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Published by siftinguw, 2017-04-28 20:12:53

S&W Second Edition

Sifting & Winnowing Second Edition - Spring 2017

Undergraduate Journal of Political Science, Law and Public Policy

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April, 2017. University of Wisconsin Madison.
All Rights Reserved.

This journal is made possible thanks to a generous grant U
from the Bradley Foundation and the Center for the Study

of Liberal Democracy, with additional support from the
Department of Political Science.

All inquiries may be directed to:
Sifting and Winnowing Chief Editors
University of Wisconsin - Madison

800 Langdon St.
Madison, WI

[email protected]

Wisconsin Union Directorate Publications Committee Leadership
Victoria Fok - Director

Jim Rogers - Committee Advisor
Deshawn McKinney - Wisconsin Union President

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Undergraduate Journal of Political Science, Law and Public Policy

Volume 2, Spring 2017 Issue

2016 - 2017 EDITORIAL BOARD

Sam Alhadeff - Events Chief Editor
Signe Janoska-Bedi - Administrative Chief Editor

Louisa Lincoln - Layout Chief Editor
Iakovos Balassi - Editor
Sam Coady - Editor
Curtiss Engstrom - Editor
Kyra Fox - Editor
Jason Geissler - Editor
Luke Georgiadis - Editor
Hunter Graff - Editor
Jake Horwitz - Editor
Spencer Jastrow - Editor
Sarah Meiners - Editor
Hilary Miller - Editor
Laura Reul - Editor
Yoona Song - Editor

Howard Schweber - Faculty Advisor

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SIFTING AND WINNOWING
Undergraduate Journal of Political Science, Law, and Public Policy
Volume 2, Spring 2017

HUMAN RIGHTS AND PROPERTY Rachel Fox 6
CONFLICTS OF ARMENIA:

How History is Halting Domestic Development

POVERTY, DEMOCRACY, AND Jarjieh Fang 16
TERRORISM:

A Re-Examination

FORWARD: Evan Thomsen 25
Michael Moran 37
Moving Wisconsin Beyond Partisan Redistricting Kelsey Beuning 45

THE CUT-OVER OF WISCONSIN’S
GREAT PINERY:

A Tragedy of the Commons?

BUSINESS AS (UN)USUAL:

Millennial Perceptions of Corporate Social Re-
sponsibility & Corporate Citizenship

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Letter
from the editors

“Whatever may be the limitations which trammel inquiry elsewhere, we believe that
the great state University of Wisconsin should ever encourage that continual and
fearless sifting and winnowing by which alone the truth can be found.”
- University of Wisconsin Board of Regents, 1894

It is our pleasure to present the second edition of Sifting & Winnowing: the Undergraduate Journal of Polit-
ical Science, Law and Public Policy. Our organization serves two purposes. First, to encourage undergrad-
uate academic discourse on issues of Political Science, Law and Public Policy at the University of Wiscon-
sin-Madison. Second, to embody a set of ideals inherent to our University - that is, a culture of truth-seeking
that forges generations of critical thinkers & civic leaders. The first purpose is not unique. Many universities
around the United States have undergraduate academic journals. It is our second purpose that sets our organi-
zation apart from, and above, our counterparts.

This edition addresses a diversity of topics, from the legality of redistricting efforts across the United States,
to how “deprivation and political repression and exclusion” might predispose individuals to acts of political
violence. It is not restricted entirely to the spheres of public consequence, with one paper examining the the
interplay of the Millennial generation with corporate social responsibility practices.

It is our intent to serve as an avenue for advanced undergraduates to share their academic findings through
empirical research, and to inspire future students to rise to the level of those who came before them and par-
ticipate in the “continual and fearless sifting and winnowing by which alone truth can be found.” This vision
could not have been accomplished without the generous support of the Bradley Foundation, the Center for
Liberal Democracy, and the Department of Political Science, as well as our faculty adviser Howard Schweber.
Likewise, the tireless work of our editorial staff, along with the professors who reviewed our final drafts and
certainly the students who submitted their work for rigorous peer review, made this entire effort worthwhile.
The Chief Editors thank you all for your contributions to our tireless sifting & winnowing.

On Wisconsin,

Louisa Lincoln, Sam Alhadeff, Signe Janoska-Bedi
Chief Editors, 2016-17

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Human Rights and
Property Conflicts
of Armenia:

How History is Halting
Domestic Development

Rachel Fox

SW_S17_FINAL.indd 6 Photo of a young Armenian man, taken in 2011 in
Yerevan, Armenia

Photo by Frank Knaack via Flickr Creative Commons

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Sifting and Winnowing Undergraduate Journal, Volume 2

Human Rights and Property Conflicts
of Armenia: How History is Halting

Domestic Development

Rachel Fox

d
The Armenian Genocide has been a point of tension on the region and continues to pose extraordinary
challenges to Armenia and its neighbors 102 years later. Tensions between Turkey and Armenia have
resulted in a closed border, poor diplomacy between the two governments, stifled trade, and Armenia
being isolated from European investment. Armenian focus on past events has allowed significant hu-
man rights issues to fester over the years, such as deforestation, which has posed environmental chal-
lenges as well as an increase in rates of cancer, respiratory diseases, allergies and asthma; loss of life;
lack of equal access to water; abuse of women; lack of energy; abortion of female fetuses and human
trafficking; among others. Disputes between Armenia and Azerbaijan have spawned horrific violence
and worrying instability, which only fuels these societal problems and exacerbates human suffering.
The Armenian government and people should look inward, and shift their focus onto finding tangible
solutions to these difficult challenges. A more proactive role of both Armenia and the international com-
munity on these important and crippling issues can help to promote economic growth in Armenia and
could lead to the communal and regional healing that has been absent for too long and is necessary to
ensure a stable and prosperous region.

Iakovos Balassi, Editor

Introduction Kardashians, religious leaders like Pope Francis, and po-
litical leaders like former U.S. President Barack Obama.
“Thousands Rally in Times Square to Mark the Cen- Armenians in Armenia, and the diaspora around the
world, are ecstatic about the amount of press and aware-
tennial of the Armenian Genocide” – The New York ness Armenia is gaining from these high profile stories
Post. “Obama Won’t Call It Armenian ‘Genocide’ on and centennial movements; however, as a diaspora Ar-
the 100th Anniversary of Atrocity” – CNN. “Pope Calls menian myself, I wonder if headlines like the ones above
Killings of Armenians ‘Genocide,’ Provoking Turkish put just focus on the issue of genocide recognition, or if
Anger” – The New York Times. there are greater issues facing Armenia today that could
The headlines above were run in April of 2015 benefit from international focus.
during the centennial of the Armenian genocide. Usu- As it turns out, Armenia today faces issues of
ally few and far between, headline stories about Ar- enormous scale and severity that impact its viability as a
menia most often occur around the anniversary of the nation and the quality of life of its citizens. Article 25 of
genocide. 2015, being the centennial, brought increased the Universal Declaration of Human Rights asserts that
international awareness of the genocide and a few high all people have a right to a standard of living adequate
profile stories involving pop culture icons such as the for health and well-being, including food, clothing,

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Sifting and Winnowing Undergraduate Journal, Volume 2

quick influx of cheap Turkish goods could put Arme- Artsakh, it was no surprise when the Nagorno-Karabakh
nians out of business. Yet others are longing for a cheap- parliament voted to join Armenia in the 1980s when Soviet
er trade route for the goods they already purchase from control loosened. Azerbaijan, not wanting to lose valuable
Turkey but must receive by roundabout trade through land and population, was upset by the decision. Armenian
Georgia.13 Either way, the joint textile and energy ven- and Azeri tensions turned to violence in 1988, when they
tures Turkey and Armenia could engage in with an open began engaging in armed conflict over the region. By the
border would benefit each country.14 With almost 36 time the ethnic Armenians gained control of the region, an
percent of the Armenian population living below the estimated 20,000 to 30,000 lives were lost and one million
poverty line, Armenia can use all the economic oppor- Azeri and Armenians had fled the region and each coun-
tunity it can get.15 try. Nagorno-Karabakh forces gained neighboring regions
The benefits of trade and positive international of Azerbaijan as a buffer and pathway to Armenia and de-
relations are practical reasons to put genocide recog- clared its independence (unrecognized elsewhere) in 1991.
nition on the backburner and open the Turkish-Arme- In 1994, a ceasefire was negotiated between Ar-
nia border; the open border could also provide peace menia and Azerbaijan with the help of Russia, but in
to genocide survivors in Armenia. Even if Turkey nev- August of 2014 the Azeri President Ilham Aliyev took
er gives reparations of land for the genocide, visiting to Twitter saying about the conflict, “We are not living
ancestral land could be healing for countless survivors in peace, we are living in a state of war. Everyone must
and their descendents. David Arakelyan, a 50 year old know this.” And in a follow-up Tweet, “Just as we have
Armenian who runs a picnic area for visitors to a mon- beaten the Armenians on the political and economic
astery near the Turkish-Armenia border, told New York fronts, we are able to defeat them on the battlefield.”
Times reporter Clifford J. Levy, “Our land is there. We Violent flare-ups during that time killed an estimated 30
want to go over there and walk around and see how people, costing lives on both sides and proving that the
our grandparents lived. I want to go over there and see ceasefire may have ended.18 It is not just loss of life and
their graves.”16 It is clear that an open border with Tur- resources in this war that is hurting Armenia; there is a
key would provide countless economic, political, and surprising ripple effect stemming from this conflict and
emotional benefits to each country, but it is not the only the closed Azeri border more serious than issues of the
border issue worth discussing. Turkish border.
Because of the conflict over the Nagorno-Kara-
Azerbaijan and the State of the bakh, Azerbaijan implemented an energy blockade to
Armenian Environment Armenia in 1991, and in 1993 saboteurs exploded the
last remaining oil and gas pipelines from Georgia, which
Armenians tend to feel an intrinsic bond with and sent Armenia into a serious and devastating energy cri-
right to lands on which their ancestors lived, especially if sis.19 With Turkey’s border closed in solidarity with
ethnicArmenians still inhabit the place. The Nagorno-Kara- Azerbaijan and Russian trade compromised due to the
bakh region is one of those places with emotional value to 1992 war in Abkhazia, Armenia was desperate for fuel
Armenians, and they will fight with dedication to secure it. to meet the basic needs of its people.
Are conflict, motherland ownership, and keeping borders Under the Universal Declaration of Human
closed truly issues on which present day Armenia should Rights, all people have a right to an adequate standard
focus? I argue they are not, but first, it is valuable to consid- of living. But during the energy crisis of the 1990s, this
er the historical context of this issue, and then establish its right was not being met for most Armenians.20 People
consequences and solutions. were freezing to death in the winter and finding cook-
Soviet rulers established the Nagorno-Karabakh re- ing almost impossible with no gas to light a stove. As a
gion as an autonomous region within the Soviet Socialist result, people took to the forests en masse legally and
Republic of Azerbaijan in the 1920s during the divide-and- illegally cutting down forests for firewood to use to
rule policy era.17 Populated by mostly ethnic Armenians in heat their homes and cook.21 A study released in 2007
an ancient Armenian region referred to by Armenians as by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in
Europe Office (OSCE) of Yerevan indicates that almost

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ten years after the worst part of the energy crisis, nine As overwhelming as the issue of deforestation
percent of Armenians still use wood as fuel for cooking seems, there are some avenues for improvement if Ar-
and heating, which could be because most rural areas menia chooses to put aside its constant focus on the
in Armenia remain unconnected to gas lines and even lands of other nations and look inward at the property
electricity. The result of this rapid and continued rush to within its established borders and protect it. First, class-
the forests is devastating and ongoing. es implemented in school systems and workshops for
Armenia was once covered by a beautiful mix the public through governmental and nongovernmental
of subtropical and temperate forests, which provided organizations about the benefits of forests and how to
clean air, fresh water, fuel, and biodiversity.22 Today, manage them could impact people’s indiscriminate cut-
Armenia is among the list of 70 countries whose forest ting behaviors, as no environmental education is cur-
cover has shrunk to ten percent.23 Some estimates go as rently required and many do not understand the impacts
far as to predict that less than eight percent forest cover of deforestation.28 Second, a widespread reforestation
still exists.24 Forest loss is causing desertification at a and preservation effort must be established. Finally, if
rapid rate, flooding, erosion, landslides, loss of biodi- not most importantly, Armenia must patch up diplo-
versity, pollution, and much more. Today, forests are matic relations with Azerbaijan and bring peace to the
being cut at a rate of 750,00 cubic meters annually. At Nagorno-Karabakh, so the borders with Azerbaijan and
this continued rate of deforestation, Armenia will be a Turkey can be opened to provide gas, energy, and trade
barren desert in the next 20 to 50 years.25 to a deprived Armenia.
Deforestation and burning of wood fuel af- Organizations like the Armenia Tree Project
fects the environmental and human health of the coun- (ATP), a 501(c)3 nonprofit organization that works in
try, increases the risk of environmental disasters, and Armenia to implement environmental education pro-
negatively impacts the economy. The forest industry grams and reforestation, illustrate that some positive
in Armenia provides an estimated 2,000 jobs and the change is being made to combat these issues. Since its
wood alone is valued at about 1.8 million USD.26 Wip- establishment in 1994, ATP has planted and restored
ing out that sector through illegal logging will cause an more than 4.5 million trees in Armenia in both rural
additional blow to the Armenian economy. In addition, and urban settings and created countless jobs doing
human health is being severely impacted, especially in so.29 In addition, ATP has developed an environmental
urban areas, where deforestation is just as rampant as in education curriculum currently under review for use in
the countryside. Yerevan, the nation’s capital, provides the Armenian primary and secondary school systems.30
a typical example of urban impacts of deforestation. Presently, ATP’s community centers provide a space
Up until the 1990s, Yerevan had 3,110 acres of for schools and other groups to learn about forest sus-
public use green space, parks, groves, and gardens and tainability and planting trees.31 Connecting the move-
3,400 acres of forest, but now, the city is so barren and ment to the genocide was a strategic move by ATP to
dry it is miraculous to get anything to grow in the rock garner diaspora attention. ATP’s program “Building
hard soil.27 During the peak energy crisis in 1992 to 1995, Bridges” allows diaspora to come to Armenia to plant
Yerevan residents went without gas or electricity. As a a tree, or simply donate to have a tree planted, in mem-
result, the green spaces and surrounding forests were cut ory of their loved ones lost in the genocide or who
down for firewood; even the Botanical Gardens of Yere- had survived but since passed.32 The framing of this
van were decimated for fuel. Since 2000, cases of upper program is that planting a tree allows diaspora to feel
respiratory diseases in the city have grown 20 percent. more connected and rooted to their motherland and be
Extreme cases of allergies and asthma in children and a part of the future of Armenia – an idea more diaspora
rates of cancer continue to climb as well. An increase in need to get behind in the issues of trees and beyond.
scorpions and snakes, a rise in temperature, and the dry- Finally, as with Turkish relations, Armenia
ing of the soil in the city have people scared for the future needs to let the history of the Nagorno-Karabakh region
of Yerevan. As construction increases on the barren land- and her emotional claims to the land take a backseat
scape, it is difficult to imagine where forest regrowth of to the present needs of her citizens in country. Arme-
this scale could take place in Yerevan. nia desperately needs the gas trade with Azerbaijan, as


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many rural areas still go without. Until Armenia has More than just water is being abused all over
a steady flow of gas and other energy, the burning of Armenia; the gender gap in Armenian politics and the
wood fuel will continue to pollute the air and defor- economy is extreme and the level of physical and psy-
est the land. The people of Armenia deserve to live chological abuse of women is concerning. A nation-
a life with adequate health and resources, but due to wide study conducted by the American University of
their obsession with historic lands, they fail to address Armenia’s Turpanjian Center for Policy Analysis in
those needs. While arguably all Armenian issues can be 2007 revealed that a staggering 66 percent of women
traced back to their isolation as a result of their history, in Armenia experience psychological abuse from their
there are plenty of current Armenian issues with less husbands, brothers, and fathers and about 39 percent
direct ties to international relations and past conflicts. experience physical abuse.35 Although Armenian wom-
en in general are equally as educated as men, Armenia
A Brief Look at Diverse Issues ranked 92nd out of 135 countries in the 2012 World
Facing Armenia Today Economic Forum “Global Gender Gap Report” when
measured in four areas, including education, economic
There are countless issues impacting both rural participation and opportunity, and political empower-
and urban Armenia today that deserve much attention and ment.36 Armenian female fetuses are also being abort-
focus, but three key issues tend to stand out: water infra- ed at a dangerous rate. These issues are perpetuated by
structure issues, gender inequality, and human trafficking. both male and female views of women’s roles in Arme-
Each of these problems takes away or inhibits an Arme- nia.37 Armenia needs to promote women in the econo-
nian’s access to a basic human right under the Universal my and politics, so they can feel empowered and be tru-
Declaration of Human Rights and should be addressed ly treated as equals. It is not enough to provide women
seriously and strategically. The vast infrastructural issues with an education and then beat them and abort their
of Armenia inhibit certain populations’ access to reliable fetuses. This is a human rights issue in the spotlight of
potable water. Gender inequality takes away women’s many nations. Why not Armenia, too?
freedoms to express their opinions and to not be psycho- Similarly, women, as well as people from all
logically or physically abused. Last, Human trafficking is gender and age groups, are being trafficked to and
a direct offense to Article 4 of the Universal Declaration of from Armenia. Human trafficking in Armenia has
Human Rights, as it a form of slavery. roots in post-Soviet and border induced economic cri-
First, the water systems and infrastructure of ses.38 Hopeful Armenians trying to find work in other
Armenia are in need of enormous repairs to reliably countries, as work in Armenia is difficult to come by,
supply all Armenians with fresh water. Old, leaky in- sometimes end up being tricked into situations through
frastructure and pipes as well as meter tampering has which they are trafficked into sex or labor slavery. Most
resulted in water losses, or nonrevenue water, of 85 trafficking involves women trafficked for sexual slav-
percent.33 According to the World Bank, that is one of ery, but it is often culturally misidentified as prostitu-
the highest levels of water losses in the world. Due to tion. This results in many women remaining trapped
deforestation and the deteriorating health and water and helpless in these situations. Slavery is a clear vio-
levels of Armenia’s fresh water resources, continued lation of human rights and is happening now. Although
water losses of this amount could have serious impacts there have been many atrocities in Armenia’s past, the
on water accessibility.34 Currently, a significant amount atrocities happening now deserve equal, if not more,
of the population has access to drinking water for only a national and international attention and devotion.
few hours a day. Armenia’s infrastructure needs a huge
overhaul, new water meters need to be installed, and Conclusion
attention needs to be placed on illegal connections in
order to ensure equitable access to water and not waste As a diaspora Armenian and 4th generation
this precious resource. genocide survivor, I hold a deep and profound respect
and reverence for my heritage and its history. Along

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and strategic objectives in response to changes in the between gang-related homicides and community-lev-
political or military landscape. As terrorist movements el socioeconomic factors for 18 Los Angeles Police
evolve, the lines that differentiate them from other Department geographic divisions over a 5-year period
forms of political violence - such as insurgencies - and from 1988 to 1993. They find that lower income and
non-political violence - like the Mexican cartel violence higher rates of unemployment are closely associated
- blurs.11 12 Furthermore, other forms of violence are far with gang violence.16 In the Davidsonville neighbor-
more common, and a significant body of research has hood of Johannesburg, South Africa, Burnett conduct-
been generated on the use of violence in other con- ed an ethnography between 1991 and 1994 and con-
texts that may bolster the work of counterterrorism and cludes that gang violence is an effective survival option
counter-violent extremism (CVE) practitioners. Under- for impoverished young men.17 In another qualitative
standing the factors and the contexts that predispose in- and participatory study, Winton collected insights from
dividuals to the use of violence is key to designing and young people in post-conflict Guatemala where youth
implementing upstream interventions that divert indi- gangs are both brutal and highly visible. Winton con-
viduals before they accept and utilize violence. cludes that limited employment opportunities, low-lev-
Perhaps the most compelling contemporary case els of education, and excessive parental working hours
study is the evolutions of the Islamic State. At the height contributes to both economic and social exclusion and
of the Islamic State’s influence and power, it controlled drive youth to join gangs.18
major cities and large swaths of territory in both Iraq Research on yet another form of violence - vio-
and Syria. While loose affiliates and self-radicalized in- lent conflict - contributes to the already significant body
dividuals have carried out numerous terrorist attacks in of evidence that poverty has a strong relationship with
the name , and with the encouragement, of the Islamic violence. Summarizing existing literature on poverty,
State, the organization’s founding objective is to wage, inequality, and intrastate conflict in a working paper
according to a United States Institute of Peace report, “a for the International Peace Academy, Kanbur con-
war of attrition with the West in the Middle East.”13 The cludes that “while inequality is a natural concomitant
Islamic State established an effective governing bureau- of economic processes, particularly those driven by the
cracy, complete with a professional state media opera- market, its implications for security emerge when un-
tion. A considerable proportion of civilians in northeast equal outcomes align with sociopolitical cleavages.”19
Iraq even perceived improvements in security-related In other words, inequalities between groups may lead
issues under Islamic State governance.14 However, to greater conflict. Indeed, in an analysis of horizontal
faced with mounting casualties and territorial losses, inequalities, or inequality between culturally defined
the Islamic State is preparing to evolve into a more groups, in eight countries, Stewart, Brown and Langer
traditional terrorist organization and postpone its terri- find that higher socioeconomic horizontal inequalities,
torial ambitions. Given the fluidity with which groups as measured by average years of education and aver-
pivot between different forms of violence, policymak- age household assets, increase the probability of violent
ers and scholars should consider findings from research conflict.20
on other forms of violence which provide compelling The importance of group economic inequality
evidence that economic factors do influence the accep- is applicable to terrorism as well. Hillesund uses sur-
tance and use of violence. For example, in contrast with vey data on the Palestinians’ public support of violent
the previously discussed literature on the relationship collective action and data on perceived civil and po-
between terrorism and poverty, research has shown that litical rights, expenditures, consumer durables owner-
poverty and inequality are significant determinants of ship, and education level.21 By comparing Palestinian
interpersonal violence, including youth violence, child governorates with the closest Israeli subdistrict, Hille-
abuse, violence by intimate partners, elderly abuse, sund finds that “individuals are more likely to support
sexual violence, and self-directed violence.15 violent resistance the larger the difference in expendi-
Gang violence is another form of interpersonal ture and consumer durables ownership between their
violence that is strongly correlated with low socioeco- own governorate and the closest Israeli subdistrict.”22
nomic status. Kyriacou et al examined the relationship While some cross-national analyses of inequality and

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terrorism did not surface a relationship between ter- This simultaneity may have led to an underestimation of
rorism and inequality, Krieger and Meierrieks suggest development’s role as a determinant of terrorism. In turn,
that previous studies use poor inequality data and that this may explain why developmental aid is negatively
previous studies may be biased by endogeneity of in- correlated with terrorism, but per capita GDP is not.
come inequality.23 In other words, income inequality Young and Findley published similar analysis
may influence the incidence of terrorism, and terrorism of nonmilitary foreign aid and the number of terrorist
may, in turn, have a distributional effect that impacts a events in an aid-recipient country. They find that aid,
country’s level of income inequality. In their analyses, in general, has “a pacific effect, reducing terrorism
Krieger and Meierrieks use a terrorist index that com- overall”. Young and Findley disaggregate the impact
bines terrorist attacks and deaths due to terrorism and of each sector of aid - education, conflict prevention/
“more consistent income inequality data” to analyze resolution, health, governance, and civil society - and
the relationship between terrorism and inequality in find that all reduce terrorism.28 Burgoon turns to do-
79 countries. To account for the potential endogeneity mestic spending to surface the impact of social welfare
of income inequality, Krieger and Meierrieks used the spending on terrorism. Burgoon uses three measures of
wheat-sugar ratio, defined as “the (logged) share of ara- social assistance spending - total spending as a percent-
ble land suitable for wheat to the share of land suitable age of GDP, total social security and health spending
for sugarcane.” Krieger and Meierrieks concluded that as percentage of GDP, and total social security, health
higher inequality contributes to more terrorist activity.24 and education spending as a percentage of GDP - and
Given this large body of research linking vio- three measures of terrorism - total incidents of terror-
lence and poverty, the corollary that follows is that ad- ism, total incidents of transnational terrorism, and total
dressing poverty must also have the impact of reduc- number of terrorists originating from a given country.
ing violence. In a study of the Moving to Opportunity Controlling for various other determinants of terrorism,
program in the United States, it was shown that chil- including governance type and capability, trade open-
dren whose families moved from areas of concentrated ness, population, and the presence of conflict, Burgoon
poverty in Baltimore to more affluent neighborhoods finds that higher social welfare spending, as measured
exhibited “substantially reduced violent behavior.”25 by any of the three definitions, is correlated with lower
Kim et al. implemented a two-year, cluster-randomized incidences of terrorism of any of three types defined.
control trial to test the impact of a micro-finance pro- However, development is not a panacea and
gram on the incidence of intimate partner violence in may, in some circumstances, lead to a resurgence in
rural South Africa.26 Compared to a control group, rate terrorism. Analysis by Kim Cragin and Peter Chalk on
of past year intimate partner violence among 430 loan the economic and social development policies of Israel,
recipients was reduced by more than half. the Philippines, and the United Kingdom suggest that
Finally, research on development and terrorism aid must make a meaningful and measurable difference
have shown that foreign aid and domestic social welfare in the lives of recipients. Deficient developmental aid
programs are effective at reducing terrorism. Azam and may leave grievances unaddressed and create unful-
Thelem analyzed data on terrorism and foreign aid in filled expectations that, together, catalyze popular re-
132 recipient countries, using the same dataset used by sentment and an embrace of terrorism.29 Furthermore,
Krueger and Maleckova.27 Like Krueger and Malecko- Cragin and Chalk assert that developmental programs
va, Azam and Thelem found no correlation between per must not appear to be rewarding terrorism and should
capita GDP and incidences of terrorist attacks. Howev- establish disincentives for joining or supporting terror-
er, they did find that Official developmental assistance ism. Together, these important conclusions may refute
per capita and the level of secondary education had a the assertions of some scholars that economic develop-
“significant and negative impact” on the number of ter- ment and developmental aid provision are not effective
rorist attacks experienced by a recipient nation. These counterterrorism approaches.30 31
contrasting conclusions may demonstrate potential The relationship between so many disparate
endogeneity of development. Terrorism stunts devel- forms of violence and both relative and absolute depri-
opment, while stunted development fosters terrorism. vation suggests that deprivation plays a significant role

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Sifting and Winnowing Undergraduate Journal, Volume 2

do so would create no significant detriment to the other two from the majority and two from the minority. Fi-
goals.”14 Put together, the LRB and IRC would have to nally, qualified professionals experienced in drafting
draft maps according to the preceding principles but in legislation could work with professional cartographers
the following order: equal population, VRA, commu- or bring them on the staff of LRB. This would add an
nities of interest, contiguity, municipality boundaries, aura of professionalism to the process. Instead of peo-
compactness, and competition. ple who are inexperienced and potentially biased map-
Before the maps are drafted, the IRC would hold makers, this professional corps in the LRB would draft
hearings to establish what constitutes a community of maps according only to the criteria provided to them.
interest in the state of Wisconsin. Citizens could come From the professional corps, legislative oversight, and
and testify before the IRC to claim that their group is a IRC, the statement in Whitford v. Gill about a neutral
community of interest. If the IRC finds that a communi- body would be met as no singular entity would be ca-
ty of interest does exist, then they would task the LRB pable of drawing maps in their own favor.15
to maintain that community of interest when crafting If a party would have a challenge to the maps,
maps. the first court to hear the case regarding the challenge
Once LRB has drafted a map which satisfies all would be the Supreme Court of the State of Wiscon-
of these requirements, they would submit it to the IRC. sin. This falls in line with Iowa’s mechanism for deal-
The IRC would vote on the map in its totality without ing with disputes regarding their maps. If it is a case
making changes. If it is rejected, LRB would draw a regarding equal population, populations of interest, or
new map until one is approved. When a map receives VRA requirements, the suit would originate in federal
approval from the IRC, it would be submitted to the court due to the challenge being in regards to federal
Wisconsin State Legislature where it would be voted regulations.
on in its totality, up or down. If the Legislature rejects To ensure this proposal receives popular sup-
that map, the process begins again back at LRB. If two port and is enshrined into government discourse and
different maps are rejected by the Legislature, the third agencies for the future, it would need to be implement-
map the IRC approves becomes effective. ed into the Wisconsin Constitution. This would also en-
Before the maps would be submitted to the Leg- sure that the measure receives support from both the
islature from the IRC, LRB and the IRC would bring legislators and the people. For any State Constitutional
the maps around the state for feedback from all corners Amendment to be ratified, if must receive a majority
of the state and from people of disparate backgrounds. support in both houses of the legislature and then be
This could take the form of taking the maps to Mil- voted on by the people in a general election.16
waukee, a small community in the northwest of the
State, the Fox Cities, Madison area, La Crosse area, and Benefits and Support
Wausau area, or another form that allows people from
varying backgrounds to be heard. Receiving this feed- Looking at the proposed new IRC for Wiscon-
back would be crucial to allow citizens to give direct in- sin reveals many benefits. In terms of what ought to be
put on the redistricting process and give them a stake in accomplished by political reforms, the new IRC would
its successful passage. Additionally, the public would achieve many criteria Streb outlines. These include ad-
be allowed to view the proceedings and meetings of the herence to one person-one vote, potential for real po-
IRC to ensure full and complete transparency. litical competition, transparency, and easy process for
Another aspect that cannot be discounted is the participation.17 Additionally, the IRC would have solid
impact of having many different forms of participation legal backing from current court jurisprudence. Final-
taking place in the IRC. Citizens would have direct in- ly, the data support the principle idea of an indepen-
put at two different points: the IRC composition and the dent commission creating more competitive districts,
feedback/listening sessions. The legislature would have removing politics from the redistricting process,
the ability to veto any map they deem as too extreme or increasing the public’s confidence in the redistricting
unacceptable, allowing for oversight. The legislature also process, producing fewer partisan-biased outcomes,
would appoint the specific citizens from the applicants: and increase legislative legitimacy, amongst others.

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Sifting and Winnowing Undergraduate Journal, Volume 2

Overall, there are many benefits an IRC could provide to be appointed to the IRC. Citizens can voice their con-
for the state of Wisconsin. cerns with maps at listening sessions or open meetings
To allow for the implementation of a new IRC, quite easily considering the required geographic diver-
one person-one vote is a key outcome that must be tak- sity of the meetings. The current system does not meet
en into account when deciding which reforms to un- this standard. Similar to the problem with transparency,
dertake. This is clearly accomplished by the IRC, but the status quo of submissions by legislators removes
it is not a distinction that only the IRC can make. All any attempts by the public to influence the maps. The
redistricting must comply with the principle of one most that the public can do is attend public hearings
person-one vote; the jurisprudence has made clear that on the map, but this does not mean that the legislature
districts must be equal in population.18 While the IRC needs to abide them, nor do they have to leave Madi-
would not fare any better than the current system in this son. This idea that they need not be responsive to their
regard, it would not fare any worse than the current sys- constituents is counter to the basic ideas of a represen-
tem. Thereby, the IRC meets this normative ideal of one tative democracy. While the geographic difference may
person-one vote at least as well as the current system. seem inconsequential, a poor farmer in Superior may
The next principle is potential for real political not be able to trek down to Madison to voice their opin-
competition. This principle has never been challenged ion on the map, but the IRC would be required to bring
in a Court in regards to the legality of competition as the map to a town nearby the farmer. Additionally, the
a requirement, but this does not mean that it is not un- public can have more access to the process before the
constitutional. Two states have enshrined the idea of maps have already reached completion by attending
competition into their state constitutions: Washington the open meetings of the IRC. Due to these ideas of
and Arizona.19 The proposal outlined calls for such an geographic spread and the open meetings, the IRC is
addition to the Wisconsin State Constitution to include less burdensome and facilitates easier access than the
political competition as a potential criteria after all oth- current system.
ers have been exhausted. The legislature has already Reforms that do not comply with Federal Con-
expressed their interest in having competitive districts stitutionality standards are not worth pursuing because
in the post-2010 census redistricting, so the backlash they will quickly be overturned by the Supreme Court
against a Constitutional Amendment to require compe- of the United States, regardless of how great the reform
tition as a criteria should be minimal. may be. This proposal meets Federal Constitutionality
Streb outlines transparency, or the idea that the standards. The only potential opposition to the propos-
process is open and voters can see and understand how the al comes in the form of federal statute, Supreme Court
decisions are made, as a key principle of political reforms. jurisprudence, and the Constitution of the United States
Because this, too, is outlined in the proposal, transparency because the Wisconsin Constitution would be amended
will be met as public feedback and exposure is a require- to allow for these reforms to occur. From the amend-
ment of the map drafting process. This would be a marked ments to the Wisconsin Constitution, all state statutes
improvement from the status quo. Currently, proposals for and regulations would change to accommodate thereby
new maps can come from any legislator without a back- leaving only the aforementioned list of potential oppo-
ground as to how that map was developed or for what pur- sition.
pose it was developed. From that description and process, One such challenge lodged against the IRC may
the public is closed off to any revelations about why a map come in the form of the removal of the “time, place,
came into being or how it did which is the opposite of and manner” of federal elections from the state, which
transparency. The IRC would be significantly better at in- it is granted by Art. I, Sec. 4 of the US Constitution, and
creasing transparency than the current system. gives it to the IRC. The exact same challenge was put
The final principle describing how election re- before the Supreme Court in Arizona State Legislature
form ought to be conducted is a process for easy partici- v. AIRC. Although the Constitution confers this power
pation and a non-burdensome system. The IRC achieves upon state legislatures, the Supreme Court ruled that
this principle by allowing the listening sessions across “there is no constitutional barrier to a State’s empow-
the state, having open meetings, and allowing any citizen erment of its people embracing [redistricting].”20 From

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The Cut-over of 4/2/17 5:53 PM
Wisconsin’s Great
Pinery:

A Tragedy of the Commons?

Michael Moran

A wooded area near Eugene, Oregon, after being clear-
cut for logging purposes

Photo by Calibas

SW_S17_FINAL.indd 37


Sifting and Winnowing Undergraduate Journal, Volume 2

The Cut-over of Wisconsin’s Great
Pinery: A Tragedy of the Commons?

Michael Moran

Although the modern environmental focus on pollutants and climate change developed largely in the
second half of the 20th century, practical concern over the sustainable management of natural resources
has much deeper roots in the past. State-led conservation of timber assets during the high periods of
traditional naval warfare for the purposes of ship building was a common practice in European nations
for hundreds of years; the population and construction booms of the industrial revolution entrenched
resource management as relatively common practice in the Old World. The expansion of the United
States as a sovereign entity and the opening of the American West in the 19th century presented a new
paradigm of seemingly unlimited and inexhaustible resources, particularly in the vast white pine forests
of the northern Great Lakes region. The following paper examines the history of the exploitation of
Wisconsin’s white pine forests, and how the actions and policies of both government and private entities
accelerated the rapid depletion of the valuable softwood. In particular, the author outlines how the easy
access and high marginal benefit of logging Wisconsin’s white pine forests created a true “Tragedy of
the Commons” in the vein of ecologist Garrett Hardin’s famous 1968 article in Science magazine. This
analysis of the highly profitable, but ultimately entirely destructive, period in the American lumber in-
dustry serves as a stark reminder of the danger inherent to unchecked resource access.

Hunter Graff, Editor

On April 29, 1920, a reporter for the Milwaukee Sen- regulate the harvesting of timber throughout the early
nineteenth century presents a tragic system in which the
tinel concluded that “Wisconsin has been denuded of white pine was almost decimated in a span of less than
its pine forests in less than a century.”1 In a relative- one hundred years. These conditions make the deple-
ly short span of time, northern Wisconsin’s seemingly tion of the white pine in nineteenth century Wisconsin
abundant source of white pines was depleted to dras- an applicable historical example of Hardin’s model and
tically low levels. Caught within the contexts of the a failure in environmental protection in practice.
period of “Manifest Destiny” and the United States’ In his 1968 article in Science magazine, Gar-
goal to develop industry and agriculture across the rett Hardin presents his “Tragedy of the Commons,” an
continent, the story of the devastation of northern Wis- economic and environmental governance theory which
consin’s “Great Pinery” in the 1800s is in many ways states that if given access to a shared resource, individ-
reminiscent of Garrett Hardin’s “Tragedy of the Com- uals furthering their own self-interest will act contrary
mons.” The profitability of the white pine, the relative- to the common good. Hardin describes a hypothetical
ly open access to federal land, and the ineffectiveness situation in which there is an open pasture where herds-
or unwillingness of federal and state governments to man can bring their cattle to graze. Each individual

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Sifting and Winnowing Undergraduate Journal, Volume 2

herdsman has the incentive to graze more cattle, but grids of undeveloped land west of the colonies could
every additional cow contributes to overgrazing within be attained by settlers.5 Using this system, subsequent
the finite amount of pasture. Thus, Hardin concludes, federal laws primarily motivated by the expansionist
“each man is locked into a system that compels him to governmental and business interests under the doctrine
increase his herd without limit—in a world that is lim- of “Manifest Destiny” perpetuated the development
ited.”2 After presenting his model, Hardin devotes the of these western territories rather rapidly. The Home-
rest of the article to apply this collective-action prob- stead Act and the Morrill Land Grant Acts of 1862 are
lem to several contemporary social and environmental two exemplary pieces of legislation that granted cheap,
dilemmas including pollution, overpopulation, and the federally held land to willing states and settlers. The
creation of wildlife reserves. Homestead Act granted 160 acres of federally-surveyed
As a model, Hardin’s theory depends on several land to homesteaders under the condition that they “im-
key assumptions in order to be applicable to describe prove” the land over five years, to eventually earn a title
real-world scenarios. First, the conclusion of inevitable for it at a price of $1.25 per acre.6
decline assumes that the metaphorical pasture is open Building upon similar policy objectives as the
to all. Within this model, any individual who wishes to Homestead Act, the Morrill Land Grant Act donated
graze their cattle in the pasture is able to fully access it, large tracts of federal land to the states with the in-
and is free to make decisions about its use. Secondly, tention of establishing public universities specializing
the model assumes that actors are rational. In decid- in “agricultural and mechanical arts.”7 Responding to
ing how many cows to graze, herdsman will calculate pressures associated with the Industrial Revolution and
whether adding another cow to the pasture will result in changing social classes, these universities sought to
a net positive utility for himself. Finally, assumptions teach practical agricultural, mechanical, military, and
of subtractability and shared consequences are implicit industrial skills alongside a classic liberal education.
in the model. In his article, Hardin discusses a negative The University of Wisconsin is a prominent example of
component of the pasture’s utility for the herdsman, a public institution that was endowed and established
writing that the costs of overgrazing by the addition of through the proceeds of this legislation. This series of
one more animal are shared by all users. Based on these laws originating at the federal level created the legal
assumptions, Hardin’s model portrays his “tragedy” in framework in which land was practically given away
the classical dramatic sense on the word. Hardin writes, with relatively simple conditions to spur development
“the essence of dramatic tragedy is not unhappiness. It and agriculture and provide income for the expanding
resides in the solemnity of the remorseless working of United States and the newly-formed state governments.
things.”3 Ultimately, Hardin’s “Tragedy of the Com- Although the primary intention of these laws
mons” arises as a result of individuals systematically was to grant inexpensive land to the modest farmers
contributing to an inevitable decline through the pursuit who formed the basis of ideal Jeffersonian democracy,
of their own self-interest while extracting from a finite they also gave men with access to capital an efficient
common resource pool. way to quickly accumulate cheap access to natural re-
In the context of the nineteenth-century north- sources, particularly timber. Lumbermen and investors
ern Wisconsin case study, the first element of Hardin’s could take advantage of this federal land-grant system
model to be analyzed is the assumption of open, un- either by buying logs as they were sent downriver from
restricted access to a commonly-held resource. After the logging camps, buying Wisconsin timberland ac-
the Chippewa Indians ceded tribal control over the cess through public auction or private sellers, or buying
area “beginning at the junction of the Crow Wing and directly from independent camp contractors. Lumber
Mississippi Rivers…to the Plover Portage,” in an 1837 mogul Frederick Weyerhaeuser acquired a majority
treaty, a series of federal laws encouraged the acquisi- of his standing timber in Wisconsin from speculators
tion of large tracts of federally-controlled territory for who bought up holdings through federal sales, “much
settlement in northern Wisconsin timberlands.4 Starting of which sold for less than 55 cents an acre.”8 Judith
with the Land Ordinance of 1785, the United States Healy argues in her biography on Weyerhaeuser that
government established a standardized system in which “the land situation in Wisconsin was entirely fluid in

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Sifting and Winnowing Undergraduate Journal, Volume 2

Business as (Un)usual: Millennial
Perceptions of Corporate Social
Responsibility & Corporate
Citizenship

Kelsey Buening

The role of corporations in society began centuries ago when European powers chartered corporations
such as the Dutch East India Company. What began as a drive to share risk among shareholders, and
accrue profits to the same has evolved at an increasingly rapid pace into something that is socially
accountable to a wider array of entities. Changing demographics, most notably the rise of the millen-
nial generation, have created a population segment whose civic engagement often takes the form of
purchasing behavior that reflects more individualistic and socially conscious tendencies. Buening’s
research builds upon literature examining the increasing role of corporations, and how this heightened
role brings with it more responsibility. As our world becomes conglomerated by corporations with such
a vast number of stakeholders, many believe that these entities must take responsibility for their actions
and are expected to give back in meaningful ways. Buening’s research takes a first-hand look at the
generation who appears to demand the most from corporations: millennials. The millennial generation
has grown up in a world where the norm is to praise corporations that practice corporate social respon-
sibility, and to shame and boycott those who betray consumers’ trust.

Jake Horwitz and Sam Coady, Editors

Introduction: The Changing Nature Socially, environmentally, politically, and eco-
of Corporate Social Responsibility nomically, the notion of corporate responsibility and the
corporate place in society is re-defining itself. In 2010,
The place of the corporation in society and its atten- the U.S. Supreme Court handed down the controver-
sial Citizens United vs. Federal Election Commission
dant rights and responsibilities have been formed, re- ruling, stating that corporations could be constituted as
shaped, contested, and debated consistently since the a “legal person” with attendant rights and responsibil-
establishment of corporate structures and limited liabil- ities, including freedom of political speech.2 Between
ity in the late 1800s.1 Arguably, the contested nature of that time and 2015, political spending by corporations
the corporation is as intrinsic to capitalism as the debate nearly doubled since the last election cycle to hit $486
around the positives and negatives of capitalism itself. million.3 During roughly the same time period, the
Today, the public sphere continues to debate the mean- business world saw the number of certified B-corpo-
ing of the corporate citizen and its rights and responsi- rations – a label indicating significant company value
bilities within this role. creation for non-shareholding stakeholders – rise from
zero to more than 1,700 in over fifty countries.4 At the

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Sifting and Winnowing Undergraduate Journal, Volume 2

UN World Climate Change Summit in December 2014, acceptance, endorsement and support – in other words,
the CEOs of ten major companies, including Unilever social legitimacy.”9 This definition, and this research,
and General Mills, sent a letter urging world leaders to focuses specifically on large-scale, incorporated busi-
take action that would encourage climate sustainabili- ness structures (corporations) – though of course many
ty, and later participated in the summit alongside these of the principles apply to partnerships, sole proprietor-
same political figures.5 In 2015, Supply Chain World, ships, etc. as well. While these other smaller business
a business publication, published a risk management structures also engage in CSR, they are more likely to
issue where they listed “responsibility and regulation” do so personally (a business owner to his community
as the second largest risk facing businesses today – and nonprofit) versus on behalf of a brand personalizing
to put that in perspective, climate change was in third itself to a large audience. This search by a large orga-
place.6 In February 2016, General Electric announced nization for normative ‘social legitimacy’ creates both
their commitment to developing green energy, includ- more impact and more implications for business civic
ing a $10 billion investment by 2020.7 Andrew N. Liv- engagement. The exact definition of corporate respon-
eris, CEO of DOW Chemical, in a 2010 keynote lecture sibility - or corporate social responsibility, the terms
at Bentley University, stated: are used interchangeably - is difficult to nail down pre-
cisely though many agree that, as a concept, it involves
“Modern-day corporations need a modern day “the idea that the corporation exists in society and has
lens. And if you embrace the view – as we do, rights and responsibilities as a member (or citizen) of
that we are part of the world and therefore have that society.”10 Corporate responsibility is a “normative
an ethical obligation to help humankind move challenge to business and executives to do good…[and]
forward – then business, any business, can be so to do well;” however, that may be executed within any
much richer and more rewarding.”8 given business or corporate activity.11 For many firms,
this takes the form of the “Third Bottom Line,” which
The millennial generation (born early 1980s – considers business goals in the context of people, profit,
2000) is coming of age in this environment and is both and planet. Social responsibility is so difficult to define
influencing and being influenced by corporate involve- precisely because it has, in practice, taken many differ-
ment in society. As the consumers and business leaders ent forms. Literature conceptualizes social responsibil-
of the future, their perceptions and attitudes have the ity in five major categories: 1) environmental, 2) social,
potential to shape interactions between consumers, gov- 3) economic, 4) stakeholder values and 5) voluntari-
ernment, and companies. Moreover, their unique gener- ness.12 Motivations for CSR typically blend, among
ational attitudes toward consumption, information, and other things, a genuine desire to give back and do good,
political participation have been explored within other an opportunity to differentiate brand value, and create
fields of research – but their reaction to, role within, a positive PR image to appeal to consumers and stave
and feelings toward the transformation of corporate off regulation and activism. Although corporate social
social responsibility (CSR) remain unexamined. These responsibility has changed in form over time, from the
attitudes and behaviors, however, potentially influences paternalistic “Gospel of Wealth” philosophy around
transformation of CSR. Therefore, the goal of this re- charity, to intense political campaigning by some firms
search is to understand millennial attitudes around this in the 1950s, to modern environmental and social pol-
rise of modern corporate social responsibility through icies, many of these broader goals remained constant.
the lens of changing forms of civic engagement and po- This paper will focus on this modern definition, with
litical participation. an emphasis on the idea of voluntariness by firms, as
Integral to understanding the perception of this encompasses what firms do without coercion in the
changing corporate citizenship by society, and espe- pursuit of social legitimacy.
cially the millennial generation, is first a definition of CSR is not new, but its prevalence within mod-
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as a concept. At ern corporations is unprecedented.13 In 2016, when
its most basic level, CSR is a collaborative search by nearly every major corporation has a sustainability
corporations and their communities to “secure public statement or a social mission, it’s easy to take corporate

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Sifting and Winnowing Undergraduate Journal, Volume 2

social responsibility for granted and to assume that this research asks – do millennials care about CSR as the
is businesses as usual. To do this, however, would be behavior of business would ostensibly lead one to be-
to forget that only half a century ago Milton Friedman lieve? If so, why do they care? If not, what limits them?
asserted that the “social responsibility of business is to Is their view of CSR connected to their changing ideas
increase its profits,”14 - describing CSR as a malicious of civic responsibility and forms of civic engagement?
force which undermined natural economic stabiliza- Where do they fit into this trend of corporate social re-
tion and provided a “stepping stone to socialism.”15 It sponsibility and changing corporate citizenship? Un-
would ignore the fact that General Electric – who have derstanding the answers to these questions can help
just pledged to invest $10 billion in renewable energy better illuminate the future of CSR and provide a better
– claimed in a speech by 1957-1960 GE President Rob- idea of whether and how corporations should move for-
ert Paxton that the corporate responsibility of General ward.
Electric was to prevent any sort of government regu- This research suggests an alternative to comple-
lation of business functions.16 The rise of the modern ment other analyses of the motivations for consumer
corporate social responsibility concept has reflected a and business support of CSR. It tries to answer questions
change in the traditional relationship between the cor- on changing forms of corporate citizenship through the
poration and the citizen. Increasingly, corporations and lens of a simultaneous rise in individualized political
business leadership are acting in a way that indicates action and politicized consumption. Through a series of
they see themselves not as isolated systems but as a part qualitative interviews, this research attempts to under-
in a broader group of societal stakeholders. stand consumers as not just a set of value preferences
Why is this change occurring? In the business but as people who view corporations through the per-
community, traditional explanations for why compa- spective of their own sense of citizenship and political
nies implement CSR programs include “shared value” involvement. It focuses on a specific age group – millen-
reasons such as employee engagement, increased prof- nials – as this demographic 1) is experiencing shifts in
itability through price increases, a brand value-add, and traditional forms of civic engagement and 2) represents
as a differentiating feature.17 Political scientists, includ- the next generation of consumers who are currently in
ing Margaret Scammell, have cited activist brand tar- a formative purchasing phase. This analysis does not
geting and corresponding “upsurges in consumer activ- contradict previous research, but rather complements it
ism”18 as an attack which companies buffer against by by adding this political engagement perspective to the
developing corporate social responsibility initiatives.19 analysis of consumption and reasons for consumer sup-
Behind such rationalizations is the simple intuition that port of corporate social responsibility. This paper builds
corporate responsibility is something that consumers, upon both business research of CSR as well as civic en-
employees, and other stakeholders care about and re- gagement research that suggests that, increasingly, citi-
ward, financially or otherwise. Following from this, if zens are using consumption not just as an expression of
CSR programs are increasing in scope and intensity, their lifestyle but as a form of civic participation; these
then modern consumers and other stakeholders must attitudes affect both buying and boycotting behavior.
care more about corporate responsibility. It also implies Specifically, it explores whether the larger societal fac-
that they feel that the burden of social responsibility tors that shape changing political attitudes and behav-
should fall upon corporations in addition to traditional iors also affect changes in attitudes toward CSR. The
actors such as government or non-profit organizations. research hypothesizes that factors affecting attitudes
This is particularly interesting and relevant in the con- toward political involvement also affect expectations
text of millennials who are both the next generation of for corporations. It posits that as millennial consumers
company stakeholders and are experiencing significant begin to value more individualized and direct forms of
changes in how they participate in civic life. civic engagement, they expect this kind of engagement
The implication is that the millennial genera- from companies and exercise politicized choices in their
tion cares about CSR, perhaps even more than previous consumption of goods as well as their consumption
generations. However, our understanding of whether, of politics. This analysis suggests that this politicized
how, and why they care is significantly less clear. This consumption creates a societal pressure such that the

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