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Published by , 2021-12-30 22:08:16

E-Book — Thanaporn - (29)

Grammar

E — BOOK

GRAMMAR

Thanaporn — No.29 M.4/9

Introduction

This E-book is a part of the English subject E31102 .
The purpose this report is to provide readers basic English
conversations for beginners. which are all about situations
in daily life. Most conversations are short and simple with
clear explanations. I hope who goes through it will find it
useful and worth learning.

Contents PAGE

SUBJECT 1-4

— Presen Simple : affirmative and negative 5-8
— Present Simple : yes/no and wh-question
— Countable and Uncountable noun 9-14
15–22
— Articles 23-27
— Present Continuous 28-30
31-35
— Present Simple and Present Continuous 36-38
39-42
— Comparative and Superlative
— Have to/Don't have to 43-47
— Must/Mustn't;Should /Shouldn't 48-49
50-52
— Past Simple:Was/Were, Could
53
— Past Simple:Affirmatives 54-55
— Past Simple:Questions and Negative
— Present Perfect with Ever/Never 56-58
— Present Perfect with Just/Already/Yet
59-60
— Future with Will

— Be Going To

Presen Simple : Affirmative and Negative

AFFIRMATIVE

If the subject is plural (e.g. we, they, boys, teachers, cats, pens) or 1st
and 2nd person singular (I and you), then we use the regular verb
(e.g. go, come, eat).
If the subject is the third person singular (e.g. he, she, it, boy, teacher,
cat, pen), then we need to use the s/es (e.g. goes, comes, eats) verb.

Declarative sentence structure
Subject + V.1 (s, es)+.............

1

Here are some adverbs of frequency or frequency of action:

1. Adverbs in the positive form
as sometimes, often, usually, always

2. Adverbs in the negative form
such as rarely, hardly, seldom, never
Rejected image will not add not

Adding Adverb of Frequency
(adverb of the frequency or frequency of action)
are as follows

1. The placement of Adverbs of Frequency in sentences with
Verb to be places the frequency after it, for example:
- She is always on time.
- He is usually relaxes after game.
- I am never gets up late. -

2. Placement of Adverbs of Frequency In sentences with
main verbs, frequency is placed before the main verb, for
example:
- They usually go to school early.
- He usually washes his car at the weekends - We often
watch TV with our family.

2

NEGATIVE SENTENCE

There are two main structures:
1. Sentences that use the verb to be as the main verb

If a sentence has the verb to be (is, am, are) as the main verb, we can
simply use not after the verb to be. We can abbreviate is not as isn't and
abbreviate are not as aren't, but For am not, we don't use thumbnails.

Structure

Subject + verb to be + not + (object/complement)

He isn’t an engineer.
(The descriptive sentence is He is an engineer.)

They aren’t students.
(The descriptive sentence is They arestudents.)

2. Sentences that do not use the verb to be as the main verb.

If the sentence has a main verb other than verb to be, we use do/does + not before the
main verb. We can abbreviate do not as don't and abbreviate does not as doesn't.

Structure

Subject + do/does + not + verb 1 + (object/complement)

(In negative sentences that use do/does, we use does with the third person
singular subject, and do with other types of subjects. And we will use the main
verb. It is a regular verb that does not always add s/es.)

He doesn’t love me.
(The telling sentence is He loves me.)

Her friends don’t like me.
(The declarative sentence is Her friends like me.)

3

— Quiz 1 —

1. My aunt........................in New York.
a. live b. lives c. lived d. living

2. We...................to the movies twice a month.
a. go b. goes c. went d. going

3. ..............you.............reading a comic book?
a. Does, like b. Do, likes c. Do, like d. Does, likes

4. Sack is a vegetarian. He......................eat any meat.
a. don’t b. do c. does d. doesn’t

5. Her baby always...............in the afternoon.
a. cry b. cried c. cries d. crying

6. My older sister always..................to see the movie on Saturdays.
a. goes b. going c. went d. go

7. A : ..............you believe in God ? B: Yes, I do.
a. Does b. Do c. Doesn’t d. Don’t

8. A : .............is that all right? B: She’s my friend, Ann
a. What d. Don’t c. Who b. Do

9. He..............in class.
a. sleepy often is b. is often sleepy c. is sleepy often d. often is sleepy

10. Anna..............an English teacher. She...............us on Mondays.
a. is, teach b. is, teaches c. are, teach d. are, teaches

4

Present Simple : yes/no and wh-question

Yes/No Questions What is?
Yes/ No QuestionsIt is a group of questions that require a definite
yes or no answer.

Yes/No Questions starting with “Verb to be”

This group of auxiliary verbs that begin with questions are: is, am,

are, was, were. Sentence Structure

Verb to be + Subject + Object/ Complement….?

Example sentences
Declarative sentence: Emily is going to the zoo.

Interrogative sentence: Is Emily going to the zoo?

Explanation: Emily is the chairman, is as V. to be, going is from go + .ing.
= going

Verb to Do starts with Yes/No Questions.

Functions as an auxiliary verb, used in conjunction with the main verb.
to form questions, negative sentences, or to emphasize importance

Sentence Structure

Do/Does/Did + Subject + V .infinitive + Object/Complement?
Example Sentences

Simple Present Tense use Do / Does 5
Do you like going to the zoo?
Does the tiger eat meat?

Wh-Questions : These are questions that usually begin with
Wh such as What, When, Where , Why, Whose, Which, Whom,
Who, except for questions that begin with How, How much , How
many , How long

Types of Wh-Questions to Answer

— When —
When used at the beginning of a question that you want to ask
about time, for example:

When is your birthday?
When was your first love?

— What —
Used at the beginning of a question that you want to ask, used to ask
about things, names, dates, times, things that you love as follows:

What is your name?
What is your favourite colour?

— Where —
Used at the beginning of a question that you want to ask about a place,
for example:

Where are you from? Or We do you come from?
Where should we go?

— Why —
Used when starting a question that you want to ask about a reason,
for example:

Why did you come to school late?
Why did you leave him?




6

— Who —
Used when starting a question that you want to ask, used when asking
about a person
(Most of the answers will be in the name of a person) such as

Who are you?

Who is that?

Who do you live with?

— Whose —


Used at the beginning of a question that you want to ask about ownership.
for example :

Whose books are these?
Whose pen is this?

— Whom —
Used at the beginning of a question that you want to ask about a person.
For example :

Whom are we waiting for?
Whom are you going to travel with?

— Which —

Used at the beginning of a question that you want to ask in
order to choose one thing or to do which one.
For example:

Which is better?

— How —
for example :

How do you go to school? 7
How do you do? It's a greeting question. How are
you? When answering, answer How do you do?

— Quiz 2 —

1. We....................to the movies twice a month.
a. go b. goes c. went d. going

2. ..................you................reading a novel?
a. Does, like b. Do, likes c. Do, like d. Does, likes

3. My uncle..................in New York.
a. live b. lives c. lived d. living

4. Jacky is a vegetarian. He...................eat any meat.
a. don’t b. do c. does d. doesn’t

5. Her baby always ...................in the afternoon.
a. cry b. cried c. carries d. crying

6. My older brother always ...................to see the movie.
a. cry b. cried c. carries d. crying

7. Teddy ...................in class
a. sleepy often is b. is often sleepy c. is sleepy often d. often is sleepy

8. Fasai............. an English teacher. She..........us on Mondays.
a. is, teacher b. is, teaches c. are, teach d. are, teaches

9. A: .............you believe in God? B: Yes, I do.
a. does b. do c. doesn't d. don't

10.A: .............is that tall girl? B: She’s my friend, Ann
a. What b. Where c. who d. When

8

Countable and Uncountable Nouns

COUNTABLE NOUNS

It is a noun that can be counted as one, two, three... whether with or without a shape.
Has a shape (can touch ) - eg dog, chair , tree, school, country, student, biscuit
Out of shape ( can't touch ) - eg day , month, year, weekend, journey
Activities: job, assignment

There are both singular and plural forms.
Singular: eg dog,country,day,year
Plural: eg dogs,countries,days,years
For example :
For example, 5 pencils —— 5 pencils
8 books —— 8 books
1 house ——- a house

Principle of use

singular countable nouns must be preceded by one of the determiners.
For example:

I want an orange.
Where is the bottle?
Do you want this book?

Plural countable nouns may be preceded by
articles or not, for example

I like to feed the birds. ( specific, must have articles )
Cats are interesting pets. ( Not specific, does not need an article)
I want those books on the table. ( those are determiners )

9

UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

is an uncountable noun Because the English language sees that as a
whole and thinks that it cannot be divided into parts. Including the idea
Actions that are concrete (abstract nouns), such as

Concrete: water, milk, butter, furniture, luggage,
iron,equipment,clothing,garbage, junk

Abstract : such as anger, courage, satisfaction,happiness,knowledge
Language name: such as English,German,Spain
Sports: such as hockey, football, tennis
Subjects: eg sociology, medicine, anthropology
Activities: swimming, eating
Others : news, money,mail ,work,homework,gossip, education, weather,
difficulty, information,feminism, optimism,machinery,information,
research,traffic,scenery,breakfast, accomodation, advice, permission

A glass of milk
A bar of soap
A bowl of soup

If it's greater than 1, you'll need to add -s or -es.
to make it in the plural form, for example:

5 glasses of milk
11 bars of soap
2 bowls of soup




10

has a singular form and when addressed in general or not mentioned before
Do not lead with articles such as
I have bread and butter for breakfast every morning.
We cannot live without air and water.
Information is often valuable.
Sunlight and water are usually required for plants to grow.
My favorite breakfast is cereal with fruit, milk, orange juice, and toast.
Nouns can be both Countable and Uncountable. Some nouns can be both
countable and uncountable. Depending on the use, for example

11

For example :
I like duck. ( uncountable noun )
I like ducks. (like an animal called duck ) ( countable noun )
Beer is a bitter drink. ( uncountable noun )
I think I ordered two beers. ( countable noun )

uncountable nouns that are not commonly used as countable
( make plural ) for example

12

— Quiz 3 —

1.Choose uncountable nouns. 5.Choose uncountable nouns.
a. flower
a bag b. plant
c. wood
b. luggage d. tre
6.Which of the following is an uncountable
c. purse noun?
a. bread
d.suitcas b. bun
c.hot dog

d.pancak

2.Choose uncountable nouns.

a.furniture

b.desk

c.table

d.chai
3.Choose countable
nouns.

a.bread

b.cake

c.chocolate 7.Which of the following is a countable
noun?
d.sandwich

4Choose countable nouns. a.stone
a. sheep
b. ox b. paper
c. fish
d. cattl c. metal

d. book

13

8.Which of the following is an uncountable noun?
a. fruit
b. vegetable
c. peanut
d. sala
9.In this sentence, which of the following is a noun?
I tried to call him on his mobile phone.
a.tried
b.call
c.mobile phone

10.How many nouns are there in this sentence?
Bangkok is the capital city of Thailand.
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4

14

Articles

Article It is a word used to describe the specific or inconsistent of a noun.
There are 3 characters, a, an, the.
A definite article, the definite article, is used with something that has been
identified as a person or thing.
The woman with pink shoes is very pretty.
(The word woman here clearly indicates someone who wears pink shoes, so
we use the.)

Article (indefinite article) Well, a and an are used
when we talk about something in general. It does
not specify exactly who or what it is.
A woman can be anything she wants to be.
(The word woman here doesn't specify who it is, so
we use a.)

15

Principle of use article

Principles of using a and an
A and an are used when the noun meets all of these conditions.

is an indefinite noun
is a singular noun (There are one unit)
as a countable noun

Difference between a and an
We use a when the suffix does not begin with or is pronounced as if it
starts with a, e, i, o, u, otherwise we have to use an instead.

For example :
We'll use a banana (banana starts with b, not a, e, i, o, u).
but use an apple (apple starts with a)
But for some words, such as hour, we use an hour.
Because it's a special word that sounds like it starts with a, e, i, o, u.

If an adjective is added to a noun
For example : red apple, which means red apple.
When choosing a or an, we will stick with the word that
follows a/an.
Here we will use a red apple because the word red
doesn't start with a, e, i, o, u.

16

|| Is an indefinite noun

Nouns that can use a and an must be indefinite. is to refer to anything in
general It doesn't specify exactly which one.
for example :

He is a teacher.
(The word teacher here refers to the general occupation of a teacher.
It was not stated exactly who the teacher was.)

He is an engineer.
(The term engineer here refers to the profession of engineer in general.
Did not specify exactly who the engineer was.)

|| Is a singular noun
The words a and an, in addition to denoting inconsistency, It also
serves to tell the quantity of nouns as well. It means "one unit".
For Example :

A cat
A person
An apple

I have a pen.
I bought an orange.

We cannot use a and an with plural nouns, for example we would
not use a carrots.

17

|| As a countable noun

We can only use a and an directly with countable
nouns. If a noun is uncountable We need to use
specific units to direct them by using the structure
“a/an + unique units + of + uncountable nouns.”
For example:

A glass of water
A bag of flour
An inch of hair

The principle of use
• is a specific noun.
• is a singular noun. (a number of units) or plural
(Amount from 2 units or more)
• Is it a countable or uncountable noun.

|| Is a specific noun

We use the with definite nouns.
Which is what we identify exactly which one.

The sun rises in the east.
(Both the sun and the east are one and the same.
We already know what that means.)

Where did you park the car?
(The word car here, both the speaker and the listener know what car it means.)

18

|| is a singular or plural noun
We can use the with singular or plural nouns.
The word the is not a quantifier.

|| Is it a countable or uncountable noun.
We can use the with both countable and uncountable nouns.

( Exception )
We often use the with some nouns. Even if it's not a specific noun.

For example:
Things that are part of everyday life, inventions, musical
instruments
For example :
I use the internet every day.
(Use the even when referring to the Internet in general.)

The computer has changed the world in many different ways.
(Use the even when referring to computers in general.)

The violin is probably the world’s most popular instrument.
(Use the even when referring to the violin in general.)

19

Determiners

Determiners are nouns. serves to provide additional
information about nouns, such as quantity, ownership
Examples of determiners are a, an, the, this, that, some,
any, much, many, my, your, his, her, numbers (one, two,
three, …).
As you can see, a, an, the are also considered
determiners. We don't use a, an, the when other
determiners are used, for example:
This dog is cute.
(We will not use The this dog is cute.)
My umbrella is black.
(We will not use My the umbrella is black.)

20

— Quiz 4—

1. _____vegetables are good for health.
a. No articles.
b. The
c. An
d. A

2. _____tall boys like football.
a. No articles.
b. An
c. The
d. A

3. Danny eats _____apple after lunch.
a. an
b. The
c. An
d. A

4. _____bread you baked is very nice.
a. No articles.
b. An
c. A
d. The

5. I have got_____ headache.
a. The
b. a
c. an
d. No articles.

21

6. They like to go to Chiangmai in ______winter.
a. A
b. An
c. No articles.
d. The

7. I wait for you for _____hour.
a. No articles.
b. A
c. The
d. an

8. _____sun rises in the east.
a. A
b. The
c. An
d. No articles.

9. Let’s keep _____world clean.
a. A
b. An
c. The
d. No articles.

10. _____bird can sing.
a. No articles.
b. A
c. An
d. The




22

Present Continuous

Present Continuous Tense Or Present Progressive Tense
is a tens that is used to tell the action that is taking place or actions that
are going to happen in the future which is already planned

Structure Present Continuous Tense

Tell-tale Example Sentences : She is reading a newspaper.
Negative Example Sentences : She is not reading a newspaper.
Question Example Sentences : Is she reading a newspaper?

Principle of use present continuous tense

The principle of translation is to combine is am are with the verb adding ing.

1. Used to describe an event that is happening while speaking.
or during that week that month which may contain these
words

⇒ now / right now
⇒ at the moment

23

I am studying hard, John.
(Not now, but during this time.)
Most students are using mobile phones.
(Not now, but now.)
He is driving a car.
She‘s eating an apple.
It is raining at the moment.
A cat is sleeping in the room.
You are sitting on my book.
We are running right now.
They are going to school.

2. It is used to refer to an event that is going to happen in the
future (of course) and is often accompanied by a future word.

⇒ this evening
⇒ tonight
⇒ tomorrow
⇒ this weekend
⇒ next week
⇒ next month
⇒ next year

…..and so on

24

I’m studying English this weekend. 25
(I will study because I have paid.)
She is going to the market tomorrow.
(Out of stock, must go buy)
He‘s coming to my house for lunch this Friday.
We‘re moving to New York next year.
They are seeing the doctor next month.
(doesn't mean to see)

» Question Example Sentences

Is he driving a car?
yes, he is./ No, he isn’t.
Is she eating an apple?
Yes, she is. / No, she isn’t.
Is it raining at the moment?
Yes, it is./ No, it isn’t.
Is a cat sleeping in the room?
Yes, it is./ No, it isn’t.

» Negative example sentences

You‘re sitting on my book.
We‘re not running right now.
They‘re not going to school?

» Wh-questions Example Sentences
What are doing?
I’m walking.
Who is taking.
Jo is talking.
Where are you going?
I’m going home.
How are you doing?
I’m good.
Why is she crying?
Her cat is dead.

— Quiz 5 — 26

1. He..................the letter to his wife now.
A. Is writeing
B. Is writing
C. Are writing
D. Am writing

2. Jenny.............................to school by bus now.
A. Is going
B. Is doing
C. Are going
D. Are doing

3.......................the teacher.....................English at this time.
A. Are teaching
B. Is teaching
C. Do teaching
D. Does teaching



4.__________you watching television n
ow?
A. Are
B. Is
C. Do
D. Did

5. We_________for our English test at the moment.
A. Study
B. Are studying
C. Is studying
D. Studied

6. Today, it is not raining. The sun_______now.
A. Shine
B. Shone
C. Is shining
D. Are shining

7. Please be quiet. I______to the news now.
A. Am listening
B. Listen
C. Is listening
D. Are listening

8. What are you doing? ________a model plane.
A. I make
B. I making
C. I am making
D. I made

9. What.................you....................now?
A. Am do
B. Are do
C. Are doing
D. Is doing

10. Jenny and Jane.......................football right now at school.
A. Is playing
B. Play
C. Playing
D. Are playing

27

Present Simple and Present Continuous

PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE

is to talk about general The current repetition.

Sentence Structure of the Present Simple Tense

– S + V.1 If the subject is the 3rd person singular
(He, She, It, The library, a dog, etc…) Verbs add s/es.

He drives a taxi.
She eats pizza.
I live in Bangkok.

– S + Auxiliary Verb (helping verb) + V.1 (V.1 do not add s/es)

She can play tennis.
We must work hard.

Principles of using the Present Simple

1. used to talk about general truths 28
(Both about ourselves and the truth of nature)

I live in Bangkok.
The earth moves round the sun.

2. Used to talk about habits or current routine.

She eats fruit every day.
I go to work by BTS.

Note: Regular events or actions often have adverbs of frequency
in the sentence.

3. used to talk about things that are planned to be done in the future
(often related to plans and schedules)

Our holiday starts on the 11th August.
The museum opens at 9.00 a.m. and closes at 5.00 p.m.

4. use to tell jokes Summary of stories from dramas, movies, novels or
sports events in real time.

In her new movie, Yaya plays a troubled woman.
Messi stops in mid-field and passes the ball to Suarez.

5. Used to express likes, opinions, feelings. Most of the verbs used arelike,
love, prefer, know, understand, hate, need, want, believe, remember, see,
hear, taste, smell, look

I need to know right now.
Nadee likes eating dessert.

**eating here it is a Gerund with a noun status meaning to eat.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

Present Continuous Tense is to talk about events that are
constantly happening at that moment. but will end soon

Structure of the Present Continuous Tense 29

S + V to be (is, am, are) + V ing

She is talking to her friend.
I’m watching the movie.

Principles of using the Present Continuous Tense

1. Used to talk about what is being done or is happening while speaking.

They are swimming in the pool.
He is having breakfast.

** We can add just before V ing to emphasize that we are…
He is just having breakfast.

2. used to say an event that will happen in the near future or must be so;
often used with moving verbs

My dad is going to Tokyo on Friday.
I’m flying to Milan in September.

Remember: Some verbs cannot add ing in the Present Continuous. They are
called Stative Verbs such as hear, see, feel, understand, love, etc.

— Quiz 6—

1. Tom_________ in the army from 1950 - 1955.
a. is b. be c. used d. was

2. Catherine and my friends_________ the hotel two days ago.
a. don’t leave b. doesn’t leave c. didn’t d. didn’t leave

3. ........the tickets for the cinema as I asked you to?
a. Did you get b. Do you get c. Get you d. Were you getting

4.A: What did you do yesterday? 9. I have..............here for ten years.
B: I.................my father to work in a farm. a. live b. lives c. been d. being
a. helped b. help c. helping d. helps
10. I have worked here ....................1990.
5.A: Where did you go .....................? a. for b. since c. about d. been
B: I went to Bangkok.
a. today b. tomorrow c. lastweek d.ago

6. She...................studied English for six days.
a. is b. does c. have d. has

7. How are you? I.............you for ages.
a. don’tsee b.hadn’tseen c. haven’tseen d.didn’tsee

8. A: How long...................your classmate?
B: For 3 years.
a. you have known b. you knew c. youknow d. haveyouknown

30

Comparative and superlative

COMPARATIVE

It is a comparison to show the greater or lesser value of two things in any
sense. with a simple sentence structure In a greater comparison, it is

S + V. to be + Comparative adj. + than + O

For example : ( The elephant is bigger than the cow.)

But if you want to make a less-than-comparative comparison, add less before
the comparative adjective:

S + V. to be + less + Comparative adj. + than + O



For example : ( The cow is less bigger than the elephant )

Principle of use

How to turn Adj into Comparative Adjectivee

In bringing an adjective (adj.) to change it into a comparative adj, there are 3
types of transition principles:

1. adj. + -er
It is most often used with adjectives that are 1-2 syllables in length.
for example bigger, smaller , calmer etc.

In this way, if an adjective ends in y, then omit the y and add -er.
for example dirty => dirtier , easy => easier

2. more + adj.
This method is often used with adjectives that are 3 or more syllables in length.
for example more beautiful , more generous , more difficult เป็ นต้น

But it is also sometimes used with adjectives that are less than three syllables.
for example more honest , more handsome etc.

31

3. change special pattern
Some adjectives are immutable like the two above, but are completely
immutable. which requires a memorization method

for example good => better , far => farther etc.

SUPERLATIVE

It is a comparison of three or more objects, or all of the same category.
Whet her that is good or the most there is a simple sentence structure :
S + V. to be + the + Superlative adj.
— I’m the richest person in this town.
And for the least or worst comparison, add least to the superlative adjective like this:
S + V. to be + the + least + Superlative adj.
— Reading is the least interesting hobby for me.

Principle of use

Converting Adjectives to Superlative Adjectivese

There are three types of transition principles in the conversion of an
adjective (adj.) to a superlative adj.

1. the + adj. + -est
It is most often used with adjectives that are 1-2 syllables in length.
e.g. the greatest , the tallest etc.

In this way, if an adjective ends in y, then omit the y and add -est.

For example pretty => the prettiest , lazy => the laziest etc.

32

2. the + most + adj.
This method is often used with adjectives that are 3 or more syllables,
For example: the most expensive , the most important etc.
But sometimes it is also used with adjectives that are less than 3 syllables in
length.
For example : the most honest , the most handsome etc.
3. change special pattern
Some adjectives are immutable like the two above, but are completely
immutable. which requires a memorization method by which word changes the
special form in the comparative comparative It will also change the special
format in the ultimate comparison.
For example : good => the best , bad => the worst etc.

Example :
She is as tall as her mother.
I’m as beautiful as my mother.
This comic is not as interesting as the last one.
My cat is not as fat as yours.

33

— Quiz 7 —

1. I am ________ my brother.
a) taller than
b) the tallest

2. She is ________ student in her class.
a) younger than
b) the younger
c) the youngest

3. The dog is ________ the cat.
a) the older than
b) older than
c) the oldest

4. The red jacket is ________ the blue jacket.

a) expensiver than

b) more expensive than

c) the most expensive 5. My mother is ________ in her family.
a) the shorter

b) the shorter than

c) the shortest

6. I like sushi, but Chinese food is ________.
a) better
b) the better
c) more better
d) the bestest

7. My drink is ________ of all the drinks.
a) colder than
b) the coldest
c) the most cold

34

8. My sister is ________ student in her class.
a) smarter than
b) the smarter
c) the most smart
d) the smartest

9. Those books are ________ the other books.
a) expensiver than
b) more expensive than
c) most expensive than
d) the most expensive

10. Her brother is ________ soccer player on his team.
a) the better
b) better than
c) the most good
d) the best

35

Have To/Don't Have To

HAVE TO

Have to Used when a situation forces us to act which we may not want to do It
could be a rule or regulation to do so.

The structure is

have to + verb infinitive (form verb 1)

For example :

— I have to stop smoking.
— I have to go to supermarket today.
— Because my mom asked me to buy something.

Note: I, You, We, They and other plural subjects
use have to
President He, She, It and other singular subjects
use has to

36

DON’T HAVE TO/DOESN’T HAVE TO

Don’t have to/doesn’t have to It means "no need..." that is, to do
or not to do.

The structure is

don't have to/doesn't have to + verb infinitive (V.1)

For example :

He doesn't have to wear a suit to work but he usually does.
I don’t have to clean my room every day.
Teachers don’t have to work on Sunday.

37

— Quiz 8 —

A: Make these sentences negative.
Example:
We must come today. We mustn’t come today.

1) Tanggwa has to stay at home. ______________________
2) They have to go now. ______________________________
3) Sumalee has to phone her mother. ____________________
4) Pranee must speak to my parents. ___________________
5) The children must play in the park. _______________
6) We have to drive slowly here. _____________________
7) Surachai has to get up early. _____________________

Correct answer :
1) Tanggwa doesn’t have to stay at home.
2) They don’t have to go now.
3) Sumalee doesn’t have to phone her mother.
4) Pranee mustn’t speak to my parents.
5) The children mustn’t play in the park.
6) We don’t have to drive slowly here.
7) Surachai doesn’t have to get up early.

38

Must / Mustn't ; Should / Shouldn't

MUST

Used when we think we have to do it.

The structure is

must + verb infinitive (verb 1)

For example:

I must go to the hospital.
(It's our own idea that we must go. Because he may feel that he is not
feeling well, so he has to go to the hospital for examination)
I must stop smoking.
(We want to quit.)
I must finish this work today.
(We thought we would finish today.)
I must go to supermarket today. Because cosmetic sale finishes
today.

39

MUSTN’T (MUST NOT)

mustn’t means "must not..." which is a rule or regulation that
"do not do"

The structure is

mustn't + verb infinitive (V.1)

For example :
You mustn’t drink if you’re going to drive.
(Because it is illegal.)
You mustn’t take photos here.
( Because it's a rule not to take pictures.)
You mustn’t cross the road when there is a red light.

40

SHOULD AND SHOULDN’T 41

— used to suggest
used to suggest that should, should not

for example :

•It’s dark now. We should stay here tonight.
•You look pale. You should see a doctor.
•We’re leaving early tomorrow. We shouldn’t go to bed late.

— used to make predictions
Used to speculate that probably, probably not.

For example :
•The traffic is jammed. Sam shouldn’t arrive home soon.
•She should finish her homework in ten minutes.
•Sam is smaller than anyone. He should win this game.

— used to blame
used to blame Blame it means probably, probably not.
It comes in the form should have + verb block 3.

For example :

•You shouldn’t done that.
•You shouldn’t said that to your dad.
•You should have been more careful.

— used in if clauses
In addition, should is used in the original if clause.

For example :

•If I see Jane again, I will tell her everything.
•If I should see Jane again, I will tell her everything.
•Should I see Jane again, I will tell her everything.

— Quiz 9 —

Complete the list of suggestions for "Trick or treat".
Write: should or shouldn't in the gaps:

1. You ( ) wear a Halloween costume.
2. You ( ) play really mean tricks on people.
3. You ( ) wear black clothes at night.
4. You ( ) take a bag with you for sweets.
5. You ( ) go on your own.
6. You ( ) stay out very late.
7. You ( ) always go with friends.
8. You ( ) always tell an adult where you are going.

Correct Answers
1) should
2) shouldn't
3) shouldn't
4) should
5) shouldn't
6) shouldn't
7) should
8) should

42

Past Simple:Was/Were, Could

PAST SIMPLE TENSE

Past Simple Tense is the simple past tense some call it Simple Past.

Structure Past Simple Tense

S + V 2 (Subject + Verb 2)
Subject + Verb 2

Principle of use

All subjects use the same verb (except was for singular subject, were for
plural subject). Remember the main point of this tense is to tell a story
that happened in the past. And it's over. not related to the present.

1. Used to tell an event in the past. To specify the directing
time Or is it known that it happened in the past?

1.1 Tell the events that are timed. The most common time
stamps are:

Yesterday

last + time/ day/ week/ month/ season/ year eg.
last hour
→ last night
→ last Monday
→ last Tuesday
→ last month
→ last Christmas
→ last Summer
→ last year

43

Second / minute / hour / day / week / month / year + ago eg.
→ ten seconds ago
→ Five minutes ago
→ Three days ago
→ Two weeks ago
→ one month ago (equal to last month)
→ four years ago

Past Simple Tense Example :

• Telling Sentences

Is the subject followed by the second verb with all subjects.

I saw Jane at the bank yesterday.
I went to Jim’s party lastnight.
We studied math last Friday.

• Negative Sentence

Put did not or didn't before the main verb and the main verb is changed to verb 1.
without adding s or es

I din’t see Jane at the bank yesterday.
I didn’t go to Jim’s party last night.
We did not study math last Friday.

• Interrogative Sentence 44

Put Did at the beginning of the sentence, or Didn't if it's a negative question.
and the main verb, use verb 1 without adding s or es

Did you see Jane at the bank yesterday.
Yes, I did.
Did you go to Jim’s party last night.
No, I didn’t.
Did they study math last Friday.
Yes, they did.

1.2 Retelling events that do not have time to direct, but are known to talk about
the past, such as
Sam : Did you go to the party last night.
( There is definitely the word last )
Sim: Yes. It was the great party.
I saw Jim and Jo.
I drank a lot of cola and ate lots of pizza.
2. Used to describe routines or habits that have been done in the
past.
Frequency indications such as always, sometimes, never , etc.
She always went to school late last month.
We sometimes watched movies at home last year.
I never read books in the evening last month.

3. Used to tell stories. Most of them have words Long time ago
or Once upon a time (a long time ago).

45

WAS, WERE

Structure

(President + was, were + noun)
(subject + was, were, + adjective)

For Example :
I was a student. I (was) a student (student = noun)
We were teachers. . We were teachers (teachers = noun)
I was fine. I (was) fine (fine = adjective)
She was short. She (was) short (short = adjective)

The principle of using was were

Was, Were means to be, is similar to is am are, but is a story in
the past not related to the present

COULD 2. Negative

Auxiliary Verb (helping verb ) One is the

past tense of can which is the present
tense where could indicates past abilities Full Pic Thumbnail
of persons and animals are as follows:
I could not swim I couldn’t swim
1. Affirmative
I could swim. You could not swim You couldn’t swim
He could swim.
You could swim. We could not swim We couldn’t swim’
She could swim.
We could swim. They could not swim They couldn’t swim
It could swim.
They could swim. 3. Noun form and short answer

Question Answer
Could I swim? Yes. I/we/you/they/he/she/it could.
Could you swim?
Could we swim? No, I/you/they/he/she/it couldn't

For Example :
Our son could talk when he was
two years old.

I couldn’t come to class
yesterday because I was sick.

46

— Quiz 10 —

1. What is the meaning of the Past Simple Tense?

a. A sentence showing the present action.

b. Sentences showing future actions 8. Rungthawan : Did you play tennis?

c. Sentences showing actions while speaking Wilasinee : _________________________

d. Actions that took place and ended in the past a. Yes, I play.


b. Yes, I do.
2. Tom : Was Ted at work yesterday?
c. Yes, I am.
Smith : ____________________
a. Yes, he wasn’t. d. Yes, I did.

b. No, he weren’t. 9. Kasipat : Did you _____well _____?
c. No, he were. Dawut : Yes, I did.
d. Yes, he was.
a. sleep /last night

b. slept/everyday
3. Benz : ________________ c. sleeping/now
d. sleeps/today
Paul : She was at school.
a. What was Sue yesterday?

b. Where was Sue yesterday? 10. Pongsak : Did you have fried rice for
c. What were Sue yesterday? breakfast?
d. Where were Sue yesterday?
4. Which sentence is Cor
rect? Tanarat : No, I _____fried rice.
a. She knew him very well. a. didn’t have
b. I writes to him yesterday. b. didn’t has
c. She buy a new car last week. c. haven’t
d. He taken it to school this morning. d. don’t

5. Sarun _____ go to school yesterday. Answer 2. d
a. doesn’t 1. d 4. a
b. didn’t 3. b 6. c
c. don’t 5. b 8. d
d. isn’t 7. b 10. a
9. a
6. Jane _____ me last week.
a. visit 47
b. visits
c. visited
d. is visiting

7. Which sentence is correct?
a. Did he watched TV
b. Did he watch TV last night?
c. Did he watches last night?
d. Did watch TV last night?


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