended.
capacity, structural attachment to the floating platform,
and stability and freeboard of the floating platform. 3. Derricks designed for barge or pontoon mounting, rated
2. When deck loads are to be carried while lifting, the at any capacity shall have a maximum allowable list or
situation shall be analyzed for modified ratings. trim of 10º.
3. When mounted on barges or pontoons, the rated loads
and radii of land cranes and derricks shall be modified as 4. Land cranes and derricks mounted on barges or
recommended by the manufacturer or qualified person. pontoons shall have a maximum allowable list or trim of
The modification shall be evaluated by the qualified 5º or the maximum allowed by the crane manufacturer.
person specific to the floating platform mounting the
crane. Stability - Design Load Conditions:
1. Cranes or derricks designed for barge or pontoon mounting
shall be stable. The following shall be the minimum allowable
b. Rated load, 60-mph (26.8-m/s) wind, 2-ft (0.6-m) minimum
c. Rated load plus 25%, 60-mph (26.8-m/s) wind, 1-ft (0.3-m)
d. High boom, no load, 60-mph (26.8-m/s) wind, 2-ft (0.6-m)
e. For backward stability of the boom - high boom, no load,
full back list (least stable condition), 90-mph (40.2-m/s) wind.
88 ISSUE #4 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
“NEW” SPUD BARGE
120’ x 45’ x 7’
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- Inland Barge
- Deck Plate – ½”
- Sides and Bottom Plate –
- Deck Fittings
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• Two (2) Towing Pads
• Eleven (11) 18” Diameter
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marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #4 - 2018 89
2. b. Land cranes and derricks mounted on barges or A boom angle indicator readable from the operator’s
pontoons: station shall be provided on all floating cranes.
c. Barge- or pontoon-mounted land cranes require All floating cranes/derricks and shipboard auxiliary cranes
modified ratings due to increased loading from list, shall be fitted with load limiting devices (LLDs) or load
trim, wave action, and wind. This rating will be different indicating devices (LID).
for each size of pontoon or barge used. Therefore, the 1. Duty cycle operations are exempt from these
load rating of barge or pontoon-mounted land cranes
and derricks shall not exceed that recommended by the requirements.
manufacturer for the particular barge or pontoon under 2. Duty cycle cranes performing occasional non-critical lifts
the expected environmental conditions.
shall comply with the following:
d. All deck surfaces of the pontoon or barge shall be above a. Total weight of load and rigging is known or calculated;
the water. b. Load chart is reviewed for weight and planned radius;
c. Informal pre-lift meeting is held between all personnel
e. The entire bottom area of the barge or pontoon shall be
submerged. directly involved (operator, rigger, etc.) to review
the conditions present for that lift (environmental,
f. Provide tie-downs for derricks to transmit the loading to configuration, etc.)
the barge or pontoon. All floating cranes/derricks and crane barges shall be
equipped with wind speed and direction indicating devices
g. Cranes shall be blocked and secured to prevent shifting. within clear view of the operator’s station.
Diving/Underwater Work Floating Pile Driving Rigs
1. When pile drivers are working over water, all relevant
The employer shall develop and maintain a safe practice precautions for work over water should be taken in
manual, and make it available at the dive location for each accordance with this code and in particular a suitable
dive team member. The employer shall keep a record of boat should be kept readily available at all times.
each dive. The record shall contain the diver’s name, his 2. All members of floating pile driving crews should be
or her supervisor’s name, date, time, location, type of dive trained to handle boats.
(scuba, mixed gas, surface supply), underwater and surface 3. Floating pile driving rigs should be provided with a whistle,
conditions, and maximum depth and bottom time. siren, horn or other effective signaling equipment.
4. Floating pile driving rigs should be provided with
Each dive team member shall have the experience or adequate fire-fighting equipment.
training necessary to perform assigned tasks safely. 5. The weight of machinery on a floating pile driving rig
should be evenly distributed so that the deck of the
Each dive team member shall be briefed on the tasks, safety installation is horizontal.
procedures, unusual hazards or environmental conditions, 6. Steel barge hulls should be divided into watertight
and modifications made to the operating procedures. The compartments.
dive shall be terminated when a diver requests it, the diver 7. Watertight compartments should be provided with
fails to respond correctly, communication is lost, or when the siphons for the removal of water seepage.
diver begins to use the reserve breathing gas. 8. Barge deck hatches should have firmly fastened covers
Environmental Considerations that fit flush with the deck.
1. The project supervisor shall obtain daily weather forecasts 9. Sufficient sheaves should be provided on the barge
deck to enable the crane or pile driving rig to be safely
before beginning work and as frequently thereafter as maneuvered in any direction and safely secured in
required to monitor any potential weather problems. position.
2. When a local weather storm warning exists, consideration 10. Regular head counts should be taken of the pile driving
shall be given to the recommendations of the crewmembers.
manufacturer for securing the crane. Lifesaving and Safety Skiffs
3. Work shall be halted when environmental conditions At least one skiff shall be immediately available at locations
exceed those delineated on the load chart. where employees work over or immediately next to water.
Truck- and crawler-cranes shall be attached to the barge Personnel trained in launching and operating the skiff
or pontoon by means of a tie-down system with some slack. shall be readily available during working hours. Lifesaving
Movement during lift operations is not permitted. personnel shall perform a lifesaving drill, including the
When loads approach the maximum rating of the crane launching and recovery of the skiff, before the initiation of
or derrick, the person responsible for the job shall ascertain work at the site and periodically thereafter as specified by
that the weight of the load has been determined within +/- the GDA (but at least monthly or whenever new personnel
10% before it is lifted. are involved).
Means shall be provided for the operator to visually
determine the list and trim of the barge or pontoon, as well
as machinery list and trim in rotating crane cabs.
Principal walking surfaces shall be of a skid-resistant type.
Boom stops shall be provided to resist the boom fall
90 ISSUE #4 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
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Skiffs shall be kept afloat or ready for instant launching. 1. On floating pipelines, pontoons, rafts, or stages;
Required equipment must be onboard and meet or 2. On structures or equipment (including heavy operating
exceed USCG requirements. Skiffs shall be equipped as
follows: equipment that is not secured to the structure) extending
1. Four oars (two if the skiff is motor powered); over or next to water except where guardrails, personal
2. Oarlocks attached to gunwales or the oars; fall protection system, or safety nets are provided for
3. One ball-pointed boat hook; employees;
4. One ring buoy with 70 ft (21.3 m) of 3/8-in (0.9-cm) solid 3. Working alone at night where there are drowning
braid polypropylene, or equivalent, line attached; and hazards, regardless of other safeguards provided;
5. PFDs in number equaling the skiff rating for the maximum 4. In skiffs, small boats, or launches, unless in an enclosed
number of personnel allowed on board. cabin or cockpit; or
In locations where waters are rough or swift, or where 5. Wherever there is a drowning hazard.
manually-operated boats are not practical, a power boat Before and after each use, the PFD shall be inspected for
suitable for the waters shall be provided and equipped for defects that would alter its strength or buoyancy: defective
lifesaving. devices or devices with less than 13-lb (5.8-kg) buoyancy
Skiffs and power boats shall have flotation tanks or buoyant shall be removed from service.
material capable of floating the boat and its equipment Throwable Devices (Type IV PFD)
and the crew. 1. On USCG-inspected vessels, ring buoys are required to
On vessels (e.g., skiffs) without permanently mounted have automatic floating electric water lights as required
navigation lights, portable battery-operated navigation by 46 CFR 160.
lights will be available and used for night operations. 2. On all other floating plant and shore installations, lights on
Operational Guidance life rings are required only in locations where adequate
1. Operators shall monitor the wire lead from the boom tip general lighting (e.g., floodlights, light stanchions) is not
carefully to ensure that limits on off-lead and side-lead provided. For these plants and installations, at least one life
identified in the load chart are not exceeded. ring, and every third one thereafter, shall have automatic
2. Operators shall monitor environmental criteria for floating electric water light attached.
compliance with the criteria set forth in the load chart. 3. All PFDs shall be equipped with retro reflective tape in
3. Operators should be aware that safety devices such as accordance with USCG requirements.
LLD(s) and LMI(s) do not offer protection against loads 4. Life rings (rope attachment not required) and ring
generated by relative motions between a floating crane buoys (rope attachment required) shall conform to the
and a fixed object to be lifted. requirements of 46 CFR 160 (USCG approved) and should
4. Whenever practical, crane use during buoy tending shall have at least 70 ft of (21.3 m) of 3/8-in (0.9-cm) solid braid
be limited to lifting the freely suspended buoy clear of polypropylene, or equivalent, attached. Throw bags may
the water onto the vessel. be used in addition to life rings or ring buoys. Life rings or
5. Bilges shall be kept as dry as possible to eliminate the ring buoys shall be readily available and shall be provided
adverse effect of free surface (sloshing liquid). at the following places:
All lifts must be planned to avoid procedures that could e. At least one on each safe type skiff;
result in configurations where the operator cannot maintain f. At least one on all motor boats up to 40 ft (12.1 m) in length
safe control of the lift. (A plan, in this case, might be a quick and at least two for motor boats 40 ft (12.1 m) in length or
discussion with the deck crew, and a verification of the longer;
proposed operation.) g. At least two on any other piece or group of floating plant
Lifts shall reflect floating operational parameters such up to 100 ft (30.4 m) in length and one additional for each
as: anticipated values for wire leads unknown load for increase in length of 100 ft (30.4 m) or fraction thereof; and
extractions, and upper limits on crane force.
Personal Flotation Devices (PFD's)
05.H.01 Type III, Type V work vests, or better U.S. Coast
Guard (USCG)-approved International Orange personal
floatation device (PFD) equipped with a USCG-approved
automatically activated light (lights on Type III and Type
V PFDs are not required on projects performed exclusively
during daylight hours) and retro reflective tape shall be
provided to and properly worn (zipped, tied, latched, etc., in
closed fashion) by all persons in the following circumstances
(inflatable PFDs will not be worn by workers on USACE sites).
92 ISSUE #4 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
40 years of Buying and Selling Quality New and Used…
n Steel Sheet Piling n Large O.D. Steel Pipe (36”+)
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Michael Kaye - President (215) 534-5200
h. At least one at intervals of not more than 200 ft (60.9 m) 9. Hydraulic Oil, Greenplus ES
on pipelines, walkways, wharves, piers, bulkheads, lock 10. Oxygen, Compressed Cutting Gas
walls, scaffolds, platforms, and similar structures extending 11. Welding Electrode, 6010
over or immediately next to water, unless the fall distance 12. Welding Electrode, 7018
to the water is more than 45 ft (13.7 m), in which case a Pile Driving Rigs
life ring shall be used. (The length of line for life rings at
these locations shall be evaluated, but the length may Guys, outriggers, thrust-outs, or counter-balances shall be
not be less than 70 ft (21.3 m).) provided as necessary to maintain stability of pile driver rigs.
1. Dogs, on pile-driver hoist drums, that automatically
At navigation locks, an analysis of the benefits versus the
hazards of using floating safety blocks (blocks that may be disengage when the load is relieved or the drum is rotated
quickly pushed into the water to protect individuals who shall be prohibited.
have fallen in the water from being crushed by vessels) shall 2. Guards shall be provided across the top of the head block
be made. to prevent cable from jumping out of the sheaves.
3. All hose connections to pile-driver hammers, pile ejectors,
MOBILIZATION or jet pipes shall be securely attached with an adequate
length of at least 1/4-in (0.6 -cm) alloy steel chain, having
General 3,250 lb (1,500 kg) working load limit, or equal strength
cable, to prevent whipping if the joint is broken.
1. The drivers and operators of vehicles and of pile, pile 4. Steam-line controls shall consist of two shutoff valves, one
equipment and related accessories should be persons of which shall be a quick-acting lever type within easy
trained and tested as required by a pile driving local reach of the hammer operator.
(union) state or national laws, or presiding regulations. Floating Pile Driving Rigs
1. The width of hulls of floating pile drivers shall not be less
2. Adequate signaling or other control arrangements or than 45% of the height of the lead above the water.
devices should be provided to guard against danger from 2. The operating deck of floating pile drivers shall be so
the movement of any vehicles, equipment or materials guarded as to prevent piles that are being hoisted into
handling equipment. Special safety precautions should driving position from swinging in over the deck.
be taken for cranes, pile rigs, crawler rigs, trucks, vehicles Hoisting and moving pile.
and equipment when maneuvering backwards. 1. All employees shall be kept clear when piling is being
hoisted into the leads.
3. Preventive measures should be taken to avoid the fall of 2. Hoisting of steel piling shall be done by use of a closed
vehicles into open excavations or into water. shackle or other positive attachment that will prevent
4. Where appropriate, any equipment should be fitted with 3. Taglines shall be used for controlling unguided piles and
structures (ROPS) designed to protect the operator from free hanging (flying) hammers.
being crushed should the machine overturn, be struck by 4. Hammers shall be lowered to the bottom of the leads
falling debris, or similar occurrence. while the pile driver is being moved.
5. When driving jacked piles, all access pits shall be provided
Motor Vehicles and Mechanized Equipment with ladders and bulk headed curbs to prevent material
All vehicles in use shall be checked at the beginning of each from falling into the pit.
6. When it is necessary to cut off the tops of driven piles, pile
shift to ensure that all parts, equipment, and accessories that driving operations shall be suspended except where the
affect safe operation are in proper operating condition and cutting operations are located at least twice the length of
free from defects. All defects shall be corrected before the the longest pile from the driver.
vehicle is placed in service. No employer shall use any motor Safety Meetings
vehicle, earthmoving, or compacting equipment having an Safety meetings or tool box talks of 5 to 10 minutes must
obstructed view to the rear unless: be held by superintendents and/or foreman each week.
Employees never receive too much training, and therefore
¡¡ The vehicle has a reverse signal alarm distinguishable from our company relies upon jobsite management to provide
the surrounding noise level, or ongoing and continuous employee training.
The subject to each training discussion should be chose to
¡¡ The vehicle is backed up only when an observer signals relate to the type of work that is being performed.
that it is safe to do so. Some examples include:
¡¡ The use of safety glasses when using circular saws, grinders,
Heavy machinery, equipment, or parts thereof that are table saws, radial arm saws, jack hammers, power
suspended or held aloft shall be substantially blocked to actuated tools, etc.
prevent falling or shifting before employees are permitted to
work under or between them.
Common Marine Construction & Pile Driving Related MSDS's
1. Acetylene, Dissolved Cutting Gas
2. Argon/CO2 Welding Gas
3. CCA Treated Lumber
4. Chain Saw Lubricant
5. Diesel Fuel
6. Gear Lubricant, Mobil SHC 629
7. Grease, Mobil XHP 220
8. HILTI RE-500 Epoxy
94 ISSUE #4 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
BARGE SUPPORT SERVICES
CALL FOR DETAILS:
BOYER, INC. WILL DESIGN TURN KEY SERVICE:
A DRILL BARGE TO FIT YOUR *BARGE DESIGN *MOBILIZE
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Lane City, TX
ISSUE #4 - 2018 95
¡¡ The proper set up and use of ladders. air line respirators, and other protection shall be provided,
¡¡ Hard hats and why they are necessary. as required, when welding, cutting or heating:
¡¡ A discussion of a recent accident and its cause(s). a. Zinc, lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, or materials
¡¡ A discussion of an old accident. bearing, based, or coated with beryllium in enclosed
¡¡ A discussion of disciplinary procedures for failure to comply spaces;
b. Stainless steel with inert-gas equipment;
with safety policies. c. In confined spaces; and
d. Where an unusual condition can cause an unsafe
A log of Safety Meetings must be kept in accordance with accumulation of contaminants.
the form that follows. One copy should be kept by jobsite 12. Proper eye protective equipment to prevent exposure of
management and the other kept on the file in the home personnel shall be provided.
office by jobsite location. 13. Welding must not be viewed with the naked eye. Shield
eyes when in the vicinity of a welding operation and wear
WELDING, CUTTING & BURNING appropriate shaded eye protection when inspecting this
General Electric Arc and Related Thermal Hazards
1. Employers shall instruct employees in the safe use of Electric flash protection shall be provided for any person
who enters the flash protection zone. They must wear flame-
welding equipment. resistant clothing and PPE, based on the incident exposure
associated with the specific task. Refer to NFPA 70E for
2. Proper precautions (isolating welding and cutting, specific Hazard Risk Classifications and clothing/equipment
removing fire hazards from the vicinity, providing a fire requirements. - Synthetic clothing such as acetate, nylon,
watch) for fire prevention shall be taken in areas where polyester, rayon, either alone or in blends with cotton, is
welding or other “hot work” is being done. prohibited in the flash protection zone.
1. Employees must wear protective eye equipment
3. No welding, cutting, or heating shall be done where the whenever there is a danger from electric arcs, flashes,
application of flammable paints, or the presence of other flying objects, or electrical explosion.
flammable compounds or heavy dust concentrations 2. Employees must wear flame-resistant clothing whenever
creates a fire hazard. they may be exposed to an electric flash. If used, flash
suits and their closure design must permit easy and rapid
4. Arc welding and cutting operations shall be shielded removal. The entire flash suit, including the window, must
by noncombustible or flameproof screens to protect have energy absorbing characteristics suitable for arc-
employees and other persons in the vicinity from direct flash-exposure. Use clothing and equipment to maximize
arc rays. worker protection. Clothing and equipment required by
the degree of electrical hazard exposure can be worn
5. When electrode holders are to be left unattended, the alone or be integrated with normal apparel. Protective
electrodes shall be removed and the holder shall be clothing and equipment must cover associated parts of
placed or protected so that they cannot make electrical the body and all normal apparel that is not flash-flame
contact with employees or conducting objects. resistant, while allowing movement and visibility. - Do not
wear synthetic materials that can melt next to skin.
6. All arc welding and cutting cables shall be completely 3. Employees must wear rubber-insulating gloves where there
insulated and be capable of handling the maximum is a danger of hand or arm injury from electric shock or arc-
current requirements for the job. flash burns due to contact with energized parts. Gloves
made from layers of flame-resistant material provide
7. There shall be no repairs or splices within 10 feet (3 meters) the highest level of protection. Leather glove protectors
of the electrode holder, except where splices are insulated should be worn over voltage-rated rubber gloves.
equal to the insulation of the cable. 4. Dielectric overshoes are required where electrically
insulated footwear is used for protection against step and
8. Defective cable shall be repaired or replaced. touch potential.
OXYGEN, ACETYLENE, AND FUEL GAS
9. Fuel gas and oxygen hose shall be easily distinguishable Storage and Use of Cylinders
and shall not be interchangeable. 1. All gas cylinders shall be protected against undue
absorption of heat.
10. Hoses shall be inspected at the beginning of each shift 2. Acetylene and Fuel gas cylinders, including but not limited
and shall be repaired or replaced if defective. to welding and cutting fuel gas cylinders, shall be stored
and used with the valve end up.
11. General mechanical ventilation, local exhaust ventilation,
96 ISSUE #4 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com
The FIRST Amphibious “Long Reach” Excavator that CAN Actually Excavate while in a Floating State!
A “self-propelled” amphibious excavator/marsh buggy
specifically designed to maneuver in marshy, swampy, soft
terrain areas it can also float on water as an added safety
feature. With its self-propelled feature, it can access virtually
all terrains yet requires minimum supporting transportation
and hoisting equipment. More impressive, with its optional
Hydraulic “Spud System”, one can literally excavate while the
Tracks are in a Floating State!
HYDRAULIC EXTENDABLE PONTOONS
An optional design feature allows each pontoon to retract or extend
outward hydraulically. A fully retracted pontoon with reduced footprint
provides the added advantage and convenience of transporting the
machine by trailer without dismantling into modules.
SUPPLEMENTARY PONTOONS AND SPUDS
Supplementary pontoons can be easily attached onto the outer side of the primary pontoons to enhance
stability. The hydraulic-mechanical spuds system which is control from the operator cabin is a superb solution
to overcome buoyancy in deep water, providing additional stability and enhanced operability on water up
to 12’ deep. Users can choose to add the supplementary
pontoons and spuds system at the later stage when need arises.
FOR USE IN:
• Maintenance and cleaning of waterways, lakes,
shorelines, ponds, etc.
• Erosion control and prevention.
• Deepening of waterways and river deltas.
• Maintenance and repair of natural environment.
• Flood protection and flood maintenance works.
• Swamp and wetland construction.
• Road building through wetlands.
EIK International Corporation| 14430 Grant Road, Cypress, TX 77429, USA
Jonathan Goo Contact Erin Mabery
[email protected] [email protected]
+1 832 836 6487 +1 832 914 2646
marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #4 - 2018 97
3. Cylinders containing oxygen, acetylene or fuel-gases of an emergency. In the case of manifolded or coupled
shall not be taken into confined spaces. cylinders, at least one such wrench shall be available for
immediate use. Nothing shall be placed on top of a fuel
4. Gas cylinders in portable service shall be conveyed by gas cylinder, when in use, which may damage the safety
suitable hand trucks to which they are securely fastened, device or interfere with the quick closing of the valve.
or safely carried where job conditions require. All gas 15. When the valve on a fuel gas cylinder is opened and
cylinders in service shall be securely held in substantial there is found to be a leak around the valve stem, the
fixed or portable racks, or placed so they will not fall or valve shall be closed and the gland nut tightened. If this
be knocked over. action does not stop the leak, the use of the cylinder
shall be discontinued, and it shall be properly tagged
5. Valve protection caps, when provided for, shall be put in and removed from the work area. In the event that
place before cylinders are moved, transported or stored. fuel gas should leak from the cylinder valve, rather than
from the valve stem, and the gas cannot be shut off, the
6. Gas cylinders raised or lowered by crane, hoist, or derrick cylinder shall be properly tagged and taken outdoors,
must be handled in suitable cradles, nets, or skip boxes, to an isolated area, away from personnel and sources
and shall never be lifted by magnet or by rope or chain of ignition. The supplier shall promptly be notified of the
slings. leaking cylinder valve and the supplier's instructions shall
7. Cylinders must not be placed where they might form a Pressure Regulators
part of any electric circuit. Regulators that reduce the vapor pressure of fuel gas to
not more than 20 psi are required for all installations within
8. No attempt shall be made to transfer acetylene from structures or confined spaces unless the burner or appliance
one cylinder to another, or to mix gases in a cylinder. specifically requires a higher pressure and equivalent safety
is provided. The use of regulators or automatic pressure-
9. Oxygen cylinders in storage shall be separated from reducing valves shall be limited to the pressures and the
fuel-gas cylinders or combustible materials (especially types of gases for which they were designed. Regulators are
oil or grease), a minimum distance of 20 feet or by a required for installations where a fuel gas hose is between
noncombustible barrier at least 5 feet high having a fire- fuel source and burner.
resistance rating of at least one-half hour. Hose and Connections
1. Fuel gas hose and oxygen hose shall be easily
10. Cylinders shall be kept far enough away from the actual distinguished from each other. Note: The contrast may
welding or cutting operation so that sparks, hot slag, or be made by different colors or by surface characteristics
flame will not reach them. When this is impractical, fire readily distinguishable by the sense of touch.
resistant shields shall be provided. 2. A single hose having more than 1 gas passage shall not
be used as a connection between torch and gas outlet if
11. LP-Gas vessels used for roofer's tar pots, plumber's pots a wall failure would permit the flow of either gas into the
and torches, space heaters, etc., shall be so installed that other passage.
heat from the burner will not increase the temperature of 3. Hoses used for liquefied petroleum gas, such as butane
the tank more than 10 degrees Fahrenheit after one hour or propane, shall be of, or lined with, materials that are
of operation of the burner at full capacity. resistant to the action of LP-Gas. They shall be designed
for a bursting pressure of at least 1,250 psi, and shall
12. LP-Gas vessels installed on mobile equipment shall be marked every 5 feet with the letters "LPG." Hoses
have the bottom of the container, and/or any outlet over 1/2 inch diameter shall also be marked with the
connection, not lower than the lowest horizontal edge manufacturer's name.
of the vehicle axle when fully loaded. Such units shall be 4. The connection between fuel source and burner shall
adequately secured to prevent jarring loose, slipping, or be with extra heavy steel pipe (Schedule 80), flexible
13. Use of Fuel Gas.
a. The employer shall instruct employees in the safe use of
b. Before a regulator to a cylinder valve is connected, the
valve shall be opened slightly and closed immediately.
(This action is generally termed "cracking" and is intended
to clear the valve of dust or dirt that might otherwise
enter the regulator.)
c. The person cracking the valve shall stand to one side of
the outlet, not in front of it. The valve of a fuel gas cylinder
shall not be cracked where the gas would reach welding
work, sparks, flame, or other possible sources of ignition.
14. The cylinder valve shall be opened slowly to prevent
damage to the regulator. For quick closing, valves on
fuel gas cylinders shall not be opened more than 1 1/2
turns. When a special wrench is required, it shall be left in
position on the stem of the valve while the cylinder is in
use so that the fuel gas flow can be shut off quickly in case
98 ISSUE #4 - 2018 marineconstructionmagazine.com