ISSUE #3- 2017
Copyright 2017 - J.J. Smith & Company, LLC
In This Issue:
Personal Protective and Safety Equipment in Marine Construction
General Considerations for Sheet Pile Wall Construction
Piling and the Duties of a “Pile Inspector”
Barge Safety in Marine Construction
“Impalement” Hazards of Exposed Rebar,
Reinforced Steel, Tie-Rods and Earth Anchors
Marine Contractors Insurance
Cozumel Cruise Terminal, S.A. de C.V.
Puerta Maya Cruise Pier Extension
Orion Marine Construction, Inc.
Marine & Civil Contractors
Tampa, Florida, U.S.A.
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ISSUE #3 - 2017 TABLE of CONTENTS
® Cover Photo
Copyright 2017 - J.J. Smith & Company, LLC
Marine Construction® Magazine
J.J. Smith & Company Inc.
P.O. Box 1915
Naples, FL U.S.A. 34106
Advertising & Subscription Information
Call: (786) 510-1002 Anytime -
Days, Evenings or Weekends.
PUBLISHER Cover Photo Courtesy of:
Jennifer J. Smith Orion Marine Construction, Inc.
Tampa, Florida, U.S.A.
Christopher S. Smoot Features
ADVERTISING Personal Protective & Safety Equipment in Marine Construction....... 8
[email protected] General Considerations for Sheet Pile Wall Construction...... 36
Piling and the Duties of a “Pile Inspector”................................ 42
GRAPHICS/LAYOUT/PRINTING Barge Safety in Marine Construction.......................................... 46
Presstige Printing Hazards of Exposed Rebar, Reinforced Steel, Tie-Rods and Earth Anchors... 74
Marine Contractors Insurance......................................................80
CARTOONIST/ARTIST ShibataFenderTeam Completed Another Dolphin Fender in the Bahamas....88
Theresa M. McCracken Creative Pultrusions, Inc. Earns ISO 9001:2015 Certification..... 90
www.mchumor.com Provincetown Marina Second Phase Complete....................... 90
30m Long Fender Guidewall Supplied for Ferry Terminal in Galtby....... 92
CONTRIBUTING WRITER More Than 200 Cylindrical Fenders Delivered to Gdansk, Poland..... 92
John Davagian, II Bragg Crane Signs for More Link-Belt Cranes.......................... 94
Davagian Associates, Attorneys at Law ALL Family of Companies Named Authorized Dealer for Kobelco Crane........ 96
New Cost Effective Method for Transporting Massive Docks........ 98
Marine Construction® magazine is published every 2-months. ShibataFenderTeam Supplies Largest Parallel Motion Fender Ever..... 100
All material with all contents are all the property of Marine Creative Pultrusions, Inc. Acquires Tower Tech.................... 102
Construction® magazine. Marine Construction® magazine, web Link-Belt TCC-1100 Operates Under Bridge Clearance Alongside Colorado River.... 104
site www.marineconstructionmagazine.com. All information Renovated Wrightsville Beach Marina Ignites Sense of Pride... 108
is protected, without limitation, pursuant to U.S. and foreign Dawes Crane Moves Memorial Phantom F-4 Jet Fighter...... 110
copyright and trademark laws. Contents may not be reproduced
without prior written permission of the publisher, © 2015, 2016, Departments
2017, J.J. Smith & Company; D.B.A. Marine Construction®
Magazine. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. Disclaimer: Cartoons.............................................................................. 10, 62, 102
The opinions expressed by the authors and/or editorials
contained are those of the of the respective parties and do not
necessarily represent the opinion of the Publisher.
|4 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2017
Section Width Height Thickness Pile Wall Section Moment
in in in Weight Weight Modulus of Inertia
NZ 14 lb/ft2
NZ 19 30.31 13.39 0.375 lb/ft in3/ft in4/ft
NZ 20 27.56 16.14 0.375 21.77
NZ 21 27.56 16.16 0.394 55 24.05 25.65 171.7
NZ 26 27.56 16.20 0.433 55 24.82 35.08 283.1
NZ 28 27.56 17.32 0.500 57 26.56 36.24 292.8
27.56 17.38 0.560 61 30.99 38.69 313.4
71 33.96 48.50 419.9
78 52.62 457.4
As a premier steel foundation supplier now offering NZ sheets in addition to our
extensive product line, Skyline Steel is the ideal partner for your next project.
Visit www.skylinesteel.com/nz or call 888.450.4330.
© 2017 Skyline Steel, LLC. Skyline Steel is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Nucor Corporation, the largest producer of steel in the United States.
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Personal Protective and Safety
Equipment in Marine Construction
GENERAL identify the name of each employee trained, abrasions, punctures, burns, chemical
the date(s) of the training, and the subjects irritants, toxins, vibration, and forces that
The use of PPE (Personal Protective taught. can restrict blood flow) shall select and use
Equipment) is a control measure that is to - A copy of the manufacturer’s use, hand protection appropriate for the hazard
be used after a hazard evaluation identifies in accordance with ANSI/International
hazards associated with a particular job or inspection, testing, and maintenance Safety Equipment Association (ISEA) 105.
construction activity, and it is determined instructions shall be maintained with the Protective leg chaps shall be worn
that the hazards cannot be eliminated PPE and safety equipment. by workers who operate chain saws.
and/or controlled to an acceptable level - Personal protective and safety Protective leg chaps must meet the
through routine engineering design or equipment shall be tested, inspected, specifications in American Society for
administrative actions. and maintained in a serviceable and Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard
With this in mind, based on hazard sanitary condition as recommended by F1897.
evaluations conducted by supervisors, the manufacturer.
employers should identity and select such Defective or damaged equipment shall not EYE AND FACE PROTECTION
conditions, and as a result each affected be used. It shall be tagged as out of service
employee should use, PPE and safety and/or immediately removed from the work Persons shall be provided with eye and
equipment that will provide appropriate site to prevent use. face protection equipment, as outlined in
protection for certain marine construction Previously used PPE must be cleaned, Table -1, when machines or operations
tasks. disinfected, inspected, and repaired present potential eye or face injury from
First and foremost, employers should as necessary before issuing to another physical, chemical, or radiation agents.
communicate PPE and safety equipment employee. - Eye and face protection equipment
decisions to each affected employee. When employees provide their own
Employees shall use all PPE and safety safety equipment or PPE, the employer is shall meet the requirements of ANSI/
equipment that may be required to maintain responsible for assuring its adequacy in American Society of Safety Engineers
their exposure within acceptable limits. protecting against the hazard and its state (ASSE) Z87.1, and bear a legible and
Employees shall be appropriately trained of repair. permanent “Z87” logo to indicate
in the use and care all required PPE and Minimum requirements compliance with the standard.
safety equipment. Employees shall wear clothing suitable - Eye and face protection equipment
- Employees must be trained in and shall for the weather and work conditions. For shall be distinctly marked to facilitate
fieldwork (for example, construction sites, identification of the manufacturer.
demonstrate an understanding of the industrial operations and maintenance - Employees shall use eye protection
following aspects of PPE prior to use: activities, emergency operations, providing side protection.
selection (for specific hazard); donning, regulatory inspections, etc.), at a minimum, When required by this regulation to wear
doffing and adjusting; limitations and this shall be: eye protection, persons whose vision
useful life; inspection and testing; and requires the use of corrective lenses in
proper care including maintenance, (1) Short sleeve shirt; eyeglasses shall be protected by one of the
storage and disposal. (2) Long pants (excessively long or baggy following:
- When the employer has reason to - Prescription safety glasses providing
believe that any affected employee pants are prohibited); and optical correction and equivalent
who has been trained does not have the protection;
understanding and skill required for the (3) Leather or other protective work - Protective glasses with side shields
use of the PPE, the employer shall make designed to fit over corrective lenses
certain that the employee receives the shoes or boots. without disturbing the adjustment of the
necessary re-training to acquire the Protective equipment shall be of heat, glasses;
appropriate skills. fire, chemical, and/or electrical-resistive - Goggles that can be worn over corrective
The employer shall verify through written material when conditions require protection lenses without disturbing the adjustment
certification that each affected employee against such hazards. of the glasses, or
has received and understood the required Persons involved in activities that subject
training. The written certification shall the hands to injury (for example, cuts, (continued on page 10)
|8 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2017
combined steel wall
solutions for failing port
and marine infrastructure
(Continued from Page 8)
- Goggles that incorporate corrective
lenses mounted behind the protective
- Care should be taken to recognize the
possibility of multiple and simultaneous
exposure to a variety of hazards.
Adequate protection against the highest
level of each of the hazards must be
- Operations involving heat may also
involve optical radiation. Protection from
both hazards shall be provided.
- Face shields shall only be worn over
primary eye protection.
- Filter lenses shall meet the requirements
for shade designations in Table-2.
Persons whose vision requires the use of
prescription (Rx) lenses shall wear either
protective devices fitted with prescription
(Rx) lenses with side shields or protective
devices designed to be worn over regular
prescription (Rx) eyewear.
- Wearers of contact lenses shall also be
required to wear appropriate covering
eye and face protection devices in a
hazardous environment. It should be
recognized that dusty and/or chemical
environments may represent an additional
hazard to contact lens wearers.
- Caution should be exercised in the use
of metal frame protective devices in
electrical hazard areas.
- Welding helmets or hand shields shall be
used only over primary eye protection.
- Non-side shield spectacles are available
for frontal protection only.
Personnel who are considered blind in
one eye and are working in other than
administrative functions shall wear safety
glasses with side shields at all times.
Operations that require the use of, or
exposure to, hot or molten substances (for
example, soldering, pouring or casting of
hot metals, handling of hot tar, oils, liquids,
and molten substances) shall require eye
protection, such as goggles with safety
lenses and screens for side protection, or
|10 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com (continued on Page 12)
ISSUE #3 - 2017
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(Continued from Page 10) face masks, shields, and helmets giving
equal protection. Lens mountings shall
Protective be able to retain in position all parts of
a cracked lens.
Operations that require handling of
harmful materials (for example, acids,
caustics, hot liquids, or creosoted
materials) and operations where
protection from gases, fumes, and
liquids is necessary shall require
the wearing of goggles with cups of
soft pliable rubber and suitable face
shields, masks, or hoods that cover the
head and neck, and other protective
clothing appropriate to the hazards
Operations where protection from
radiant energy with moderate
reduction of visible light is necessary,
including welding, cutting, brazing, and
soldering, shall require eye and face
protection suitable to the type of work,
providing protection from all angles of
direct exposure, and with lenses of the
appropriate shade. > See Table -2.
(continued on Page 14)
|12 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2017
(Continued from Page 12) shall be selected, evaluated, provided, and used in accordance with
the hearing conservation program.
Protective Hearing protection provided must be capable of reducing worker
noise exposure below an 8-hour TWA of 85 dB(A). When hearing
Glare-resistant glasses that comply with ANSI Z80.3 with an protection devices do not provide sufficient attenuation to reduce
ultraviolet A-region (UVA) and ultraviolet B-region (UVB) 99% the worker noise exposure level below 85 dB(A), administrative
filtration shall be worn when conditions require protection against control of exposure will be necessary.
glare. When conditions so warrant, polarized lenses shall also be When sound-pressure levels exceed 115 dB(A) steady- state,
considered. personal ear protection equivalent to the combination of earplugs
Tinted or automatically darkening lenses should not be worn when and earmuffs shall be required.
work tasks require the employee to pass often from brightly to dimly
HEARING PROTECTION AND NOISE CONTROL Sound-pressure level measurements shall be made by qualified
personnel using calibrated instruments.
Sound-pressure level limits. Ear insert devices, to include disposable, preformed, or custom
Contracting personnel shall be provided, as a minimum, protection molded earplugs, shall be fitted to the exposed individual by an
against the effects of hazardous noise exposure whenever the individual trained in such fitting and able to recognize the difference
sound-pressure level exceeds the limits and/or exposure times between a good and a poor fit. Plain cotton is not an acceptable
specified in Table - 3. protective device.
Practical engineering or administrative controls shall be considered Noise hazard areas (areas in which sound-pressure levels exceed
and used when personnel are subjected to sound- pressure levels the limits specified in 05.C.01) shall be marked with caution signs
exceeding the limits specified in Tables - 3 and 4. When such controls indicating both the presence of hazardous noise levels and the
fail to reduce sound-pressure levels to within the specified limit, PPE requirement for hearing protection.
All persons working in or visiting hard hat areas shall be provided
with and required to wear Type I or Type II, Class G (General - low
voltage electrical protection) or Class E (Electrical – high voltage
(continued on Page 18)
|14 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2017
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|16 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2017
MKT V-52 = 201 tons Mississippi Valley Equipment
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Grouting Equipment (Continued from Page 14)
Heavy Building Infrastructure
Construction from the‘Ground Up’
for over 50 years
• Mines electrical protection) headgear. For emergency response operations and
• Wells other activities with greater need for side impact protection, Type II head
protection is recommended.
Hard hat areas or activities are those areas with potential hazard of head
injury; in general, all construction areas are considered hard hat areas.
However, areas may be considered non-hard hat areas, or activities may be
considered non-hard hat activities, if identified and properly documented in
the associated AHA.
Points of entry to a hard hat area shall have a sign warning of the requirement
to wear hard hats.
All protective headgear shall meet the requirements of ANSI Z89.1.
- No modification to the shell or suspension is allowed except when such
changes are approved by the manufacturer.
- Hard hats shall be worn with the bill facing forward unless the Project
Manager has determined exceptions for certain trades in order to
accommodate appropriate mission accomplishments. Headgear must be
designed to accommodate these needs.
Discover the world’s - Protective headgear worn near electric lines and equipment shall be Class E.
largest selection of No ball caps, knit caps, or other headdress shall be worn under the hard hat
Grouting Equipment that could interfere with the fit or stability of the hard hat.
Product information Protective headgear and components shall be visually inspected on a daily
Technical Assistance basis for signs of damage (dents, cracks, etc.) that might reduce the degree
Call: 708-354-7112 of safety integrity originally provided. Headgear will be periodically inspected
Fax: 708-354-3881 for ultraviolet degradation as evidenced by cracking or flaking of the helmet.
Visit Our website: Drilling holes or in any way changing the integrity of the hard hat is prohibited.
www.chemgrout.com Alterations that will reduce the dielectric or impact strength will not be made.
Protective footwear that addresses the hazard(s) identified in the PHA/AHA
shall be provided and worn.
(continued on Page 20)
|18 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2017
I SWEAT THE
DETAILS FOR YOU.
I’ve been part of so many cool projects working for ALL.
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ride at Kennywood amusement park near my home
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my family back to places I’ve worked just to share my
experiences. I love what I do and am trusted to run
just about every piece of equipment at my yard,
from a 15-ton boom truck to a 600-ton crawler.
I’m Bob Beadling, and I do it for you.
CRANE RENTAL | SALES | SERVICE | PARTS
CRANE RENTAL | SALES | SERVICE | PARTS
(Continued from Page 18) filtering face pieces), they must be evaluated maintaining respirators;
and approved by the respiratory program - Procedures to ensure adequate air
Protective administrator to ensure that the respirator
use will in itself not create a hazard. quality, quantity, and flow of breathing air
All protective footwear shall meet ASTM Written respiratory protection program. for atmosphere-supplying respirators;
F2412 and F2413 standards. A written respiratory protection program - Training of employees in the respiratory
Add-on type devices, such as strap-on foot, shall be developed and implemented when hazards to which they are potentially
toe or metatarsal guards, shall not be used respirators are used. exposed during routine and emergency
as a substitute for protective footwear and - All employees using respirators, with situations;
must be demonstrated by the employer to - Training of employees in the proper use
be equally effective via independent testing the exception of employees voluntarily of respirators, including putting on and
data for these devices). using only filtering face pieces (NIOSH- removing them, any limitations on their
For activities in which contractor personnel approved dust masks), shall be included use, and their maintenance; and
or official visitors are potentially exposed in the respiratory protection program. - Procedures for regularly evaluating the
to foot hazards, the applicable PHA/AHA, - A respiratory protection program effectiveness of the program.
APP, or project safety and health plan administrator with the technical Medical evaluation.
shall include an analysis of, and prescribe qualifications (training and experience) All employees, with the exception of
specific protective measures to be taken and administrative authority to develop, employees voluntarily using filtering face
for, reducing foot hazards. implement and update (as necessary) pieces, shall be medically evaluated to
Personnel shall, as a minimum, wear safety- the respiratory protection program shall ensure they are fit enough to wear the
toed boots meeting ASTM Standards F2412 be identified and so designated in the selected respirators. Evaluation options for
and F2413 while working on construction program. respirator use are as follows:
sites unless it can be demonstrated by The program administrator shall ensure Physical Examination.
a PHA/AHA to the Project Manager’s that all respirator users (voluntary users A physical examination for the purpose of
satisfaction that a different type of foot included) comply with the requirements of clearing an employee to wear a selected
protection is required. the program. respirator, supervised by a Board-Certified
Footwear providing protection against Program Administrator Qualifications. Occupational Medicine Physician. Medical
impact and compressive forces, conduction The program administrator shall have the clearances to wear respirators shall include
hazards, electrical hazards, and sole documented knowledge and experience to the following:
puncture shall comply with the applicable understand OSHA’s respiratory protection - Telephone, e-mail, and physical address
requirements of ASTM F2412 and F2413. standard (29 CFR 1910.134), evaluate of the medical facility/provider;
Footwear providing protection against respiratory hazards at the facility/project, - Printed name of the licensed, certified
impact and compression hazards shall be select appropriate respirators based on health care provider along with his/her
rated as I/75 and C/75. facility/project hazards or potential hazard, signature;
Unexploded ordnance (UXO) personnel and train employees on the use of selected - The statement of clearances or
whose job tasks required protective respirators. respiratory limitations only (no personal
footwear but require no metal parts in or Respiratory protection programs shall medical information shall be included.
on their footwear shall wear Conductive address each of the following topics: Employee identification shall not include
footwear (Cd) with protective toe cap/ - Methods used to identify and evaluate the full social security number);
composite toe footwear. workplace respiratory hazards; - Date of examination and date that
- Procedures for selecting respirators for clearance expires.
RESPIRATORY PROTECTION use in the workplace;
- Medical evaluations of employees FULL BODY HARNESSES,
General. required to use respirators; LANYARDS, AND LIFELINES.
The use of respirators is required when - Fit testing procedures for tight-fitting
occupational exposure levels exceed respirators; - Full body harnesses, lanyards and lifelines
OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) - Procedures for proper use of respirators are considered components of personal
or American Conference of Governmental in routine and reasonably foreseeable fall protection systems.
Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold emergency situations;
Limit Values (TLVs), and engineering or - Procedures and schedules for cleaning, - Lineman’s equipment (electrically rated
administrative exposure controls are not disinfecting, storing, inspecting, harnesses). The full body harness
feasible to implement. repairing, discarding, and otherwise used around high voltage equipment or
The voluntary use of dust masks (filtering structures shall be an industry designed
face piece respirators) is permissible in
atmospheres that are not hazardous. Prior (continued on Page 24
to use of the voluntary respirators (including
|20 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2017
DRIVING E QUIPMENT, INC. AME
NDATION ERICAN PILE
(Continued from Page 20) following criteria are met:
- PFDs are worn only by workers over 16 years of age and those
who weigh 90 lb (40.8 kg) or more;
“Linemen’s FP Harness” that will resist arc flashing. - An AHA must be performed for this activity;
- PFDs must be inspected, maintained, stowed and used only in
PERSONAL FLOTATION DEVICES
accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions (currently not
Inherently buoyant Type III, Type V work vests, or better USCG- intended to be used in areas of heavy construction or maintenance
approved personal flotation devices (PFDs) shall be provided and or where hot work (welding, brazing, cutting, soldering, etc.) is to
properly worn (zipped, tied, latched, etc., in closed fashion) by all be performed;
persons in the following circumstances: > See Figure -1. - PFDs shall provide a 30-pound minimum buoyancy post-
- On floating pipelines, pontoons, rafts, or stages; - EAmalalcwtheeriPaaFrlaDabtltseahcPahFlleDhdsatsvoheiataslltbfrleoenoatfsatsi3hd1iegihanln2ydv(2ais0ti0blelecamsotr2a3)n1ogifner2/ere(t2rd0od0riescfhlmec2co)tlioovner.
- On structures or equipment extending over or next to water except its back side, per USCG requirements (46 CFR Part 25.25-15).
- Each PFD shall be equipped with a USCG-approved automatically
where guardrails, personal fall protection system, or safety nets activated light. Lights are not required for PFDs on projects
are provided for employees; performed exclusively during daylight hours.
- Working alone at night where there are drowning hazards, - Before and after each use, the PFD shall be inspected for defects
regardless of other safeguards provided; that would alter its strength or buoyancy.
- In skiffs, small boats, or launches, unless in an enclosed cabin or
cockpit; or - Throwable devices (Type IV PFD).
- Whenever there is a drowning hazard. (continued on Page 26)
Automatic-Inflatable PFDs Type V or better, USCG- approved for
Commercial Use, may be worn by workers in lieu of inherently
buoyant PFDs (See conditions 05.J.01.a-e above), provided the
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|24 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2017
(Continued from Page 24) means of securing and signing the blocks, etc. When the use of
blocks is found unacceptable, alternative safety measures shall
Protective be developed.
On USCG-inspected vessels, ring buoys are required to have LIFESAVING AND SAFETY SKIFFS
automatic floating electric water lights (46 CFR 160).
On all other floating plant and shore installations, lights on life rings At least one skiff shall be immediately available at locations where
are required only in locations where adequate general lighting (e.g., employees work over or immediately next to water. Skiffs shall be
floodlights, light stanchions) is not provided. For these plants and kept afloat or ready for instant launching.
installations, at least one life ring, and every third one thereafter, Personnel trained in launching and operating the skiff shall be readily
shall have automatic floating electric water light attached. available during working hours. Lifesaving personnel shall perform
All PFDs shall be equipped with retro-reflective tape in accordance a lifesaving drill, including the launching and recovery of the skiff,
with USCG requirements. before the initiation of work at the site and periodically thereafter as
Life rings (rope attachment specified by the Project Manager (but at least monthly or whenever
not required) and ring buoys
(rope attachment required) new personnel are involved).
shall be USCG-approved; shall - Skiffs shall be kept afloat or
have at least 70 ft (21.3 m) of ready for instant launching.
3/8 in (0.9 cm) of attached Required equipment must be
solid braid polypropylene, or onboard and meet or exceed
equivalent. Throw bags may USCG requirements. Skiffs
be used in addition to life rings shall be equipped as follows:
or ring buoys. Life rings or ring - Four (4) oars (two (2) if the
buoys shall be readily available skiff is motor powered);
and shall be provided at the - Oarlocks attached to gunwales
following places: or the oars;
- At least one not less than 20 - One (1) ball-pointed boat
in (51 cm) on each safety skiff - One (1) ring buoy with 70
up to 26 ft (7.9 m) in length.; ft (21.3 m) of 3/8 in (0.9 cm)
- At least one (1) 24 in (61 cm) solid braid polypropylene, or
in diameter on all motor equivalent, line attached; and
boats longer than 26 ft (7.9 - PFDs in number equaling the
m) in length up to 65 ft (19.8 skiff rating for the maximum
m) in length and for motor number of personnel allowed
boats 65 ft (19.8 m) in length on board.
or longer, a minimum 3 life - Fire Extinguisher.
buoys of not less than 24 in In locations where waters are
(61 cm) and one additional for rough or swift, or where manually operated boats are not practical,
each increase in length of 100 ft (30.4 m) or fraction thereof; and a power boat suitable for the waters shall be provided and equipped
- At least one (1) at intervals of not more than 200 ft (60.9 m) on for lifesaving.
pipelines, walkways, wharves, piers, bulkheads, lock walls, Skiffs and power boats shall have buoyant material capable of
scaffolds, platforms, and similar structures extending over or floating the boat, its equipment, and the crew.
immediately next to water, unless the fall distance to the water is On vessels (such as skiffs) without permanently mounted navigation
more than 45 ft (13.7 m), in which case a life ring shall be used. (The lights, portable battery-operated navigation lights will be available
length of line for life rings at these locations shall be evaluated, and used for night operations.
but the length may not be less than 70 ft (21.3 m).)
At navigation locks, an analysis of the benefits versus the hazards of VENTILATION AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS
using floating safety blocks (blocks that may be quickly pushed into
the water to protect individuals who have fallen in the water from Portable and Temporary Ventilation Systems
being crushed by vessels) shall be made. - All portable or temporary ventilation systems shall remove dusts,
- This analysis shall be documented as an AHA. fumes, mists, vapors and gases away from the worker and the
- If the use of blocks is found acceptable, consideration shall be work environment or provide air to prevent an oxygen deficient
given to the size and placement of the blocks, the appropriate
(continued on Page 30
|26 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2017
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EExxppeerriieennccee ttrruuee ffeennddeerr ssppeecciiaalliissttss wwiitthh wwoorrllddwwiiddee rreeffeerreenncceess
RReellyy oonn gglloobbaall aacccceessssiibbiilliittyy ttoo hhiigghh qquuaalliittyy ffeennddeerrss aanndd ddeessiiggnnss
TTrruusstt oouurr ffooccuuss oonn iinn--hhoouussee pprroodduuccttiioonn aanndd tteessttiinngg ffaacciilliittiieess
BBeenneeffiitt ffrroomm ccoonnssuullttiinngg eexxppeerrttiissee aanndd ssuuppppoorrtt aatt aann eeaarrllyy pprroojjeecctt ssttaaggee uiupipnnssrrCCddooffooiiopopvvnnroroiittddsysyaauauaooccalalutut..llrr
EExxppeecctt aann eexxtteennssiivvee ttrraacckk rreeccoorrdd iinn tthhee eennggiinneeeerriinngg ooff mmaarriinnee ffeennddeerr pprroojjeeccttss
CCoonnttaacctt llooccaall ooffffiicceess aanndd aann eexxtteennssiivvee ppaarrttnneerr nneettwwoorrkk wwoorrllddwwiiddee
CCoonnttiinnuuee ttoo wwoorrkk wwiitthh aa ssttrroonngg aanndd ddeeppeennddaabbllee ppaarrttnneerr
(Continued from Page 26) Duration of operation.
Ventilation systems shall be operated continuously during operations
Protective when persons are exposed to airborne contaminants or explosive
gases at or above acceptable safe limits as defined in 06.A.01 or
- Portable or temporary ventilation systems shall be used as as otherwise specified by this manual, referenced standards, or
designed by the manufacturer. All hoses shall be only as long as regulations.
the maximum allowed by the manufacturer to provide the required Ventilation systems shall remain in operation for a time after the
air flow at the supply or exhaust point. If adding or changing hoses, work process or equipment has ceased to ensure the removal of
only hoses and/or connectors shall be used that are comparable any contaminants in suspension or vaporizing into the air.
and compatible with the hoses and connectors provided by the - Local exhaust ventilation systems shall be periodically evaluated
to ensure that proper contaminant capture, movement through
- Make-up air for air supply ventilation systems shall draw air free the system and filtration or exhaust to the outside.
of contaminants and away from any potential contaminant source. - Dusts and refuse materials removed by exhaust systems or other
methods shall be disposed of in a manner that will not create a
- Any portable or temporary ventilation system and the locations the hazard to employees or the public and in accordance with Federal,
systems are to be used shall be approved by the project manager State, and local requirements.
before use. Manufacturer information or design criteria shall be
provided with the request for approval. ABRASIVE BLASTING
- Airborne contaminants created by portable or temporary Introduction.
ventilation systems (such as drills, saws, and grinding machines) Silica sand shall NOT be used as an abrasive blasting media.
in concentrations exceeding acceptable safe limits shall be Alternative abrasive blasting materials are available and listed in
effectively controlled at the source. Table 3. Depending on the application, one of these alternative
materials is suggested for use as an abrasive blasting media.
Ventilation systems shall be operated and maintained in such
a manner to ensure the maintenance of a volume and velocity of (continued on Page 32)
exhaust air sufficient to gather contaminants and safely transport
them to suitable points for removal.
|30 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2017
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Abrasive blasting operations shall be evaluated to determine Engineering controls for noise and dust shall be considered even
composition and toxicity of the abrasive and the dust or fume if they cannot reduce the exposures to the lowest Occupational
generated by the blasted material, including surface coatings. This Exposure Limit (OEL) but will significantly reduce noise and dust
determination shall be documented on the AHA (Activity Hazard exposure to the employees.
Analysis) developed for the abrasive blasting activity. Blast Cleaning Enclosures and Rooms:
Written operating procedures shall be developed and implemented - Blast cleaning enclosures shall be exhaust ventilated in such a
for abrasive blasting operations, including pressurized pot
procedures (filling, pressurizing, depressurizing, and maintenance way that a continuous inward flow of air will be maintained at all
and inspection). The procedures should be added as an appendix openings in the enclosure during the blasting operation.
to the APP. - All air inlets and access openings shall be well baffled to prevent
The concentration of respirable dust and fume in the breathing zone the escape of abrasive and the recommended continuous inward
or persons exposed to the blasting operation should be maintained. air velocity at the air inlets is a minimum of 250 fpm (4.6 kph).
No employee will be allowed to work in abrasive blasting operations - Negative pressure should be maintained inside during blasting.
unless he has met the medical surveillance and training and - The rate of exhaust shall be sufficient to provide prompt clearance
experience, and has been provided the appropriate PPE. of the dust-laden air within the enclosure after cessation of the
All production and control systems used in a stationary abrasive- blasting.
blasting process shall be designed or maintained to prevent escape Minimum recommended protective equipment of an abrasive blaster
of airborne dust or aerosols in the work environment and to ensure working inside a blasting room, in the open, in enclosed space, or
control of the abrasive agents. outdoors is: safety boots or toe guards; durable coveralls, closeable
Pressurized systems and components shall be inspected, tested, at wrists, ankles, and other openings to prevent entry of abrasive
certified. dust and rubbing of such; respiratory, eye, and hearing protection;
and gauntlet gloves.
- If abrasive blasting is automated, the blast shall be turned off
before the enclosure is opened. The exhaust system shall be run
for a sufficient period of time to remove the dusty air within the
enclosure to minimize the escape of dust into the workroom and
prevent any health hazard.
- In the room, a cleanup method other than broom sweeping or
compressed air blowing should be used to collect the abrasive
agent after blasting (e.g., vacuum cleaning). If the blasting agent
is removed manually, appropriate personal protective equipment,
including respiratory protection shall be worn and not removed
until outside the blasting room.
Blasting without Enclosures.
If occasional but regular abrasive blasting must be performed
inside a building without enclosures, respiratory protection shall be
(continued on Page 34)
|32 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2017
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(Continued from Page 32) Blasting Outdoors.
- Blasters shall be protected in a manner equivalent to Section 05
and/or 29 CFR 1910.94(a)(5), whichever is more stringent.
provided for all employees in the area. Portable engineering control - Prudent care shall be taken to prevent the dust cloud from
devices shall be used at the location to collect the entire used
abrasive agent as it is applied. spreading to other work areas. Check with Local and State
When airborne abrasive-blasting dust becomes sufficiently heavy in requirements which may add restrictions to outdoor abrasive
an area to cause a temporary safety hazard by reduced visibility, or blasting.
discomfort to the unprotected employees not engaged in abrasive - Hearing protection and respiratory protection shall be available to
blasting, such operations in the affected area shall be discontinued all other employees in the area if their presence is required. u
until the airborne dust is removed by exhaust ventilation and the
settled dust has been removed from the horizontal surfaces in the
area. If such operations have to continue, appropriate respiratory
protection shall be provided to those employees remaining in the
area, provided visibility is adequate.
Abrasive materials shall not be allowed to accumulate on aisles and
walkways to create a slipping hazard.
If wet abrasive blasting is employed to reduce dust exposures, the
aerosols produced and the dried residues that become airborne
might be potential hazards and shall be considered.
Abrasive blasting work conducted in a confined space shall be
performed in accordance with Section 34 and 29 CFR 1910.146. If the
space is mechanically ventilated, means shall be provided to collect
dust before release to the open atmosphere.
|34 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2017
General Considerations for
Sheet Pile Wall Construction
The following article addresses some general considerations for performance. Performing work over water has always been more
sheet pile wall construction; more specifically, bulkheads and difficult and costly than performing the same work on land. With the
seawalls. Its intent is to give contractors a brief overview of sheet construction of bulkheads and seawalls, a contractor will encounter
pile installation and its effect on any potential design. both scenarios.
Sheet Piling Site Conditions
Sheet piling is a manufactured construction product with a Site conditions should be evaluated during the reconnaissance
mechanical connection “interlock” at both ends of the section. phase, with effort increasing as the design progresses. Overhead
These mechanical connections interlock with one another to form and underground obstructions, such as pipes, power lines, and
a continuous wall most commonly referred to as “sheeting”. Sheet existing structures, may dictate special construction techniques.
pile applications are typically designed to create a rigid barrier Some situations may even necessitate a change in wall alignment.
for earth and water, while resisting the lateral pressures of those The effects of pile driving on nearby structures or embankments
bending forces. The shape or geometry of a section lends to the should also be considered.
structural strength. In addition, the soil in which the section is
driven has numerous mechanical properties that can affect the (continued on page 38)
|36 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2017
(Continued from Page 36) of installation. Contract specifications at times may prohibit the
installation of sheet piling until the contractor’s methods and
Sheet Pile Wall equipment are approved.
Hammers - Types of driving hammers used for the installation of
Construction Sequence steel sheet piles include vibratory pile hammers, diesel, air-steam,
hydraulic impact pile hammers, hydraulic sheet pile “pushing rigs”,
Interim protection - Construction of a new bulkhead or seawall a high pressure jet w/jet pump or a simple drop hammer. Vibratory
sometimes requires removal of the existing protection. In that Pile hammers are widely used because they usually can drive sheet
situation it is necessary to provide interim protection or to construct piles faster, do not damage the top of the pile, and can easily extract
the new wall in stages. Interim protection should be to the same level piling when necessary. Provided of course the soils are granular, a
as the removed protection line. Staged construction should limit the vibratory hammer can drive steel sheet piling far faster than impact
breach to one that can be closed should floodwaters approach. hammers. When a hard driving condition is encountered, there
Relocations - Overhead utility lines are relocated temporarily for have been situations whereby a vibratory hammer can cause the
most sheet pile walls. Subsequent to pile driving, the lines can interlocks to literally emit flames and melt. If the penetration rate is
usually be placed back in their original position. Underground lines 1 foot or less per minute, it might be best to reconsider the use of
are removed for pile driving and then placed back through the sheet a vibratory hammer as an impact hammer may be more effective.
pile. The selection of the type or size of the hammer is based on the
Temporary bypass lines are necessary for some situations. soil in which the pile is driven. The designer should be aware of
Permanent relocation through the wall must allow for differential the soil stiffness and possibility of obstructions which could cause
settlement between the wall and the utility lines. failure or weakening of the sheet pile during driving. When installing
lighter weight aluminum, vinyl sheet piling or composite sheet
Earthwork piling obviously the aforementioned does not apply. These lighter
weight sheet piling sections have become increasing popular for
Excavation - Excavation consists of the removal and disposal residential, municipal bulkheads and retaining walls and more.
of material to the grades and dimensions provided on the plans. Some of the more effective hammers utilized for these installations
Excavation is generally required when capping or trenching sheet are small air hammers as well as excavator mounted vibratory pile
pile and for placement of tie rods or anchors. A dewatering system driver/extractors.
consisting of sumps and pumps or wells may be required depending Guides and Templates - To ensure that piles are placed and driven
on subsurface conditions. An excavation and dewatering plan should to the correct alignment, a guide structure or templates should
be submitted by the contractor for review prior to commencement be used. Many contractors recommend at least two templates be
of work. used in driving each pile or pair of sheet piles. Templates should
Voids due to driving – Sometimes during the driving of heavier steel also be used to obtain the proper plumbness of the sheet pile wall.
sheet piling sections, voids may form adjacent to the webs and Sheet pilings properly placed and driven generally are interlocked
flanges of the sheet piling due to soil drawdown. Typically, these throughout their length.
voids are first pumped free of any water present, either due to Accessories - A protective cap should be employed with impact
seepage or rain, and then backfilled with a cement-bentonite-sand hammers to prevent damage to the tops of sheet piling. Protective
slurry. The slurry should be fluid enough to fill the voids and strong shoes to protect the tip are also available so that driving through
enough to approximate the strength of the insitu material. harder soil strata is possible. If an obstruction is encountered
Backfill - It is recommended that clean sands and gravels be used during driving, it should be removed or penetrated with a chisel
as backfill for retaining walls whenever possible. Material placed beam. During driving, the piling next to the one being driven may
behind the wall should be compacted to prevent settlement. The tend to follow below the final design elevation; in this case it may
amount of compaction required depends on the material used. Over be necessary to pin in place piles together before the next pile is
compaction could induce additional lateral pressures that may driven. Extraction, or pulling of specific piles for inspections, may
not have been accounted for in the design. Typically, granular fill be required if damage to the pile or interlocks is suspected or if
is placed in thin lifts, with each lift compacted before the next is excessive drift occurs. The circumstances should be carefully
placed. There are some situations in which the use of clay backfill investigated to determine the cause of damage, and remedial action
is unavoidable, as in backfill for walls in levees. Under these should be taken before re-driving.
circumstances very strict controls on compaction are required. It
is very important to have proper drainage behind the wall as it is Storage and Handling
critical to the performance of retaining walls. Drainage materials
will reduce or eliminate the hydrostatic pressure and will therefore Steel Piling - Steel piling may be damaged when mishandled or
greatly improve the stability of the material behind the wall. stored improperly, resulting in permanently bent sheets. Piling
stored on site should not exceed stack height and weight as shipped
Equipment and Accessories from the mill. Blocking is used to maintain piling in a level position.
Blocking between bundles should be located directly over any
General - The most common methods of installing steel sheet pile
walls include vibrating, impact driving, hydraulic pushing, jetting, (continued on Page 40)
and trenching. The type of sheet piling often governs the method
|38 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2017
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(Continued from Page 38) • Rule of thumb: When driving long, heavy sections of Steel
Sheet Piling, Crane Boom length should be twice that of the
Sheet Pile Wall sheets one is driving
blocking placed immediately below. • Drive the Sheets with the “male” interlock leading in order to
Slings or other methods that prevent buckling during lifting are avoid annoying soil plugs
typically used on longer lengths of steel piling. Sheets generally
should be handled using a minimum of two pick-up points when • If the “female” interlock must lead, place a bolt or other object
being moved and stacked. (Handling holes are generally used for at the bottom to avoid debris filling the female end
the single line pick-up point for installation of a sheet) Additional
care is required when handling piling with protective coatings, as • A panel of sheet piling should be threaded and set prior to
any damaged area will require repairs prior to driving. driving any sheets to grade
The following are suggested blocking procedures for general sheet
piling sections: • Align and plumb the first two sheets and drive carefully and
• Blocking for Heavy (.500 Wall) Steel Sheet Pile Sections should accurately
be spaced no more than 15 feet apart and no more than 2 feet • Drive sheets in pairs when possible placing the hammer in the
from the ends. center of the pair
• Blocking for Flat Web Sheet Piling Steel Sheet Pile Sections
should be spaced no more than 10 feet apart and no more than • Some contractors recommend not driving a sheet more than
2 feet from the ends. 1/3 its length before driving the adjacent pile
• Blocking for Standard (.375 Wall) Steel Sheet Pile Sections
should be spaced no more than 12 feet apart and no more than • Letting the sheets “free-fall” and drop in order to aid in
2 feet from the ends. penetration will generally cause the sheets to fall “out of
• Aluminum, Vinyl and Composite Sheet Pile sections should plumb”
be stored and handled according to the manufacturer’s
recommendations. • Sheet piling should be threaded and allowed to “slide” until
it stops by its own weight. A hairpin can be used to assist
Anchors penetration at this point.
Improperly planned construction methods may produce loads which • When walls are being constructed, sheet piling should be
exceed those used for design. checked periodically (at a minimum, every 5th single sheet or
Anchor forces, soil pressures, 3rd double) as to ensure the wall is plumb.
and water loads are affected
by the method of construction • Never rush the Pile Foreman. u
and construction practices. The
sequence of tightening tie rods
should be specified to prevent
overstresses in isolated sections
of the wale or the sheet pile wall.
Anchors and tie rods should be
placed and tightened in a uniform
manner so that no overstresses
may occur. Backfilling above
the anchor elevation should be
carefully controlled to prevent
bending of the tie rods. The backfill
material should be controlled, and
the thickness of compacted layers
should be limited to ensure proper
compaction and drainage of the
Tips for installing Sheet piles
• Always set-up a template
|40 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2017
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Piling and the Duties of a
When the test piles have been driven and the final pile lengths 3. That the equipment meets requirements (hammer is qualified).
of a project have been authorized, inspection of the foundation
pile driving is still a very important function of a Bridge or Marine 4. That the piles are properly prepared for driving.
Construction Inspector. Not only does the inspector make certain
that the piles are driven to adequate bearing and penetration, but 5. That the welder (if steel H-piles or shells are to be used) has
also avoids excessive driving which may result in severe damage passed all agency/owner required qualifying tests. All splices
to the piles. Either extreme may render the piles useless, and could should be made in accordance with approved standard details
result in the failure of a foundation. In general, appropriate bearing for the type of pile.
capacity criteria for foundation piling is established from test pile
data and application of criteria for substantial refusal to driving of 6. That the length and diameter of the pile is measured and
foundation piling is not appropriate. recorded before being placed in the leads.
Make certain that all piles for a unit have been
satisfactorily driven, and redriven where required, 7. That the pile is properly positioned (usually by digging a small
before indicating approval of the driving for that (continued on Page 44)
unit. Do not delay the contractor unnecessarily,
but do not let him pressure you into making a
premature determination. If in doubt, consult with
Establish cut-off elevation and measure and
record the cut-off length for each pile. Require
the specified preservative treatment for the top of
treated timber piles.
Following is a list of some of the responsibilities and
duties of the inspector on a pile driving operation.
1. That the pile locations have been staked
(by the contractor) and checked (by the
appropriate agency/owner) before driving is
started. Where driving within a cofferdam,
the pile lines should be marked off in both
directions on the cofferdam walers and
struts, with proper allowance for batter when
2. That the pile material has been inspected in
accordance with the requirements. The final
inspection and acceptance will be at the site
of the work. Even though the material may
have passed previous inspection, it may have
been damaged in handling or shipment (this is
particularly true of timber piles). The thickness
of the steel in H-piles and shells should be
checked, and a visual inspection made of the
general condition of the piles, including welds
on welded Steel Shells, and the flange to web
connections on H-piles.
Review the Mill Test Reports to verify that the
material is of domestic origin.
|42 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2017
GEOSTRUCTURAL SYSTEMS MANUAL
(Continued from Page 42)
hole for the tip of the pile with a pointed shovel at the staked layer is suspected, or unless the contract specifies a minimum
location for timber piles). depth of penetration.
8. That the pile is plumb, or at the specified batter. 22. To signal the foreman when the pile has been driven to the
9. That the driving cap fits properly on the head of the pile. An required penetration or substantial refusal. If there is a failure
improperly fitting pile cap, particularly on a timber pile, could to signal the operator immediately, and a failure occurs as a
create a hazard in addition to damaging the pile. “Chasers” result, the accident is the contractor’s responsibility.
are not permitted as transmittal of hammer impact to the pile 23. As the top of the pile approaches cut-off elevation, inspect
cannot be assured. it visually for evidence of damage, and avoid, if possible, the
10. That the pile is properly supported laterally so as to avoid inclusion of damaged areas below cut-off. Slightly deformed
“whip” when driving, particularly if there is a noticeable bow steel sections are not necessarily considered as damaged.
in the length of the pile. 24. To observe piles which have been driven to determine whether
11. It is sometimes necessary to secure the leads with guy ropes to or not they may be heaving when driving adjacent piles. Order
control their position. redriving of piles which have heaved. Plastic soils sometimes
12. When possible, to insist on starting the pile with reduced have this characteristic, particularly with closely spaced
energy until the pile is well seated, particularly for timber piles. tapered piles.
13. To observe the action of the pile very closely as it starts 25. To require removal of earth that may have swelled above the
downward, and insist on immediate correction if it moves out bottom of footing elevation during pile driving. Areas which
of position, plumbness, or specified batter. were over-excavated may be backfilled with approved material
14. To observe the operation of pile hammers and determine and compacted or filled with concrete.
whether or not they are functioning properly when full power 26. When obstructions, such as rocks or boulders, are encountered
is supplied. Energy reductions in excess of 25 percent may be near the surface they should be removed. If this cannot be
necessary if hammer is not operating properly. done, then the pile pattern may have to be modified. Consult
15. To note whether or not the pile and the hammer are in alignment. the Project Engineer, if necessary:
A pile can be easily damaged when not properly aligned with The inspection procedure for trestle type piles is much the same as
the hammer, and the damage may be blamed by the foreman to for foundation piles, with the following additions:
“overdriving.” 1. Require that guides or templates be used when necessary in
16. To observe the pile closely, especially timber piles, for evidence order to keep the piles in proper alignment and at the correct
of cracks, splits, or fractures, which may cause sudden failure batter. The tolerances are necessarily more rigid than are
and perhaps an accident. Timber piles may release splinters those for foundation piles.
large enough to cause serious injury when dropping from 2. Timber or plank guides, set to correct grade and slope, should
considerable height. be used when timber pile cut-offs are made, since the pile cap
17. To observe any strain that may be created on the equipment should fit snugly on the pile without the use of shims or fills.
due to high booms and/or heavy loads. Cutting off trestle piles should be done only by experienced
18 That “penetration per blow” readings are taken well in sawyers or welders. Super-elevated roadways, or skewed
advance of final penetration, when this is possible or practical, bridges on grade, often require that the caps be placed on a
particularly when approaching the “substantial refusal” range. slope, thereby necessitating that the cutoff guides also be
19. That timber piles are not driven to cut-off length since some placed on a slope. u
damage is done to the top wood fibers by the hammer impact
even though this may not be visible. Provide for at least 150 mm
(6 in.) of cut-off. Steel, piles or shells may be driven to cut-off if
the top of the pile is in reasonably good condition.
20. That final penetration measurements are made by the inspector
and are not delegated to the worker.
21 To drive all piling to the bearing capacity satisfactory to the
Engineer, to substantial refusal or to the required penetration.
Do not continue driving a pile after substantial refusal has been
obtained merely to reduce cut-off length, unless a shallow hard
|44 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2017
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Barge Safety in Marine Construction
When it comes to Marine Construction, floating vessels are utilized preceding year should also be kept on board the vessel.
on a daily basis. Considering these vessels will generally have All dredges and quarter boats not subject to USCG inspection and
everything from cranes to large pile driving equipment to thousands certification or not having a current ABS classification should
of pounds of timber, steel or concrete piling strewn upon its deck, be inspected in the working mode annually by a marine surveyor
you combine this scenario with a barge that spends 9 months resting accredited by the National Association of Marine Surveyors
offshore in saltwater, you have a situation whereby inspection of (NAMS) or the Society of Accredited Marine Surveyors (SAMS).
the barge, push-boat, dredge or floating vessel becomes routine. These surveyors should have at least 5 years’ experience in
When it comes to the United States Coast Guard (USCG), waterborne commercial marine plant and equipment inspection.
vessels and their “floating plant inspection and certification” are - All other equipment should be inspected before being placed in
quite specific. The following are just some of their guidelines.
All floating plant regulated by the USCG should have required use and at least annually by a qualified person.
USCG documentation that is current before being placed in service. - Any inspection should be documented, a copy of the most recent
A copy of the report should be posted in a public area on board
the vessel. A copy of any USCG Form issued to the vessel in the inspection report should be posted in a public area on board the
(continued on Page 48)
|46 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com (continued on Page 48)
ISSUE #3 - 2017
(Continued from Page 46 Any in place “plan” should include:
A description of the types of severe weather hazards any vessel or
Barge Safety equipment may potentially be exposed to and the steps that will be
taken to guard against the hazards;
vessel, and a copy should be available in the event an on board - The time frame for implementing the plan (using as a reference
inspection is made.
- Any inspection should be appropriate for the intended use of the the number of hours remaining for the storm to reach the work
equipment being inspected, as a minimum, evaluate structural site if it continues at the predicted speed and direction), including
condition. the estimated time to move the barge/vessel to safe harbor after
a. Periodic inspections and tests should assure that a safe operating movement is started;
condition is maintained. - The name and location of the safe location(s);
b. Records of inspections should be maintained at the site and be - The name of the vessel(s), type, capacity, speed, and availability
available to any on board inspection or inspector. that will be used to move any non-self-propelled equipment;
c. Any floating equipment or vessels found in an unsafe condition - River/tide gage readings at which floating equipment must be
should be taken out of service and its use prohibited until unsafe moved away from bridge piling, fender systems, dams, river
conditions have been corrected. structures, etc., to safe areas;
Any captain should be in possession of a current, valid USCG Method for securing equipment if not moved
license, which shall be posted in a public area on board the Extended movement of floating equipment and tow should be
vessel, or correctly endorsed document as required by the USCG. preceded by an evaluation of weather reports and conditions by a
Severe weather precaution responsible person to ascertain that safe movement of the vessel
When barges or floating equipment may be endangered by severe and tow can be accomplished.
weather (including sudden and locally severe weather, storms, Work or task orders should be preceded by an evaluation of weather
high winds, hurricanes, and floods) plans should be made for reports and conditions by a responsible person to ascertain that safe
removing or securing all vessels and the evacuation of personnel
in emergencies. (continued on Page 50)
|48 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2017
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(Continued from Page 48) Emergency Planning
- Plans shall be prepared for response to marine emergencies
such as fire, sinking, flooding, severe weather, man overboard,
working conditions exist and safe refuge of personnel is assured. hazardous material incidents, etc.
USCG approved PFD (Types I, II, III, or V) should be worn by all - A station bill, setting forth the special duties and the duty station
personnel on decks exposed to severe weather, regardless of other of each crewmember for various emergencies, should be
safety devices used. USCG-approved Type V automatic inflatable prepared and posted in conspicuous locations throughout the
PFDs rated for commercial use may be worn by workers. vessel.
A sufficient number of vessels of adequate size and horsepower, - Each crewmember should be given a written description of, and
each designed, outfitted, and equipped for towing service, should should become familiar with, his/her emergency duties and shall
be available at all times to move both self- and non-self-propelled become familiar with the vessel’s emergency signals.
equipment against tides, current, and winds should severe weather - “Abandon ship/boat” and “person overboard” procedures shall
conditions become an issue. include instructions for mustering personnel.
Contractors working in an exposed marine location should monitor On all floating equipment that have a regular crew or on which
the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) workers are quartered, the following drills shall be held at least
marine weather broadcasts and use other commercial weather monthly during each shift (unless the vessel is required, under
forecasting services as may be available. USCG regulations, to be drilled more frequently): abandon ship/
Any floating equipment should be capable of withstanding whatever boat drills, fire drills, and person overboard or rescue drills.
sea conditions may be experienced in the work area during the The first set of drills should be conducted within 24 hours of the
time period the work is being performed (i.e., seaworthiness, or
good “sea keeping” qualities). (continued on Page 52)
|50 MCoanrs intreuction®® www.marineconstructionmagazine.com ISSUE #3 - 2017