Volume 1, Issue 3
Erasmus+ READ in Europe
“This is the blog of the pro- The project addresses Paricipa'ng Schools Inside this issue:
ject titled “Reading in En- secondary students of
glish for Amusement and 14-17 who are studying Százhalomba4ai Arany Culture of Turkey 5
Dialogue in Europe (READ English as a foreign lan- János Általános Iskola és
in Europe)” sponsored by guage. The aim is to de- Gimnázium, Hungary
the European Union within velop students’ literacy Srednja skola Hvar, Croa*a
Erasmus+ programme for skills with reading, wri- FEC Santo Tomás de Aqui-
strategic partnership for 'ng and ac'ng out lite- no La MIlagrosa, Spain
rary pieces of par'cipa- Burhan Felek Anadolu Lis-
schools only”. 'ng cultures. At the esi, Turkey
same 'me teachers can Liceo Scien'ﬁco Pasteur,
share their teaching Italy RIMAC Automobili 7
prac'ces and metho- Pr zadeikio gimnazija,
dology, too. Lithuania Hungarian Apps 9
New Technology Innova- 10
tions in Spain
Lithuanian Shrovetide 13
Sport in Italy 20
From erasmusplus.org Unusually cold weather 22
A story of 30 years: from Erasmus to Erasmus+
Special points of in-
2017 marks 30 years of Eras- mus+ 30 webpage, including a teachers, appren'ces and young terest:
mus+. The original Erasmus pro- video.In the ensuing thirty years, people, from across educa'on, • Music
gramme began in 1987 as an Erasmus grew and has developed training, youth and sport. Pro-
exchange programme giving into something much bigger, jects cover a huge range of to- • Sports
higher educa'on students a tas- which is reﬂected in the addi'on pics and the programme now
te of life and learning abroad. of the ‘+’ in 2014 to create Eras- extends beyond Europe with • Technology
You can read more about the mus+ .Today, Erasmus+ funds ini'a'ves like Interna'onal Cre-
anniversary on the European thousands of opportuni'es a dit Mobility. • Weather
Commission’s dedicated Eras- year, for students, staﬀ,
Culture, we love
STARI GRAD in Croatia It hosted numerous cultural, had a concert ,with special quests and the
gastro and sport events Town of Hvar Brass Orchestra.Some of Stari
The story of Faros, today's Stari Grad, be- throughout the last few Grad specials are Starogrojski paprenjok
months.Each one brought a (tradi'onal pastry), lavender pastry or some
gan back in 384 BC when the ancient Greeks diﬀerent experience whether of the area’s precious wines. Starogrojski
from the island of Paros sailed into Stari Grad you like to listen to „klapa“ paprenjok is a tradi'onal pastry which was
Bay and founded the town. In 2016 Stari singing on one of the many
Grad celebrates important anniversary - 2400 Stari Grad squares, riding a
years of and nomina'on for European Best bike through the UNESCO Stari
Des'na'on 2017.Houses around you are not Grad plain, or just tas'ng tra-
just ruins of some other civiliza'on but proof di'onal dishes prepared by restaurant chefs.
of con'nuity of life long 2400 year. Stari Grad Brass Orchestra celebrated 140
years of con'nuous ac'vity. As part of the
celebra'ons they prepared a special pro-
gramme for this summer. The ﬁrst concert
was held on the 8th of June at 20:30 on
„Škor“ Square ,were famous klapa Cambi
Carnival Time in HUNGARY and ITALY “The Busójárás follows old folk
tradi6ons and is acknowledged by
In Hungary the carnival season (Farsang) the most popular. The Busójárás follows old UNESCO as an Intangible Cultural
folk tradi'ons and is acknowledged by
that precedes Lent, starts on Epiphany UNESCO as an Intangible Cultural Heritage. Heritage”
(January 6th) and it ends on Ash Wednesday. There are diﬀerent events during this carnival
The ﬁrst day of Farsang, on January 6, is also such as busójárás, Shakespeare ball and Fat of fun before Easter because of that 40-day
the day when, tradi'onally, many families Thursday. Lenten fast period in between. Tradi'onally
take down and throw out their Christmas on the ﬁnal day, Tuesday, straw scarecrows
trees. The high-point of Farsang is its last three would be burnt, to send winter away. For
days, which changes dates each year depend- those following folk and Chris'an tradi'ons,
Farsang is marked by many fun fes'vi'es, ing on the dates of Easter. These last three the Lent period is used as a chance to fast
masquerades, balls and noisy parades that days are called Farsang Farka ("the tail of and prepare for spring ahead of the big East-
aim to scare oﬀ winter and welcome spring. Farsang") and lasts from the so-called er celebra'ons.
There are many celebra'ons held throughout Farsang Sunday through to Shrove Tues-
Hungary with the Busójárás in Mohács being day (or "Húshagyókedd" in Hungarian). These
ﬁnal fes'vi'es are tradi'onally the last burst
The famous Busójárás
Similar Carnival celebra'ons are held gible Cultural Heritage. The most
in other parts of the world such as recognisable feature is men in
the Rio Carnival and the Venice Car- scary wooden musks with big
nival – but in Hungary one of the teeth and horns, dressed in furry
largest Farsang events is held in the sheep's skin, who run around
southern city of Mohács, with what’s making loud noises and chasing
called the Busójárás. This huge event women and playfully smacking
is recognised by UNESCO as an Intan- them.
Page 2 Erast@gram
The carnival of venice, ITALY
The Carnival of Venice is an annual original glass technique. The most important
masks are the Bauta,Colombina, the Plague
fes'val held in Venice, Italy. The Carnival doctor, Arlecchino, Pantalone and More4a.
ends with the Chris'an celebra'on of
Lent, forty days before Easter, on Shrove In these days people usually eat 'pical cakes,
Tuesday (Martedì Grasso), the day befo- like Frappe or Castagnole, parade in the
re Ash Wednesday. streets dressed in their costumes throwing
confeU and celebra'ng.
Masks have always been an important
feature of the Vene'an carnival. Tradi- “Tradi6onally people were allowed
'onally people were allowed to wear to wear them between the fes6val
them between the fes'val of Santo Ste-
fano (St. Stephen's Day) and the start of of Santo Stefano “
the Carnival season at midnight of Shro-
ve Tuesday. Vene'an masks can be ma-
de of leather, porcelain or using the
Lithuanian Song Festival
The na'onal song and dance celebra'on The three Bal'c na'ons – The second event is the concert of the Dance
Estonia, Latvia, and Lithu- Day that takes place in the stadium “Žalgiris”.
tradi'on has lasted for a hundred years and ania - were united by their It is a mass performance of one dance com-
grew up into the most signiﬁcant and largest historical fate at the end posi'on performed by dancers of diﬀerent
cultural event in Lithuania. It develops crea- of the 18th century. All ages. The composi'on is created following
've self-expression, vitality of the na'onal the three of na'ons were one common mo've with the emphasis on
culture, and promotes ar's'c ac'vity by occupied by the Russian the customs observed during work and family
periodically gathering amateur ar's'c groups Empire. The idea of free- related fes'vals. The composi'ons are creat-
of diﬀerent genres and culture professionals dom, unity, and raising of ed by professional staged folk dance chore-
to enormous fes'vals that evoke enthusias'c the self-awareness of the ographers.
society’s response. people in those countries
ﬂourished in the 19th The ﬁnal touch in the series of the song and
century, at the 'me when dance celebra'on events is the Song Day
smaller na'ons all over taking place in Vingis Park, on an outdoor
Europe were libera'ng stage designed especially for the Song Day.
themselves from the op- Approximately 400 choirs, 15 000 singers of
pression of the bigger children, youth, female, male, and mixed
ones. Nowadays, the song celebra'on lasts choirs take part in the Song Day concert.
few days and is divided into few parts. Tradi'onally, harmonized or specially tuned
folk songs, works composed by classic or
The ﬁrst event is the Folk Song and Dance contemporary composers are performed on
Ensemble Night. Its tradi'onal venue is the the Song Day.
outdoor stage in Kalnų Park. A folk song and
dance ensemble combines representa'ves of
three genres: a choir that performs harmo-
nized Lithuanian folk or songs a band of mod-
iﬁed Lithuanian na'onal instruments and a
dance company that performs folk dances .
The performances are usually centred round
certain mo'ves, for example, the customs
and tradi'ons related to work, family.
Volume 1, Issue 3 Page 3
Spanish Traditions Fallas are celebrated in Valencia, people ences. But it has not reached its highest
There are many popular tradi'ons in from there build huge wooden statues point un'l the “Golden Century” ( XVI –
Spain but Flamenco, Fallas and Art with
wri'ng and pain'ng ahead are 4he ﬁrst and burn them to celebrate the Saint XVII century ) with famous painters like
Joseph´s day. Diego Velázquez or “El Greco”. Nowa-
Flamenco is a ﬂokloric dance from the
South of Spain. People from there dance In the Spanish Literature´s history, great days, you can visit lots of art museums
it in the “Feria de Abril” of Sevilla every authors such as Miguel de Cervantes, to appreciate the art in Spain, such us
year. Lope de Vega, Francisco de Quevedo or “Museo del Prado” or “Museo Reina
Federico García Lorca, have been really So_a”.
Bullﬁgh'ng is a special tradi'on for
Spanish people. It´s celebrated in a bull- important, because they had a very
ﬁgh'ng square, where the bullﬁghter
beats a bull with beau'ful movements. special way to express their feelings
and ideas. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_art
Art in Spain has advanced a lot https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_litera
along the history, with many inﬂu- ture
Page 4 Erast@gram
Culture of Turkey
The culture of Turkey combines a heavily between the two). The O0oman system was Poli6cal, legal, religious,
diverse and heterogeneous set of elements a mul6-ethnic state that enabled people cultural, social, and economic poli-
that have been derived from the various cul- within it not to mix with each other and cy changes were designed to con-
tures of the Eastern Mediterranean (West thereby retain separate ethnic and religious vert the new Republic of Turkey
Asian) region and to a lesser degree, South- iden66es within the empire (albeit with a into a secular, modern na6on-
eastern European, Caucasian, and Central dominant Turkish and Southern European state. These changes were imple-
Asian tradi6ons. Many of these tradi6ons ruling class). Upon the fall of the empire a6er mented under the leadership of
were ini6ally brought together by the O0o- World War I the Turkish Republic adapted a Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. As a re-
man Empire, a mul6-ethnic and mul6- unitary approach, which forced all the diﬀer- sult, Turkey is one of the most
religious state. The present-day Republic of ent cultures within its borders to mix with westernized Islamic na6ons.
Turkey, which was declared in 1923 a6er the each other with the aim of producing na6on- Turkish literature is the collec6on
dissolu6on of the O0oman Empire, is s6ll a al and cultural iden6ty. This mixing, instead of wri0en and oral texts composed
transcon6nental country that spans Europe of producing cultural homogeniza6on, in- in the Turkish language,either in its
and Asia. stead resulted in many shades of grey as the O0oman form or in less exclusively
tradi6onal Muslim cultures of Anatolia collid- literary forms, such as that spoken
During the early years of the re- ed with the cosmopolitan modernity of Istan- in the Republic of Turkey today.
public, the government invested a large bul and the wider West. Tradi6onal examples for Turkish folk litera-
amount of resources into ﬁne arts such as ture include the stories of Karagöz and Haci-
pain6ngs, sculpture and architecture. This
was done as both a process of moderniza6on “...changes were implemented
and of crea6ng a cultural iden6ty. Because of under the leadership of Mustafa
the diﬀerent historical factors deﬁning the
Turkish iden6ty, the culture of Turkey com- Kemal Atatürk”
bines clear eﬀorts of moderniza6on and
Westerniza6on undertaken in varying de- vat, Keloğlan, İncili Çavuş and Nasreddin
grees since the 1700s, with a simultaneous Hoca, as well as the works of folk poets such
desire to maintain tradi6onal religious and as Yunus Emre and Aşık Veysel. The Book of
historical values. Dede Korkut and the Epic of Köroğlu have
been the main elements of the Turkish epic
tradi6on in Anatolia for several centuries.
Turkish culture has undergone profound
changes over the last century. Today, Turkey
may be the only country that contains every
extreme of Eastern and Western culture
(along with many compromises and fusions
Volume 1, Issue 3 Page 5
Early O0oman period (1299–1326) maniye Mosque and the
With the establishment of the O0oman Em- built for Suleiman the
pire, the years 1300–1453 cons6tute the Magniﬁcent. The Selimiye
early or ﬁrst O0oman period in architecture, Mosque in Edirne was
when O0oman art was in search of new ide- built during the years
as. This period witnessed three types of 1568-74, when Sinan was
mosques: 6ered, single-domed and subline- in his prime as an archi-
angled mosques. The Hacı Özbek Mosque tect. The Rüstem Pasha
(1333) in İznik, the ﬁrst important center of Mosque, Mihrimah Sul-
tan Mosque, Ibrahim
Pasha Mosque, and the Şehzade Mosque, as
well as the türbes (mausoleum) of Suleiman
the Magniﬁcent, Roxelana and Selim II are
among Sinan's most renowned works. Most
classical period designs used the Byzan6ne
architecture of the neighboring Balkans as its
base, and from there, ethnic elements were
added, crea6ng a diﬀerent architectural style.
Examples of O0oman architecture of the
“Sinan started a new era in world
architecture, crea6ng 334 buildings
in various ci6es. “
O0oman art, is the ﬁrst example of an O0o- classical period, aside from Turkey, can also
man single-domed mosque. be seen in the Balkans, Hungary, Egypt, Tuni-
sia and Algiers, where mosques, bridges,
During the classical period, mosque plans fountains and schools were built.
changed to include inner and outer court-
yards. The inner courtyard and the mosque
were inseparable. The master architect of the
classical period, Mimar Sinan, was born in
1492 in Kayseri and died in Istanbul in the
year 1588. Sinan started a new era in world
architecture, crea6ng 334 buildings in various
ci6es. Mimar Sinan's ﬁrst important work
was the Şehzade Mosque, completed in 1548.
His second signiﬁcant work was the Süley-
Page 6 Erast@gram
NEW TECHNOLOGY AROUND
Rimac Automobili is a Croatian car circuit races. At one of these races, “Rimac Automobili is a Croatian
manufacturer that develops and pro- the gas engine blew up. Then I decid- car manufacturer that
duces high-performance electric cars ed to try building an EV. After one
headquartered in Sveta Nedelja, Cro- year the car was able to drive but I develops and produces high-
atia. Rimac Automobili's first model, was not satisfied with the result. It was performance electric cars “
the Concept One, is known as the heavy, and the range was very lim-
world's fastest production electric ve- ited, so I started gathering a team of Today, hard work has made my
hicle. The groundwork for the compa- experts to develop our own compo- dream come true.
ny began in 2007 as a garage-housed nents since I believed that the electric
hobby of founder, Mate Rimac who propulsion can give much more com-
converted his BMW E30 to incorporate pared to what was available on the
an electric powertrain “I owned an market. At that time, I already had a
old BMW which I used for drift and very clear vision of my ultimate goal.
Mechaniza'on is becoming the way of The event was a three -day mentoring about
21st century life, and with it, the ﬁeld of ro- camp during which the par'cipants (kids basic programming using the program
from 15 to 17 years) learned from one Ameri- "RoboPro". On the last day, the par'cipants
bo'cs is booming. In winter 2015 a robo'cs can and three Croa'an robo'cs experts how built their own robots ,as well, and even pro-
to design, build and operate robots. Out of grammed them to walk on the certain path.
camp was held in northern Croa'a. only 19 students who got the chance to par- The aim of the camp was to expand the
'cipate, we're proud to share that 3 of them par*cipants’ knowledge about robo*cs,
were ours, the students of Hvar Elementary promote innova*on, encourage technology
school. The par'cipants did numerous tasks startups, and use science to encourage tol-
related to computers, programming and erance.
technology. They learned everything about
circuits and connec'ng lights, typers and
ba4eries into circuits. They've also learnt all
Volume 1, Issue 3 Page 7
one of history’s most important inventors, respected, he was never able to translate his
one whose discoveries in the ﬁeld of electrici- copious inven'ons into long-term ﬁnancial
ty were way ahead of his 'me and con'nue success - unlike his early employer and chief
to inﬂuence technology today. So who was rival, Thomas Edison, and that's why he's
the ''Genius who lit the world'' and without o`en described as ''Brilliant scien'st, but
whom we wouldn't know the world the way terrible businessman''.
it's today. So, Nikola Tesla was Croa'an-
American engineer and physicist born in a He died on January 7. 1943 in New York.
small village Smiljan, on July 10th, 1856. He However, his impact will always be remem-
ﬁnished elementary school in Smiljan, gym- bered.
nasium in Rakovac, a`er he studied math and
“Every living being is an engine physics at the Technical University of Graz
geared to the wheelwork of the and philosophy at the University of Prague. In
1884, he moved to New York to work with
universe” Nikola Tesla Thomas Alva Edison, who has taken ad-
vantage of Tesla telling him to improve the
A wise saying of the greatest Croa'an inven- design of his DC dynamos, which Tesla did,
tor and visionary - Nikola Tesla, o`en called but didn't get the money in return as they
Tesla quit soon a`er and started his company
''Tesla Electric Light Company'' which wasn't
as successful as planned .That period is
known as ''War of Currents'' - Tesla struggled
to introduce the applica'on of AC and
its beneﬁts, while Edison fought for DC
beca use it was making him money.
Along the ﬁrst alterna'ng current (AC)
motor and development of AC genera-
'on, he invented
transmission technology, induc'on
engine, remote control, three-phase
current, hydro power plants, Tesla's
transformer, ﬁrst neon sign, glow lamp,
wireless telegraph, wireless power
transfer... Though he was famous and
Page 8 Erast@gram
Applications developed by Hungarians
We would like to introduce some recent Inven9on for the safety of your bikes: neighborhood, based on community sta7s7cs
Hungarian applica'ons. Velotrack security system can prevent bike-
the`. The device collects data
A smartphone app which takes away money with a GPS and a mo7on
by pressing the snooze bu6on detector in the bike. If someone
tries to move the bike the
The alarm applica'on called Snoopy was owner immediately gets
developed by Csaba Toth and Balazs informed. In addi7on, you can
Nemethi. The basic idea is is that you have to see the routes you traveled and
pay money for using the snooze bu4on. So if the whereabouts of your friends
you do not wake up, it has a price. The cost and family, thanks to the
of a snooze is roughly half a dollar (HUF 130), smartphone applica7on. Its
so your balance is reduced by this amount, if opera7on is quite simple: the
you would like to sleep more. owner places a virtual logical
lock on the parked bicycle. The
lock can inform the owner
about the safety of the
Trending technology in Italy
split up, it would be beWer if they meet “You can prac6ce listening, improve
themselves and talk to each other than doing your pronuncia6on, and learn to
it by a Whatsapp chat ;-)! speak a foreign language like a
It's really simple to use: just log in,
New technologies and new apps are very Tandem is an app, for ﬁnd someone online who speaks
useful for us. We can have chat rooms, vide- Android and iOS, that your target language, and invite them
ochat and share emo7ons and feelings. Nev- helps you ﬁnd na7ve to chat for free.
ertheless, it’s important to meet other peo- speakers of almost any
ple and to spend some of your own 7me with language who want to It's a really nice and usefull app. It
them, because only talking face to face you learn your language in has the same purpose of Erasmus:
can understand if the other speaker is truth- exchange. You can improve or learn the language and
ful or not. For example, when a couple has to prac7ce listening, improve your pronuncia- get to know diferent cultures.
7on, and learn to speak a foreign language
like a local.
Some facts about Lithuanian LASER
Laser technologies is one of the spheres of Lithuanian lasers cons7tute about 10 per the pres7gious 2010 Prism Awards for pho-
high technologies in which Lithuania has the cent of the scien7ﬁc laser market of the tonic innova7on in San Francisco, USA.
lead. No other branch of industry in Lithuania world and are exported approximately to 100
dominates the world's market, whereas la- countries, they are widely used in China,
sers and ampliﬁers are widely used all over South Korea and Japan.
the world. Lithuanian lasers Carbide are used in eye
Lithuania has 11 science and laser technology surgery and semiconductor industry.
research centers.Over 50 per cent of world's
high energy lasers and ultra fast parametric World’s ﬁrst tunable wavelength laser
light generators are made in Lithuania. NT2000 by the Lithuanian company Ekspla
was awarded as the best Scien7ﬁc Laser at
Volume 1, Issue 3 Page 9
NEW TECHNOLOGY INNOVATIONS IN SPAIN
Due to the new technologies innova'ons in In the last years, in Spain , 3D printed and
nanotechnology have increased a lot.
Spain, at least of a 13% of the Spanish popu-
la'on admit that they can´t live without new h4p://www.adifaltavelocidad.es/en_US/infra
Apart from the smartphones, social nets and
internet we´d like to point out Eolic energy.
In the biggest Spanish ci'es like Madrid or
Barcelona, the government started to build
some electric sta'ons to charge electric cars.
About public transport in Spain the high
speed rail network is very important , also,
some people developed apps for Smartphone
to order for a taxi.
Technology, Turkey’s new passion
In the Turkish market, new mobile banking Garan' Bankasi “BBVA Wallet has already been
apps are downloaded millions of 'mes very released Bonus downloaded three million 9mes”
quickly a`er launching. But, how did the Flas – its version of
country become the perfect market for BBVA Wallet – last owns a mobile handset. It is therefore no
new ﬁntech solu9ons? November, just as wonder that more than 4 million people are
BBVA announced ac've mobile banking app users. Social net-
Not by chance: Turkey’s geographic loca'on that it had reached works also seem to support this thesis: More
and economic situa'on have helped turn the the million down- than 30 million Turks have a Facebook ac-
country into the perfect breeding ground for loads in the other count, according to the Superintendence of
innova'on and technology adop'on. The markets where it Banking.
rate at which BBVA Wallet is being down- had rolled out the
loaded in the country is a good example. banking app. Turkey’s posi;on within the European con-
Today, BBVA Wal- text.
let has already been
downloaded three In the European context, ﬁntech innova'on
million ;mes. In is happening fastest in countries like Spain,
The other markets Turkey and Poland.
where BBVA Wallet
-is available, users keep downloading the app
at increasingly fast rates. In Turkey it broke
the 1 million download mark in a ma4er of
What makes Turkey diﬀerent? Which have radically revamped their banking
systems over the last decade to overcome
Of all the factors that contribute to this phe- the limita'ons of their legacy
nomenon, the key may very well be its young plaforms, according to American Banker.
popula'on: 50% is aged under 30. But Turks
are not only young, they are also well con- In the speciﬁc case of Turkey, this reality is
nected: More than 84% of the popula;on
Page 10 Erast@gram
undeniable: ﬁntech companies a4racted ther ampliﬁed by a highly-developed credit
the third-highest volume of investments card market, within a mature banking sector,
in 2015, as there is a collabora7on rela- and facilitated by the fact that 97% of trans-
7onship between tradi7onal banks ac7on volume happens domes7cally.
and ﬁntech companies, The eﬀect of this
connec7on between both sectors is fur- That’s it.
But, obviously, there had to be a downside to
this story. According to experts, Turkey – like
other technologically advanced countries
– faces one pressing challenge: the lack of
regula7ons. Once the country manages to
overcome this pifall, its passion promises
to reach new levels of intensity.
Delicious food to taste
Dalma7an cuisine is characterized by its sim- then covered with hot coal. They are le` to Dalma%an cuisine for the most part
plicity and diversity. Healthy and delicious cook slowly in their own juices. consists of ﬁsh and seafood
meals, simple ﬂavoring olive oil and fresh ﬁsh
are best for our health. Dalma7an cuisine for Crni rižot is a seafood delicacy with squid as
the most part consists of ﬁsh and seafood. It the main ingredient. The black color from the
also includes meat special7es such as Dalma- squid inc gives this dish its dis7nc7ve
%an smoked ham and Dalma%an paš%cada. Mediterranean ﬂavor.
In Dalma7a the most famous drink is wine.
Pršut is a Croa7an word for salted, dry-cured Paš9cada is a dish with beef. The meat is
ham. The best domes7c pršut is made with a ﬁrst marinated for 24 hours in red wine,
liWle help of nature. Bura (cold, dry northern garlic and various herbs such as rosemary
wind) is responsible for its texture and taste. and sage.During the cooking you can add dry
plums, carrots, onions and cloves.
Peka is actually a word describing a method Tradi7onally paš%cada is served with
of food prepara7on. All ingredients (lamb or homemade gnocchi.
octopus, paired with seasoned potatoes) are
put under peka, a heavy iron lid, which is
Volume 1, Issue 3 Page 11
Hungarian traditional Carnival sweets in February
Prep. Leavening Bake
15 min. 30 min. 10 min.
Approx. cost 8 Pounds
Ingredients (for about 20 doughnuts): 2. Put the ﬂour in a large bowl. Add surface un7l golden brown, about 2
the melted buWer, the egg-yolks, to 3 minutes. Remove from oil,
• 500 g ﬂour the yeast and a pinch of salt to the being careful not to poke
• 220 ml milk ﬂour and knead the mixture well. doughnuts. Drain onto paper
• 40 g yeast towels and toss with sugar and
• 50 g sugar 3. Cover the dough, place it in a warm apricot jam, if desired.
• 60 g bu4er place and let it rest and rise un7l
• 5 db egg-yolk doubled for about half an hour. „Heat oil in a deep fryer to 175
• a pinch of salt degrees C”
• oil for baking 4. Roll the dough out to ¼ inch
• icing sugar thickness. With a ﬂoured cookie
• apricot jam cuWer, cut into 2 inch rounds.
Prepara7on 5. Heat oil in a deep fryer to 175
degrees C. Fry one layer of
1. Mix the yeast and the 50 g sugar in doughnuts as they rise to the
the lukewarm milk and put this
mixture to a warm place. Wait un7l
Italian food Another well-known Italian dish is obviously with our
pizza, that mixes a lot of things. food, and
Italian food is famous all around the world. in the
The main point of its success is its simplicity, Italian food is also characterized by the use of same
in fact Italian chefs prefer to concentrate on many vegetables, such as tomatoes, carrots, way we
the quality rather than on the quan7ty of leWuces and legumes. love our
ingredients used. All the people who come here fall in love food
A typical example of Italian food is pasta, 7me we
which can be prepared in many diﬀerent eat it.
ways. The most common, especially in Rome
are “carbonara”, “al ragù” and also
Page 12 Erast@gram
Lithuanian favourite Shrovetide—Pancakes
• 2 cups of ﬂour. “A very joyful spring feast-
• 20g of yeast. Shrove(de (Pancakes Day) is widely
• 2 eggs.
• 2-3 glass of milk. celebrated in Lithuania”
• Some sugar and salt to
half an hour to freeze.Mix yeast with sugar,
taste. unscrew yolks with salt and put in dough.
Pour warm milk, mix it and put in a warm
• Grated orange peel. place to rise. Put raisins into risen dough, add
• Some raisins.
• Fat or oil for frying.
One-third of ﬂour pour with boiling milk,
sprinkle the top with ﬂour and leave it for a
A very joyful spring feast-Shrove6de
(Pancakes Day) is widely celebrated in Lithua-
nia. On that day people have to make some
tradi6onal dishes and one of them are panca-
kes. Yeast pancakes are maybe the most
popular kind of pancakes. People like to eat
them for dinner because these pancakes are
quite sa6ated. So we want to share with you
a recipe of these delicious pancakes!
Spanish Cousine Spain, land of wine and cheese where coun- spicy potatoes, pintxos or jamon iberico to
trymen enjoy some of the most characteris6c prepare your tongue and stomach.
Volume 1, Issue 3 dishes or dis6nguished drinks like wine.
In summer you can enjoy some fresh dishes
If you’re a gourmet looking for classic but like gazpacho, accompanied by sangria, or
also delighful ﬂavours then we can assure eat paella in company while all of you are
you this country is one of your best op6ons. having an horchata for dessert. But if you’re
Here, at the beginning of your journey you more of a hot dishes person then we recom-
can taste some tapas such as gruel, crumble, mend you callos a la madrileña, bacalao al pil
pil, stew or cocido madrileño.
And if you’re s6ll hungry then some of our
best desserts will leave you with full stom-
ach. For example some leaﬂets, a hornazo or
a nougat made in Spain.
And don’t forget to book at some of our
many eminent restaurants spread through
the country, especially if you’re a fan of pizza,
meat or innovaBve dishes never seen before.
So, what are you waiBng for? A land full of
gastronomic opportuniBes is waiBng for you!
Turkish Cousine BAKLAVA • 1 piece of baking powder
Material manufacturer • 1 sweet spoon vinegar
Page 14 Home Baking Ingredients • Half tea spoon salt
• 3 egg • Walnut or hazelnut as you wish
• 1 glass of water Milk • 200 grams of margarine or bu\er
• 1 water glass measure of oil
• Celery corn starch baking powder and salt in the kneading con- the oil from the ﬂour, run the remaining oil
tainer and knead un'l the dough is so`ened and rinse it again in the oven.
Ingredients for Baklava Syrup by adding the ﬂour as much as possible. The
dough you prepare is divided into 30 equal Construc'on of Home Baklava Şerbe'n; 4
• 5 glasses of water pieces. cups of sugar and 5 glasses of water into a
• 4 cups of powdered sugar pot and boil for 15 minutes then add a few
• A few drops of lemon juice Spread these pieces one by one over the size drops of lemon into the syrup and boil for 1-2
• 4 cups of sugar of the plate, sprinkle some starch between minutes.
• 5 glasses of water them, and put them on top of each other. Bon Appe't
• A few drops of lemon juice Bring each of these three parts we grouped
together into a tray size with the help of a “Spread these pieces one by one
In order to prepare an easy home baklava, roller. over the size of the plate, sprinkle
ﬁrst empty the egg, milk, liquid oil, nectar, some starch between them, and put
Pour half of the melted fat, taking care to
make sure you get exactly as you want it, and them on top of each other”
come on all the way evenly. When preheated
180 ° C rinse, change the light color and take
Music for the senses
Music of Croatia
Since its independence in 1991, Croa;a has Most of the present-day ac'vi'es are the The tradi'onal folk music of Croa'a is of a
maintained a very ac;ve and vital musical result of the establishment of ins'tu'ons cappella singing that ﬁrst appeared in li4oral
culture. over a century ago and a musical heritage Croa'a during the middle of the 19th cen-
that extends back to the Middle Ages. tury. The mo'fs in general celebrate love,
wine (grapes), country (homeland) and sea.
When talking about music and musical life in The main elements of the music are harmony
Croa'a since 1991, it is obvious that the and melody, with rhythm very rarely being
country possesses a very ac've musical cultu- very important. Although klapa is a cappella
re with diﬀerent kinds of music genres. music, on occasion it's possible to add a
gentle guitar and a mandolin. Klapa is usually
associated with Dalma'a, coastal region.
Volume 1, Issue 3 Page 15
As everywhere, pop music is unavoidable. such as euro disco and eurodance. Dino
Croa'an mainstream pop ar'sts include: Dvornik is one of the pioneers of electronic
Oliver Dragojević, Gibonni, Dino Dvornik, music in Croa'an. The dance female singers
Toni Ce'nski,Petar Grašo, Thompson and of Croa'a are Vanna and Vesna Pisarović.
others. Some of the most successful and The band Colonia is perhaps the only one
long-las'ng rock music acts include Parni that rode the dance wave of the '90s and
valjak and Prljavo kazalište. A highly acclai- today is one of the most popular most popu-
med singer- lar pop-folk singers and mainstream Rozga.
songwriter is the chanson-inspired Arsen As you could no'ce, the music of Croa'a is
Dedić. full of diversity, but croa'an music industry
has been non-stop growing since 1991, and
Dance music in Croa'a was an oﬀspring of although it's not as popular worlwide as in
the local pop music and more Western in- the country itself, popular music isn't neces-
ﬂuences. It developed during the late 1980s sary quality music.
and early 1990s, picking up on the trends
“Dance music in Croa(a was an
oﬀspring of the local pop music and
more Western inﬂuences”
Hungarian island of freedom
Nowadays music is essen'al for everyone (summer) fes'vals, For example music fes'- almost 500.000 people visited the fes'val.
because it helps to relax and we forget all our vals such as Balaton Sound , Volt fes'- Several worldwide famous musicians per-
problems. Our country is famous for val,Fishing on Orfű and the biggest is the formed there. The most renowned ones are
Sziget fes'val. Lots of people come from Rihanna, Tom Odell, Sia, Twenty One Pilots,
other countries of all ages and from all walks Mar'n Garrix, Eminem.
And one of our most famous Hungarian band
Some informa'on about Sziget fes'val. It is Punnany Massif. This is a boy band that
started in 1993 and it has gradually become consists of 10 boys.
one of the biggest fes'vals in Europe. In 2016
Their most enjoyable music is ÉLVEZD/Enjoy
Page 16 Erast@gram
Fes'val of Sanremo is a popular compe''on present one of the must be composed in italian by Italian autors
of Italian music that is born in Liguria, most important with text and never been pubblished and
Sanremo, in 1951. At this event had parteci- media'c Italian played before the show is completated with
pated a lot of the most important singers of event with a good the partecipa'on of a lot of famous star.
Italian light and pop music. Fes'val rap- media coverage Compe'tors are devided in two categories:
because is trans- the ﬁrst is composed by young singer and the
mi4ed live broad- second one is the category of the famous
cast, Eurovision and singer. The singers has judged both an ex-
on the radio. De- perts jury and by the popular televo'ng. In
spite this edi'on the compe''on has assigned other specials
has been object of many polemics and cri'cs rewards, between that the reward of the
, also this year it has reached a lot of listen- cri'que “Mia Mar'na”. Statue of the lion of
ers. The event consists in a compe'ton be- Sanremo is the most pres'gious recogni'on
tween song selected in the privies month by for the Italian musician.
an apposit juries of persons. Those songs
Lithuanian folk music https://www.youtube.com/watch
Today I'm going to tell about Lithuania folk ethnographical regions: monophony, mul'-
music. Lithuanian folk music belongs to Bal'c voiced homophony and polyphony. Monop-
music branch which is connected with neoli- hony mostly occurs in southern (Dzūkija),
thic culture. In Lithuanian territory meets southwest (Suvalkija) and eastern
two musical cultures: stringed (kanklių) and (Aukštai'ja) parts of Lithuania. Mul'-voiced
wind instrument cultures. homophony, widespread in en're Lithuania,
is the most archaic in Samogi'a. Tradi'onal
These instrumental cultures probably formed vocal music is held in high esteem on a world
vocal tradi'ons. Lithuanian folk music is ar- scale: Lithuanian song fests and sutar'nės
chaic, mostly used for ritual purposes, contai- mul'part songs are on the UNESCO's repre-
ning elements of paganism faith. senta've list of the Masterpieces of the Oral
and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.
Vocal music has three ancient styles of sin-
ging in Lithuania connected with
Volume 1, Issue 3 Page 17
Spanish music is something very important On the top of Spanish current popular
for the culture of Spain. There are many music we can see: Despacito by Luis
diﬀerent styles developed through the diﬀer- Fonsi, Chantaje by Shakira and Malu-
ent moments of history. Since the ﬁrst mani- ma, Traicionera by Sebas'an Yatram
festa'on of art before the own existence of and Safari by J Balvin.
Spain, un'l now. This is a picture of the coaches of our
own “The Voice” program.
The la'n culture has a very important inﬂu-
ence into pop music. Most of the popular http://los40.com/lista40/
songs in Spain at the moment are la'n ar'sts http://los40.com/lista40/lista40_numeros1.html
with their songs. That is because we share https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kJQP7kiw5Fk&feature=youtu.be
the same language and most of the tradi-
Some Spanish ar'sts are, for example:
Melendi, Malu, Álvaro Soler, Mónica Naranjo,
Fangoria, Alejandro Sanz, etc…
Turkish ﬁrst marriage and two younger sisters, Ayşe two daughters and a son. The couple divor-
and Nadiye. ced a`er ten years of marriage
Neşet Ertaş was born in 1938, in Kıryllar, a His mother Döne also died early, and his BARIŞ MANÇO
village in Kırşehir. His father, Muharrem Er- father married again, to Arzu. From this third
taş, was also a folk poet his mother, Döne marriage four sons, Ekrem, Ali, Muharrem Mehmet Barış Manço (born Tosun Yusuf
Koç, was Muharrem's second wife, his ﬁrst and Cemal, were born Mehmet Barış Manço 2 January 1943 – 1
wife, Ha'ce, having died early. Neşet was the February 1999), known by his stage
second eldest of four children; he had an Neşet married Leyla, a singer from Bolu, in name Barış Manço, was
older half-brother, Neca', from his father's 1960 in Ankara, where the two had met whi- a Turkish rock musician, singer, songwriter,
le performing at a night club. She bore him composer, and television producer.Beginning
his musical career while a4end-
ing Galatasaray High School, he was a pio-
neer of rock music in Turkey and one of the
founders of the Anatolian rock genre. Manço
composed around 200 songs and is among
the best-selling and most awarded Turkish
ar'sts to date. Many of his songs were trans-
lated into a variety of languages includ-
ing English, French, Japanese, Greek, Italian,
an, Romanian, Persian, Hebrew, Urdu, Arabic,
and German, among others. Through his TV
program, 7'den 77'ye ("From 7 to 77"),
Manço traveled the world and visited most
countries on the globe. He remains one of
the most popular public ﬁgures of Turkey.
Page 18 Erast@gram
Fun with SPORT
Croa7a, a country known by the beau7ful sea ship, Croa7a took 4th place. We played an “in 2017 Worlds Men's Handball
and coast but also known as the winner of amazing game and are extremely happy Championship, Croa(a took 4th
some important and signiﬁcant sports about it.
events. With lots of great athletes it's hard to place”
choose the best. Janica Kostelic is considered
to be one of the greatest female skiers of all
7me, just like her brother Ivica Kostelic. From
individual athletes we also need to men7on
Blanka Vlasić. She is the European and World
high jump champion. Team sports are more
popular in this country especially handball,
football, basketball and water polo. Recently
in 2017 Worlds Men's Handball Champion-
The Hungarian Iron Lady mer Olympics: 2004, 2008, 2012 and 2016.
She currently swims for the Vasas SC, under
Ka'nka Hosszú (pronounced [ˈkɒ'nkɒ head coach Shane Tusup, who is also her
ˈhosːuː]; born 3 May 1989) is a Hungarian husband. She is one of the most versa7le
compe''ve swimmer, who specializes in swimmers in the world, and was nicknamed
individual medley events. She is a three-'me the "Iron Lady" which she has since turned
Olympic champion and a ﬁve-'me long- into a fast growing Interna7onal brand. She is
course world champion. the ﬁrst race-prize dollar millionaire in swim-
She is the ﬁrst swimmer to hold world rec-
ords in all ﬁve individual medley events at
the same 7me. She competed at four Sum-
Volume 1, Issue 3 Page 19
At the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de niques and successes even
Janeiro, Hosszú won the gold medal and inspired New York Times,
broke the world record in the 400-meter who published a long report
individual medley, won the gold medal and about them. The ar-cle
broke the Olympic record in the 200-meter emphasizes that Ka-nka,
individual medley, and won a third gold med- running away from the
al in the 100-meter backstroke. She also won failure in London, took on a
a silver in the 200-meter backstroke behind completely new approach
American Maya DiRado. With 3 gold medals when she started working
and 1 silver, Hosszú won more medals in with her husband as her
individual events than any other swimmer in trainee. The bond Ka-nka
the 2016 Summer Olympics. and Shane have seems to
be working out just perfect.
Her coach is her husband: Shane Tusup and
their rela-onship has been admired by many.
Their rela-onship, prepara-on, training tech-
Sport in Italy “In our na-on you can't ﬁnd
someone who hates football,
In Italy you have the chance to prac-ce every One of the best teams in our country is Ro- everyone loves it! “
kind of sport, ma, which is supported by the majority of the
Erasmus Italian team. In this team plays Fran-
but the most played and supported is foot- cesco To@: this footballer can be considered
ball, by far. as the symbol of the Italian passion for this
sport. In fact To@ has played for this same
There isn't scandal that can change the love team since he started playing this sport de-
that Italian people have for this sport. spite the fact that he has received lots of
oﬀers from many other teams from all over
It is simple, easy to play and fun, especially the world. He’s worldwide famous not only
with friends. as a player of A.S.Roma but also as a great
player of the Na-onal team, who led Italy to
In our na-on you can't ﬁnd someone who win the World Championship in 2006.
hates football, everyone loves it!
And if you don't play it as your main sport,
you will s-ll play it with friends and whenev-
er you want!
Basket in Lithuania
Basketball is the most popular sport in ball has made us a tradi-onal force of the Na-onal basketball tem players and staﬀ
Lithuania. Lithuanian American coaches and sport in Europe. members in 1937 a<er winning the cham-
players in the 1930s helped Lithuania men's pionship.
na-onal basketball team win the last Euro
Basket tournaments before World War II, in During the Soviet period Lithuanian players
1937 and 1939, causing a massive impact in frequently formed the core of the Soviet
Lithuanian society and a basketball popula- na-onal team, and the Lithuanian people
rity spike. Since then, despite Lithuania's strongly supported local club BC Žalgiris.
small size, with a popula-on of just almost A<er the restora-on of Lithuanian indepen-
2.9 million the country's devo-on to basket- dence in 1990 the na-onal team was formed
Page 20 Erast@gram
pionship in 2010 . The most known basket-
ball players are Arvydas Sabonis. Šarūnas
Marčiulionis, Modestas Paulauskas,
Žydrūnas Ilgauskas, Jonas Valančiūnas,
Šarūnas Jasikevičius. Mindaugas Kuzmins-
with their ﬁrst oﬃcial tournament being the
1992 Olympics in Barcelona, where they won
bronze medals. The Lithuanians have since
won two other bronzes at the Olympics, won
the EuroBasket for the third 'me in 2003
and also bronze medals in the World Cham-
Sport in Spain
Spain is also one of the most im- last 6 years.
portant countries in basket. Spain is
currently the european champion “FC Barcelona won the Spanish
and at the last olimpics games of rio League 2015/16. European
it won the bronze medal.
Champions League, that same
According to the ABC news Spain season, was won by Real Madrid.
and United States of America are
the two best teams in the world in
the last decade, followed by Serbia.
The most important sport in spain is football. Other sports are:
Spanish football is very important worldwide -tennis; Rafa Radal and Marc López won the
because the Real Madrid fc is the champion gold medal at the olympic games. also Rafa
of the world clubs and at european level the Nadal is the man who has won more 'mes
Spanish clubs have been champions in the Rolland Garros.
last three years in the champions league and
UEFA. -Motorbikes; in the 500 cc compe''on.
Spanish drivers have been champions for the
The last champions league ﬁnal had 350 mil-
lions of viewers around the world. bea'ng
the superbowl record in 200 million.
The league has a dura'on of about 9 months
and each league has 700 matches. The
“clásico” is one of the most important sports
event with the two teams best in the Spanish
league (FC Barcelona and Real Madird). The
league 2015/16 was won by FC Barcelona
Volume 1, Issue 3 Page 21
Sport in Turkey “people usually do ra6ing for fun not compete”
TURKEY NATİONAL BASKETBALL TEAM.
We have very big basketball team.Also know-
ing ‘TBF’.We have very cool nickname.In
turkey we call them 12 giant man.We have
great successfull jobs since 2002.They are
impersonate us in global very well.We proud
fort hem.Our basketball team imperstone us
the USA right now.
In september,2010 we compete USA for FIBA
award.We lose but we be second team in the
FIBA.İt is most important success in the all
basketball history. Also we won two medal in
olympic games .We Show oﬀ our them in
1949 interna'onal egypt tournamet but now
we are second winner of FIBA. We thanks
them because they are imperstonate us in
Ra`ing in Köprüçay
Ra`ing is very popular in Turkey right now.If
you want ra`ing,you must going kö-
prüçay.Köprüçay is in Antalya.People came to
there compete to each other.Ra`ing played
with six people. Köprüçay have very strong
stream,you need to be strong an energic.Also
you need shavel and boat,but people usually
do ra`ing for fun not compete.We have very
successful athlets at ra`ing. Ra`ing is very
good for your healthy but ra`ing is so dan-
gerous you need to be carefully.A lot of peo-
ple doing ra`ing in köprüçay.Köprüçay have
very cold water some'mes it is very hard for
athlets. Some athlets in turkey says ıf you
want to be good at in ra`ing ,turkey is best
place to do it.
Page 22 Erast@gram
A whale of a time… with
Weather in Croatia
Croa7a is divided into two predominant cli- in Croa7a and winters are mild. People were “Croa(a is divided into two
mate regions - Con7nental and Mediterrane- surprised with such low temperatures and predominant climate regions -
an although there are some varia7ons within they were not prepared so there were many Con(nental and Mediterranean”
those climate zones. Croa7a's coast
and islands are governed by a Medi- problems with frozen pipes, lack of water,
terranean climate. The winters in and electricity. Some older people say that
Dalma7a are usually not as cold as temperatures like these haven't been meas-
in the rest of the country but this ured in Hvar for a very long 7me.
year it was quite cold. On the island
Hvar there was wind, rain, snow and
temperatures were around 0 de-
grees, which is unusual for this area
because Hvar is the sunniest island
Unusually cold Winter in Hungary
2017 has started with big freeze in Hungary. The Ecumenical Charity has set up temporary However, many people took advantage of
According to the Hungarian Meteorological shelters for people in need and the Menhely the freezing weather and visited Lake Balaton
Service (OMSZ), even -27 degrees were Founda'on said on Saturday that there are and other lakes of Hungary for a ska'ng trip.
measured. s'll places available in the homeless shelters Also, several beau'ful photos were taken
they operate. A severe cold warning was during this cold period.
The temperature in January fell to an all-'me issued for the whole country due to the
record low for this 'me at -28.1 C measured weather condi'ons, especially for Nograd,
in the village of Tésa in northern Hungary. where the warning reaches the highest (red)
The previous record for this date was -26.5 C level.
Volume 1, Issue 3 Page 23
Lilafüred and Lake Balaton
Weather in Italy “Are those some of the effects of
the climate changes the
In Italy the climate is Mediterranean so there che completely destroyed an important hotel
are many diﬀerences between the South and in Abruzzo (central Italy) causing 29 vic6ms scientists have been talking
the North. In the South summers are very and only 11 people survived the tragedy. about???
warm and dry and winters are moderate, In Northern Italy there was very li\le snow,
while in the North summers are usually cool and all the skiers could only enjoy ar6ﬁcial
and winters are extremely cold, in fact it snow, meanwhile in the South the tempera-
snows every year. ture drop-
This year something extraordinary happened. there
In Central Italy there were big snowfalls; were
there the popula6on had already suﬀered an more
earthquake in August and the snow and the rainfalls.
cold made the opera6on of rescue and re-
building of the damaged structures really
hard. More over, in January, a huge avalan-
Weather in Spring: In April air temperature rises from
10 ° C to 15-20 ° C at the end of
Winter: The weather in winter is quite cold. the month. Nature is green, dandelions and
DayBmes temperatures usually around -5 ° C. other plants begin to grow. May is the
But in some cases winter months can be driest month. The air temperature rises to 22
colder , especially when an6cyclones from ° C, some6mes up to 28-30 ° C.
east or north bring sunny but cold weather.
The air temperature then rises to - 7 ° C or Erast@gram
slightly to -11° C during a day and cools
down to -20° C , -30° C or even -35° C at
night. Heavy snowfall or even snowstorms
are even possible on some days.
heavy thunderstorms that can occur at the tober and November the air temperature is
end of the day. In the middle of August a about 10 ° C, it o`en
li4le cooler weather, more rain falls. The air
temperature rises just to 5 ° C some days. rains. In November rain is o`en replaced by
Generally, the weather is best May- sleet. Autumn and winter are usually a li4le
September, when days are warm and the chilly and wet, some'mes snowy and o`en
nights are cool, although it rains more in foggy.
spring than in summer.
Summer: Lithuanian summer is the ho4est
'me of the year. The average Autumn: In autumn the weather gradually
cools. The air temperature in early Septem-
temperature in July is about 17 ° C, some'- ber some'mes rises to 20 ° C. In late Septem-
mes the air temperature rises to 25 ° C during ber we have a period called Indian summer.
the day. Then the weather usually gets colder. In Oc-
There are 'mes when air warms up to 30 ° C.
In most of the 'me it is dry weather with
sunny spells, rain o`en falls with some'mes
Spanish Lovely weather
The weather in And ﬁnally in the West and in http://www.aemet.es/en/portada
Spain is very the central zone we have con'-
changeable, we nental weather; very dry and mum and mínimum level of warning, forecast
have from deserts without rain. of the day , twi4er…
to green zones like
emeralds. However as Spanish say, an
image is be4er than a thousand
If we start according words, so travel to Spain and
to the orienta'on of see with your own eyes our
the clock needles: in wonderful weather.
the North we discover a Cantabric weather; In Spain it is very popular to get regular info
very wet and upper level. If we look to the about the weather forecast and there is a
East and to the South we can enjoy mediter- State Agency to inform about : Alerts, máxi-
ranean weather; very hot like coastal zones.
Turkey’s weather features
[Turkey is in the northern hemisphere, tem- Aegean and Coast Mediterranean climate, rains a lot in springs and springs are very
perate climate. There are usually four rea- this region seen. bea'ful around here
sons. However, the impact of sea and moun- Black Sea Climate. Each season
tain climate doesn't the same in every region. has rainy climate. Summers are
Three major climate type seen in Turkey.] cool, winters are mild. Eastern
Black Sea region is the Turkey's
Mediterranean Climate. In this climate, sum- most rainy region. Wooded area
mers are hot and dry, winters are mild and is this region of our country
rainy. In Turkey, Southern Marmara, Coast Terrestrial climate- Summers are
hot and dry, winters are cold.It
Volume 1, Issue 3 Page 25
World peace cannot be safeguarded The declara'on of 9th May 1950 is belie-
without the making of crea've ved to be the founding text of European
eﬀorts propor'onate to the dangers integra'on. Delivered by Robert Schu-
which threaten it. man, the French Foreign Minister, in the
Salon de l'Horloge at the Quai d'Orsay in
The contribu'on which an organised Paris, this declara'on, inspired by Jean
and living Europe can bring to civilisa- Monnet, the ﬁrst Planning Commissio-
'on is indispensable to the mainte- ner, lays out a European organisa'on
nance of peaceful rela'ons. In taking that would be responsible for pooling
upon herself for more than 20 years the French and German produc'on of
the role of champion of a united Eu- coal and steel.
rope, France has always had as her
essen'al aim the service of peace. A The solidarity in produc'on thus mic system; it may be the leaven
united Europe was not achieved and established will make it plain that any from which may grow a wider and
we had war. war between France and Germany deeper community between coun-
becomes not merely unthinkable, but tries long opposed to one another by
Europe will not be made all at once, materially impossible. The seUng up sanguinary divisions.
or according to a single plan. It will be of this powerful produc've unit,
built through concrete achievements open to all countries willing to take By pooling basic produc'on and by
which ﬁrst create a de facto solida- part and bound ul'mately to provide ins'tu'ng a new High Authority,
rity. The coming together of the na- all the member countries with the whose decisions will bind France,
'ons of Europe requires the elimina- basic elements of industrial produc- Germany and other member coun-
'on of the age-old opposi'on of 'on on the same terms, will lay a tries, this proposal will lead to the
France and Germany. Any ac'on true founda'on for their economic realisa'on of the ﬁrst concrete foun-
taken must in the ﬁrst place concern uniﬁca'on. da'on of a European federa'on in-
these two countries. dispensable to the preserva'on of
This produc'on will be oﬀered to the peace.
With this aim in view, the French world as a whole without dis'nc'on
Government proposes that ac'on be or excep'on, with the aim of contri- To promote the realisa'on of the
taken immediately on one limited but bu'ng to raising living standards and objec'ves deﬁned, the French Go-
decisive point : to promo'ng peaceful achievements. vernment is ready to open nego'a-
With increased resources Europe will 'ons on the following bases :
It proposes that Franco-German pro- be able to pursue the achievement of
duc'on of coal and steel as a whole one of its essen'al tasks, namely, the The task with which this common
be placed under a common High development of the African con'- High Authority will be charged will be
Authority, within the framework of nent. that of securing in the shortest possi-
an organisa'on open to the par'ci- ble 'me the modernisa'on of pro-
pa'on of the other countries of Euro- In this way, there will be realised duc'on and the improvement of its
pe. simply and speedily that fusion of
interest which is indispensable to the
The pooling of coal and steel produc- establishment of a common econo-
'on should immediately provide for
the seUng up of common founda-
'ons for economic development as a
ﬁrst step in the federa'on of Europe,
and will change the des'nies of those
regions which have long been devo-
ted to the manufacture of muni'ons
of war, of which they have been the
most constant vic'ms.