The words you are searching are inside this book. To get more targeted content, please make full-text search by clicking here.
Discover the best professional documents and content resources in AnyFlip Document Base.
Search
Published by thepoliticalavenue, 2019-10-28 05:48:36

Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

432 Westptah this papyrus, depicting the dominance of the temple’s
holding in the region. The text also records types of grain
Delta. The Western Waters irrigated an area noted for harvested. The Wilbour Papyrus is in the Brooklyn
vineyards and fine wines. In some historical periods the Museum, New York.
rulers of Egypt built residences in this lush region.
Window of Appearance An architectural innovation
Westptah (fl. 25th century B.C.E.) Beloved vizier of the popular in the New Kingdom Period (1550–1070 B.C.E.)
Fifth Dynasty and made famous by AKHENATEN (r. 1353–1335 B.C.E.) at
Westptah served in the reigns of SAHURÉ (2458–2446 ’AMARNA, this window was actually a stage set into the
B.C.E.) and KAKAI (Neferirkaré; 2446–2426 B.C.E.). He walls of the palace, where he could stand before the peo-
began his career during the reign of Sahuré and later ple. From this elevated position the ruler dispensed hon-
became VIZIER of Egypt under Kakai. A noted architect ors to officials. Akhenaten and Queen NEFERTITI were
and the chief justice of the nation, Westptah fell ill while depicted in the ’Amarna Window of Appearance, honor-
attending the ruler. The court physician was summoned ing the faithful servants of their reign, including
but could not save the aged official. When Westptah died, HOREMHAB (r. 1319–1307 B.C.E.). The tomb of NEBWENEF
Kakai was supposedly inconsolable. He arranged for the in Thebes depicts RAMESSES II (r. 1290–1224 B.C.E.) and
ritual purification of the body in his presence and then Queen NEFERTARI at a Window of Appearance. The Win-
commanded that an ebony coffin be made for Westptah. dow of Appearance symbolizes the HORIZON.
The vizier’s son, Mernuterseteni, was ordered by the
pharaoh to bury his father with specific tomb endow- Woman of Tell Halif (fl. 3300–3000 B.C.E.) Egyptian
ments and rituals. Westptah was given a grave site next to woman buried in the Negev Desert, dating to the Early
the pyramid of Sahuré in return for his services to the Bronze IB Period
nation. The tomb contained a touching description of Part of the emerging Egyptian culture, the Woman of Tell
these honors. Halif and her gravesite represent an Egyptian presence in
the Negev region. A potsherd discovered in the grave is
White Chapel A small but exquisite structure at KAR- ingrained with the SEREKH, or royal sign of NARMER, the
NAK in THEBES, erected by SENWOSRET I (r. 1971–1926 unifier of Upper and Lower Kingdoms on the Nile.
B.C.E.), the chapel has now been restored in Karnak and
is a masterpiece of Egyptian architecture of the Middle See also EGYPT.
Kingdom Period (2040–1640 B.C.E.), an era considered
by later generations of Egyptians as the golden age of the women’s role It was a social position varying over
nation. The carved wall reliefs depict Senwosret I being the centuries and subject to the various nomes and
embraced by PTAH, AMUN, ATUM, and HORUS, each god epochs. Some women achieved lasting fame, while the
placed at the cardinal points of the earth. majority served in positions related to their homes and
families. Royal women and those of nonroyal status sel-
Wiay (fl. 11th century B.C.E.) Royal woman of the dom had records attesting to their duties or rights, and
Twenty-first Dynasty in almost every case (with the exception of the queen-
Wiay was the second-ranked consort of PSUSENNES I (r. pharaohs) they were considered for the most part in
1040–992 B.C.E.) after Queen MUTNODJMET (2). She was terms of their relationships to the surrounding males.
the mother of ISTEMKHEBE (2), who married MENKHEPER- Even the mortuary stelae, the tablets erected for women
RESENB (2), the high priest of AMUN in Thebes. as gravesite commemoratives, equated them normally
with their husbands, fathers, or sons. In the tombs
Widia (fl. 14th century B.C.E.) Prince of the city-state of women were portrayed in secondary positions if they
Ashkelon on the coastal plain of modern Israel were shown at all. In some historical periods women
A vassal of Egypt, Prince Widia wrote to AKHENATEN (r. were portrayed the same size as their husbands, but in
1353–1335 B.C.E.) to express his loyalty. The Egyptian most instances they were smaller and placed in a
imperial holdings were in a state of unrest during the peripheral area.
’AMARNA Period, and Widia’s city was relatively close to
the Egyptian command post at Gaza. Ashkelon revolted The royal women were the best documented, but
and was retaken by RAMESSES II (r. 1290–1224 B.C.E.). even they are only cursorily mentioned in dynastic
records. In the nomes, however, many women, such as
Wilbour Papyrus A long document dating to the Princess NEBT, did maintain their own estates and hold
fourth year of the reign of RAMESSES V (1156–1151 B.C.E.), high ranks personally or as regents for their minor sons.
this text concerns legal matters in a village named Neshi, In times of building, for example, women were subject to
south of Memphis in the FAIYUM area. Fields are listed in the corvée, the service given to the pharaoh at pyramid or
temple sites. Women went with the men to the building

Khamerernebty, the consort of Menkauré of the Old Kingdom writing materials 433
Period, in a strikingly intimate pose. (Hulton Archive.)
No women were recorded as having excelled in the
sites and did the cooking, weaving, or nursing. They various arts. No government positions were held by
received honors as a result. women, except as regents for the royal heirs or nome heirs,
and even in the temples the roles of women were normally
Legally, the women of ancient Egypt were the equals peripheral. The early priestesses were relegated to the role
of men, and they are mentioned frequently in regulations of songstresses or chantresses in the New Kingdom Period
concerning the proper attitudes of officials. Some didactic (1550–1070 B.C.E.). In the Eighteenth Dynasty, queens
literature warns young men against frivolous or flirtatious held the rank of “GOD’S WIFE OF AMUN,” a role that would
women, but there is also a text that admonishes young evolve into a politically powerful role in later generations,
men to think about the travails and sufferings that their restricted to princesses of the various dynasties.
mothers endured for their sake. Women depicted in the
mortuary reliefs and paintings are shown conducting the At the same time, however, women bought and
normal household tasks, although women of higher sta- bartered items in the marketplace, sold real estate, over-
tus no doubt had household servants to do these chores. saw doctor’s treatments, piloted boats, and served as
court-appointed executrixes of estates. They normally
Women are presented in most tomb scenes as young married only with their consent, unless they were NOME
and beautiful, whether they are the wives or mothers of heiresses or members of the royal families. They testified
the men buried there. Such idealization was part of the as valid witnesses in court, drew up wills, and filed for
mortuary or funerary art and did not represent the actual divorce. In a divorce proceeding, the woman kept her
age or physical condition of the women portrayed. dowry and was usually awarded one-third of the joint
property. In the Late Period (712–332 B.C.E.) couples
made prenuptial agreements. Higher-ranked women were
comparatively literate and quite equal to men before the
law. Daughters received shares of all inheritances and
maintained personal properties.

Suggested Readings: Arnold, Dorothea. The Royal Women
of Amarna: Images of Beauty in Ancient Egypt. New Haven,
Conn.: Yale University Press, 1996; Hawass, Zahi A. Silent
Images: Women in Pharaonic Egypt. New York: Harry
Abrams, 2000; Rowlandson, Jane, and Roger S. Bagnall,
eds. Women and Society in Greek and Roman Egypt. Cam-
bridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1998; Tyldes-
ley, Joyce A. Daughters of Isis: Women of Ancient Egypt.
London: Penguin, 1995.

Woser (fl. 15th century B.C.E.) Vizier of the Eighteenth
Dynasty
He served TUTHMOSIS III (r. 1479–1425 B.C.E.). Woser was
the uncle of the famed REKHMIRÉ, who followed him in
that office. Two tombs at THEBES and a shrine at GEBEL EL-
SILSILEH commemorated Woser. The latter shrine had a
single chamber with a statue niche at one end.

“writing from the god himself” This was a term used
to denote any text that dated to the early historical peri-
ods of the nation. Such a text, having been preserved over
the centuries, was deemed sacred and viewed as divine
inspiration. Because of its age, the text was revered and
carefully observed.

writing materials See SCRIBE.

X

Xerxes I (d. 466 B.C.E.) Persian king of Egypt of the Xois A site in the Delta (the modern Sakha) that served
Twenty-seventh Dynasty as the capital of the Thirteenth Dynasty (1783–1640
Xerxes I reigned over Egypt from 486 B.C.E. until his B.C.E.). The Xoite rulers were limited in their powers, as
death, but he never visited the Nile personally. He was the HYKSOS surrounded them and other cities raised up
the son of DARIUS I and Queen Atossa, and he completed their own royal lines. The rulers of Xois were named in
the city of Persepolis, a site that his father had begun as a the TURIN CANON and listed by MANETHO. They were
capital. He also put down rebellions in the Persian probably eliminated during the Second Intermediate
Empire. Period (1640–1550 B.C.E.) and certainly removed from
power when ’AHMOSE (r. 1550–1525 B.C.E.) ousted the
The Egyptians recorded Xerxes as a “criminal” after Hyksos and reunited the nation.
he crushed a revolt on the Nile in his second year, using
the military units and commanders on the Nile. Xerxes The city of Xois was overrun by Libyan invaders
also forced the Egyptian fleet to punish the Greeks at from the west in the reign of RAMESSES III (1194–1163
SALAMIS and instituted his son ACHAEMENES as satrap of B.C.E.). He mounted a large military force and repelled
Egypt. Xerxes was murdered with his son Crown Prince the MESHWESH, the dominating Libyan clan, and their
Darius in his own court and was succeeded by ARTAX- allies from the area in order to free the city and safeguard
ERXES I, his son by Queen AMESTRIS. the entire Delta.

See also MEGABYZUS.

434

Y

Yakoba’am (fl. 16th century B.C.E.) Ruler of the Hyksos Yapahu wrote to AKHENATEN (r. 1353–1335 B.C.E.) to
Sixteenth Dynasty complain about the Egyptian forces garrisoned in his ter-
He was a founder of a line of HYKSOS kings (c. 1640–1532 ritory. His correspondence is part of the ’AMARNA LETTERS.
B.C.E.), a minor Asiatic group serving as contemporaries,
or possibly as vassals of the Great Hyksos of the Fifteenth Yaqub-Hor (Mer-user-ré) (fl. 16th century B.C.E.)
Dynasty at AVARIS. SCARABS bearing Yakoba’am’s name Ruler of the Fifteenth Dynasty, called the Great Hyksos
were discovered in northern Egypt and in Palestine. Yaqub-Hor was the successor of either Sheshi or SALITIS
and reportedly reigned 18 years. Few details about his
Yam It was a region of NUBIA (modern Sudan) south of reign have survived.
ASWAN. As early as the Sixth Dynasty (2323–2150 B.C.E.),
the Egyptians were trading with this area. An official of Yerdjet A people of NUBIA (modern Sudan), residing
that dynasty named HARKHUF, who served PEPI II (r. near the second cataract of the Nile, the Yerdjet began
2246–2152 B.C.E.), was reported as having visited Yam. paying tribute to Egypt as early as the Sixth Dynasty
(2323–2150 B.C.E.). Many nomadic groups migrated to
Yanhamu (fl. 14th century B.C.E.) Egyptian governor of the Nile area to be protected by the Egyptian garrisons.
Palestine in the ’Amarna Period Others, having established residence long before, had to
He served in the reign of AKHENATEN (1353–1335 B.C.E.). accept the occupation of their lands.
Yanhamu was probably a Canaanite appointed to the
office by Akhenaten. His correspondence was discovered Yewelot (fl. 10th century B.C.E.) Royal prince of the
in the ’AMARNA LETTERS, as he reported events to the Twenty-second Dynasty
Egyptian capital and relayed the growing elements of He was the son of OSORKON I (r. 924–909 B.C.E.) and
unrest in the region. Yanamu reported that he received a probably Queen KAROMANA (2). Yewelot served as the
letter from Mut-ba’la, the prince of Pella, a former site in high priest of AMUN at THEBES. He wrote a decree con-
modern Jordan. The vassal was protesting his innocence cerning the distribution of his property, and this docu-
in the ongoing territorial disputes in the area. Yanhamu ment provides details of the period.
and other dignitaries of Egypt’s imperial holdings were
not supplied with sufficient troops or provisions during Yuf (fl. 16th century B.C.E.) Court official of the Eigh-
this reign, resulting in a loss of vassal states and con- teenth Dynasty
quered domains. Yuf served ’AHMOSE (r. 1550–1525 B.C.E.) as a personal
steward and acted as an official in the courts of Queen
Yapahu (fl. 14th century B.C.E.) Prince of a city-state AH’HOTEP (1) and Queen ’AHMOSE-NEFERTARI. An EDFU stela
called Gezer, now Tel-Gezer in Israel announces his career. Yuf was a priest in the temple there.

435

436 Yuia Yuya and Thuya (Yuia and Tuiya) (fl. 14th century
B.C.E.) Officials in the Eighteenth Dynasty, the parents of
Yuia See YUYA. Queen Tiye
Tiye (1) was the consort of AMENHOTEP III (r. 1391–1353
Yuny (fl. 13th century B.C.E.) Aristocratic official of the B.C.E.). Yuya was the Master of Horse for the royal cavalry,
Nineteenth Dynasty a general officer of chariot units. He and Thuya were not
Yuny served RAMESSES II (r. 1290–1224 B.C.E.) as the chief Egyptians but came from the Hurrian region of modern
scribe of the court. His tomb at DEIR EL-DURUNKA, south Syria. He also served as prophet of the god MIN and as a
of ASSIUT, has reliefs that depict Yuny as a hereditary supervisor of the oxen of Min in AKHMIN. Thuya was the
prince and count in his nome. A life-sized statue of him supervisor of the harem of Mi’am and the harem of AMUN.
was found in his tomb. She was also the mistress of robes in the temple of Min.

Yuti (fl. 14th century B.C.E.) Sculptor of the Eighteenth Their tomb was elaborately prepared, and their
Dynasty mummies were beautifully embalmed. An OSIRIS BED was
Yuti served AKHENATEN (r. 1353–1335 B.C.E.) as one of included in their funerary regalia. This gravesite was in
the royal sculptors of ’AMARNA, the capital. A panel in the the VALLEY OF THE KINGS, a unique privilege, and it con-
tomb of Huya, another official of ’Amarna, depicts Yuti tained one of the most lavish displays of mortuary fur-
painting a statue of BAKETAMUN, the sister of Akhenaten, nishings ever uncovered. Both beautifully embalmed
who assumed the name Baketaten while living with her mummies were in gilded frameworks. Yuya was called
brother. Yuti is shown painting with his left hand. “the god’s father,” a court title of respect.

Z

Zanakht See NEBKA. el-Ahmar) in the Oryx nome. Six of these tombs date to
the Old Kingdom Period (2575–2134 B.C.E.). Also pre-
Zannanza (fl. 14th century B.C.E.) Ill-fated prince of the sent is the Eighteenth Dynasty (1550–1307 B.C.E.) tomb
Hittites of Nefersekheru.
The son of the Hittite king SUPPILULIUMAS I (d. c. 1325
B.C.E.), he was sent to Egypt in response to the marriage Zawiet el-Aryan This is a site south of GIZA, on the
offer made by Queen ANKHESENAMON, the daughter of edge of the desert, containing two pyramids and a tomb
AKHENATEN and the widow of TUT’ANKHAMUN (r. dating probably to the Third Dynasty (2649–2575 B.C.E.).
1333–1323 B.C.E.). Ankhesenamon offered her throne to The northern pyramidal monument, now listed as “the
the HITTITES if they would send a prince to wed her. Unfinished Pyramid,” may have been built by NEBKA (r.
Prince Zannanza made the journey but was killed at the 2649–2630 B.C.E.), and it is called “Nebka is a Star.” The
border, probably by command of HOREMHAB (r. lavish decorations of the monument, however, lead to a
1319–1307 B.C.E.), then a general of the armies. This belief that it was actually constructed in a later reign. The
event impacted on Egypt’s relations with the Hittites in substructure and enclosing wall were started and then
future reigns and brought about the death of Suppiluliu- abandoned. The second monument is called the LAYER
mas I. PYRAMID and was built out of small stone blocks. The
tomb nearby contained eight stone bowls inscribed with
Zatatna (fl. 14th century B.C.E.) Prince of Accho, modern seals of KHA’BA (r. 2603–2599 B.C.E.), and it is believed
Acre, in Israel that this was his mortuary monument.
Zatatna wrote to AKHENATEN (r. 1353–1335 B.C.E.), asking
for aid in defending his lands. Zatatna accused another Zenodotus (fl. c. 280 B.C.E.) First director of the Library
king, Labayu of Sechem, of plotting his downfall. No aid of Alexandria
was sent to Accho. The correspondence of Zatatna is part He was appointed director of the LIBRARY OF ALEXANDRIA
of the ’AMARNA LETTERS. for life by PTOLEMY I SOTER (r. 304–284 B.C.E.). Zenodotus
was from Ephesus, in modern Turkey, and he was invited
Zawiet el-Amwat It was a site on the eastern shore to Egypt where he became the tutor to PTOLEMY II
of the Nile, north of BENI HASAN, that served as an PHILADELPHUS.
early necropolis. The site was called “the Place of the
Dead.” A step pyramid from the Third Dynasty Zenon (fl. third century B.C.E.) Carian Greek serving
(2649–2575 B.C.E.), trapezoid in design and covered Egypt in the Ptolemaic Period
with masonry, was discovered there. There are also 19 He served PTOLEMY II PHILADELPHUS (r. 285–246 B.C.E.).
tombs on the site associated with HEBENU (modern Kom Zenon was an assistant to the treasurer Apollonius. He

437

438 Zerukha Zerukha It was the site called MALKATA on the western
shore of THEBES. AMENHOTEP III (r. 1391–1353 B.C.E.)
lived beside the FAIYUM and managed Apollonius’s estates built his vast pleasure palaces and shrines at Malkata, and
in the region. Zenon also traveled to ALEXANDRIA, Pales- an artificial lake was created on the site.
tine, and Syria. His archives, depicting his historical
period in Egypt in detail, have survived.

GLOSSARY

a’akh a spirit freed from the bonds of the flesh. Bennu the phoenix-like sacred bird.
A’amu the name given to the Asiatics, particularly the berget the stone Peridot.
bia the resource called hematite.
Hyksos. bik the falcon.
A’aru a paradise beyond the grave. Biya “the Honey Man,” the ruler of Lower Egypt before
a’asha the word for the jackal, also auau or sab.
Abaton the Pure Mound of creation. unification.
Abu or ab the name of the elephant, ivory, and booza the name of beer, also called heneket.
byssus the finest grade linen.
Elephantine Island. deben an Egyptian weight unit.
afnet the head covering of gods and pharaohs. desheru “the Red Ones,” the Followers of Set.
akhet the season of inundation. deshret the red basket crown of the Delta Bee Kings.
akhet the symbol of the horizon. Deshret the term for the desert lands.
Akh-iker-en-Ré ancestors, termed “the excellent depart- djeba the reed perch used at the moment of creation.
djed a pillar associated with Osiris.
ed ones in Ré.” djeseru-djeseru the sanctuary or Holy of Holies.
Alashya the Egyptian name for Cyprus. erpati hati’o the nome aristocrats or nobles.
Amenti the eternal domain of the dead in the West. Geswaret the name of the mythical creation site, called
ames a scepter formed as a club.
ankh the ansate cross, the symbol of life. “the Island of Trampling.”
Ankh-tawy or Ankh-taui a name for old Memphis, “the hat the physical human heart.
heb the Egyptian term for festival.
Life of the Two Lands.” heb-sed the royal festival commemorating three decades
aser the tamarisk tree.
aut funerary offerings made to the deceased. of rule.
auta the cobra in a sitting position. hedj (1) the word for agate, also called ka.
ba the human or divine soul. hedj (2) the word for limestone.
ba’a en pet copper from heaven, a meteorite. Hedj (3) the color white.
ba’ankh a soul in paradise, living again. Hedjerew “the Great White One,” a sacred baboon.
bain-a’abtiu souls transformed into baboons to greet the hedjet the white war helmet of Upper Egypt.
heka (1) the word for magical power.
dawn. heka (2) the crook carried by a pharaoh.
Bakhau the mythical “Land of the Sunrise.” heker an Egyptian decoration.
bay a surveying instrument. hemaget the name for garnet.
bekhenet the pylon style of gates. hemt the name for copper.
Bedawi the Bedouins of the Sinai, also called badu or

bedwi.
benben the pyramidal rays of the sun as a symbol.

439

440 Glossary ma’at kheru “True of Voice,” the dead worthy of par-
adise.
herset the name given to carnelian.
herset-hedji the name for chalcedony. ma’au a large cat.
Heru-Shemsu the followers of Horus. magat the ladder of Osiris.
hes used with purification, the name for baptism. Mandet the morning bark of Ré.
hesmen the name for amethyst. Manu the mythological mountain site, called “the Land
Hiku-Ptah the mansion of the soul of Ptah, Memphis.
ibhety the name given to marble. of Sunset.”
ibu the site of mortuary embalming. mat the name for gravesite.
Ikhemu-Seku “the Stars that Never Fail” (polar stars). mat-en-Abu the name of the Aswan granite.
Ikhemu-Weredu “the Never Resting Stars” (planets in mefkat the name for turquoise.
mekes the royal scepter, flat at one end.
orbit). mekhemnet the name for jasper.
Ineb-Hedj “the White Walled,” Memphis. menat the counterweight amulet of fertility.
Intiu the Egyptian aboriginal inhabitants before unifica- mentet the name for diorite.
menu-hedj the name for quartz.
tion, c. 3000 B.C.E. menu-kem the name for obsidian.
irgeb the name for mica. merkhet an astral survey guide.
Iset “the Seat,” associated with the goddess Isis. meska the hide of a bull, a royal symbol.
isfet the word for chaos or disorder. Mesu-betesht the Followers of Horus.
iunu the word for pillar. mesut “the time of birth,” the rising of the night stars.
ka the astral being that accompanies humans on earth miw or mau also mut, the cat or kitten.
Mut-netjier “the Mother of the Gods,” a term applied to
and in eternity.
kapet the name for incense. Isis.
kenbet a court system of Egypt. muu a dwarf, also called nem or hua.
ketj the color yellow. neb an act of prostration or obeisance.
khaibit the spiritual essence freed at death. nefer a term meaning good and beautiful.
khat an altar or table of offerings. Nehet the sycamore tree.
khatru the name of the mongoose. nekhakha the flail used in royal rites.
khay to shine forth, as a god or as a pharaoh. nerau Egyptian vulture.
khem the color black. neshmet the name of feldspar.
Khemet Egypt, the Black Land. netcher a deity symbol used on temple flags.
khenmet the name for jasper. neter a deity or a power.
khepesh the sickle-shaped military sword. neterit a deity’s town or temple.
khephresh the military crown, fashioned out of elec- neter nefer the name for the pharaoh.
nub the name for gold; nub nefer if high grade.
trum. nuheh the word for eternity, also shennu.
khesbed the color blue. nunu the waters of chaos before creation.
khesbedj the name for lapis lazuli.
Kush the Egyptian word for Nubia (modern Sudan).
ma’at the system of individual serenity and common

service.

pa duat a tomb chamber for the patron deity. Glossary 441
pat an ancient Egyptian caste, associated with Horus.
Patuit-Taui the name of the First Occasion, creation. shena the part of the palace reserved for servants and
Per-Ankh “the House of Life,” an educational institu- the kitchens.

tion. shes the word for alabaster.
perdjem the name for olivine. sheshen the name for the lotus.
Per-Hay “the House of Rejoicing,” at Thebes. sheshmet the word for malachite.
Per-khenret the word for harem. sheta a hidden mystery, secret lore.
Per-Medjat the House of Books, a library. shomu the season of the harvest.
per-nefer “the House of Beauty,” an embalming site. shoy the term for fate, also called shai.
pero or pero a’a the Great House, the palace. Shub the Persea Tree, a cedar tree in Heliopolis.
Pert-er-Kheru meaning “from the mouth of the god,” sma-tawy the symbol of the unified Upper and Lower

denoting any ancient text or document or saying. Kingdoms.
pet the word for sky. Swenet “the Southern Gate,” a term for Aswan.
Piromis true humans, artists or intellectuals. Ta-Meht a word meaning Lower Egypt.
posesh-khef the mortuary forked instrument used to Ta-Resu a word meaning Upper Egypt.
Ta-set a’a the “Great Place,” the Valley of the Kings.
instill resurrection in the corpse. Ta-set neferu the “Place of the Royal Children,” the
proyet the season of growing.
qas the word for an embalmed, wrapped body. Valley of the Queens.
rekhet the lapwing bird symbol, denoting a caste of the Ta-Seti a section of Nubia, “the Land of the Bow.”
Ta-she an area of the Faiyum, the Land of the Lakes.
ancient historical periods. thet an amulet called the Girdle of Isis.
Rekh-nesu a court title meaning “One Whom the King tjam a word for electrum or white gold.
tjehenet the word for faience, translated as brilliant.
Knows.” Tuat the term for the Underworld, also called Duat.
ren the word for name. uatch the term for the green stone amulet.
renpet the regnal years of a ruler. Uat-ur “the Great Green,” the Mediterranean Sea.
sa-ankh “the Waters of Life,” meaning ritual waters. Uben the spirits that bring the dawn.
sah an individual free from the flesh. uraeus the cobra and vulture, a royal symbol.
seb a festival. ur-heka a mortuary instrument used to open the mouth
sebi the word for circumcision.
sed an ancient royal feast. of the corpse.
sekhem acts that restore the spirit of ma’at. wadj the color green.
senut the term for flagstaffs at temple entrances. wadj-en-Bakh “the Green Stone of the East,” beryl.
sepat the name for a nome or province, and a nome wadjet the symbol of the Eye of Ré.
waret the abyss from which Ré arose.
totem. wedjau an amulet of a god.
seshed a type of royal crown. Wepet-renpet the New Year.
shabti the figure placed in the tomb to answer divine Wereret the double crown of the pharaohs.
Zent a dead bird, an omen of misfortune.
summons.
shen, shennu “that which encircles,” a circle that

evolved into a cartouche.

SUGGESTED READINGS

The following is a suggested reading list of Egyptian stud- Berbrier, Morris. Tomb Builders of the Pharaohs. New York:
ies and histories. The selected books are in English or Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1984.
English translation.
Bertro, Maria Carmelo. Hieroglyphics: The Writings of Ancient
Adams, Barbara. Egyptian Mummies. Ayelsbury: Shire Egypt. New York: Abbeville, 1996.
Publications, 1984.
Blackman, Aylward M. Gods, Priests and Men: Studies in the
Adkins, Lesley and Roy. The Keys of Egypt: The Obsession to Religion of Pharaonic Egypt. 2d ed. London: Kegan Paul
Decipher Egyptian Hieroglyphs. New York: Harper International, 1995.
Collins, 2000.
Bowman, Alan. Egypt after the Pharaohs, 332 BC–AD 642.
Aldred, Cyril. Egypt to the End of the Old Kingdom. London: Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.
Thames and Hudson, 1965.
Borghouts, Joris F., “Akhu and Hekau: Two Basic Notions of
———. The Egyptians. London: Thames and Hudson, 1961; Ancient Egyptian Magic, and the Concept of Divine
2nd ed., 1984. Creative Word,” in Alessandro Roccati and Alberto
Siliotti, eds., Magic in Egypt in the Time of the Pharaohs:
———. Egyptian Art in the Days of the Pharaohs, 3100–320 International Study Conference, Milan 29–31 October
B.C. New York: Thames & Hudson, 1985. 1985. Milan: Rassegna Internazionale di Cinematografia
Archeologica Arte e Natura Libri, 1987, pp. 29–46.
Allen, James P. Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the
Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs. Cambridge, Eng.: ———, “The Edition of Magical Papyri in Turin: A Progress
Cambridge University Press, 2000. Report,” in Alessandro Roccati and Alberto Siliotti, eds.,
Magic in Egypt in the Time of the Pharaohs: International
———. Religion and Philosophy in Ancient Egypt. New Study Conference, Milan 29–31 October 1985. Milan:
Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1989. Rassegna Internazionale di Cinematografia Archeologica
Arte e Natura Libri, 1987, pp. 257–269.
Allen, Thomas G. The Egyptian Book of the Dead:
Documents in the Oriental Institute Museum at the Bowman, Alan K. Egypt After the Pharaohs: 332 B.C.–A.D.
University of Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago 642 from Alexander to the Arab Conquest. Berkeley:
Press, 1960. University of California Press, 1996.

Andrews, Carol. Egyptian Mummies. London: British Breasted, James H. Ancient Records of Egypt, 4 vols. Chicago:
Museum Press, 1984. University of Chicago Press, 1906.

Antelme, Ruth, and Stephane Rossini. Becoming Osiris: The ———. The Dawn of Conscience. New York: Scribner’s, 1933;
Ancient Egyptian Death Experience. Rochester, Vt.: Inner repr. 1968.
Traditions International Ltd., 1998.
———. Development of Religion and Thought in Ancient
Armour, Robert. Gods and Myths of Ancient Egypt. Cairo: Egypt: Lectures Delivered on the Morse Foundation at
American University in Cairo Press, 1986. Union Theological Seminary. New York: Scribner’s, 1912;
repr., Harpers & Brothers, 1959.
Arnold, Dieter. Temples of Ancient Egypt. Ithaca, N.Y.:
Cornell University Press, 1997. ———. A History of Egypt: From the Earliest Times to the
Persian Conquest. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1999.
———. Temples of the Last Pharaohs. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford
University Press, 1999. Brier, Bob. Ancient Egyptian Magic. New York: Morrow, 1980.
Brown, Dale, ed. Egypt: Land of the Pharaohs. Alexandria,
Arnold, Dorothea, Christiane Ziegler, and James P. Allen,
eds. Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyramids. New Haven, Va.: Time-Life Books, 1992.
Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999. Budge, E. A. Wallis. From Fetish to God in Ancient Egypt.

Ashby, Muata Abhaya. The Hymns of Amun: Ancient Egyptian London: Oxford University Press, 1934; repr. 1972.
Mystical Psychology. New York: Cruzian Mystic, 1997. ———. The Mummy: Handbook of Egyptian Funerary

Assman, Jan, and Anthony Alcock, transl. Egyptian Solar Archaeology. 1893. Reprint, London: KPI, 1987.
Religion in the New Kingdom: RE, Amun and the Crisis of ———. Egyptian Magic. New York: University Books, 1958.
Polytheism. New York: Routledge, 1995. ———. The Egyptian Sudan: Its History and Monuments, 2

Baines, John, and Jaromír Málek. Atlas of Ancient Egypt. vols. 1907. Reprint, London: Kegan Paul, 1986.
Oxford, U.K.: Phaidon, 1980. Caminos, Ricardo A., “Magic for the Dead,” in A. Roccati

Bennett, James, and Vivianne Crowley. Magic and Mysteries and A. Siliotti, eds., Magic in Egypt in the Time of the
of Ancient Egypt. New York: Sterling Publishing, 2001.

442

Pharaohs: International Study Conference, Milan 29–31 Suggested Readings 443
October 1985. Milan: Rassegna Internazionale di
Cinematografia Archeologica Arte e Natura Libri, 1987, Engelbach, Reginald. Introduction to Egyptian Archaeology,
pp. 147–159. with Special Reference to the Egyptian Museum, Cairo.
Cerny, Jaroslav. Ancient Egyptian Religion. London: 1946. Reprint, Cairo: Government Printing Office, 1961.
Hutchinson’s University Library, 1957.
Chauvreau, Michel. Egypt in the Age of Cleopatra. Ithaca, Englund, Gertie, ed. The Religion of the Ancient Egyptians:
N.Y., and London: Cornell University Press, 1997. Cognitive Structures and Popular Expressions. Uppsala: S.
Clark, R. T. Rundle. Myth and Symbol in Ancient Egypt. Academie Ubsaliensis, 1989.
London: Thames and Hudson, 1959.
Clayton, Peter A. Chronicle of the Pharaohs. London: Thames Erman, Adolf. Life in Ancient Egypt. New York: Blom, 1969.
and Hudson, 1994. Evans, Humphrey. The Mystery of the Pyramids. New York:
Cohen, R., and R. Westbrook, eds. Amarna Diplomacy: The
Beginnings of International Relations. Baltimore: Johns Crowell, 1979.
Hopkins University Press, 2000. Eyre, C. J., “An Accounts Papyrus from Thebes,” JEA 66
Cottrell, Leonard. Life Under the Pharaohs. London: Evans
Brothers, 1955; London: Pan, 1957; New York: Holt, (1980): 108–119.
Rinehart, 1960. Faulkner, Raymond O. The Ancient Egyptian Book of the
———. Egypt. London: Vane, 1966.
Cruz-Uribe, Eugene, and George R. Hughes, “A Strike Pa- Dead. London: British Museum Publications, 1985.
pyrus from the Reign of Amasis,” Serapis 5 (1979): 21–26. Fazzini, Richard, James F. Romano, and Madeleine E. Cody.
David, A. Rosalie. The Ancient Egyptians: Religious Beliefs and
Practices. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1982. Art for Eternity: Masterworks from Ancient Egypt. New
———. Cult of the Sun: Myth and Magic in Ancient Egypt. York: Scala Books, 1999.
London: Dent, 1980. Fedden, Robin. Egypt: Land of the Valley. London: Murray,
———. The Egyptian Kingdoms. 1975. Reprint, Oxford, 1977.
U.K.: Elsevier, 1988. Filer, Joyce. Disease. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1996.
———. Handbook to Life in Ancient Egypt. New York: Facts Finegan, Jack. Archaeological History of the Ancient Middle
On File, 1998. East. New York: Dorset Press, 1986.
Davies, W. V. Egyptian Hieroglyphs. London: British Museum, Fischer, Henry G. Women of the Old Kingdom and of the
1987. Heracleopolitan Period. New York: Metropolitan Museum
Dawson, Warren R., “The Number ‘Seven’ in Egyptian of Art, 1989.
Texts,” Aegyptus 8 (1927): 97–107. Fletcher, J. Chronicle of a Pharaoh: The Intimate Life of
———. “Notes on Egyptian Magic,” Aegyptus 11 (1931): Amenhotep III. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press,
23–28. 2000.
De Beler, Aude Gros. Pharaohs. Paris: La Maison de Molière, Forbes, R. J. Studies in Ancient Technology, 7 vols. Leiden:
2000. Brill, 1955–1963.
Diodorus Siculus. Diodorus on Egypt. London: MacFarland Frankfort, Henri. Ancient Egyptian Religion: An Interpretation.
& Co. 1985. New York: Columbia University Press, 1948.
Donadoni, Sergio, and Anna Maria Donadoni Roveri. Frankfurter, David. Religion in Roman Egypt. Princeton, N.J.:
Egyptian Civilization, 3 vols. Milan: 1987–1989. Princeton University Press, 2000.
Dodson, Aidan. Monarchs of the Nile. London: Rubicon Gahlin, Lucia. Egypt: Gods, Myths and Religion. New York:
Press, 1995. Lorenz, 2001.
Drioton, Étienne. Religions of the Ancient East. London: Gardiner, Alan H. “Magic (Egyptian),” in James Hastings,
Burns and Oates, 1959. ed., Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. Edinburgh: T&T
Dzierzykary-Rogalski, Tadeusz, “The Magic Procedure of Clark, 1915; repr. New York: Scribner’s, 1922, vol. 8, pp.
Breaking Bones in Ancient Egypt (Dakhleh Oasis),” 262–269.
Africana-Bulletin 30 (1981): 221–224. ———. “Ramesside Texts Relating to the Taxation and
Ellis, Normandi, Gary Roberston, and Robert Kelley. Transport of Corn,” JEA 27 (1941): 19–73.
Awakening Osiris: The Egyptian Book of the Dead. New Ghalioungui, Paul. The Physicians of Pharaonic Egypt.
York: Phanes, 1991. Deutsches Archaologisches Institut, Abteilung Kairo,
El Mahdy, Christine. Tutankhamun: The Life and Death of the Sonderschrift 10. Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von
Boy-King. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000. Zabern, 1983.
Emery, W. B. Archaic Egypt. Harmondsworth, U.K.: Penguin, Goedicke, Hans. Studies in the Hekanakhte Papers. Baltimore:
1987. Halgo, 1984.
Empereur, Jean-Yves. Alexandria Rediscovered. New York: ———. “Unity and Diversity in the Oldest Religion of
George Braziller, 1998. Ancient Egypt,” in Hans Goedicke, Hans and J. J. M.
Roberts, eds., Unity and Diversity: Essays in the History
Literature and Religion of the Ancient Near East. Baltimore:
Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975, pp. 201–217.
Goelet, Ogden, ed.; Raymond, Faulkner, transl. The Egyptian
Book of the Dead: The Book of Going Forth by Day. New
York: Chronicle Books, 2000.
Grafton, Elliot Smith. The Royal Mummies. Cairo: Cairo
Museum Press, 1909.

444 Suggested Readings Hornung, Erik, and John Baines, transl. Conceptions of God
in Ancient Egypt: The One and the Many. Ithaca, N.Y.:
Grant, Michael. Cleopatra. London: Phoenix Press, 2000. Cornell University Press, 1982.
Greenblatt, Miriam. Hatshepsut and Ancient Egypt. New York:
Hornung, Erik, and David Lorton, transl. History of Ancient
Marshall Cavendish, 2000. Egypt: An Introduction. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University
Griffiths, J. Gwyn. Plutarch’s De Iside et Osiride. Swansea: Press, 1999.

University of Wales Press, 1970. ———. The Ancient Egyptian Books of the Afterlife. Ithaca:
———. “The Religion of Ancient Egypt,” in Geoffret Cornell University Press, 1999.

Parrinder, ed., Man and His Gods: Encyclopedia of the Hornung, Erik, and John Baines, transl. Conceptions of God
World’s Religions. London: Hamlyn, 1971, pp. 112–123. in Ancient Egypt: The One and the Many. Ithaca, N.Y.:
Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. Cambridge, Cornell University Press, 1996.
U.K.: Blackwell, 1995.
Hardy, Eduard Rochie. The Large Estates of Byzantine Egypt. Isler, Martin, and Dieter Arnold. Sticks, Stones, and Shadows:
New York: Columbia University Press, 1931. Building the Egyptian Pyramids. Norman: University of
Hare, Tom. Remembering Osiris: Number, Gender, and the Oklahoma, 2001.
World in Ancient Egyptian Representational Systems.
Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999. Jacq, Christian, and Janet M. Davis, transl. Magic and
Harris, James, and Edward Wente. An X-Ray Atlas of the Mystery in Ancient Egypt. Detroit, Mich.: Souvenir Press,
Royal Mummies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.
1980.
Harris, James, ed. The Legacy of Egypt, 2nd ed. Oxford, U.K.: Jacq, Christian. Egyptian Magic. Warminster: Aris and
Clarendon, 1971. Philips, 1985.
Hart, George. Pharaohs and Pyramids: A Guide Through Old
Kingdom Egypt. London: Herbert Press, 1991. James, T. G. H. The Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. London:
Hawass, Zahi A. The Pyramids of Ancient Egypt. New York: Bodley Head, 1972.
Carnegie Museum of Natural History, 1998.
———. Silent Images: Women in Pharaonic Egypt. New York: ———. An Introduction to Ancient Egypt. London: British
Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 2000. Museum, 1979.
———. The Secrets of the Sphinx: Restoration Past and
Present. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, ———. Pharaoh’s People: Scenes From Life in Imperial Egypt.
1999. London: Bodley Head, 1984.
Hawass, Zahi, and Farouk Hosni. The Mysteries of Abu
Simbel: Ramesses II and the Temples of the Rising Sun. ———. Ancient Egypt: The Land and Its Legacy. London:
Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 2001. British Museum, 1988.
Hayes, William C., “Daily Life in Ancient Egypt,” National
Geographic Magazine 80 (1941): 419–515. Repr. in James, T. G. Henry, Araldo de Luca, and Elisabetta Ferrero.
Everyday Life in Ancient Times. Washington, D.C.: Tutankhamun. New York: Friedman/Fairfax, 2000.
National Geographic Society, 1951.
Healy, Mark. The Warrior Pharaoh: Ramesses II and the Battle Janssen, Jac J. Commodity Prices From the Ramessid Period:
of Quadesh. London: Osprey, 2000. An Economic Study of the Village of Necropolis Workmen at
Herodotus. Books I–IX. A. D. Godley, transl. 4 vols. Thebes. Leiden: Brill, 1975.
Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1920–1925;
repr. 1946. ———. “Prolegomena to the Study of Egypt’s Economic
Hickmann, Hans. Music Under the Pharaohs. Cairo: Egyptian History During the New Kingdom,” SÄK 3 (1975):
State Tourist Administration, 1959. 127–185.
Hobson, Christine. The World of the Pharaohs: A Complete
Guide to Ancient Egypt. New York: Thames and Hudson, Johnson, Allan Ch., and Louis C. West. Byzantine Egypt:
1987. Economic Studies. Amsterdam: Hakkert, 1949; repr.,
Hodel-Hoenes, Sigrid, and David Warburton, transl. Life and 1967.
Death in Ancient Egypt: Scenes from Private Tombs in New
Kingdom Thebes. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, Johnson, Paul. The Civilization of Ancient Egypt. London:
2000. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1978.
Hodges, Henry. Technology in the Ancient World. London:
Penguin, 1970. Jordan, Paul. Egypt the Black Land. Oxford: Phaidon, 1976.
Hoffmeier, J. K. “Sacred” in the Vocabulary of Ancient Egypt: Kákosy, László, “Some Problems of the Magical Healing
The Term Dsr, with Special Reference to Dynasties IX–XX.
Freiburg: Schweiz Göttingen, 1985. Statues,” in Alessandro Roccati and Alberto Siliotti,
Holbl, Gunther, and Tina Saavedra, transl. A History of the eds., Magic in Egypt in the Time of the Pharaohs:
Ptolemaic Empire. New York: Routledge, 2000. International Study Conference, Milan 29–31 October
1985. Milan: Rassegna Internazionale di Cinemato-
grafia Archeologica Arte e Natura Libri, 1987, pp.
171–186.
Kamil, Jill. The Ancient Egyptians: How They Lived and
Worked. 1976. Reprint, Cairo: American University in
Cairo, 1984.
Kaster, Joseph. The Literature and Mythology of Ancient
Egypt. London: Penguin, 1985.
———. The Wisdom of Ancient Egypt. New York: Barnes and
Noble, 1993.
Kemp, Barry J. Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilization.
London: Routledge, 1989.

Kitchen, Kenneth A. The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt Suggested Readings 445
(1100–650 B.C.), 2d ed., rev. Warminster, U.K.: Aris and
Phillips, Ltd., 1986. Menu, Bernadette. Ramesses II, Greatest of the Pharaohs. New
York: Abrams, 1998.
Kong, S. The Books of Thoth: The Adventure that Unveiled the
Mysteries of Ancient Egypt. Victoria, B.C., Canada: Mertz, Barbara. Temples, Tombs and Hieroglyphs: A Popular
Evergreen Press Property Ltd., 1998. History of Ancient Egypt. London: Gollancz, 1964.

Kuhrt, Amélie. The Ancient Near East, Vol. II. London: ———. Red Land, Black Land: The World of the Ancient
Routledge, 1995. Egyptians. New York: Coward-McCann, 1966.

Lesko, Barbara. The Great Goddesses of Egypt. Norman: Midant-Reynes, Beatrix, and Ian Shaw, transl. The Prehistory
University of Oklahoma Press, 1999. of Egypt: From the First Egyptians to the First Pharaohs.
London: Blackwell, 1999.
———. The Remarkable Women of Ancient Egypt. Berkeley,
Calif.: Scribe, 1978. Moens, M-F., and W. Wetterstrom, “The Agricultural Economy
of an Old Kingdom Town in Egypt’s Western Delta: Insight
———. Women’s Earliest Records from Ancient Egypt and from the Plant Remains,” JNES 47 (1988): 159–173.
Western Asia. Atlanta, Ga.: Scholar’s Press, 1989.
Montet, Pierre. Lives of the Pharaohs. New York: World,
Lewis, Naphtali. Life in Egypt Under Roman Rule. Oxford, 1968.
U.K.: Clarendon, 1983.
Montserrat, Dominic. Akhenaten: History, Fantasy and
Lexova, I. Ancient Egyptian Dances. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Ancient Egypt. New York: Routledge, 2000.
Publications, Inc., 2000.
Morenz, Siegfried. Egyptian Religion. London: Methuen,
Lichtheim, Miriam. Ancient Egyptian Literature. Berkeley: 1973.
University of California Press, 1975.
Moret, Alexandre. The Nile and Egyptian Civilization.
Lindsay, Jack. Daily Life in Roman Egypt. London: Müller, London: Kegan Paul, 1927.
1963.
Moret, Alexandre M., and Georges Davy. From Tribe to
———. The Origins of Alchemy in Graeco-Roman Egypt. Empire: Social Organization Among Primitives and in the
London: Müller, 1970. Ancient East. London: Kegan Paul, 1926.

Lucas, A. Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries. 1962. Morkot, R. Ancient Egypt and the Middle East. London:
Reprint, London: Histories and Mysteries of Man, 1989. Dorling Kindersley, 2001.

Lürker, Manfred. The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Egypt: An Murphy, Edwin, trans. Diodorus On Egypt. London:
Illustrated Dictionary, transl. Barbara Cummings. New McFarland, 1985.
York: Thames and Hudson, 1980.
Murray, Margaret A. The Splendor That was Egypt: A General
Lutz, Henry F., “Egyptian Song and Music,” University of Survey of Egyptian Culture and Civilization. London:
California Chronicle 27 (1925): 134–152. Sidgewick and Jackson, 1949.

MacLennan, Hugh. Oxyrhynchus: Economical and Social Mysliwiec, Karol, and David Lorton, trans. The Twilight of
Study. 1935. Reprint, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Ancient Egypt: 1st Millennium B.C. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell
University Press, 1968. University Press, 2000.

MacLeod, Roy. The Library of Alexandria: Centre of Learning Needler, Winifred, “A Statuette of the Egyptian Sixth
in the Ancient World. London: B. Tauris, 2000. Dynasty, About 2400 B.C.,” Bulletin of the Royal Ontario
Museum of Archaeology, University of Toronto 18 (1952):
McDonald, John. The Tomb of Nefertari. Los Angeles: Getty 9–12.
Conservation Institute, 1996.
Newby, P. H. The Egypt Story: Its Art, Its Monuments, Its
Malek, Jaromir. Egyptian Art. New York: Phaidon Press, 1999. People, Its History. Cairo: American University in Cairo,
———. In the Shadow of the Pyramids: Egypt During the Old 1985.

Kingdom. London: Orbis, 1986. Nicholson, Paul T., and Ian Shaw. Ancient Egyptian Materials
El Mallakh, Kamal, and Robert Bianchi. Treasures of the Nile: and Technology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
2000.
Art of Temples and Tombs of Egypt. New York: Newsweek,
1980. Nims, Charles F. Thebes of the Pharaohs: Pattern for Every
Manetho. Transl. W. G. Waddell. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard City. London: Elek, 1965; Toronto: Ryerson, 1965.
University Press, 1940; repr., 1948.
Manley, Deborah. The Nile, A Traveller’s Anthology. London: Nunn, John F. Ancient Egyptian Medicine. Norman:
Cossell, 1991. University of Oklahoma Press, 1996.
Manniche, Lise. Music and Musicians in Ancient Egypt.
London: British Museum, 1991. O’Clery, Helen. The Pegasus Book of Egypt. London: Dolson,
Martin, Geoffrey. The Hidden Tombs of Memphis. London: 1968.
Thames and Hudson, 1991.
Maspero, Gaston C., and Emile Brugsch, Nicholas Reeves, O’Connor, D., and E. Cline, eds. Amenhotep III, Perspectives
and G. Raggett, trans. Royal Tombs of Deir el-Bahri. New on His Reign. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press,
York: Routledge, 1993. 1998.
Mazar, Amihai. Archaeology of the Land of the Bible. New
York: Doubleday, 1990. Peck, William, Karl Butzer, I. E. S. Edwards, Barbara Mertz,
William Kelly Simpson, Virginia Lee Davis, Edna
Russman, and Anthony J. Spalinger. Ancient Egypt:
Discovering its Splendors. Washington, D.C.: National
Geographic Society, 1978.

446 Suggested Readings Sameh, Waly el-Dine. Daily Life in Ancient Egypt. Trans.
Michael Bullock. London: McGraw Hill, 1964.
Petrie, W. M. F. Egyptian Decorative Art. 1895. Reprint,
London: Methuen, 1978. Samson, Julia. Nefertiti and Cleopatra: Queen-Monarchs in
Ancient Egypt. London: Rubicon, 1985 and 1990.
———. Social Life in Ancient Egypt. 1923, Reprint, New
York: Cooper Square, 1970. Sauneron, Serge, and David Lorton, transl. The Priests of
Ancient Egypt: New Edition. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell
Pickles, Dewayne E., and Arthur M. Schlesinger, ed. University Press, 2000.
Egyptian Kings and Queens and Classical Deities. New
York: Chelsea House, 1997. Scott, Henry Joseph, and Lenore Scott. Egyptian
Hieroglyphics. London: Hippocrene, 1998.
Pomeroy, Sarah B. Women in Hellenistic Egypt: From
Alexander to Cleopatra. New York: Schocken, 1984. Scott, Nora E. The Home Life of the Ancient Egyptians. New
York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1947.
Quirke, Stephen. Ancient Egyptian Religion. London: BM,
1992. Seleem, Ramses. Illustrated Egyptian Book of the Dead. New
York: Sterling Publishers, 2001.
———. The Cult of Ra: Sun-Worship in Ancient Egypt. New
York: Thames and Hudson, 2001. Sewell, Barbara. Egypt Under the Pharaohs. London: Evans
Brothers, 1968.
Quirke, Stephen, and A. J. Spencer. The British Museum Book
of Ancient Egypt. London: British Museum, 1992. Shafer, Byron R., ed. Religion in Ancient Egypt: Gods, Myths,
and Personal Practice. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University
Raven, Maarten, “Charms for Protection During the Epa- Press, 1993.
gomenal Days,” in Essays on Ancient Egypt in Honour of
Herman te Velde. Egyptological Memoirs 1 (1997): 275 ff. ———. Temples of Ancient Egypt. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell
University Press, 1999.
Ray, Jay D., “A Consideration of Papyrus Kahun 13,” JEA 59
(1973): 222–223. Shaw, Ian, ed. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford,
U.K.: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Redford, Donald. Akhenaten. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton
University Press, 1987. Shaw, Ian, and Paul Nicholson. The Dictionary of Ancient
Egypt. London: Abrams, 1995.
Reeves, C. N., and Nicholas Reeves. The Complete
Tutankhamun: The King, the Tomb, the Royal Treasure. Shorter, Alan W. Everyday Life in Ancient Egypt. London:
New York: Thames and Hudson, 1995. Sampson Low, Marston, 1932.

Reeves, Nicholas and Richard Wilkinson. The Complete Siliotti, Alberto. Abu Simbel and the Nubian Temples. Cairo:
Valley of the Kings. London: Thames and Hudson, 1996. American University in Cairo Press, 2001.

Reymond, E. A. E., “Fragment of a Temple Account Roll,” ———. Luxor, Karnak, and the Theban Temples. Cairo:
JEA 60 (1974): 189–199. American University in Cairo Press, 2001.

Ritner, Robert K. The Mechanics of Ancient Egyptian Magical Silverman, David P., ed. Ancient Egypt. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford
Practice. Chicago: Oriental Institute, 1993. University Press, 1997.

Robichon, Clement, and Alexandre Varille. Eternal Egypt. Silverman, David, ed. Ancient Egypt. New York: Oxford
London: Duckworth, 1955. University Press, 1997.

Robins, Gay. The Art of Ancient Egypt. Cambridge, Mass.: Simpson, William K. Papyrus Reisner, 3: The Records of a
Harvard University Press, 2000. Building Project in the Early Twelfth Dynasty. Boston:
Museum of Fine Arts, 1969.
———. “Some Images of Women in New Kingdom Art and
Literature,” in B. Lesko, ed., Women’s Earliest Records ———. Papyrus Reisner, 4: Personnel Accounts of the Early
from Ancient Egypt and Western Asia. Atlanta, Ga.: Twelfth Dynasty. Boston: MFA, 1986.
Scholar’s Press, 1989, pp. 105–116.
Simpson, William K., and Whitney M. Davis, eds. Studies in
———. Women in Ancient Egypt. London: British Museum Ancient Egypt, the Aegean, and the Sudan. Boston:
Press, 1993. Museum of Fine Arts, 1981.

Roccati, Alessandro, and Alberto Siliotti, eds., Magic in Egypt Singer, Charles, E. J. Holmyard, and A. R. Hall. A History of
in the Time of the Pharaohs: International Study Con- Technology, 1: From Early Times to the Fall of the Ancient
ference, Milan 29–31 October 1985. Milan: Rassegna Empires. Oxford, U.K.: Clarendon, 1956.
Internazionale di Cinematografia Archeologica Arte e
Natura Libri, 1987, pp. 257–269. Smith, Grafton Elliot. The Ancient Egyptians and the Origin of
Civilization. London: Harper, 1923.
Romer, John. Romer’s Egypt: A New Light on the Civilization
of Ancient Egypt. London: Michael Joseph, 1982. Smith, Harry S., and Rosalind Hall, eds. Ancient Centres of
Egyptian Civilization. London: Egyptian Education
———. Valley of the Kings. New York: Henry Holt, 1994. Bureau, 1983.
Rowlandson, Jane, and Roger Bagnall, eds. Women and
Smith, William Stevenson, and William Kelly Simpson. The
Society in Greek and Roman Egypt: A Sourcebook. Art and Architecture of Ancient Egypt. New Haven, Conn.:
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Yale University Press, 1999.
Ruffle, John. The Egyptians: An Introduction to Egyptian
Archaeology. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1977. Snell, Daniel. Life in the Ancient Near East. New Haven,
Saleh, Mohammed, and Hourig Sourouzian. Egyptian Conn.: Yale University Press, 1997.
Museum, Cairo: Official Catalogue. Mainz am Rhein:
Verlag Phillip von Zabern, 1987. Spencer, Jeffrey. Death in Ancient Egypt. Harmondsworth,
U.K.: Penguin, 1982.

Stevenson, Smith, W., rev. by W. Simpson. Art and Suggested Readings 447
Architecture of Ancient Egypt. New Haven, Conn.: Yale
University Press, 1998. Ward, William A. Essays on Feminine Titles of the Middle
Kingdom and Related Subjects. Beirut: American
Stewart, Desmond. The Pyramids and Sphinx. New York: University, 1986.
Newsweek Books, 1971.
———. “Some Aspects of Private Land Ownership and
Stierlin, Henri. The Cultural History of the Pharaohs. London: Inheritance in Ancient Egypt, ca. 2500–1000 B.C.,” in
Aurum, 1983. Tarif Khalidi, ed., Land Tenure and Social Transformation
in the Middle East. Beirut: American University, 1984, pp.
Strouhal, Eugen. Life in Ancient Egypt. Cambridge, U.K.: 63–77.
University Press, 1992.
———. The Spirit of Ancient Egypt. Beirut: Khayats, 1965.
Strudwick, Nigel, and Helen M. Strudwick. Thebes in Egypt: Watterson, Barbara. Gods of Ancient Egypt. Stroud, U.K.:
A Guide to the Tombs and Temples of Ancient Luxor. Ithaca,
N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1999. Sutton Publishing, 1999.
———. Women in Ancient Egypt. Stroud, U.K.: Sutton, 1991.
———. Thebes in Egypt. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Weeks, Kent. The Lost Tomb. New York: William Morrow,
Press, 1999.
1998.
Taylor, John H. Death and the Afterlife in Ancient Egypt. Weigall, Arthur. The Life and Times of Akhnaton. New York:
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001.
Cooper Square Press, 2000.
———. Egyptian Coffins. Shire Egyptology, 11. Aylesbury, Wellesz, Egon, ed. Ancient and Oriental Music. Oxford, U.K.:
U.K.: Shire Publications, 1989.
University Press, 1957.
Thomas, Angela P. Egyptian Gods and Myths. Aylesbury, U.K.: Wenig, Steffen. The Woman in Egyptian Art. Leipzig: Edition
Shire Publications, 1986.
Leipzig, 1969.
Tierney, Tom. Ancient Egyptian Fashions. Mineola, N.Y.: White, Jon E. Manchip. Everyday Life in Ancient Egypt. New
Dover, 1999.
York: Putnam’s, 1963.
Tobin, Vincent A. Theological Principles of Egyptian Religion. ———. Ancient Egypt: Its Culture and History. London: Allen
New York: Peter Lang, 1989.
and Unwin, 1970.
Trigger, Bruce G. Early Civilizations: Ancient Egypt in Wilkinson, John Gardiner. The Manners and Customs of the
Context. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press,
1993. Ancient Egyptians, 3 vols. London: John Murray, 1878.
Wilkinson, R. H. The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt.
———. “The Mainlines to Socio-Economic Development in
Dynastic Egypt to the End of the Old Kingdom,” in Lech New York: Thames & Hudson, 2000.
Krzyzanik and Michal Kabusiewicz, eds., Origin and Wilkinson, Richard H., and Richard Wilk. Symbol & Magic
Early Development of Food-Producing Cultures in North-
Eastern Africa. Poznan: Polska Akademia Nauk, 1984, in Egyptian Art. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1999.
pp. 101–108. Wilkinson, Toby A. H. Early Dynastic Egypt. New York:

Trigger, Bruce, Barry Kemp, David O’Connor, and Alan Routledge, 1999.
Lloyd. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. Cambridge, U.K.: Williams, Bruce. Excavations Between Abu Simbel and the
University Press, 1983.
Sudan Frontier, Part Seven: 25th Dynasty and Napatan
Tyldesley, Joyce A. Daughters of Isis: Women of Ancient Egypt. Remains at Qustul Cemeteries W and V. Chicago: Oriental
London: Penguin, 1995. Institute, 1990.
Wilson, John A. The Burden of Egypt: An Interpretation of
———. Hatchepsut: The Female Pharaoh. London: Penguin, Ancient Egyptian Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago
1998. Press, 1951.
Wilson, John A. Egypt: The Kingdom of the “Two Lands,” in At
———. Ramesses: Egypt’s Greatest Pharaoh. New York: the Dawn of History: A Background to Biblical History.
Penguin, 2001. Edited by E. A. Speiser. London: Allen, 1964, pp.
267–347.
Verner, Miroslav, and Steven Rendall, transl. The Pyramids: Winlock, H. E. Excavations of Deir El-Bahri, 1911–1931.
The Mystery, Culture, and Science of Egypt’s Great London: Kegan Paul International Limited, 2000.
Monuments. New York: Grove Press, 2001. Yoyotte, Jean. Treasures of the Pharaohs: The Early Period; The
New Kingdom; The Late Period. Geneva: Editions d’Art
Vleeming, Sven P. Papyrus Reinhardt: An Egyptian Land List Albert Seira, 1968.
From the Tenth Century B.C. Berlin: Akademie Verlag,
1993.

Walker, Susan, and Peter Higgs, eds. Cleopatra of Egypt:
From History to Myth. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton
University Press, 2001.



INDEX

Boldface page numbers indicate Ah’hotep (1) (consort of Ta’o II) Amenemhet (3) (fl. 19th century pillow amulet 307
main headings. Italic page 14–15 B.C.E.) 28 rising sun 345
numbers indicate illustrations. sa 349
The letter t denotes a table and Ah’hotep (2) (consort of Amenemhet (4) (fl. 15th century sema 360
m indicates a map. Amenhotep I) 15 B.C.E.) 28 serpent’s head 365
shebyu 370
A ‘Ahmose 15–16 Amenemhet I 25–26 sma 377
‘Ahmose, son of Ebana 17–18 Amenemhet II 26–27 steps 389
Aa 1 ‘Ahmose (1) (Royal woman of Amenemhet III 26, 27 sun’s eye 390
A’ah 1 Amenemhet IV 27 thet 404
A’ahset 1 Eighteenth Dynasty) 16 Amenemhet V 27 Two Fingers 418
a’akh 1–2 ‘Ahmose (2) (Prince of Eighteenth Amenemhet VI 27 uatcht 419
A’ametju 2 Amenemhet VII 27 wadjet 429
A’amu 2 Dynasty) 16 Amenemnisu 28 Amun 35
A’a Nefer 2 ‘Ahmose-ankh 16 Amenemope 28 Amun’s Bark 35–36, 65
A’aru 2 ‘Ahmose-Hetempet 16 Amenemope (1) (fl. 12th century God’s Wife of 152–153
A’at 2 ‘Ahmose-Hettinehu 16 Amun-dyek’het 35
A’ata 2–3 ‘Ahmose-In-Hapi 16 B.C.E.) 28 Amunemhet (1) (fl. 16th century
Abar 3 ‘Ahmose-Merytamon 16 Amenemope (2) (fl. 14th century B.C.E.) 35
Abaton 3 ‘Ahmose (Nebpehtiré) 15–16 Amunemhet (2) (fl. 15th century
Abbott Papyrus 3 ‘Ahmose-Nefertari 16–17 B.C.E.) 29 B.C.E.) 36
Abdiashirta 3 ‘Ahmose-Pen Nekhebet 17 Amenemopet 29 Amunet 36
Abdi-Milkuti 3 ‘Ahmose-Sipair 17 Amenhirkopshef (1) (fl. 12th cen- Amunnakhte’s Instructions 36
Abdu Heba 3–4 ‘Ahmose-Sitayet 17 Amun’s Wives 36
Abgig 4 ‘Ahmose Tumerisy 18 tury B.C.E.) 29 Amun-wosret 36
Abibaal 4 Aigyptos 18 Amenhirkopshef (2) (fl. 13th cen- Amyrtaios (1) (fl. fifth century
Abisko 4 Aion 18 B.C.E.) 36
Abu Gerida 4 Aker 18 tury B.C.E.) 29 Amyrtaios (2) (d. 393 B.C.E.) 36
Abu Ghurob 4 Akhenaten 18–19 Amenhotep, Son of Hapu 31–32, Amytis 36
Abu Hamed 4 akhet (1) (season) 19 Ana (1) (fl. 18th century B.C.E.)
Abu Rowash 4 Akhethotep 20 32 37
Abu Simbel 4–6, 5, 52 Akhlane 20 Amenhotep I 29–30 Anastasi Papyri 37
Abusir 6, 6 Akhmin 20 Amenhotep II 30–31 Anath 37
Abydos 6–8, 7 Akkadians 20 Amenhotep III 31 Anather 37
Abydos Fleet 8 Alara 20 Amenia 32 Anatolians 37
Achaean League 8 alchemy 20 Ameni-A’amu 32 ancestor cult letters 37
Achaemenes 8 Alexander Aetolus 21 Amenirdis (1) (fl. 8th century ancestor worship 37
Achaemenians 8 Alexander Balas 21 Andjeti 37
Achillas 8 Alexander Helios 22 B.C.E.) 32 Andreas 37
Achoris 8 Alexander (III) the Great 20–21 Amenirdis (2) (fl. 7th century Anen 37
Actium 8–9 Alexander IV 21 Anfushi 37–38
Adda Stone 9 Alexandria 22, 22–23, 23m B.C.E.) 32 Anhai Papyrus 38
Adea-Eurydice 9 Amenken 33 Anhur 38
Adicran 9 Battle of 23 Amenmesses 33 Ani 38
‘Adjib 9 Library of 212–213 Amenmose 33 Ani, Maxims of 228
Admonitions of Ipuwer 9 Lighthouse of 214 Amennakht 33 Aniba 38
Adule 9 altar 23 Amenpanefer 33 animals, mythical 152
afnet 9 Amada 23 Amenti 33 Ami-ut 34
agate 9 Amara 23 Amenwah 33 Anubis 42–43
Agatharchides 10 ‘Amarna, el- 23–24 ames 34 griffin 155
Agathocles (1) (fl. third century architecture 52 Amestris 34 Hemetch 165
art 51 amethyst 34 kenken-ur 197
B.C.E.) 10 ‘Amarna Letters 24 Amherst Papyrus 34 Mafdet 223
Agathocles (2) (d. c. 205 B.C.E.) 10 Amasis 24–25 Ami-ut 34 Nehah-ré 272
Agesilaus 10 Amaunet 25 Amorites 34 Sefer-t 358
agriculture 10–13, 11 Am Duat 25 Amratian 34 Tschesertep 412
Agrippa, Marcus Vipsanius 13 Amemait 25 Amtes 34 Typhonean Animal 418
A-Group 13 Amenemhab 25 amulet 34–35
Aha 14 Amenemhet (1) (fl. 14th century
Ahenobarbus, Gnaeus Domitius 14 B.C.E.) 27–28 ankh 38
Amenemhet (2) (fl. 20th century Girdle of Isis 145
B.C.E.) 28 knots 205
menat (1) 236
menat (2) 236
neb (2) 263
Nefer (2) 266
papyrus scepter 296

449

450 Index “appearing” 44 Asasif 56 Bata (1) (deity) 66
Apries 44 aser 56 Bata (2) (character in Tale of Two
animals, sacred 151 Apuleius, Lucius 44 Ashait 56
A’a Nefer 2 Arabian Desert 44–45 Ashoka 56 Brothers) 66
Apis 43 Aramaeans 45 Ashurnasirpal II 56 Batn e-Hagar 66
baboon 63 Archelaus Sisines 45 Ashur-uballit I 56 Battle of the Nile 66
Ba’eb Djet 63 Archimedes 45 Assuit 56 Bauerdat 66
bain-a’abitu 64 architecture See art/architecture Assurbanipal 56 Baufré 66
birds See birds, sacred Aristarchus of Samothrace 45 Assyrians 57 Bay 66–67
Buchis 74 Aristophanes of Byzantium 45 Astarte 57 bay 67
bulls 75 Arius Didymus 45 Asten 57 beards 67
cat 81 Arkamani 45 astrology 57, 77–78 Beatty Papyrus IV, Chester 67
fish See fish, sacred army See Military astronomy 57–58, 405 Bebi 67
Harsaphes 159 Arsamis 45 Aswan 58 Bedouins 67
hippopotamus 169 Arsenuphis 46 Aswan Nilometer 58 beer 67
Ichneumon 177 Arses 46 Atbara 58 bees 67
insects See insects, sacred Arsinoe (1) (consort of Ptolemy II Aten 58 Behbeit el-Hagar 67
jackal 187 Atet 59 Beit el-Wali 68
Kem-wer 196 Philadelphus) 46 Athenaeus 59 Beit Khallaf 68
lion 215 Arsinoe (2) (daughter of Ptolemy Athribis 59 Bekhen Quarry Map 68
Matit 228 Athribis Stela 59 benben 68
Mau (1) 228 I Soter) 46 Atika 59 Benha 68
mau (3) 228 Arsinoe (3) (consort of Ptolemy Atum 59 Beni Hasan 68
Pakhet 294 Augustus 59–60, 60 Benimeryt 68
Ram of Mendes 339 IV Philopator) 46 Auibre 60 Bennu 68–69
reptiles See reptiles, sacred Arsinoe (4) (daughter of Ptolemy Ausim 60 Bentresh Stela 69
Repyt 344 aut 60 Berenib 69
Shesmetet 372 XII) 46–47 auta 60 Berenice (1) (Berenike) (d. 275
Sment 378 Arsinoe (5) (mother of Ptolemy I) Avaris 60
Unu 420 awet 60 B.C.E.) 69
Wenut 431 47 Awibré Hor 61 Berenice (2) (Berenike Syra) (fl.
Wepwawet 431 Arsinoe (6) (site near Axe of Ah’hotep 61
Aya (1) (Merneferreé) (d. 1690 third century B.C.E.) 69
Ani Papyrus 38 Crocodilopolis) 47 Berenice (3) (Berenike) (fl. third
ankh 38 Arsinoe (7) (site near Ardscherud) B.C.E.) 61
Ankhefenmut 38 Aya (2) (Kheperkhepruré) (d. century B.C.E.) 69
Ankhesenamon 38–39 47 Berenice (4) (Berenike) (d. 80
Ankhesneferibré 39 art/architecture 47–55, 48, 49, 52, 1319 B.C.E.) 61
Ankh-Hor 39 Aziru 61 B.C.E.) 69–70
Ankhkhaf 39 54 Berenice (5) (Berenike) (fl. first
Ankh-ma-hor 39 ‘Amarna 51, 52 B
Ankhnesmery-Ré (1) (mother of bay 67 century B.C.E.) 70
canon of the human figure 49 ba (1) (human-headed bird) 62 Berenice (6) (Berenike) (d. c. 240
Merenré) 39 columns 54 ba (2) (ram god of Mendes, Ba’eb
Ankhnesmery-Ré (2) (mother of Early Dynastic Period/Old B.C.E.) 70
Djet) 62 Berenice (7) (site) 70
Pepi II) 39 Kingdom 48–50 ba (3) (deity in Amenti) 62 Berlin Papyri 70, 375
Ankhnes-Pepi 39 flagstaffs 139 ba’ankh 62 Bersha 70
Ankhsheshongy 39 Late Period 53 Bab el-Gusus 62–63 Bes 70
Ankh-tawy 39–40 Late Predynastic Period 47–48 Bab el-Hosan 63 Biahmu 70
Ankhtify 40 macehead 223 baboon 63 Biban el-Harim 70
Ankhu 40 mastabas 227–228 Bacchias 63 Biban el-Moluk 70
Ankhwennofre 40 merkhet 240 Badari, el 63 Biga 70–71
Antefoker 40 Middle Kingdom 50–51 Ba’eb Djet 63 Bint-Anath 71
Anti 40 mortuary temples 256 Bagoas 63 birds, sacred 151
Antigonus II Gonatas 40 Narmer palette 262 Baharia Oasis 63
Antigonus I Monophthalmus 40 New Kingdom 51 ba house 62 Bennu 68–69
Antiochus Hierax 41 Old Kingdom 48–50 Bahr Libeini 64 goose 153
Antiochus I 40–41 palette 294 Bahr Yusef 64 hawk 162
Antiochus II 41 peristyle court 301 bain-a’abitu 64 ibis 177
Antiochus III the Great 41 Ptolemaic Period 53–54 Bakenkhonsu 64 phoenix 307
Antiochus I Soter 41 ‘Ramessid Period 51 Bakenrenef 64 vulture 426
Antiochus IV 41 serekh (2) 365 Baketamun 64 bird symbols 71
Antipater of Idumea 41 Third Intermediate Period 53 Baketwerel 64 Biridiya 71
Antony, Marc 41–42 Tuthmossid Period 51–52 Bakhau 64 Bir Tarfawi 71
Anubeion 42 valley temples 424 Bakht 64 Biryawaza 71
Anubis 42–43 Window of Appearance 432 Balakros 64–65 Bitter Lakes 71
Anukis 43 Artabanus 47 Ballbek 62 Biya 71
Aoh 43 Artatama 55 Ba’lu-shipti 65 Blemmyes 71
Apedemak 43 Artavasdes III 55 Ba’lu-urs 65 board games 71–72
Apis 43 Artaxerxes I 55 baptism 65 Bokkenenife 72
Apollonius 43 Artaxerxes II 55 barks of the gods 65, 65 Book of Caverns 72
Apollonius of Rhodes 43 Artaxerxes III Ochus 55 Barramiyeh 65–66 Book of the Dead 72, 72–73
Apophis (1) (serpent) 44 Artemidorus 55 Bastet 66 Ani Papyrus 38
Apophis (2) (d. 1542 B.C.E.) 44 Artystone 55 kites (2) 205
Aryandes 55 Lamentations of Isis and
Arzawa (1) (Hittite ruler) 56
Arzawa (2) (Anatolian people) Nephthys 209
56 net spells 276

recensions 341 Cleomenes of Naukratis 83 Dedyet (1) (sister/wife of Index 451
Sokar Boat 385 Cleopatra (1) (d. 176 B.C.E.) 83 Amenemhet I) 95
Bubasite Portal 73 Cleopatra (2) (fl. second century Djehor 102
Bubasteion 73 Dedyet (2) (daughter of Djehuti 102
Bubastis 73 B.C.E.) 83 Amenemhet I) 95 Djehutihotep 102
Bucheum 73–74 Cleopatra (3) (daughter of Djehutnufe 102
Buchis 74 Defufa 95 Djer 102–103
Buhen 74, 74m Ptolemy VI Philometor) deification 95 Djet 103
“Building Inscription” 74–75 83–84 Deinokrates 95–96 Djoser 103
Building Text 75 Cleopatra (4) (daughter of Deir el-Bahri 96, 96, 97m dogs 103
bulls 75 Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II) 84 Deir el-Balah 96–97 Donation, Stela of 388
A’a Nefer 2 Cleopatra (5) Selene (daughter of Deir el-Ballas 97 Doomed Prince, Tale of the 394
Apis 43 Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II) 84 Deir el-Bersha 97 Douao 103
Kem-wer 196 Cleopatra (6) Tryphaina 84 Deir el-Durunka 97 Dra-abu’ el-Naga 104
Bunefer 75 Cleopatra Selene (daughter of Deir el-Gebrawi 97 Dream Steal 104
Burna-Buriash II 75 Cleopatra VII) 85 Deir el-Medina 97, 97–98 dress 104
Burullus 75 Cleopatra Thea 85 deities See gods and goddesses
Busiris 75 Cleopatra VII 84, 84–85 Delta 98 nemes 274
Butehamun 75 clocks 85 Demetrius II Nicator 98 shendyt 371
Buto 75 clothing See dress; textiles Demetrius I Poliorcetes 98 “Drunkards of Menkauré” 105
Byblos 75–76 coffins 85 Demetrius of Phalerum 98 Duamutef 105
byssys 76, 76 coffin texts 85–86 Democritus 98 Duauf’s Instructions 105
coinage 86, 430 Demotic Chronicle 98 dwarf 105
C colors 86, 86t Den 99 dynasties 105–108
Colossi of Memnon 86–87, 87 Dendereh 99, 99 Early Dynastic Period 105
Caesar, Julius 77 columns 54, 54 Derr 99, 100 First Intermediate Period 106
Caesareum 77 Companions of the Divine Heart desert 100 Greco-Roman Period 108
Cairo Calendar 77–78 87 Deshasha 100 Late Period 107–108
calcite 78 Contending of Ré and Set 87 Diadoche 100 Late Predynastic Period 105
calendar 78 Corners of the Earth 87 didactic texts 217 New Kingdom Period
coronation rituals 87
akhet (1) 19 corvée 87–88, 88 Admonitions of Ipuwer 9 106–107
Cairo Calendar 77–78 cosmetics 88 Amunnakhte’s Instructions 36 Old Kingdom Period
epagomenal days 132 cosmogony 88–89 Ankhsheshongy 39
Medinet Habu Calendar 232 Council of Ten 89 “Debate of a Man with His 105–106
months 249–250 crocodile 89 Third Intermediate Period 107
Sothic Rising 386 Crocodilopolis 90 Soul” 94 dynasty histories 108–113
Callias of Sphetlus 78 Croesus 90 Duauf’s Instructions 105 Early Dynastic Period
Callimachus of Cyrene 78–79 crook 90 Instructions for Merikaré 180
Cambyses 79 crops/agricultural products 12 Instructions of Amenemhet I 108–109
Canaan 79 crowns 89, 89 First Intermediate Period
Canal of Necho II 79 cult centers 90, 90t–91t 180
Canal of Sehel 79 cults 89–90 Instructions of Prince Djedefhor 109–110
Cannibal Hymn 79 currency See coinage Greco-Roman Period 111–112
canopic jars 79–80 Cusae 91 180 Late Period 112–113
Canopus 80 cylinder seals 91 Instructions to the Vizier Middle Kingdom 110
Canopus Decree 80 Cyprus 91 New Kingdom 111
Carchemish, Battle of 80 Cyrene 91 Rekhmiré 180 Old Kingdom 109
Carmel, Mount 80 Kagemni’s Instructions 191 Second Intermediate Period
carnelian 80 D Kemyt 196
cartonnage 80 Lansing Papyrus 211 110–111
cartouche 80–81 Dagi 92 Maxims of Ani 228 Third Intermediate Period
cat 81 daily royal rites 92 Maxims of Ptah-hotep 228
cataracts 81 Dakhla 92–93 Negative Confessions 272 111–112
Caverns, Book of 72 Dakka 93 Satire on Trades 355
celebrations See festivals Dal Island 93 sboyet 355 E
cenotaphs 7, 81 Damanhur 93 School Boy Texts 356
cereal crops 12 Damietta (1) (branch of Nile) 93 Teachings of Tuaf 397 Early Dynastic Period 119–120
C-Group 81 Damietta (2) (port city) 93 Didymus 100 art/architecture 48–50
Chabrias 81 Danaus 93 Dimeh el-Siba 100 dynasties 105
Chaldeans 81 Darius I 93 Diodorus Siculus 100 dynasty histories 108–109
chancellor 81 Darius II 93–94 Dionyseas 100 military 244
chariots 81–82, 82 Darius III Codoman 94 Dionysius 100 queens 327
Charonnophis 82 Dashur 94 Diospolis Parva 100 social evolution 380–381
Chemmis 82 Dead, Book of the 72, 72–73 District of Tekhenu-Aten 101
Cheops See Khufu death See mortuary rituals Divine Companions 101 Ebers Papyrus 114
Chremonides 82 “Debate of a Man with His Soul” Djar 101 Edfu 114–115
Chronicle of Prince Osorkon 82 djeba 101 education See Didactic Texts;
Cippus of Horus 82 94 djed 101
circumcision 83 deben 95 Djedefhapi 101 Scholarship
clapper 83 Dedi 95 Djedefhor 101 Edwin Smith Papyrus 115, 378
Claudius Ptolemy 83 Dedu 95 Djedef-Khufu 101 Egypt 115–123, 116m, 124m
Dedumose II 95 Djedefptah 101–102
Dedun 95 Djedhorbes 102 and the East 123–126, 124m
Djedi 102 under the Ptolemies, ca. 250
Djedji 102
Djedmutesankh 102 B.C.E. 314m
Egyptian Empire 126–127
Egyptian historical periods

Early Dynastic Period
119–120

First Intermediate Period 120
geography 115, 117
Greco-Ptolemaic Period 123

452 Index

Late Period 123 Night of the Tear 276 sacred animals 151 Hebenu 163
Middle Kingdom Period Nile festivals 278 trees 152 heb-sed 163
Oriris festivals 290 God’s Wife of Amun 152–153 Hecataeus of Abdera 163
120–121 Oriris mysteries 290–291 gold 128 Hedjhekenu 163
New Kingdom 121–122 seb 357–358 goose 153 Heh 163, 163
Old Kingdom 120 sed 358 “go to one’s ka” 153 Hekaib 164
Predynastic period 117–119 Valley Festival 422 government 153–154 heker 164
Second Intermediate Period Festival of Entering a Temple 138 Governors of the Northlands 154 Heket 164
fiction See fantastic tales Granicus 154–155 Heliopolis 164
121 First Intermediate Period 120 granite 155 Hemaka 164
Third Intermediate Period dynasties 106 grapes 12 Hemamiyeh 164
dynasty histories 109–110 Greatest of Seers 155 hemet 164
122–123 military 245 Great Pyramid at Giza 88, Hemetch 165
Egyptian language social evolution 381 145–147, 203, 321–323 Hemiunu 165
“First Occasion” 138 Greco-Ptolemaic Period 123 Heneb 165
Late 210 “First Under the King” 138–139 Greco-Roman Period Henenu 165
Middle 209–210 fish, sacred 152 dynasties 108 Henheit 165
Old 209 Neser 275 dynasty histories 111–112 Hent (1) (fl. 30th century B.C.E.)
El-Bersha 130 oxyrrhynchus (1) 292 military 247
electrum 130 fish (as food) 12 social evolution 385 165
Elephantine 130–131, 131 flagstaffs 139 Greece 155 Hent (2) (fl. 19th century B.C.E.)
Elkab 131 flail 139 griffin 155
El-Kula 131 Flies of Valor 139 165
“Eloquent Peasant” of folklore See fantastic tales H Henu 165
Herakleopolis 131–132, 339 Followers of Horus 139 Henutempet 165
Ennead 132 Followers of Set 139 Ha 156 Henuten 165
epagomenal days 132 foods 139–140, 140 Hakoris 156 Henutmiré 165
Eratosthenes of Cyrene 132 fortresses 140–141 Halicarnassus 156 Henutsen 165–166
Erment 132 “Forty Day Route” 141 Halwan 156 Henuttaneb 166
Ernutet 132 Forty-Two Judges 141 “Hanging Tomb” 156–157 Henuttawy 166
erpati hati’o 133 Foundation Deposits 141 Hapi (1) (personification of the Hepdjefau 166
Esna 133 Fraser Tombs 141 Heptet 166
Essarhaddon 133 “Friend of the King” 141–142 Nile) 157 Hepu 166
Esye 133 frog 142 Hapi (2) (son of Horus) 157 Hepzefa 166
eternity 133–134 funerary cones 142 Hapuseneb 157 Herakleopolis Magna 166
Euclid 134 Funerary Offerings, Liturgy of the harem (1) (household of lesser Herihor 166
Eurydice 134 217–218 Heri-hor-Amun 166
execration 134 wives of king) 157–158 Herit 167
exemption decrees 134 G harem (2) (women who served in Hermes Trismegistos 167
extradition 134 Hermopolis Magna 167
Eye of Ré 134, 340 Gabinus, Aulus 143 temples of Karnak and Luxor) Hermopolis Parva 167
Gallus, Gaius Cornelius 143 158 Herneith (1) (fl. 30th century
F games, board 71–72 Harkhuf 158
Garf Hussein 143 Harmachis (1) (fl. eighth century B.C.E.) 167
Fag el-Gamous 135 Gaugamela 143 B.C.E.) 158 Herneith (2) (fl. 28th century
faience 135 Geb 143–144 Harnakhte (1) (son of Shoshenq I)
Faiyum 135–136 Gebel Adda 144 158 B.C.E.) 167
false door 136 Gebel Barkal 144 Harnakhte (2) (son of Osorkon II) Herodotus 167
Famine Stela 136 Gebel Dokhan 144 158 Herophilus of Chalcedon
fantastic tales 217 Gebelein 144 Harnedjheriotef 158
Gebel el-Ahmar 144 Haronophis 158–159 167–168
Nebusemekh 265 Gebel el-Sidmant 144 Harpson 159 Hesira 168
Ramesses II’s Cycle 336 Gebel el-Silsileh 144 Harris Papyrus 159 Hesseb 168
St. Petersburg Papyrus 351 Gebel el-Zebara 144 Harsaphes 159 Hetephakef 168
Setna Khamwas (2) 368–369 Gebel Mokattem 144 Harsiese 159 Hetepheres (1) (daughter of Huni)
Sinuhe the Sailor 375 Gebel Tingar 145 Harsomtus 159
Tale of Khufu and the Magicians genitals 145 Hat-Aten 159 168
geography 115, 117 Hathor 159, 159–160, 160 Hetepheres (2) (daughter of
394 Gerze 145 Hathorhotep 160
Tale of Prince Setna 394 Ghurob Shrine Papyrus 145 Hat-mehit 160 Khufu) 168
Tale of the Doomed Prince 394 Gilukipa 145 Hatnofer 160 Hetephernebty 168
Tale of the Shepherds 394 “Ginger” 145 Hatnub 161 “He-Who-Looks-Behind-Himself”
Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor Girdle of Isis 145 Hatshepsut 161, 161–162
Giza 145–147, 146m, 147, 387 Hattusilis I 162 168
394 gods and goddesses 147–152, Hattusilis III 162 Hiba, el- 168–169
Tale of Two Brothers 394 Haukhet 162 Hibis 169
Farafra Oasis 136 148–149t, 148–152 Hawara 162 Hierakonpolis 169
Faras 136 birds 151 Hawawish 162 Hieroglyphic Egyptian 210–211
Fara’un Mastaba 136 fish 152 hawk 162 hieroglyphs 210, 210–211
fate 136 foreign 150–151 headrests 162
Fatieh el-Beida 136 mythical animals 152 Hearst Papyrus 162 neb (2) 263
Festival of Entering a Temple 136 reptiles 151 heart 163 Nefer (1) 266
festivals 136–138, 137 Heart, Divine 163 Ptolemaic script 313
Amun 35 heb 163 rekhet 342
heb 163 renpet (1) 344
heb-sed 163 Rosetta Stone 347
Lamentations of Isis and sa 349
sedge 358
Nephthys 209 Sinai Inscriptions 375

Index 453

High Gates of Medinet Habu 169 Hua 173 irrigation 12–13 Kaneferré 192
hippopotamus 169 Hudet 174 sakieh 351 Kap 192
historians human figure, canon of 49 shaduf 370 Kapes 192
Hunefer Papyrus 174 Karanis 192
Agatharchides 10 Huni 174 Irukaptah 182 Karaotjet 192
Didymus 100 Hurbeit 174 Irunefer 182 Karnak 192–195, 193, 194m, 195
Diodorus Siculus 100 Hurrians 174 Iry Hor 182 Karnak cache 195
Hecataeus of Abdera 163 Huy (1) (Viceroy of Nubia) 174 Iseion 182 Karomana (1) (consort of
Herodotus 167 Huy (2) (governor of Baharia Iset (1) (fl. 15th century B.C.E.)
Manetho 225–226 Shoshenq I) 195
Strabo 389 Oasis) 174 182 Karomana (2) (consort of
historical documents Huya 174 Iset (2) (Iset Takemdjert) (fl. 12th
Adda Stone 9 hydraulic systems 12–13 Osorkon I) 195
‘Amarna Letters 24 Hyksos 174–175 century B.C.E.) 182 Karomana (3) (consort of
Amherst Papyrus 34 “Hymn of Rising” 175 Iset (3) (fl. 14th century B.C.E.)
Anastasi Papyri 37 hypostyle hall 176 Shoshenq II) 195
“Building Inscription” 74–75 183 Karomana (4) (consort of
Canopus Decree 80 I Isetnofret (1) (consort of
Chronicle of Prince Osorkon Osorkon II) 195
Ibhet 177 Ramesses II) 183 Karomana (5) (consort of Takelot
82 Ibi 177 Isetnofret (2) (consort of
Demotic Chronicle 98 ibis 177 II) 195
Harris Papyrus 159 Ibu 177 Merenptah) 183 Karomana (6) (consort of
Installation of the Vizier Ichneumon 177 Isetnofret (3) (consort of
Idet 177 Shoshenq IV) 195
179–180 Idu 177 Ramesses IV) 183 ka servant 195
King Lists 204–205 Ihy 178 Isetnofret (4) (consort of Kashta 195
Koptos Decree 207 Ikhernofret 178 Kassites 195
Manetho’s King List 226 Ikudidy 178 Ramesses VII) 183 Kawit (1) (fl. 24th century B.C.E.)
Mayer B Papyrus 229 Imhotep 178 isfet 183
Nauri Decree 263 Imi 178 Ished Tree 183 196
Nefer-rohu’s Prophecy 269 Imsety 178 Isis 183–184, 184 Kawit (2) (fl. 21st century B.C.E.)
Palmero Stone 294 Imu 178–179 Island of Trampling 184
Prisse Papyrus 311 Inaros 179 Issus 184 196
Quarrel of Apophis and incense 179 Istemkhebe (1) (wife of Pinudjem Kay 196
Ineni 179 Kebawet 196
Sekenenré 325 Inhapi 179 [1]) 184 Kebir 196
Ramesseum Papyri 339 insects, sacred 152 Istemkhebe (2) (wife of “Keeper of the Door to the South”
Records of Restorations of
scarab 356 Menkheperresenb) 184 196
Royal Mummies 341 scorpion 356 Istemkhebe (3) (wife of Pinudjem Kemanweb 196
Sallier Papyri 351 Selket 360 Kemenibu 196
Salt Papyrus 352 Installation of the Vizier 179–180 [2]) 184 Kem-wer 196
Satirical Papyrus 355 Instructions for Merikaré 180 Ita 184–185 Kemyt 196
Sinai Inscriptions 375 Instructions of Amenemhet I 180 Itaweret 185 Kenamun (1) (fl. 15th century
Sinuhe the Sailor 375 Instructions of Prince Djedefhor Itekuyet 185
Turin Canon 413 180 Itj-tawy 185 B.C.E.) 196
Turin Mining Papyrus 413 Instructions to the Vizier Rekhmiré Ity 185 Kenamun (2) (fl. 14th century
Wenamun, Report of 216, 180 Iuni 185
Intef (1) (fl. 20th century B.C.E.) Iuput 185 B.C.E.) 196
430 180 Iuput I 185 kenbet 196–197
Westcar Papyrus 431–432 Intef (2) (fl. 15th century B.C.E.) Iuput II 185 kenken-ur 197
Wilbour Papyrus 432 180 Iusas 185 Keper 197
“writing from the god himself” Intefoker 180 Iuwelot 185 Kermeh 197
Intiu 180 ivory 185 Kewab 197
433 Inuet 181 Iwntyw-Seti 185–186 Kha 197
Hittite Alliance 134, 169 Inventory Stela 181 Iymery 186 Kha’ba 197
Hittites 169–170 Inyotef I 181 Izezi 186 Khababash 197
Hiwa Semania 170 Inyotef II 181 Khabrias 197–198
honey 170 Inyotef III 181 J Kha’emhet 198
Hor Awibré 170 Inyotef IV 181 Kha’emweset (1) (fl. 13th century
Horemhab 170–171 Inyotef V 181 jackal 187
Horhirwonmef 171 Inyotef VI 181 Joppa 187 B.C.E.) 198
horizon 171 Inyotef VII 181 Judgment Halls of Osiris Kha’emweset (2) (fl. 12th century
Hor of Sebennytos 171 Ipsus 181–182
horse 171–172 Ipuki 182 187–188, 188 B.C.E.) 198
Horurre 172 Iput (1) (fl. 24th century B.C.E.) Judicial Papyrus of Turin 188 Khafre 48, 198
Horus 172, 172–173 182 Khaftet-hir-nebes 198
Iput (2) (fl. 23rd century B.C.E.) K khaibit 198
Followers of 139 182 Khakheperresonbe’s Complaints
Horus Eye 173 Iput-isut 182 ka 189
“Horus-In-The Nest” 173 Ipuwer, Admonitions of 9 “go to one’s ka” 153 198–199
Hor-wen-nefer 173 Irbast’udjefru 182 ka servant 195 Khama’at 199
Hotepiriaket 173 Khamerernebty (1) (consort of
Hotepsekhemwy 173 Ka’aper statue 189–190
House of Adorers 173 Kadesh 190 Khafre) 199
Hreré 173 Kadesh, Battle of 190 Khamerernebty (2) (daughter of
Hu 173 Kagemni 190–191
Kagemni’s Instructions 191 Khafre) 199
Kahun 191 Khamet 199
Kahun Papyrus 191 khamsin 199
Kakai 191 Khamudi 199
Kalabsha 191 Kharga Oasis 199
Kamose 191–192 Kha’sekhemwy 199–200
Kamtjenent 192 khay 200
Kamutef 192 Khedebneitheret 200

454 Index

Khemsit 200 L poetry 217 See also poetic temples 400m
Khendjer 200 texts Turin Mining Papyrus 413
Khenemsu 200 Lab’ayu 208 Valley of the Kings 423m
Khensuhotep 200 Labyrinth 208 religious 216 See also religious Mareotis 226
Khentakawes (1) (daughter of ladder 208 texts marriage 226–227
Ladice 208 Masaharta 227
Prince Djedefhor’) 200 Lagus 208 scientific 216–217 See also Masara 227
Khentakawes (2) (consort of Lahun, el- 208–209 scientific texts Masara Stela 227
lake, sacred 350 mastabas 227–228
Kakai) 200–201 Lake of Fire 209 Liturgy of the Funerary Offerings Mastabat el-Fara’un 228
Khentemsemti 201 Lake of Flowers 209 217–218 Matarriyah, el- 228
Khentetka 201 lakes 209 mathematics
Khentiamentiu 201 Lamentations of Isis and Nephthys London Papyrus 218 Euclid 134
Khentikus 201 lotus 218 Pythagoras 323
Khenut 201 209 Luxor 218, 218–220, 219m Rhind Papyrus 345
Kheper 201 Land of the Bow 209 Lysimachus 220 Matit 228
khepesh 201 language 209–211, 210 Mau (1) (Mafdet) (feline deity,
khert-neter 201 M aided Ré in journey through
Kheruef 201 Hieroglyphic Egyptian 210–211 Underworld) 228
Khesuwer 201 Late Egyptian 210 Ma’adi 221 Mau (2) (feline deity, resided in
Khety I 201–202 Middle Egyptian 209–210 Ma’ahes 221 Persea Tree) 228
Khety II 202 Old Egyptian 209 Ma’at 221 mau (3) (Egyptian cat) 228
Khety III 202 Lansing Papyrus 211 ma’at 221–222 Mau-Taui 228
Khian 202 lapis lazuli 211 Ma’at Hornefruré 222 Maxims of Ani 228
Khnum 202 Late Egyptian (language) 210 Ma’atkaré (1) (God’s Wife of Maxims of Ptah-hotep 228
Khnumhotep (1) (nomarch of Late Period 123 Maya 228–229
art/architecture 53 Amun) 222 Mayer B Papyrus 229
Beni Hasan) 202 dynasties 107–108 Ma’atkaré (2) (consort of “May My Name Prosper” 229
Khnumhotep (2) (grandson of dynasty histories 112–113 “May the King Make an Offering”
military 247 Shoshenq I) 222 229
Khnumhotep [1]) 202 queens 327 Ma’atkaré (3) (consort of Osorkon Mazeus 229
Khnumhotep (3) (son of social evolution 384 Mazghuna 229
Late Predynastic Period 47–48, I) 222 measures See Weights and mea-
Khnumhotep [2]) 203 105 Ma’atkaré (4) (consort of Osorkon sures
Khnumt 203 Lateran Obelisk 211 Medamud, Nag el- 229–230
Khokha 203 Layer Pyramid 211 II) 222 Medes 230
Khons (1) (deity) 203 Lay of the Harper 211 Ma’atkaré (5) (Queen-Pharaoh medicine 230–231
Khons (2) (fl. 13th century B.C.E.) legal system 211–212 Beatty Papyrus IV, Chester
Abbott Papyrus 3 Hatshepsut) 222
203 Edict of Horemhab 171 ma’at kheru 222–223 67
Khufu 203, 203–204 See also exemption decrees 134 macehead 223 Berlin Papyri 70
extradition 134 Mafdet 223 Ebers Papyrus 114
Great Pyramid kenbet 196–197 Magas 223 Edwin Smith Papyrus 115
Khufu and the Magicians, Tale of legal texts 217 magat 223 Hearst Papyrus 162
Salt Papyrus 352 magic 223–224 Herophilus of Chalcedon
394 Wilbour Papyrus 432 magical dream interpretation 224
Khunianupu 204 Leontopolis 212 magical lullaby 224 167–168
Khusebek 204 lettuce 212 Magnates of the Southern Ten Hesira 168
Khuy 204 libraries 212 Imhotep 178
Kia 191 Library of Alexandria 212–213 224 Kahun Papyrus 191
King Lists 204–205 Libya 213 Mahipré 224 natron 262
kites (1) (goddesses) 205 Libyan Desert 213–214 Mahu 224–225 Ramesseum Papyri 339
kites (2) (professional mourners) Libyan Palette 214 Mai 225 Smith Papyrus, Edwin 378
Lighthouse of Alexandria 214 Malik 225 Medinet Habu 231–232, 232
205 Lily Lake 214 Malkata 225 Medinet Habu Calendar 232
Kiya 205 linen 76, 214 Mallawi 225 Medir 233
Kleomenes 205 “Linen of Yesterday” 214–215 mammisi 225 Medjay 233
knots 205 lion 215 Mandet 225 Megabyzus 233
kohl 205 Lions of Sebua 215 Mandulis 225 Megiddo, Ar- 233
Kom Aushim 205 Lisht, el- 215 Manetho 225–226 Mehen 234
Kom Dara 205 List of Offerings 215 Manethon 226 Mehu 234
Kom el-Haten 205 Litanies of Sokar 215 Manetho’s King List 226 Mehurt 234
Kom Medinet Ghurob 205–206 Litany of Osiris 38, 215 Mansion of Isden 226 Mehweret, Sages of 350
Kom Ombo 206–207, 206m Litany of Ré 215 maps Mehy 234
Konosso 207 Litany of the Sun 216 Meidum 234
Koptos 207 literature 216–217 Alexandria 23m Meir 234
Koptos Decree 207 Aristophanes of Byzantium 45 Bekhen Quarry Map 68 mekes 234
Korosko 207 Bata (2) 66 Buhen 74m Meket-Aten 234
Kula, el- 207 didactic 217 See also didactic Deir el-Bahri 97m Meketré 235
Kurgus 207 Egypt 116m, 124m Mekhenet 235
Kurigalzu (1) (king of Kassite texts Egypt and the East 124m Mekhtemweskhet (1) (consort of
fantastic 217 See also fantastic Egypt under the Ptolemies, c. Shoshenq) 235
Bablyon during ’Amarna Period
of Egypt) 207 tales 250 B.C.E. 314m
Kurigalzu (2) (king of Kassite legal 217 Giza 146m
Bablyon in the reign of Karnak 194m
Akhenaten) 207 Kom Ombo 206m
Kuser 207 Luxor, temple complex at 219m
kyphi 207 natural resources 129m
sacred sites of Egypt, c. 2600

B.C.E. to 300 C.E. 400m
Sobek and Heroeris, Temple of

206m

Mekhtemweskhet (2) (consort of Meryré (1) (high priest of Aten) Moalla, el- 249 Index 455
Psammetichus I) 235 241 Moeris, Lake 249
Mokattem 249 tomb 408
Mekhtemweskhet (3) (consort of Meryré (2) (son of Meryré [1]) Momemphis 249 tomb balls 408–409
Necho II) 235 241 months 249–250 ur-heka 420
Montu 250 valley temples 424
Memmius, Lucius 235 Meryré (3) (prince of Nineteenth Montuhirkhopshef (1) (fl. 15th wabt 427
Memnomium 235 Dynasty) 241 mortuary temples 256
Memphis 235–236 century B.C.E.) 250 ka servant 195
menat (1) (amulet) 236 Merysankh (1) (consort of Huni) Montuhirkhopshef (2) (son of of Ramesses II at Abu Simbel
menat (2) (virility/fertility fetish) 242
Ramesses III) 250 5
236 Merysankh (2) (daughter of Montuhirkhopshef (3) (son of serdab 365
Mendes 236 Khufu) 242 mortuary texts See also Tomb
Mendes, Ram of 339 Ramesses IX) 250 Texts
Menet-Khufu 236 Merysankh (3) (consort of Montuhotep 250 Am Duat 25
Menhet 236 Khafre) 242 Montuhotep I 250 ancestor cult letters 37
Menkauhor 236 Montuhotep II 250–251 Ani Papyrus 38
Menkauré 236–237 Meryt-Amun (1) (fl. 14th century Montuhotep II’s army 251 Book of the Dead 72
Menkhaf 237 B.C.E.) 242 Montuhotep III 251 Coffin Texts 85–86
Menkheperresenb (1) (fl. 15th Montuhotep IV 251 Lay of the Harper 211
Meryt-Amun (2) (fl. 15th century mortuary rituals 251–256, List of Offerings 215
century B.C.E.) 237 B.C.E.) 242 Litanies of Sokar 215
Menkheperresenb (2) (fl. 11th 252–255, 254, 256 Litany of Osiris 215
Meryt-Amun (3) (fl. 13th century a’akh 1–2 Litany of Ré 215
century B.C.E.) 237 B.C.E.) 242 A’aru 2 Litany of the Sun 216
Menna 237 Amenti 33 Liturgy of the Funerary
Menouthis 237 Meryt-Amun (prince of the amulet 35
Mentjuhotep 237 Nineteenth Dynasty) 242 aut 60 Offerings 217–218
Mentuemhat 237–238 ba house 62 Nebseni Papyrus 264
Mentuemzaf 238 Meryt-Atum 242 canopic jars 79–80 recensions 341
Menyu 238 Meryt-Ré-Hatshepsut 242 cartonnage 80 Mound of the Pharaohs 256
Menzala 238 Meseket 242 cenotaphs 81 mummies/mummification
Merenptah 238 Mesentiu 242–243 coffins 85 “Ginger” 145
Merenré (II) (Antiemdjaf) 239 mesenty 243 eternity 133–134 mortuary rituals 252–255
Merenré I (Nemtyemzaf) Meshwesh 243 execration 134 onions 287
meska 243 false door 136 per-nefer 301
238–239 Meskhent 243 genitals 145 pillow amulet 307
Mereruka 239 Messuy 243 “go to one’s ka” 153 Records of Restorations of
Meresger (1) (cobra goddess) mesu-heru 243 Ibu 177
mesut 243 Imsety 178 Royal Mummies 341
239 Methen 243 jackal 187 sarcophagus 353–354
Meresger (2) (fl. 19th century Middle Egyptian (language) ka 189 Tut’ankhamun 414
ka servant 195 mummy caches 256–257
B.C.E.) 239 209–210 kites (2) 205 Mursilis I 257
Meri 239 Middle Kingdom Period 120–121 “Linen of Yesterday” 214–215 Mursilis II 257
Merikaré 239 List of Offerings 215 music/musicians 376
Merimda Beni Salama 239 art/architecture 50–51 Liturgy of the Funerary clapper 83
Merit (1) (fl. 14th century B.C.E.) dynasty histories 110 magical lullaby 224
military 245–246 Offerings 217–218 musical instruments 257
240 queens 327 ma’at 221–222 Neferhotep (1) 267
Merit (2) (goddess) 240 social evolution 381–383, 382 magat 223 Mut 257–258
Meritites (1) (fl. 26th century Migdol (1) (site near Tcharu) 243 mastabas 227–228 Mutemwiya 258
migdol (2) (style of fortress) 243 Muu Dancers 258 Mutnodjmet (1) (fl. 14th century
B.C.E.) 240 “Mighty Bull Appearing in natron 262 B.C.E.) 258
Meritites (2) (fl. 23rd century Thebes” 243–244 Negative Confessions 272 Mutnodjmet (2) (fl. 10th century
Miliku 244 neterui 276 B.C.E.) 258
B.C.E.) 240 military 244–248, 245, 247 net spells 276 Mutnofret (1) (fl. 15th century
merkhet 240 Early Dynastic Period 244 onions 287 B.C.E.) 258
Merneith (1) (fl. 29th century First Intermediate Period 245 Oriris 289–290 Mutnofret (2) (fl. 13th century
Greco-Roman Period 247 paddle dolls 293 B.C.E.) 258
B.C.E.) 240 Late Period 247 pa duat 293 Muu Dancers 258
Merneith (2) (fl. 28th century Middle Kingdom 245–246 Pega 298 Muwatallis 258–259
New Kingdom 246–247 posesh-khef 309 Muyet 259
B.C.E.) 240 Old Kingdom 244–245 pyramid 320–323 myrrh 259
Meroë 240 Predynastic Period 244 Pyramid Texts 323 Mysteries of Osiris and Isis 259
Mersa Matruh 240 Second Intermediate Period qas 324 mystical sites 400m
Meryamen 240 reserve heads 344–345 A’aru 2
Meryatum (1) (royal woman of 246 rising sun 345 Amenti 33
Third Intermediate Period sah 350 Bakhau 64
Nineteenth Dynasty) 241 sarcophagus 353–354 Chemmis 82
Meryatum (2) (royal priest of Ré 247 sekhem (4) 359 Island of Trampling 184
Min (1) (fertility god) 248 shabtis 369–370 Judgment Halls of Osiris
of the Nineteenth Dynasty) Min (2) (fl. 15th century B.C.E.) shebyu 370
241 tekenu 397 187–188
Meryatum (3) (royal priest of Ré 248 Lake of Fire 209
of the Twentieth Dynasty) minerals See natural resources
241 Minkhaf 248
Meryet (1) (consort of Senwosret Min-Nakhte 248
III) 241 Mirgissa 248
Meryet (2) (consort of Mitannis 248
Amenemhet II) 241 Mit Rahinah 248–249
Merymose 241 Mitry 249
Merynénefer 241 Mi-wer 249
Meryptah 241 Mnevis 249

456 Index Nebamun (3) (royal vizier) 263 Neferu (1) (fl. 21st century B.C.E.) Nibamon 276
Nebemakhet 263 270–271 Night of the Tear 276
Lake of Flowers 209 Nebenteru 263–264 Nile 12, 277
Lily Lake 214 Nebertcher 264 Neferu (2) (fl. 20th century B.C.E.)
Mansion of Isden 226 Neberu 264 271 Battle of the 66
paradise 296 Nebet 264 level records for 278
Pay Lands 297 Nebetku 264 Neferu-Khayet (1) (consort of Nile festivals 278
Persea Tree 301, 301–302 Nebetu’u (1) (goddess) 264 Inyotef II) 271 Nilometers 278
Pillars of Shu 307 Nebetu’u (2) (fl. 15th century Nima’athap 278
“Primeval Island of Neferu-Khayet (2) (consort of Nimlot (1) (father of Shoshenq I)
B.C.E.) 264 Montuhotep II) 271 278
Trampling” 311 Nebireyeraw 264 Nimlot (2) (son of Shoshenq I)
“Primeval Mound” 311 Nebka 264 Neferukheb 271 278
Pure Mound 319 Nebseni Papyrus 264 Neferu-ptah (1) (fl. 19th century Nimlot (3) (son of Osorkon II)
Reed Fields 341 Nebt 264 278
River of Heaven 346 Nebt-Tawy (1) (consort of B.C.E.) 271 Nimlot (4) (obscure ruler of
Sekhet-A’aru 360 Neferu-ptah (2) (fl. 20th century Twenty-third Dynasty) 278
Tree of Heaven 412 Ramesses II) 265 Nine Bows 278–279
Tuat 412–413 Nebt-Tawy (2) (daughter of B.C.E.) 271 Ninetjer 279
waret 429 Neferu-Ré 271 Nineveh 279
mystical vessels Ramesses II) 265 Nefret 271 Nisankh-Pepi-Kem 279
Amun’s Bark 35–36, 65 Nebuchadnezzer 265 Nefrusheri 271 Nitocris (1) (fl. c. 2153 B.C.E.)
barks of the gods 65 Nebusemekh 265 Nefru-Sobek (1) (Sobekneferu) 279
Mandet 225 Nebwawi 265 Nitocris (2) (fl. seventh century
Mekhenet 235 Nebwenef 265 380 B.C.E.) 279
Meseket 242 Nebyet 265 Nefru-Sobek (2) (consort of Niuserré 279
Sokar Boat 385 Necho I 265 Niya 279
solar boat 385 Necho II 265–266 Amenemhet I) 272 Nodjmet 279–280
spirit boat 188 Necho II, Canal of 79 Nefru-Sobek (3) (daughter of Nofret (1) (fl. 26th century B.C.E.)
sun boat 390 Nectanebo I 266 280
mythical animals See animals, Nectanebo II 266 Senwosret I) 272 Nofret (2) (fl. 19th century B.C.E.)
mythical Nefat 266 Nefrusy 272 280
mythological texts Nefer (1) (hieroglyph) 266 Nefru-totenen 272 nomarchs 280
Contending of Ré and Set 87 Nefer (2) (amulet) 266 Negative Confessions 272 nome 280
Neferefré 266 Nehah-ré 272 Noon meal 280
N Neferhent (1) (consort of Nehem-awit 272 Nub 280
Nehes 272–273 Nubhotepi 280
Nagada 260 Senwosret II) 266–267 Nehesy (1) (fl. 16th century Nubia 280–282
Nakare-Aba 260 Neferhent (2) (consort of Nubian Desert 282
Nakhsebasteru 260 B.C.E.) 273 Nubkhas (1) (fl. 21st century
Nakht (1) (fl. 19th century B.C.E.) Senwosret III) 267 Nehesy (2) (fl. 15th century B.C.E.) 282
Neferhetepes (1) (daughter of Nubkhas (2) (fl. 17th century
260–261 B.C.E.) 273 B.C.E.) 282
Nakht (2) (fl. 15th century B.C.E.) Ra’djedef) 267 Nehi 273 Nubkheshed (1) (consort of
Neferhetepes (2) (daughter of Neith (1) (goddess) 273 Ramesses V) 282
261 Neith (2) (fl. 23rd century B.C.E.) Nubkheshed (2) (consort of
Nakhthoreb 261 Kakai) 267 Ramesses VI) 282
Nakhtmin (1) (fl. 14th century Neferhetepes (3) (consort of 273 Nubti 282
Neithotep 273 Nun 282
B.C.E.) 261 Userhkaf) 267 Neka-’ankh 273–274 nunu 282–283
Nakhtmin (2) (fl. 13th century Nefer-Hor 267 Nekauré 274 Nut 283
Nefer-Horen-Ptah 267 Nekhebet 274 Nwebhotep-Khred 283
B.C.E.) 261 Neferhotep (1) (fl. c. 18th century Nekhebu 274 Nykuhor 283
names 261 Nekonekh 274
Nanefer-ka-Ptah 261 B.C.E.) 267 nemes 274 O
naos 261–262 Neferhotep (2) (fl. 14th century Nenekhsekhmet 274
Napata 262 Nenwif 274 oases 284–285
Narmer 262 B.C.E.) 267 Neper 274–275 Oases Route 285
Narmer macehead 262 Neferhotep (3) (fl. 13th century Nephrites I 275 obelisks 285, 285–286
Narmer palette 262 Nephrites II 275 Octavian See Augustus
Narmouthis 262 B.C.E.) 267 Nephthys 275 Ogdoad 286
natron 262 Neferhotep I 267–268 Neser 275 oils 286
Natron Lakes 263 Neferhotep III 268 Neshi 275 Old Egyptian (language) 209
natural resources 127–130, 128, Neferkara 268 Nesitanebetashru (1) (fl. 19th Old Kingdom Period 120
Neferkau 268
129m Neferkhewet 268 century B.C.E.) 275 art/architecture 48–50
agate 9 Neferku-Hor 268 Nesitanebetashru (2) (fl. 11th dynasties 105–106
amethyst 34 Neferku-Min 268 dynasty histories 109
carnelian 80 Neferkuré 268 century B.C.E.) 275 Egypt 120
electrum 130 Neferma’at 268 Neskhonsu 275 military 244–245
faience 135 Neferperet 268–269 Nesnimu 276 queens 327
Naukratis 263 Neferrenpet 269 Nessumontu 276 social evolution 381
Nauri Decree 263 Nefer-rohu’s Prophecy 269 netcher 276 Olympias 287
neb (1) (symbol) 263 Nefersekheru 269 neter 276
neb (2) (hieroglyph) 263 Nefert 269 neterit 276
Nebamun (1) (Theban police offi- Nefertari 269, 269–270 Neterka 276
cial) 263 Nefertem 270 neter nefer 276
Nebamun (2) (royal court sculp- Nefertiabet 270 neterui 276
tor) 263 Nefertiru 270 net spells 276
Nefertiti 270 New Kingdom Period 121–122
Nefert-kau 270
dynasties 106–107
queens 327
social evolution 383
Niankh-amun 276

Omari, el- 287 Satirical 355 Alexander (III) the Great Index 457
Ombos 287 Smith, Edwin 115, 378 20–21
onions 287 Turin Mining 413 Merikaré 239
“on the bricks” 287 Vindab 3873 425 Alexander IV 21 Montuhotep I 250
Opet 287 Westcar 431 Amasis 24–25 Montuhotep II 250–251
oracles 288 Wilbour 432 Amenemhet I 25–26, 26 Montuhotep III 251
Orbiney, Papyrus d’ 288 papyrus scepter 296 Amenemhet II 26–27 Montuhotep IV 251
Orion 288 Par 296 Amenemhet III 27 Mound of the 256
Osireion 288, 288, 288–289 paradise 296 Amenemhet IV 27 Nakare-Aba 260
Osiris 289, 289–290 Paraetonium 296 Amenemhet V 27 Nakhthoreb 261
Parasites 296 Amenemhet VI 27 Narmer 262
festivals honoring 290 Parennefer 296 Amenemhet VII 27 Nebireyeraw 264
Judgment Halls of 187–188 Paser (1) (fl. 15th century B.C.E.) Amenemnisu 28 Nebka 264
Litany of Osiris 215 296 Amenemope 28 Necho I 265
mysteries of 290–291 Paser (2) (fl. 13th century B.C.E.) Amenhotep I 29–30 Necho II 265–266
temple of 291 296 Amenhotep II 30–31 Nectanebo I 266
Osiris and Isis, Mysteries of 259, Paser (3) (fl. 12th century B.C.E.) Amenhotep III 31 Nectanebo II 266
290 296 Amenmesses 33 Neferefré 266
Osiris beds 290 pat 296 Amyrtaios (2) 36 Nefer-Hor 267
Osiris gardens 290 Patenemheb 297 Anather 37 Neferhotep I 267–268
Osochor 291 Pawara 297 Apophis (2) 44 Neferhotep III 268
Osorkon, Chronicle of Prince 82 Pawero 297 Apries 44 Neferkara 268
Osorkon I 291 Pay Lands 297 Arses 46 Neferku-Min 268
Osorkon II 291 Peak of the West 297 Artaxerxes I 55 Neferkuré 268
Osorkon III 291–292 Pebatma 297–298 Artaxerxes III Ochus 55 Nephrites I 275
Osorkon IV 292 pectoral 298 Aya (1) 61 Nephrites II 275
ostraka 292 Pediese 298 Aya (2) 61 Neterka 276
Overthrowing Apophis 292 Pedisamtawi 298 Bakenrenef 64 Nimlot (4) 278
Oxyrrhynchus (1) (city) 292 Pedubaste 298 Cambyses 79 Ninetjer 279
oxyrrhynchus (2) (fish) 292 Pedukhipa 298 Darius I 93 Nitocris (1) 279
Peftjau’abast 298 Darius II 93–94 Niuserré 279
P Pega 298 Darius III Codoman 94 Osochor 291
Pekassater 298 Dedumose II 95 Osorkon I 291
paddle dolls 293 Pelusium 298 Den 99 Osorkon II 291
pa duat 293 Penne 298–299 Djer 102–103 Osorkon III 291–292
Pa’hemmetcher 293 Penreshnas 299 Djet 103 Osorkon IV 292
Paheri 293 Pentaur, Poem of 299 Djoser 103 Pami 294
Paibek’khamon 293 Pentaweret 299 Hakoris 156 Pedubaste 298
Pakhenti 293–294 Pentu 299 Harnedjheriotef 158 Peftjau’abast 298
Pakhet 294 Pepi I 299 Hatshepsut 161, 161–162 Pepi I 299
Palermo Stone 294 Pepi II 299–300 Hor Awibré 170 Pepi II 299–300
palette 294 Pepi-Nakht 300 Horemhab 170–171 Peribsen 300–301
Pami 294 Per-Ankh 300 Hotepsekhemwy 173 Philip III Arrhidaeus 306
pan-graves 294–295 Perdiccas 300 Huni 174 Piankhi (1) 307
Panhesi 295 perfume 300 Inyotef I 181 Psammetichus I 311–312
Panopolis 295 Peribsen 300–301 Inyotef II 181 Psammetichus II 312
papyrus 295–296 peristyle court 301 Inyotef III 181 Psammetichus III 312
per-nefer 301 Inyotef V 181 Psusennes I 312
Abbott 3 pero 301 Inyotef VII 181 Psusennes II 312
Amherst 34 Per-Ramesses 301 Ity 185 Ptolemy I Soter 314, 314–315
Anastasi 37 Persea Tree 301, 301–302 Iuput I 185 Ptolemy II Philadelphus 315
Anhai 38 Persen 302 Iuput II 185 Ptolemy III Euergetes
Ani 38 Persenti 302 Izezi 186
Beatty IV, Chester 67 Persia 302 Kakai 191 315–316
Berlin Papyri 70 Per-Temu 302 Kamose 191–192 Ptolemy IV Philopator 316
Ebers 114 Pert-er-Kheru 302 Kaneferré 192 Ptolemy V Epiphanes 316
Ghurob Shrine 145 Peru-Nefer 302 Kashta 195 Ptolemy VI Philometor
Harris 159 Peryneb 302 Kha’ba 197
Hearst 162 Pesuir 302–303 Khafre 198 316–317
Hunefer 174 pet 303 Khamudi 199 Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator
Judicial of Turin 188 Pete’ese 303 Kha’sekhemwy 199–200
Kahun 191 Petosiris 303 Khendjer 200 317
Lansing 211 petrified forests 303 Khety I 201–202 Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II 317
London 218 Peukestas 303 Khian 202 Ptolemy IX Soter II 317
Mayer B 229 Phanes of Halicarnassus 303 Khufu 203, 203–204 Ptolemy X Alexander I 317
Nebseni 264 pharaohs 303–305, 305 Menkauhor 236 Ptolemy XI Alexander II
Orbiney, d’ 288 ‘Adjib 9 Menkauré 236–237
Prisse 311 Aha 14 Mentuemzaf 238 317–318
Ramesseum Papyri 339 ‘Ahmose 15–16 Merenptah 238 Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysius
Rhind 345 Akhenaten 18–19 Merenré II 239
St. Petersburg 351 Merenré I (Nemtyemzaf) 318
Sallier Papyri 351 Ptolemy XIII 318
Salt 352 238–239 Ptolemy XIV 318
Ptolemy XV Caesarion 318
Qa’a 324
Qakaré Iby 324
Ra’djedef 333

458 Index Userkhaf 421 Ptah-hotep (2) (Tehefi) (vizier Snefru 378
Wadjkaré 429 under Unis) 313 Step Pyramid 320, 388–389,
Ramesses I 334 Wegaf 430
Ramesses II 334–336, 335 Weneg 430 Ptahshepses (1) (official under 389
Ramesses III 336 Xerxes I 434 Shepseskhaf) 313 Zawiet el-Aryan 437
Ramesses IV 337 Yakoba’am 435 Pyramid Texts 323
Ramesses V 337 Yaqub-Hor 435 Ptahshepses (2) (official under Cannibal Hymn 79
Ramesses VI 337 Pharnabazus 306 Sahuré) 313 Sokar Boat 385
Ramesses VII 337–338 Philae 306, 306 pyramid workers 323
Ramesses VIII 338 Philetas of Cos 306 Ptah-Sokar-Osiris figurines 313 Pythagoras 323
Ramesses IX 338 Philip III Arrhidaeus 306 Ptolemaic Period 327
Ramesses X 338 philosophers Q
Ramesses XI 338 Apuleius, Lucius 44 art/architecture 53–54
Re’neb 344 Phitm (1) (site near Ismaila) 308 queens 327 Qa’a 324
Rudamon 348 Phitm (2) (site in Heliopolis) Ptolemaic script 313 Qakaré Iby 324
Sahathor (1) 350 308 Ptolemais (1) (royal woman) 313 Qantir 324
Sahuré 350–351 Phoenicians 306–307 Ptolemais (2) (city) 313–314 Qar 324
Salitis 351 phoenix 307 Ptolemy, Claudius 314 Qarta 324
Scorpion I 356 Piankhi (1) (d. 712 B.C.E.) 307 Ptolemy I Soter 314, 314–315 Qarun, Lake 324
Sekhaen-Ré 359 Piankhi (2) (fl. 11th century Ptolemy II Philadelphus 315 qas 324
Sekhemkhet 359 B.C.E.) 307 Ptolemy III Euergetes 315–316 Qasr el-Saghah 325
Sekhemré-Wahkhau Rahotep “Pillar of His Mother” 307 Ptolemy IV Philopator 316 Qasr Qarun 325
Pillars of Shu 307 Ptolemy V Epiphanes 316 Qasr wa’-l-Saiyad 325
360 pillow amulet 307 Ptolemy VI Philometor 316–317 Qatna 325
Semerkhet 360 Pinudjem (1) (priest during reign Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator 317 Qaw el-Kebir 325
Sendji 361 of Smendes) 307–308 Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II 317 Qebehsennuf 325
Senwosret I 362–363, 363 Pinudjem (2) (priest during reign Ptolemy IX Soter II 317 Qebhet 325
Senwosret II 363 of Psusennes I) 308 Ptolemy X Alexander I 317 Qebhui 325
Senwosret III 363–364 “Place of Uniting of the Ptolemy XI Alexander II 317–318 Qedeshet 325
Sethnakhte 367 Company” 308 Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysius 318 Qua 325
Seti I 367–368, 368 plain of salt 308 Ptolemy XIII 318 Quarrel of Apophis and Sekenenré
Seti II 368 Pneb-tawy 308 Ptolemy XIV 318
Shabaka 369 poetic texts 217 Ptolemy XV Caesarion 318 325
Shebitku 370 poets Ptolemy Apion 318 quarries 325–326
Shepseskaré 372 Philetas of Cos 306 Ptolemy Magas 318 Quban 326
Shepseskhaf 372 Poseidippos of Pella 309 Ptolemy Philadelphos 318 Qubbet el-Hawwa 326
Sheshi (1) 372 police 308–309 Punt 318–319 queens 326–332, 327, 328t–332t
Shoshenq I 372–373 Pompey 309 Pure Mound 319
Shoshenq II 373 Poseidippos of Pella 309 Puyenré 319 A’ahset 1
Shoshenq III 373 posesh-khef 309 pylon 319, 319–320 A’at 2
Shoshenq IV 373 Potter, The 309 pyramid 88, 203, 320, 320–323, Abar 3
Shoshenq V 373 Predynastic Period 117–119, 244, 321t, 322, 353, 389 Ah’hotep (1) 14–15
Siamun (1) 374 380 Abu Ghurob 4 Ah’hotep (2) 15
Siptah 375–376 Prehirwonmef (1) (fl. 13th centu- Abu Rowash 4 ‘Ahmose (1) 16
Smendes (1) 377 ry B.C.E.) 309 Abusir 6 ‘Ahmose-In-Hapi 16
Smenkharé 378 Prehirwonmef (2) (fl. 12th centu- Abydos 7 ‘Ahmose-Merytamon 16
Snefru 378 ry B.C.E.) 309 benben 68 ‘Ahmose-Nefertari 16–17
Sobekemsaf I 379 priests 309–310 corvée 87–88 Amenia 32
Sobekemsaf II 379 “Primeval Island of Trampling” Dashur 94 Amenirdis (1) 32
Sobekhotep I 379 311 “Drunkards of Menkauré” Amestris 34
Sobekhotep II 379 “Primeval Mound” 311 Amtes 34
Sobekhotep III 379 Prince Setna, Tale of 394 105 Amun-dyek’het 36
Sobekhotep IV 379 “Prince Unknown” 311 Edfu 114 Amunet 36
Sobekhotep V 379 Prisse Papyrus 311 Elephantine 131 Amytis 36
Sobekneferu 380 prophetic texts El-Kula 131 Ana (1) 37
Taharqa 392–393 Nefer-rohu’s Prophecy 269 false door 136 Ankhesenamon 38–39
Takelot I 393 proyet 311 Giza 145–147, 146, 147 Ankhnesmery-Ré (1) 39
Takelot II 393 Psammetichus (4) (fl. 393 B.C.E.) Great Pyramid at Giza 88, Ankhnesmery-Ré (2) 39
Takelot III 393 312 Ankhnes-Pepi 39
Tanutamun 395 Psammetichus I 311–312 203, 321–323 Aoh 43
Ta’o I 395 Psammetichus II 312 Hawara 162 Arsinoe (1) 46
Ta’o II 396 Psammetichus III 312 Imhotep 178 Arsinoe (2) 46
Tefnakhte 397 Psamtik 312 Khufu 203–204 Arsinoe (3) 46
Teos 401 Psusennes I 312 Labyrinth 208 Arsinoe (5) 47
Teti (Seheptawy) 402 Psusennes II 312 Lahun, el- 209 Artystone 55
Tut’ankhamun 413–414 Ptah 312–313 Lisht, el- 215 Ashait 56
Tuthmosis I 414–415 Ptah, Sanctuary of 352 mastabas 227–228 Baketwerel 64
Tuthmosis II 415 Ptah-hotep, Maxims of 228 Mazghuna 229 Berenib 69
Tuthmosis III 415–416 Ptah-hotep (1) (vizier under Izezi) Meidum 234 Berenice (1) 69
Tuthmosis IV 417–418 313 Memphis 236 Berenice (3) 69
Twosret 418 pyramid workers 323 Berenice (4) 69–70
Unis 420 rastau (2) 340 Bint-Anath 71
Userkaré 421 Sahuré 351 Bunefer 75
Saqqara 352–353, 353 Cleopatra (1) 83
Seila 359
serdab 365

Cleopatra (2) 83 Meritites (1) 240 Takhat (3) 393 Index 459
Cleopatra (3) 83–84 Merneith (1) 240 Takheredeneset 393
Cleopatra (4) 84 Merneith (2) 240 Tantamun (1) 64 Eye of 134, 340
Cleopatra (5) Selene (daughter Meryet (2) 241 Tantamun (2) 64 Litany of 215
Merysankh (1) 242 Tarset 396 Tract of 411
of Ptolemy VIII Euergetes Merysankh (3) 242 Tasedkhonsu 396 Waters of 429
II) 84 Meryt-Amun (1) 242 Tem (2) 398 Ré and Set, Contending of 87
Cleopatra (6) Tryphaina 84 Meryt-Amun (2) 242 Tentamopet 401 rebels of Egypt 340–341
Cleopatra Selene (daughter of Meryt-Amun (3) 242 Tentsai 401 recensions 341
Cleopatra VII) 85 Meryt-Ré-Hatshepsut 242 Teo 401 Records of Restorations of Royal
Cleopatra Thea 85 Middle Kingdom 327 Tetisheri 402 Mummies 341
Cleopatra VII 84, 84–85 Mutemwiya 258 Tey 402 Redesiyeh 341
Dedyet (1) 95 Mutnodjmet (1) 258 Tia (2) 406 Redji 341
Djedmutesankh 102 Mutnodjmet (2) 258 Tiye (1) 407 Reed Fields 341
Early Dynastic Period 327 Mutnofret (1) 258 Tiye (2) 64 Re’emkuy 341
Eurydice 134 Mutnofret (2) 258 Tuya 418 Rehu-er-djersenb 342
Gilukipa 145 Nakhsebasteru 260 Twosret 418 rekhet 342
Hatshepsut 161, 161–162 Nebet 264 Udjashu 419 Rekhmiré 342
Hedjhekenu 163 Nebetu’u (2) 264 Wedjebten 430 Rekh-nesu 342
Henheit 165 Nebt-Tawy (1) 264–265 Wereret 431 religion 342–343
Hent (1) 165 Neferhent (1) 266–267 Weret-Imtes 431 religious concepts
Henutempet 165 Neferhent (2) 267 Wiay 432 a’akh 1–2
Henutmiré 165 Neferhetepes (1) 267 queen’s titles 332 “appearing” 44
Henutsen 165–166 Neferhetepes (3) 267 Quernet Murai 332 ba (1) 62
Henuttawy 166 Neferkau 268 Qus 332 ba’ankh 62
Herneith (1) 167 Nefertari 269, 269–270 bain-a’abitu 64
Herneith (2) 167 Nefertiti 270 R baptism 65
Hetepheres (1) 168 Neferu (1) 270–271 cosmogony 88–89
Hetepheres (2) 168 Neferu-Khayet (1) 271 Rabirius Postumous 333 cults 89–90
Hetephernebty 168 Neferu-Khayet (2) 271 Ra’djedef 333 deification 95
Inhapi 179 Neferu-Ré 271 Rahotep (1) (fl. 26th century Ennead 132
Iput (1) 182 Nefrusheri 271 eternity 133–134
Iput (2) 182 Nefru-Sobek (2) 272 B.C.E.) 333 Eye of Ré 134
Irbast’udjefru 182 Nefru-totenen 272 Rahotep (2) (d. c. 1630 B.C.E.) fate 136
Iset (1) 182 Neith (2) 273 “go to one’s ka” 153
Iset (2) 182 Neithotep 273 333–334 heart 163
Isetnofret (1) 183 Nesitanebetashru (1) 275 Rai 334 Heart, Divine 163
Isetnofret (2) 183 Nima’athap 278 Raia 334 ka 189
Istemkhebe (2) 184 Nitocris (1) 279 Ramesses 334 khaibit 198
Istemkhebe (3) 184 Nub 280 Ramesses I 334 khay 200
Kapes 192 Nubkhas (1) 282 Ramesses II 334–336, 335 ma’at 221–222
Karaotjet 192 Nubkhas (2) 282 ma’at kheru 222–223
Karomana (2) 195 Nwebhotep-Khred 283 Colossal Statue of 336 mesut 243
Karomana (3) 195 Parasites 296 Cycle of 336 neter 276
Karomana (4) 195 Pebatma 297–298 Ramesses III 336 neterit 276
Karomana (5) 195 Pekassater 298 Ramesses IV 337 neter nefer 276
Karomana (6) 195 Penreshnas 299 Ramesses V 337 nunu 282–283
Kawit (1) 196 Persenti 302 Ramesses VI 337 pet 303
Kawit (2) 196 Ptolemais (1) 313 Ramesses VII 337–338 ren 344
Kemanweb 196 Reputneb 344 Ramesses VIII 338 resurrection 345
Khamerernebty (1) 199 Sadeh 350 Ramesses IX 338 sah 350
Khamerernebty (2) 199 Satkamose 355 Ramesses X 338 sekhem (1) 359
Khedebneitheret 200 Senebsen 361 Ramesses XI 338 sekhem (2) 359
Khemsit 200 Senebtisy 361 Ramessesnakht 338 sekhem (4) 359
Khentakawes (1) 200 Senisonbe 362 Ramesses-Nebwen 338 sheta 372
Khentakawes (2) 200–201 Sitamon 376 Ramesseum 338–339, 339 sia 374
Khentetka 201 Sitamun (2) 376 Ramesseum Papyri 339 Uben 419
Khentikus 201 Sit-Hathor 376 ‘Ramessid Period religious symbols
Khenut 201 Sit-Hathor Yunet 376 art/architecture 51 altar 23
Kiya 205 Sitiah 377 Ram of Mendes 339 aser 56
Ladice 208 Sitré 377 Ramose (1) (fl. 14th century beards 67
Late Period 327 Sit-Sheryet 377 B.C.E.) 339 benben 68
Ma’at Hornefruré 222 Sit-Weret 377 Ramose (2) (fl. 13th century bird symbols 71
Ma’atkaré (2) 222 Sobekemsaf 379 B.C.E.) 339 djeba 101
Ma’atkaré (3) 222 Sobekneferu 380 Ramose (3) (fl. 15th century djed 101
Mekhtemweskhet (1) 235 Sobek-shedty-neferu 380 B.C.E.) 339 horizon 171
Mekhtemweskhet (2) 235 Ta’apenes 392 Ranofer 340 Horus Eye 173
Mekhtemweskhet (3) 235 Tabiry 392 Raphia 340 incense 179
Menhet 236 Tadukhipa 392 Rastau (1) (part of necropolis of knots 205
Mentjuhotep 237 Takhat (1) 393 Saqqara) 340 ladder 208
Meresger (2) 239 rastau (2) (passages in pyramids) lotus 218
340 magat 223
Rawer 340
Ré 340

460 Index

meska 243 ropes 347 Library of Alexandria Sennufer 362
naos 261–262 Roset 347 212–213 Sennuwy 362
neb (1) 263 Rosetta Stone 347 Sentseneb 362
netcher 276 Roy (1) (fl. 15th century B.C.E.) Per-Ankh 300 senut 362
obelisks 285, 285–286 Rosetta Stone 347 Senwosret-ankh 364
phoenix 307 347 Satire on Trades 355 Senwosret I 362–363, 363
Ré, Eye of 340 Roy (2) (fl. 13th century B.C.E.) School Boy Texts 356 Senwosret II 363
rising sun 345 science See also astronomy; Senwosret III 363–364, 364
sa-ankh 349 347 medicine sepat 364
semktet 360 royal cults 347 Strato 390 Sept 365
shebyu 370 royal names 347–348 Thales 402 Serabit el-Khadim 365
solar disk 386 Royal Wadi 348 scientific texts Serapeum (1) (in Saqqara) 365
soul bird 386 Ruaben 348 Ebers Papyrus 114 Serapeum (2) (in Alexandria)
steps 389 Rudamon 348 literature 216–217
sun’s eye 390 Rudjek 348 Smith Papyrus, Edwin 378 365
tetu 402 Ruia 348 scorpion 356 Serapis 365
theophanies 404 Scorpion I 356 serdab 365
thet 404 S scribe 356–357 serekh (1) (building) 365
Two Fingers 418 Sea Peoples 357 serekh (2) (symbol) 365
wadjet 429 sa 349 seasons 357 serpent’s head 365
religious texts 216 sa-ankh 349 akhet (1) 19 Servants of the Place of Truth 366
Building Text 75 Sabef 349 proyet 311 Seshat 366
Coffin Texts 85–86 Sabni 349 shomu 372 Sesheshet 366
Khensuhotep 200 Sabu, Ibebi 349 Seat of the First Occasion 357 Seshi 366
Overthrowing Apophis 292 Sabu, Thety 349–350 seb 357–358 Set 366
Pyramid Texts 323 sacred animals See animals, sacred Sebennytos 358 Set, Followers of 139
Sacred Book of the Temple sacred birds See birds, sacred Sebu’a, el- 358 Set Amentet 366
Sacred Book of the Temple 350 Sebua, Lions of 215 Setau 367
350 sacred fish See fish, sacred Second Intermediate Period 121 Sethirkhopshef (1) (fl. 13th centu-
ren 344 sacred insects See insects, sacred dynasty histories 110–111
Re’neb 344 sacred lake 350 military 246 ry B.C.E.) 367
Renenet 344 sacred reptiles See reptiles, sacred social evolution 383 Sethirkhopshef (2) (fl. 12th centu-
Renni 344 sacred sites See mystical sites sed 358
Renpet (1) (goddess) 344 sacred trees See trees, sacred sedge 358 ry B.C.E.) 367
renpet (2) (hieroglyph) 344 Sadeh 350 Sefer-t 358 Sethnakhte 367
Report of Wenamun 430 “saff” tombs 350 Segerseni 358 Seti 367
reptile charmer 344 Sages of Mehweret 350 Sehel, Canal of 79 Seti I 367–368, 368
reptiles, sacred 151 sah 350 Sehel Island 358 Seti II 368
Sahathor (1) (fl. c. 1730 B.C.E.) Sehetepibré 358–359 Setka 368
auta 60 Seila 359 Setna Khamwas (1) (fl. 13th cen-
crocodile 89 350 Sekhaen-Ré 359
frog 142 Sahathor (2) (fl. 19th century sekhem (1) (vital force of a tury B.C.E.) 368
Heket 164 human) 359 Setna Khamwas (2) (fictional
Ichneumon 177 B.C.E.) 350 sekhem (2) (powers of a deity)
Meresger (1) 239 Sahuré 350–351 359 character) 368–369
Renenet 344 St. Petersburg Papyrus 351 sekhem (3) (royal acts) 359 Set-Qesu 369
Soknoknonneus 385 Sais 351 sekhem (4) (magical powers in Seven Hathors 369
Wadjet 429 sakieh 351 mortuary rituals) 359 Sewew 369
Reputneb 344 Salamis 351 Sekhem-kha 359 Sha’at-er-Regal 369
Repyt 344 Salamuni 351 Sekhemkharé 359 Shabaka 369
reserve heads 344–345 Sal Island 351 Sekhemkhet 359 Shabaka Stone 369
Reshef 345 Salitis 351 Sekhemré-Wahkhau Rahotep 360 shabtis 369, 369–370
resources, natural See natural Sallier Papyri 351 Sekhet-A’aru 360 shaduf 370
resources Salt Papyrus 352 Sekhmet 360 Shai 370
Restoration Stela 345 Samto-wetefnakht 352 Seleucus I Nicator 360 Shalmaneser III 370
resurrection 345 Sanctuary of Ptah 352 Selket 360 Shat en Sebau 370
Ret 345 Saqqara 352–353, 353 sema 360 Shebitku 370
Rhind Papyrus 345 Saqqara Table 353 Semerkhet 360 shebyu 370
Rib-Hadda 345 sarcophagus 353–354, 354 semktet 360 Shed 370
rishi pattern 345 Semna 360–361 She-dou 370
rising sun 345 rishi pattern 345 Se’n Ba Stela 361 Shedsunefertum 371
Rite of the House of Morning 345 sard 354–355 Sendjemib 361 Sheikh Abd’ el-Qurna 371
rituals 345–346 Sarenput 355 Sendji 361 Sheikh Said 371
coronation 87 Sasobek 355 Senebsen 361 shemau 371
mortuary See mortuary rituals Satet 355 Senebtisy 361 Shemay 371
temple 398–399 Satire on Trades 355 Senedjim 361 shena 371
riverbeds See Wadi Satirical Papyrus 355 Senenmen 361 shendyt 371
River of Heaven 346 Satkamose 355 Senenmut 361–362 shennu 371
Roau 346 Satrap Stela 355 Senheb 362 Shepenwepet (1) (fl.eighth centu-
Rodis 346 sboyet 355 Senisonbe 362
Rome 346 scarab 356 Sennacherib 362 ry B.C.E.) 371
romis 346 scepter 356 Shepenwepet (2) (fl. seventh cen-
scholarship
tury B.C.E.) 371
Adda Stone 9 Shepherds, Tale of the 394
Aristophanes of Byzantium 45 Shepseskaré 372
libraries 212 Shepseskhaf 372

Sherden Pirates 372 Sobekhotep V 379 Suppiluliumas I 390 Index 461
Shere 372 Sobek-khu-Za’a 379–380 surveying 67
Sheshi (1) (Mayebré) 372 Sobekneferu 380 Sutekh 390 Tem (2) (fl. 21st century B.C.E.)
Sheshi (2) (Ankh-ma-hor) 39 Sobek-shedty-neferu 380 Sweet Water Canal 390 398
Sheshmu 372 social evolution in Egypt sycamore 390
Shesmetet 372 symbols, religious See religious Temeh 398
sheta 372 380–385, 382, 383 temple models 398, 398
Shipwrecked Sailor, Tale of the 394 Early Dynastic Period symbols temple rituals 398–399
shomu 372 Syrian Wars 390–391 temples 399–401, 399t, 400m,
Shoshenq I 372–373 380–381
Shoshenq II 373 First Intermediate Kingdom T 401
Shoshenq III 373 Tendunyas 401
Shoshenq IV 373 Period 381 Ta’a 392 Tentamopet 401
Shoshenq V 373 Greco-Roman Period 385 Ta’apenes 392 Tentopet 401
Shu 373 Late Period 384 Tabiry 392 Tentsai 401
Shunet el-Zabib 373 Middle Kingdom Period Tadukhipa 392 Teo 401
Shuta 373 Taharqa 392–393 Teos 401
Shuwardata 374 381–383, 382 Tait 393 Terenuthis 401
sia 374 New Kingdom Period 383 Takelot I 393 Teti (1) (fl. 25th century B.C.E.)
Siamun (1) (d. 959 B.C.E.) 374 Old Kingdom Period 381 Takelot II 393
Siamun (2) (fl. 16th century Predynastic Period 380 Takelot III 393 401
Second Intermediate Kingdom Takhat (1) (fl. 13th century B.C.E.) Teti (2) (fl. 16th century B.C.E.)
B.C.E.) 374
Sihathor 374 Period 383 393 402
Simonthu 374 Third Intermediate Kingdom Takhat (2) (fl. 12th century B.C.E.) Teti (Seheptawy) 402
Sinai 374–375 Tetiky 402
Sinai Inscriptions 375 Period 383–384 393 Tetisheri 402
Sinuhe the Sailor 375 Sokar 385 Takhat (3) (fl. 6th century B.C.E.) tetu 402
Siptah 375–376 Sokar, Litanies of 215 textiles
Sirenput (1) (military governor Sokar Boat 385 393
Soknoknonneus 385 Takheredeneset 393 byssys 76
under Senwosret I) 376 solar boat 385 talatat 393–394 linen 214
Sirenput (2) (military governor solar cult 385–386 Tale of Khufu and the Magicians texts See also literature
solar disk 386 Building Text 75
under Amenemhet II) 376 Soleb 386 394 coffin 85–86
Sisatet 376 Sonebi 386 Tale of Prince Setna 394 didactic See didactic texts
sistrum 376 Sopdu 386 Tale of the Doomed Prince 394 legal 217
Sitamon 376 Sostratus of Cnidus 386 Tale of the Shepherds 394 mathematical 345
Sitamun (1) (fl. 16th century Sothic Cycle 386 Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor mortuary See mortuary texts
Sothic Rising 386 mythological 87
B.C.E.) 376 soul bird 386 394 poetic See poetic texts
Sitamun (2) (fl. 14th century soul houses 387 Tale of Two Brothers 66, 394 prophetic 269
Souls of Nekhen 387 Tamara 394 pyramid See Pyramid Texts
B.C.E.) 376 Souls of Pe 387 Tanis 394–395 religious See religious texts
sites, mystical See mystical sites speos 387 Tanis Sphinxes 395 School Boy Texts 356
Sit-Hathor 376 Speos Anubis 387 Tanis Stela 395 scientific See scientific texts
Sit-Hathor Meryt 376 Speos Artemidos 387 Tanqur 395 Tomb Texts See Tomb Texts
Sit-Hathor Yunet 376 Speos of Hathor 387 Tantamun (1) (consort of Tey 402
Sitiah 377 sphinx 387–388 Thales 402
Sit-Kamose 377 Ramesses XI) 395 Thaneni 402–403
Sitré 377 Giza 147 Tantamun (2) (consort of Thebes 195, 403, 403–404
Sit-Sheryet 377 spirit boat 188 Theocritus 404
Sit-Weret 377 “Sponge-cake Shrine” 388 Smendes) 395 theophanies 404
Siwa 377 stations of the gods 388 Tanutamun 395 Theshen 404
sma 377 stela 388 Ta’o I 395 thet 404
sma-tawy 377 Ta’o II 396 Thethi 404
Smendes (1) (d. 1044 B.C.E.) 377 Athribis 59 Taramsa 396 Thinis 405
Smendes (2) (fl. 11th century Bentresh 69 Tarif, el- 396 Thinite Period 405
Donation 388 Tarkhan 396 Third Intermediate Period
B.C.E.) 378 Famine 136 Tarset 396 122–123, 327
Smenkharé 378 Inventory 181 Tasedkhonsu 396 art/architecture 53
Sment 378 Masara 227 Tatenen 396 dynasties 107
Smith Papyrus, Edwin 115, 378 Restoration 345 Tawaret 396 dynasty histories 111–112
Snefru 378 Satrap 355 Tcharu 396–397 military 247
Sobek 378–379 Se’n Ba 361 Tchay 397 queens 327
Sobek and Heroeris, Temple of Tanis 395 Teachings of Tuaf 397 social evolution 383–384
Victory 425 Tebtynis 397 Thoth 405
206m Stela of Donation 388 Tefibi 397 Thoth, Book of 405
Sobekemsaf 379 Step Pyramid 178, 320, 388–389, Tefnakhte 397 Thuity 405
Sobekemsaf I 379 389 Tefnut 397 Thunany 406
Sobekemsaf II 379 steps 389 Tehenu 397 Thuré 406
Sobekhirkhab 379 stories See fantastic tales tekenu 397 Thuthotep 406
Sobekhotep 379 Strabo 389 Tekhenu-Aten, District of 101 Ti 406
Sobekhotep I 379 Strato 390 Tell el-Dab’a 397–398 Tia (1) (daughter of Seti I) 406
Sobekhotep II 379 sun boat 390 Tell el-Habua 398 Tia (2) (consort of Amenmesses)
Sobekhotep III 379 sun’s eye 390 Tell el-Rub’a 398 406
Sobekhotep IV 379 sun’s well 390 Tell el-Yahudiyeh 398 “Time of the Gods” 406
sun temple of Izi at Abusir 6 Tell Ibrahim Awad 398
Tem (1) (solar deity) 398

462 Index trees, sacred uraeus 420 weights and measures 95, 430
gods and goddesses 152 ur-heka 420 Wenamun 430
Timotheus 406–407 sycamore 390 Ur-hiya 420 Wendjebaendjeb 430
Timsah 407 Uronarti 420–421 Weneg 430
Titi 407 Tschesertep 412 Userhet (1) (fl. 15th century Weni 430–431
Tiye (1) (fl. 14th century B.C.E.) Tuaf, Teachings of 397 Wenut 431
Tuat 412–413 B.C.E.) 421 Wepemnofret 431
407 Tudhaliyas IV 413 Userhet (2) (fl. 14th century Wepwawet 431
Tiye (2) (fl. 12th century B.C.E.) Tumas 413 Wereret 431
Tuna el-Gebel 413 B.C.E.) 421 Weret 431
407 Tureh, el- 413 Userhet (3) (fl. 13th century Weret-Imtes 431
Tiye (3) (fl. 11th century B.C.E.) Turin Canon 413 Wersu 431
Turin Mining Papyrus 413 B.C.E.) 421 Westcar Papyrus 431
407 Tushratta 413 Userhet-amun 421 Western Waters 431–432
Tiye-Mereniset 407 Tut’ankhamun 413–414 Userkaré 421 Westptah 432
Tjel 407 Tuthmosis 414 Userkhaf 421 White Chapel 432
Tjemehu 407 Tuthmosis I 414–415 Ushanahuru 421 Wiay 432
Tjet 407 Tuthmosis II 415 Widia 432
Tjueneroy 407–408 Tuthmosis III 415–416, 417 V Wilbour Papyrus 432
Tlepolemus 408 Tuthmosis III’s Hymn of Victory Window of Appearance 432
Tod 408 Valley Festival 422 Woman of Tell Halif 432
Tod Treasures 408 416 Valley of the Gilded Mummies women’s role 432–433, 433
tomb 408, 409, 410 Tuthmosis III’s Instructions to His writing See hieroglyphs; ostraka;
422
false door 136 Vizier 416 Valley of the Kings 422–424, papyrus; texts
Foundation Deposits 141 Tuthmosis III’s Military “writing from the god himself”
funerary cones 142 423m
mastabas 227–228 Campaigns 416–417 Valley of the Queens 424 433
Oriris beds 290 Tuthmosis III’s Nubian Animals valley temples 424 writings See literature
pa duat 293 vessels, mystical See mystical ves-
Ptah-Sokar-Osiris figurines 417 X
Tuthmosis IV 417–418 sels
313 Tuthmossid Period 51–52 viceroy 424–425 Xerxes I 434
“saff” tombs 350 Tutu 418 Victory Stela 425 Xois 434
serdab 365 Tuya 418 Vidaranag 425
Servants of the Place of Truth Twin Souls 418 Vindab Papyrus 3873 425 Y
Two Brothers, Tale of 394 vizier 425–426
366 Two Companions of the Sacred Votaresses of Karnak 426 Yakoba’am 435
shabtis 369–370 vulture 426 Yam 435
soul bird 386 Heart 418 Yanhamu 435
soul houses 387 Two Dog Palette 418 W Yapahu 435
tomb balls 408–409 Two Fingers 418 Yaqub-Hor 435
Tomb of the Birds 409 Two Ladies 418 Wa 427 Yerdjet 435
Tomb of the Warriors 409 Twosret 418 wabt 427 Yewelot 435
Tombos 409 Typhonean Animal 418 wadi 427–429 Yuf 435
Tomb Robbery Trial 409–410 wadjet (amulet) 429 Yuny 436
tomb sites U Wadjet (cobra deity) 428 Yuti 436
Halwan 156 Wadjkaré 429 Yuya and Thuya 436
“Hanging Tomb” 156–157 uatcht 419 Wadjmose 429
Hawara 162 Uat-Ur 419 Wall of the Prince 429 Z
Hawawish 162 Uben 419 waret 429
Tomb texts 410–411 See also Udjaharresnet 419 waterfowl 12 Zannanza 437
mortuary texts Udjashu 419 Waters of Ré 429 Zatatna 437
Book of Caverns 72 Uer-khorphemtiu 419 Waty 429 Zawiet el-Amwat 437
Coffin Texts 85–86 Uer-Ma’a 419 Wawat 429 Zawiet el-Aryan 437
Tomb Workers’ Revolt 411 Ukh-hotep 419–420 Wayheset 429 Zenodotus 437
Tract of Ré 411 Umm el-Ga’ab 420 Way of Horus 430 Zenon 437–438
trade 141, 411–412 Unis 420 Way of the Sea 430
Travels of An Egyptian 412 Unu 420 Wedjebten 430
Tree of Heaven 412 Wegaf 430


Click to View FlipBook Version
Previous Book
Vogue: September 1800-1900
Next Book
SSR Durga Puja 2019 souvenir Ikshana