The Mystery of the
Table of Contents 2
1 - Organization of the Periodic Table
2 - Families and Properties of the Families
3 - Metals
4 - Nonmetals
5 - Metalloids
6 - periodic law
7 - noble gas electron configurations
8 - periodic table trends
9 - atomic radius
10 - ionic charges
11 - ionization energy-
12 - Electro-negativity
13 - octet rule-
14 - valence electrons
Organization of the Periodic Table
Is a tabular arrangement ordered by their atomic number. The
periodic can be used to derive relationships between the properties of
the elements and predict the properties of new elements. All
elements from atomic numbers 1 to 118 have been discovered or
synthesized. Synthesis of elements having higher atomic numbers is
being pursued. A group or family is a vertical column in the periodic
table. A period is a horizontal row in the periodic. Elements in the
same period show trends in atomic radius, ionization energy, electron
affinity and electronegativity. Moving left to right across a period,
atomic radius usually decreases. Metals generally have a lower
electron affinity than nonmetals with the exception of the noble gases.
Families and Properties of the Families
The columns of the periodic table are
often used to define families. The noble
gases are all located in the far right
column of the table.
are opaque, lustrous elements that are
good conductors of heat and electricity.
most are gases (hydrogen, helium,
nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, neon, chlorine,
argon, krypton, xenon and radon).
boron (B), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge),
arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), tellurium
(Te), polonium (Po) and astatine (At).
the law that the properties of the
elements are periodic functions of their
noble gas electron configurations
The basis of all chemical reactions is the
tendency of chemical elements to acquire
periodic table trends
electronegativity, ionization energy,
electron affinity, atomic radius, melting
point, and metallic character.
Is a chemical element is a measure of
the size of its atoms.
It is charged because the number of
electrons do not equal the number of
protons in the atom or molecule.
As the amount of energy required to
remove the most loosely bound electron,
the valence electron, of an isolated
gaseous atom to form a cation.
Is a measure of the tendency of an atom
to attract a bonding pair of electrons.
is a chemical rule of thumb that reflects
observation that atoms of main-group
elements tend to combine in such a way
that each atom has eight electrons in its
valence shell, giving it the same
electronic configuration as a noble gas.
Is a type of electron present in an atom
that works to aid in the process of
chemical bond formation with other
1-How was the original Periodic Table
organized and compare it to today’s
version, include discussion of Periodic
Law? The organization of the original
periodic table of before and now is
compared that there are new elements
that they removed.
2- What are the families and discuss
some of their important properties? You
might include a diagram or picture of the
table broken up into each family.
The families that are in the periodic table
are the following - Non metals, Alkali
metals, Alkaline Earth metals, Transitions
metals, Lanthannides, Actinides, Noble
gases, Metalloids, Halogones, Others
metals and Unknown. The three
importants families of the peiodic table 17
are Metals, Metalloids and Nonmetals.
5- What are valence electrons and why
are they important? Is an electron that is
attached to an atom and is important
because when two atoms approach, they
react to each other.
6- How do we determine the number of
valence electrons an element has?
Determining in which group is the