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200_Seeley's Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 9th Ed-690

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200_Seeley's Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 9th Ed-690

200_Seeley's Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 9th Ed-690

Cinnamon VanPutte Jennifer Regan Andrew Russo

Southwestern Illinois College University of Southern Mississippi University of Iowa

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Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights
reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2013, 2010, and 2007. No part of this publication may be reproduced
or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill
Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.

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ISBN 978-0-07-809732-4
MHID 0-07-809732-0

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

VanPutte, Cinnamon L.

Seeley’s essentials of anatomy & physiology / Cinnamon Van Putte, Jennifer Regan, Andrew Russo.–Ninth edition.

pages cm Proudly sourced and uploaded by [StormRG]
Includes index. Kickass Torrents | TPB | ET | h33t

1. Human physiology. 2. Human anatomy. I. Regan, Jennifer L. II. Russo, Andrew F. III. Title.

IV. Title: Essentials of anatomy and physiology.

QP34.5.S418 2016



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d e d ic at io n

This text is dedicated to our families. Without their uncompromising
support and love, this effort would not have been possible. Our spouses

and children have been more than patient while we’ve spent many
nights at the computer surrounded by mountains of books. We also
want to acknowledge and dedicate this edition to the previous authors
as we continue the standard of excellence that they have set for so
many years. For each of us, authoring this text is a culmination of our
passion for teaching and represents an opportunity to pass knowledge
on to students beyond our own classrooms; this has all been made

possible by the support and mentorship we in turn have
received from our teachers, colleagues, friends, and family.

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About the Authors

cinnamon L. VanPutte Jennifer L. Regan andrew F. Russo

Professor of Biology Instructor Professor of Molecular
Southwestern Illinois College University of Southern Mississippi Physiology and Biophysics
University of Iowa
Cinnamon has been teaching biology and For over ten years, Jennifer has taught
human anatomy and physiology for almost introductory biology, human anatomy and Andrew has over 20 years of classroom
two decades. At Southwestern Illinois College physiology, and genetics at the university experience with human physiology, neurobiology,
she is a full-time faculty member and the and community college level. She has received molecular biology, and cell biology courses at
coordinator for the anatomy and physiology the Instructor of the Year Award at both the the University of Iowa. He is a recipient of the
courses. Cinnamon is an active member of departmental and college level while teaching Collegiate Teaching Award and is currently the
several professional societies, including the at USM. In addition, she has been recognized course director for Medical Cell Biology and
Human Anatomy & Physiology Society (HAPS). for her dedication to teaching by student Director of the Biosciences Graduate Program.
Her Ph.D. in zoology, with an emphasis in organizations such as the Alliance for Graduate He is also a member of several professional
endocrinology, is from Texas A&M University. Education in Mississippi and Increasing Minority societies, including the American Physiological
She worked in Dr. Duncan MacKenzie’s lab, Access to Graduate Education. Jennifer has Society and the Society for Neuroscience.
where she was indoctrinated in the major dedicated much of her career to improving Andrew received his Ph.D. in biochemistry from
principles of physiology and the importance of lecture and laboratory instruction at her the University of California at Berkeley. His
critical thinking. The critical thinking component institutions. Critical thinking and lifelong research interests are focused on the molecular
of Seeley’s Essentials of Human Anatomy & learning are two characteristics Jennifer hopes neurobiology of migraine. His decision to join
Physiology epitomizes Cinnamon’s passion for to instill in her students. She appreciates the the author team for Seeley’s Essentials of Human
the field of human anatomy and physiology; Seeley approach to learning and is excited Anatomy & Physiology is the culmination of a
she is committed to maintaining this tradition of about contributing to further development of passion for teaching that began in graduate
excellence. Cinnamon and her husband, Robb, the textbook. She received her Ph.D. in biology school. He is excited about the opportunity to
have two children: a daughter, Savannah, and at the University of Houston, under the direction hook students’ interest in learning by presenting
a son, Ethan. Savannah is very creative and of Edwin H. Bryant and Lisa M. Meffert. She cutting-edge clinical and scientific advances.
artistic; she loves to sing, write novels, and do is an active member of several professional Andy is married to Maureen, a physical therapist,
art projects. Robb and Ethan have their black organizations, including the Human Anatomy and has three daughters Erilynn, Becky, and
belts in karate and Ethan is one of the youngest and Physiology Society. During her free time, Colleen, now in college and graduate school.
black belts at his martial arts school. Cinnamon Jennifer enjoys spending time with her husband, He enjoys all types of outdoor sports, especially
is also active in martial arts and is a competitive Hobbie, and two sons, Patrick and Nicholas. bicycling, skiing, ultimate Frisbee and, before
Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu practitioner. She has competed moving to Iowa, bodyboard surfing.
at both the Pan Jiu-Jitsu Championship and the
World Jiu-Jitsu Championship.

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Brief Contents

chapter 1 The Human Organism 1
chapter 2 The Chemical Basis of Life 21
chapter 3 Cell Structures and Their Functions 42
chapter 4 Tissues 70
chapter 5 Integumentary System 94
chapter 6 Skeletal System: Bones and Joints 110
chapter 7 Muscular System 150
chapter 8 Nervous System 193
chapter 9 Senses 239
chapter 10 Endocrine System 264
chapter 1 1 Blood 297
chapter 12 Heart 318
chapter 13 Blood Vessels and Circulation 350
chapter 14 Lymphatic System and Immunity 385
chapter 15 Respiratory System 412
chapter 16 Digestive System 442
chapter 17 Nutrition, Metabolism, and Body Temperature

Regulation 476
chapter 18 Urinary System and Fluid Balance 499
chapter 19 Reproductive System 529
chapter 20 Development, Heredity, and Aging 560

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Online Teaching and Learning Resources 4.9 Effects of Aging on Tissues 91 8.3 Cells of the Nervous System 194
viii 8.4 Electrical Signals and Neural
chapter 5
Teaching and Learning Supplements xii Pathways 196
What Sets Seeley’s Essentials Apart? xiii integumentary System 94 8.5 Central and Peripheral Nervous
Ninth Edition Changes xxi
Chapter-by-Chapter Changes xxii 5.1 Functions of the Systems 206
List of Clinical Impact Essays xxv Integumentary System 94 8.6 Spinal Cord 206
Acknowledgments xxvi 8.7 Spinal Nerves 208
5.2 Skin 95 8.8 Brain 210
chapter 1 5.3 Subcutaneous Tissue 98 8.9 Sensory Functions 214
5.4 Accessory Skin Structures 99 8.10 Motor Functions 217
the Human organism 1 5.5 Physiology of the Integumentary 8.11 Other Brain Functions 219
8.12 Meninges, Ventricles, and
1.1 Anatomy 1 System 101
1.2 Physiology 2 5.6 Integumentary System as a Cerebrospinal Fluid 222
1.3 Structural and Functional 8.13 Cranial Nerves 223
Diagnostic Aid 103 8.14 Autonomic Nervous System 225
Organization of the Human 5.7 Burns 103 8.15 Enteric Nervous System 231
Body 2 5.8 Skin Cancer 106 8.16 Effects of Aging on the Nervous
1.4 Characteristics of Life 3 5.9 Effects of Aging on the
1.5 Homeostasis 4 System 231
1.6 Terminology and the Body Integumentary System 106
Plan 11 chapter 9
chapter 6
chapter 2 Senses 239
Skeletal System: Bones
the chemical Basis of Life 21 and Joints 110 9.1 Sensation 239
9.2 Sensory Receptors 239
2.1 Basic Chemistry 21 6.1 Functions of the Skeletal 9.3 General Senses 240
2.2 Chemical Reactions 26 System 110 9.4 Special Senses 242
2.3 Acids and Bases 30 9.5 Olfaction 242
2.4 Inorganic Molecules 31 6.2 Extracellular Matrix 111 9.6 Taste 243
2.5 Organic Molecules 31 6.3 General Features of Bone 111 9.7 Vision 244
6.4 Bone and Calcium Homeostasis 9.8 Hearing and Balance 253
chapter 3 9.9 Effects of Aging on the Senses 260
cell Structures and their 6.5 General Considerations of Bone chapter 10
Functions 42
Anatomy 119 endocrine System 264
3.1 Cell Structure 42 6.6 Axial Skeleton 120
3.2 Functions of the Cell 44 6.7 Appendicular Skeleton 129 10.1 Principles of Chemical
3.3 Cell Membrane 44 6.8 Joints 137 Communication 264
3.4 Movement Through the Cell 6.9 Effects of Aging on the Skeletal
10.2 Functions of the Endocrine
Membrane 44 System and Joints 143 System 265
3.5 Organelles 52
3.6 Whole-Cell Activity 58 chapter 7 10.3 Characteristics of the Endocrine
3.7 Cellular Aspects of Aging 66 System 266
Muscular System 150
chapter 4 10.4 Hormones 266
7.1 Functions of the Muscular 10.5 Control of Hormone Secretion 267
tissues 70 System 150 10.6 Hormone Receptors and

4.1 Tissues and Histology 70 7.2 Characteristics of Skeletal Mechanisms of Action 269
4.2 Epithelial Tissue 70 Muscle 151 10.7 Endocrine Glands and Their
4.3 Connective Tissue 77
4.4 Muscle Tissue 83 7.3 Smooth Muscle and Cardiac Hormones 274
4.5 Nervous Tissue 86 Muscle 165 10.8 Other Hormones 291
4.6 Tissue Membranes 86 10.9 Effects of Aging on the Endocrine
4.7 Tissue Damage and 7.4 Skeletal Muscle Anatomy 166
7.5 Effects of Aging on Skeletal System 291
Inflammation 88
4.8 Tissue Repair 89 Muscle 185 chapter 11

vi chapter 8 Blood 297

nervous System 193 11.1 Functions of Blood 297
11.2 Composition of Blood 298
8.1 Functions of the Nervous
System 193

8.2 Divisions of the Nervous System 194

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11.3 Plasma  298 14.9 Effects of Aging on the Lymphatic 18.4 Regulation of Urine Concentration
11.4 Formed Elements  299 System and Immunity   409 and Volume  510
11.5 Preventing Blood Loss   304
11.6 Blood Grouping  308 Chapter 15 18.5 Urine Movement  514
11.7 Diagnostic Blood Tests   310 18.6 Body Fluid Compartments   518
Respiratory System  412 18.7 Regulation of Extracellular Fluid
Chapter 12
15.1   Functions of the Composition  519
Heart  318 Respiratory System  412 18.8 Regulation of Acid-Base

12.1   Functions of the Heart   15.2 Anatomy of the Respiratory Balance  521
318 System  413
Chapter 19
12.2 Size, Form, and Location of the 15.3 Ventilation and Respiratory
Heart  319 Volumes  421 Reproductive System  529
19.1   Functions of the
12.3 Anatomy of the Heart   320 15.4 Gas Exchange  427
12.4 Histology of the Heart   327 15.5 Gas Transport in the Blood   429 Reproductive System  529
12.5 Electrical Activity of the Heart   329 15.6 Rhythmic Breathing  429 19.2 Formation of Gametes   530
12.6 Cardiac Cycle  333 15.7 Respiratory Adaptations to 19.3 Male Reproductive System   532
12.7 Heart Sounds  337 19.4 Physiology of Male
12.8 Regulation of Heart Function   338 Exercise  438
12.9 Effects of Aging on the Heart   346 15.8 Effects of Aging on the Respiratory Reproduction  537
19.5 Female Reproductive System   541
Chapter 13 System  438 19.6 Physiology of Female

Blood Vessels and Chapter 16 Reproduction   548
Circulation  350 19.7 Effects of Aging on the
Digestive System  442
13.1   Functions of the Reproductive System  555
Circulatory System  350 16.1   Functions of the
Digestive System  442 Chapter 20
13.2 General Features of Blood Vessel
Structure  351 16.2 Anatomy and Histology of the Development, Heredity,
Digestive System  443 and Aging  560
13.3 Blood Vessels of the Pulmonary 20.1   Prenatal
Circulation  353 16.3 Oral Cavity, Pharynx, and
Esophagus  444 Development  560
13.4 Blood Vessels of the Systemic 20.2 Parturition  572
Circulation: Arteries  354 16.4 Stomach  451 20.3 The Newborn  573
16.5 Small Intestine  455 20.4 Lactation  574
13.5 Blood Vessels of the Systemic 16.6 Liver and Pancreas   458 20.5 First Year Following Birth   576
Circulation: Veins  362 16.7 Large Intestine  463 20.6 Life Stages  577
16.8 Digestion, Absorption, and 20.7 Genetics  579
13.6 Physiology of Circulation   367
13.7 Control of Blood Flow in Tissues   371 Transport  465 Appendices
13.8 Regulation of Arterial Pressure   373 16.9 Effects of Aging on the Digestive
13.9 Effects of Aging on the Blood A Table of Measurements   A-1
System  470 B Some Reference Laboratory
Vessels  379
Chapter 17 Values  A-2
Chapter 14 C Solution Concentrations  A-7
Nutrition, Metabolism, D Answers to Critical Thinking
Lymphatic System and and Body Temperature
Immunity  385 Regulation  476 Questions  A-8
E Answers to Predict Questions   A-18
14.1   Functions of the 17.1   Nutrition  476
Lymphatic System  385 17.2 Metabolism  484 Glossary  G-1
17.3 Body Temperature Regulation   Credits  C-1
14.2 Anatomy of the Lymphatic Index  I-1
System  386 494

14.3 Immunity  390 Chapter 18
14.4 Innate Immunity  390
14.5 Adaptive Immunity  394 Urinary System and
14.6 Acquired Immunity  403 Fluid Balance  499
14.7 Overview of Immune
18.1   Functions of the
Interactions  404 Urinary System  499
14.8 Immunotherapy  404
18.2 Anatomy of the Kidneys   500
18.3 Urine Production  505


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What Sets Seeley’s Essentials Apart?

Seeley’s Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology is designed to help students develop a

solid, basic understanding of essential concepts in anatomy and phySkseileotalol Sgysytemw: Bitohneos uantd Joints 143
an encyclopedic presentation of detail. Our goal as authors is to offer a textbook that
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basketball. As a result of a “charging” foul, loosh was knocked

emphasis on critical thinking—backward and fell. As he broke his fall with his extended right
arm, the head of the right humerus was forced out of the glenoid Most movements that occur in the course of normal activities
are combinations of movements. A complex movement can be

described by naming the individual movements involved.
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expteheriheenarct.e a dislocated shoulder. a decrease in venoustrheteu rnsphaavceeo npcoarsditaecroiuotpru tt?o the anatomical position.

7. Describe the vessels that supply blood to the cardiac muscle.

8. Define heart attack and infarct. How does atherosclerotic plaque
affect the heart?

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Pthrroounghatthieocnon du(cptiroon̄-snysat̄e′mshofŭtnhe)h eaarnt.d supination

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to evaluate their responses

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A. describe the effects of aging on bone matrix and joints.
arm so that the palm faces up (figure 6.41d).

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• Protraction (prō-trak′shŭn) is a movement in which a Significant loss of bone increases the likelihood of bone frac-
structure, such as the mandible, glides anteriorly. tures. For example, loss of trabeculae greatly increases the risk of

• In retraction (rē-trak′shŭn), the structure glides posteriorly. fractures of the vertebrae. In addition, loss of bone and the resulting xiii
• Elevation is movement of a structure in a superior direction. fractures can cause deformity, loss of height, pain, and stiffness.
Loss of bone from the jaws can also lead to tooth loss.
Closing the mouth involves elevation of the mandible.

• Depression is movement of a structure in an inferior direction. A number of changes occur within many joints asU an ipveerrssoanl Free E-Book Store

often form on the skin of the abdomen and breasts of a woman
during pregnancy or on the skin of athletes who have quickly
increased muscle size by intense weight training.

The upper part of the dermis has projections called dermal
papillae (pă-pil′e; nipple), which extend toward the epidermis
(see figure 5.2). The dermal papillae contain many blood vessels
that supply the overlying epidermis with nutrients, remove waste
products, and help regulate body temperature. The dermal papillae
in the palms of the hands, the soles of the feet, and the tips of
the digits are arranged in parallel, curving ridges that shape the
overlying epidermis into fingerprints and footprints. The ridges
increase friction and improve the grip of the hands and feet.

um A CASE IN POINT clinical emphasis—Case Studies Bring
e Injections Relevance to the Reader

the Howey Stickum, a student nurse, learns three ways to give When problems in structure and/or function of the human body occur, this is
. injections. An intradermal injection is administered by drawing often the best time to comprehend how the two are related. A Case in Point
the skin taut and inserting a small needle at a shallow angle

into the dermis; an example is the tuberculin skin test. A readings, untitled Clinical Asides, and Clinical Impact boxes all work to provide
subcutaneous injection is achieved by pinching the skin to form a thorough clinical education that fully supports the surrounding textual mate-
a “tent” and inserting a short needle into the adipose tissue rial. Systems Pathology and Systems Interactions vignettes provide a modern
of the subcutaneous tissue; an example is an insulin injection. and system’s interaction approach to clinical study of the materials presented.
An intramuscular injection is accomplished by inserting a long
needle at a 90-degree angle t1o18 the skin intoChaaptmer u6scle deep to the

subcutaneous tissue. Intramuscular injectCiolnisnairCe ausledIMforPmAoCst T Bone Fractures ▲▲ Clinical Impact boxes (placed
vaccines and certain antibiotics.

a case in Point Skeletal Bone fractures can be classi- Fractures can also be classified transverse (at right angles to the long at key points in the text)
fied as open (or compound), if the bone according to the direction of the fracture axis); or oblique or spiral (at an angle
These case studies protrudes through the skin, and closed line as linear (parallel to the long axis); other than a right angle to the long axis). Chapter opening clinical
(or simple), if the skin is not perforated. scenarios/vignettes have been
explore relevant issues Figure 6A illustrates some of the different given a new look and many
types of fractures. If the fracture totally are revised
of clinical interest and separates the two bone fragments, it is
called complete; if it doesn’t, it is called

explain how material incomplete. An incomplete fracture that Linear Comminuted Impacted Spiral ▲ ▲▲▲ Learn to Predict and chapter
just presented in occurs on the convex side of the curve of Complete Incomplete Transverse Oblique Predict questions with unique
the text can be a bone is called a greenstick fracture. A Learn to Predict Answers
used to understand comminuted (kom′i-nu¯-ted; broken into Figure 6A
important anatomical small pieces) fracture is one in which the Clinical Asides
and physiological bone breaks into more than two frag- Types of bone fractures.
concepts, particularly ments. An impacted fracture occurs when Clinical Impact Essays
in a clinical setting. one of the fragments of one part of the
bone is driven into the spongy bone of Clinical Pathologies and
another fragment. Systems Interactions

clinical impact These in-depth essays explore relevant topics of clinical
SubjectsbDleococrdeoaCsvae2ed+ red currentIncreased
interest. inc1 lude patholo5gies, blood Ca2+ research, sports

medicine, exercise physiology, pharmacology, and various clinical applications.

Posterior aspect
of thyroid gland

Parathyroid 1 Decreased blood Ca2+ stimulates PTH Systems Pathology
glands secretion from parathyroid glands. Vignettes These spreads
Thyroid gland lMHeyapUdet2rSomCleotUsaPbsbLinooTAlimcnRHusetsactlseeatmminmaasdys.urlealteeassoesCteao2c+lainsttos explore a specific condition or
SYSTEMS PATHOLOGY to break down disorder related to a particular
SkELETAL the blood. body system. Presented in a
simplified case study format, each
Increased red blood cell NERVOUS Systems Pathology vignette begins
production in red with a patient history followed by
Burns bone marrow. 3 In the kidneys, PTHPaiinnicn praertaiasl-tehicskneCssabu2r+ns; background information about
reabsorption from the urine. PTH alsobody temperature increases as the featured topic.
Background Information control center in brain is reset;
Burnsstimulates active vitaabnmorminal Dion lfeoverlsmdisarutpiton.
When large areas of skin are severely burned, the resulting systemic 3 PTH DIGESTCIVaElcitonin normal nervous system activity.
effects can be life-threatening. Within minutes of a major burn injury,
NGaemndee: r: Sam there is increased permeability of capillaries, which are the small 2 Tissue damage to intestinal lining Sy•m 4TspkitsionsumVsaemsni tddaaapmmlolasiinsgniebtD leoyfs ptirnoemiontteosthCeab2+loaobds. orption from the
Age: Male blood vessels in which fluid, gases, nutrients, and waste products are Stimulates and liver as a result of decreased
23 normally exchanged between the blood and tissues. This increased osteoclasts 5MESddheieoecmcprIsonkeaebrcicatrirles esinautfeiseocentidofnrbolomodthCe ath2+yrsotiIsLidynmYsftlaeMgummlmPlmaaaHanttyiAeodlneTs;a.IddCectpoarAeinslNsfceiocDinttioooInfnM.imimnMuUneNE
6blood flow; bacteria of intestines
wlcaoaSohtftsaeonoiSgilrmafdhnepaohdititwgim’fst-crrsmipaaoahotpcrnvdhuilinhoostesanea,tytnfnwedtvesnesdoeidusiortrcniuleirftouitmet,fsaqihoenpodhniefurdenclitiigutdsrrhnrfoioe.iehimegCdrSvcbd-sstsseocaoepmtpfhilfaraneamwmmmureafoloooleedlroemmmledkbvputwd-frreiirteruiseiaeniegnhucdstlrwnlgntlghieigan-.ohcdtdteoansHdaspnkrhuieecscoemeintfainllkkdycotmteleleis.s.ikwetnr.sdttrHbLnoosprHariieaosenieeeofsnbetbrwsaasmetggcwuigsrrtrtsrhrieeeermieadaiaviniiscatnldnseenvenetsietfcoimndgndmenihaaalvtiucgienaenlv.estmnedddLnilontaete.nftster, Vitamin Dpermeability occurs at the burn site and throughout the body. As a may cause systemic infection; •
Inhibitsliver releases blood-clotting •
result, fluid and ions are lost from the burn wound and into tissue factors in response to injury. •
spaces. The loss of fluid decreases blood volume, which decreases osteoclasts

the heart’s ability to pump blood. The resulting decrease in blood Bone Treatment
delivery to tissues can cause tissue damage, shock, and even death.
Treatment consists of administering intravenous fluid at a faster • 6IntraCveanlocuitso flnuiidns inhibits osteoclasts, which allows for
rate than it leaks out of the capillaries. Although this fluid replace- • HAhiniggthhiebm--cplniaorcolhroootarebdieininat,dclosieetddeopsotesiot binlatostbuopnDCteeaAc.rkReaeDseIdoO bfVloCAodS avCo2luU+mLefA,r eoRdemma,t ahnde
ment can reverse the shock and prevent death, fluid continues to
leak into tissue spaces, causing pronounced edema (swelling). Osteoclasts Urine production decreases in shock may occur due to increased capillary
promote Ca2+ response to low blood • Debridement permeability; abnormal ion levels disrupt
Typically, after 24 hours, capillary permeability returns to volume2;+tissue damage to • Skin grafts normal heart rate; increased blood clotting
normal, and the amount of intravenous fluid administered can uptake from Cakidneys due to low blood flow.
bone. may cause venous thrombosis; preferential
4be greatly decreased. How burns cause capillary permeability
Osteoblasts promote blood flow promotes healing.
to change is not well understood. It is clear that, following
a burn, immunological and metabolic changes occur that RESCPIaR2A+TOdeRYposition in bEoNnDeO.CRINE
affect not only capillaries but the rest of the body as well.
Edema may obstruct airways; Release of epinephrine and
For example, chSemmicaalllmiendtiaetsortsin(seee chapter 4), which increased respiratory rate in norepinephrine from the adrenal
glands in response to injury
are released in response to the tissue damage, contribute response to hypermetabolic state. contributes to hypermetabolic state
to changes in capillary permeability throughout the body.

Substances released from the burn may also play a Ca2+ Blood and increased body temperature.
role in causing cells to function abnormally. Burn injuries

result in an almost immediate hypermetabolic state, which

persists until wound closure. Two other factors contributing to

the increased metabolism are (1) a resetting of the temperature control center in the brain to a higher temperature and (2) hormones released Despite these efforts, however, infections are still the major cause of

by the endocrine system (e.g., epinephrine and norepinephrine from death for burn victims. Depression of the immune system during the first

PROCESS Figure 6.9 Calcium Homeostasis the adrenal glands, which can increase cell metabolism). Compared or second week after the injury contributes to the high infection rate. First,
with a normal body temperature of approximately 37°C (98.6°F), a the thermally altered tissue is recognized as a foreign substance, which

typical burn patient may have a body temperature of 38.5°C (101.3°F), stimulates the immune system. Then, the immune system is overwhelmed

despite the higher loss of water by evaporation from the burn. as immune system cells become less effective and the production of the

In severe burns, the increased metabolic rate can result in loss chemicals that normally provide resistance to infections decreases (see

of as much as 30–40% of the patient’s preburn weight. To help com- chapter 14). The greater the magnitude of the burn, the greater the

Full-thickness pensate, treatment may include doubling or tripling the patient’s depression of the immune system, and the greater the risk of infection.
caloric intake. In addition, the need for protein, which is necessary Venous thrombosis (throm-bo¯′sis), the development of a clot in
burn for tissue repair, is greater. a vein, is another complication of burns. Blood normally forms a clot

Figure 5A Normal skin maintains homeostasis by preventing microorganisms when exposed to damaged tissue, such as at a burn site, but clotting

Full-thickness and partial-thickness burns from entering the body. Because burns damage and sometimes com- can also occur elsewhere, such as in veins, where clots can block blood

pletely destroy the skin, microorganisms can cause infections. For this flow, resulting in tissue destruction. The concentration of chemicals that

reason, burn patients are maintained in an aseptic (sterile) environ- cause blood clotting (called clotting factors) increases for two reasons:

ment, which attempts to prevent the entry of microorganisms into Loss of fluid from the burn patient concentrates the chemicals, and

the wound. They are also given antimicrobial drugs, which kill micro- the liver releases an increased amount of clotting factors.

organisms or suppress their growth. Debridement (da¯-br¯ed-mon′),

the removal of dead tissue from the burn, helps prevent infections Predict 6

Figure 5B by cleaning the wound and removing tissue in which infections could When Sam was first admitted to the burn unit, the nurses carefully
develop. Skin grafts, performed within a week of the injury, also help monitored his urine output. Why does that make sense in light of

Patient in a burn unit close the wound and prevent the entry of microorganisms. his injuries?

104 105

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exceptional art—Instructive Artwork Promotes Interest and Clarifies Ideas

A picture is worth a thousand words—especially when you’re learning anatomy and
physiology. Brilliantly rendered and carefully reviewed for accuracy and consistency,
the precisely labeled illustrations and photos provide concrete, visual reinforcement of
important topics discussed throughout the text.

Realistic anatomical art The anatomical Epicranial (galea) Occipitofrontalis
aponeurosis (frontal portion)
figures in Seeley’s Essentials of Anatomy & Temporalis
Physiology have been carefully drawn to convey Orbicularis oculi
realistic, three-dimensional detail. Richly textured Occipitofrontalis
bones and artfully shaded muscles, organs, and (occipital portion) Levator labii superioris
vessels lend a sense of realism to the figures that Zygomaticus minor
helps students envision the appearance of actual Masseter Zygomaticus major
structures within the body. Sternocleidomastoid Buccinator
Trapezius Orbicularis oris
Depressor anguli oris
Lateral view

(frontal portion)
Orbicularis oculi
Levator labii superioris
Zygomaticus minor
Zygomaticus minor
and major (cut)
Zygomaticus major
Orbicularis oris
Depressor anguli oris

Anterior C(ebr)ebrum Anterior view
Muscles of Facial Expression and Mastication
Figure 7.16
Diencephalon Thalamus
Hypothalamus Corpus
Brainstem Pons


Medial view

Figure 8.21 Regions of the Right Half of the Brain

atlas-quality cadaver imagesThe major regions of the brain are the brainstem, the cerebellum, PoCnslearly labeled photos
brain (figure 8.22). It consists of the medulla oblongata, the pons,

human anatomy that can be appreciated only when viewed inand the midbrain. The brainstem contains several nuclei involved

in vital body functions, such as the control of heart rate, blood

human specimens.pressure, and breathing. Damage to small areas of the brainstem
functional bridge between the cerebrum and cerebellum, but on
can cause death, whereas damage to relatively large areas of the the anterior surface it resembles an arched footbridge (figure 8.22a).
Several nuclei of the medulla oblongata, described earlier, extend
into the lower part of the pons, so functions such as breathing,

cerebrum or cerebellum often do not. Nuclei for all but the first swallowing, and balance are controlled in the lower pons, as well

two cranial nerves are also located in the brainstem. as in the medulla oblongata. Other nuclei in the pons control func- xv
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tions such as chewing and salivation.

Medulla Oblongata Midbrain
The medulla oblongata (ob′long-gă′tă) is the most inferior portion
of the brainstem (figure 8.22) and is continuous with the spinal The midbrain, just superior to the pons, is the smallest region
of the brainstem (figure 8.22b). The dorsal part of the midbrain

Renal Bowman capsule Parietal layer Proximal
corpuscle Glomerular capillary Visceral layer convoluted
(covered by visceral layer) (podocyte) tubule

Afferent Capillary
arteriole (enclosed by

Renal Bowman Juxtaglomerular Juxtaglomerular Multi-level Perspective Illustrations
corpuscle capsule apparatus cells
Glomerulus Proximal Macula densa 416 dCheappteric15 ting complex structures or processes
convoluted combine macroscopic and microscopic
tubule Distal views to help students see the relationships


Afferent (b) The visceral layer of the Bowman capsule covers the between increasingly detailed drawings.
arteriole glomerular capillaries. Fluid from the blood enters the
Distal Bowman capsule by passing through the capillary Larynx
convoluted walls and the visceral layer of the Bowman capsule.
tubule From there, fluid passes into the proximal convoluted Epiglottis Epiglottis
Efferent tubule of the nephron. The juxtaglomerular apparatus
arteriole consists of cells from the wall of the afferent arteriole
and the distal convoluted tubule.
(a) The renal corpuscle consists of the Bowman
capsule and the glomerulus. The Bowman capsule Podocyte (visceral layer Cell processes Hyoid Thyrohyoid
is the enlarged end of a nephron, which is indented of the Bowman capsule) Cell body bone membrane
to form a double-walled chamber. The Bowman Thyrohyoid
capsule surrounds the glomerulus, which is a Filtration Superior membrane Quadrangular Hyoid
network of capillaries. Blood flows from the afferent slits thyroid membrane bone
arteriole into the glomerulus and leaves the notch Thyroid Cuneiform Thyrohyoid
glomerulus through the efferent arteriole. cartilage cartilage membrane
Glomerular Cricoid Corniculate Adipose
capillary (cut) cartilage cartilage tissue
Tracheal Thyroid
Cricothyroid cartilage Arytenoid cartilage
ligament Membranous cartilage
Fenestrae part of trachea Vestibular
Cricoid fold (false
(c) The glomerulus is composed of fenestrated capillaries. cartilage vocal cord)
The visceral layer of the Bowman capsule consists of Trachea Vocal fold
specialized cells called podocytes. Spaces between the (true vocal
podocyte cell processes are called filtration slits. cord)

Podocyte Bowman (a) Anterior view (b) Posterior view (c) Medial view of sagittal section

Figure 15.3 Anatomy of the Larynx

Podocyte cell Anterior Tongue
Filtration Basement Epiglottis
membrane membrane
Capillary Vestibular folds
endothelium (false vocal cords)

Capillary Fenestrae in Filtration
capillary endothelium slits

Figure 18.5 Renal Corpuscle and Filtration Membrane (d) The filtration membrane consists of the fenestrated Glottis
glomerular capillary endothelium, a basement
membrane, and the podocyte cell processes. Fluid Vocal folds
passes from the capillary through the filtration membrane (true vocal cords)
into the Bowman capsule.

Larynx Cuneiform
combination art Drawings are (a) Superior view (b) Superior view through a laryngoscope


often paired with photographs to Figure 15.4 Vestibular and Vocal Folds
enhance the visualization of structures.
(Far left) The arrow shows the direction of viewing the vestibular and vocal folds. (a) The relationship of the vestibular folds to the vocal folds and the
laryngeal cartilages. (b) Superior view of the vestibular and vocal folds as seen through a laryngoscope.

Tissues 85

Table 4.10 Muscle Tissue Histology Micrographs Light micrographs,

(a) Skeletal Muscle Function: location: as well as scanning and transmission electron
micrographs, are used in conjunction with
Structure: Movement of the body; Attached to bone or other illustrations to present a true picture of anatomy
Skeletal muscle cells or fibers appear under voluntary control connective tissue and physiology from the cellular level.
striated (banded); cells are large, long,
and cylindrical, with many nuclei Muscle

Nucleus (near periphery
of cell)


LM 800x

(b) Cardiac Muscle Function: location:
In the heart
Structure: Pumps the blood; under
Cardiac muscle cells are cylindrical and involuntary (unconscious) control
striated and have a single nucleus; they

xviare branched and connected to one
another by intercalated disks, which
contain gap junctions

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Endocrine System 277

Table 10.2 continued

Gland Hormone Target Tissue Response

Reproductive organs Testosterone Most tissues Aids in sperm cell production, maintenance of
tough conceptsfunctional reproductive organs, secondary sexual
Specialized Figures clarify characteristics, sexual behavior

Ovaries Estrogens, progesterone Most tissues Aid in uterine and mammary gland development
Studying anatomy and physiology does not have to be an intimidating task mired inand function, external genitalia structure,
secondary sexual characteristics, sexual behavior,
menstrual cycle
Mediate inflammatory responses; increase uterine
memorization. Seeley’s Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology uses two special types ofUterus, ovaries,
Prostaglandins Most tissues

illustrationinsflamteod tishsueeslp students not only learn the steps involved incontractions and ovulation specific processes, but

also apply the knowledge as they predict outcomes in similar situations. Process Figures
organizTehymtuhs e key occThuymrorsien nces of pIhmmyunse itisosulesogical processes in an easy-to-followPromotes immune system development and function format.

Homeostasis Figures summarize the mechanisms of homeostasis by diagramming how
a given system regulates a parameter within a narrow range of values.Pineal gland
Melatonin Among others, hypothalamus Inhibits secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone,

thereby inhibiting reproduction

Pineal gland

Stimuli from the Step-by-Step Process Figures
nervous system
Process Figures break down physiological
1 Stimuli within the nervous system Hypothalamic 1 processes into a series of smaller steps,
regulate the secretion of releasing neurons allowing readers to build their understanding
hormones (green circles) and inhibiting by learning each important phase. Numbers
hormones (red circles) from neurons are placed carefully in the art, permitting
of the hypothalamus. students to zero right in to where the action
described in each step takes place.
2 Releasing hormones and inhibiting 2 Optic chiasm
hormones pass through the Hypothalamohy- Artery Heart 341
hypothalamohypophysial portal pophysial portal
system to the anterior pituitary. system Anterior pituitary 3 4
Anterior pituitary Actions Reactions
3 Releasing hormones and inhibiting Releasing endocrine cell
hormones (green and red circles) leave and 3
capillaries and stimulate or inhibit the inhibiting
release of hormones (yellow squares) hormones 4
from anterior pituitary cells.
Posterior Vein
4 In response to releasing hormones, pituitary
anterior pituitary hormones (yellow squares)
travel in the blood to their target
tissues (green arrow), which in some cases,
are other endocrine glands.


PROCESS Figure 10.13 Hypothalamus and Anterior Pituitary Target tissue Chemoreceptors in the medulla Effectors Respond:
or endocrine gland oblongata detect an increase in The SA node and cardiac
blood pH (often caused by a muscle decrease activity and
decrease in blood CO2). Control heart rate and stroke volume
centers in the brain decrease decrease.
stimulation of the heart and adrenal

2 Homeostasis Disturbed: 5 Homeostasis Restored:
Blood pH increases. Blood pH decreases.

correlated with aPR! Homeostasis Blood pH 6
Figures with in-art explanations and (normal range)
organ icons
Blood pH
These specialized flowcharts illustrating the (normal range)
mechanisms that body systems employ to 1 Start here
maintain homeostasis have been refined and
improved in the ninth edition.

More succinct explanations

Small icon illustrations included in boxes
depict the organ or structure being discussed.
CardiovascularHomeostasis Disturbed:Homeostasis Restored:
Blood pH decreases. Blood pH increases.
▲ ▲▲
Actions Reactions
Chemoreceptors in the medulla
oblongata detect a decrease in blood Effectors Respond:
pH (often caused by an increase in The SA node and cardiac
blood CO2). Control centers in the muscle increase activity and
brain increase stimulation of the heart rate and stroke volume
heart and adrenal medulla. increase, increasing blood flow
to the lungs.

Homeostasis Figure 12.21 Chemoreceptor Reflex—pH

The chemoreceptor reflex maintains homeostasis in response to changes in blood concentrations of CO2 and H+ (or pH). (1) Blood pH is within its normal
range. (2) Blood pH increases outside the normal range. (3) Chemoreceptors in the medulla oblongata detect increased blood pH. Control centers in the
brain decrease sympathetic stimulation of the heart and adrenal medulla. (4) Heart rate and stroke volume decrease, reducing blood flow to lungs.
(5) These changes cause blood pH to decrease (as a result of increase in blood CO2). (6) Blood pH returns to its normal range, and homeostasis is restored.

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outstanding instructor and Student Resources—▲▲▲

Focusing teaching and engaging students▲▲▲▲▲▲▲

In-text Learning Outcomes are linked to section headers and Assessment Questions

McGraw-Hill Anatomy & Physiology REVEALED® (APR) links to figures for eBook

Learning Outcomes correlation guide between Predict, Learn to Predict, Review and
Comprehension, and Critical Thinking Questions

Correlation guide between APR and the textbook

Enhanced Lecture PowerPoints with APR cadaver images

Lecture PowerPoints with embedded animations

McGraw-Hill Connect® Course Management system

Access to media-rich eBooks

McGraw-Hill LearnSmart® tailors study time and identifies at-risk students
neW! Clinical questions added to the Connect Question Bank based on the

Clinical Features within each chapter

▲ The interactive eBook takes the reading experience to
a new level with links to animations and interactive
exercises that supplement the text.

9C h a p t e r Senses

Learn to Predict

Freddy is an older man but he has never needed
glasses. He has several family members that are near-
sighted, meaning they have problems seeing things at
a distance, and require corrective lenses. Freddy, on
the other hand, has had 20/20 vision his whole life.
Lately, though, he has noticed that he can’t see quite
so well when he is reading. He jokes with his friends
that his “arms seem to be getting shorter.”

after reading about the process of vision, explain
what type of vision problem Freddy is experiencing
and why his joke about his arms getting shorter relates
to his visual problem.

Functionality such as highlighting and post-it notes ▲ 9.1 SenSatiOn Module 7 nervous System
allow customizing for a personalized study guide.
Learning outcomes After reading this section, you should be able to Special senses are more specialized in structure and are local-
xviii ized to specific parts of the body. The special senses are smell,
A. define sensation. taste, sight, hearing, and balance.
B. distinguish between general senses and special senses.
9.2 SenSOrY recePtOrS
Sense is the ability to perceive stimuli. The senses are the means
by which the brain receives information about the environment Learning outcome After reading this section, you should be able to
and the body. Sensation is the process initiated by stimulating A. List and describe five types of sensory receptors.
sensory receptors and perception is the conscious awareness
of those stimuli. The brain constantly receives a wide variety of Sensory receptors are sensory nerve endings or specialized cells
stimuli from both inside and outside the body, but stimulation capable of responding to stimuli by developing action potentials.
of sensory receptors does not immediately result in perception. Several types of receptors are associated with both the general and
Sensory receptors respond to stimuli by generating action poten- the special senses, and each responds to a different type of stimulus:
tials that are propagated to the spinal cord and brain. Perception
results when action potentials reach the cerebral cortex. Some Mechanoreceptors (mek′ă-nō-rē-sep′tŏrz) respond to
other parts of the brain are also involved in perception. For mechanical stimuli, such as the bending or stretching
example, the thalamus plays a role in the perception of pain. of receptors.

Historically, five senses were recognized: smell, taste, sight, 239
hearing, and touch. Today we recognize many more senses and
divide them into two basic groups: general and special senses
(figure 9.1). The general senses have receptors distributed
over a large part of the body. They are divided into two groups:
the somatic senses and the visceral senses. The somatic senses
provide sensory information about the body and the environment.
The visceral senses provide information about various internal
organs, primarily involving pain and pressure.

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The Huma

Learn to Predict and Learn to Predict answer—▲▲ LEArn TO PrEDict

Helping students learn how to think critically renzo, the dancer in the photo, is perfectly balanced,
yet a slight movement in any direction would cause
Part of the overall critical thinking him to adjust his position. the human body adjusts
Predict questions that appear its balance among all its parts through a process
throughout each chapter, a special called homeostasis.
Learn to Predict question now
opens every chapter. This Let’s imagine that renzo is suffering from a blood
specifically written scenario links sugar disorder. Earlier, just before this photo was taken,
with the chapter opener photo and he’d eaten an energy bar. As an energy bar is digested,
helps introduce the subject matter blood sugar rises. normally, tiny collections of cells
covered within the chapter. embedded in the pancreas respond to the rise in
blood sugar by secreting the chemical insulin. insulin
increases the movement of sugar from the blood into
the cells. However, renzo did not feel satisfied from
his energy bar. He felt dizzy and was still hungry, all
symptoms he worried could be due to a family history
of diabetes. Fortunately, the on-site trainer tested his
blood sugar and noted that it was much higher than
normal. After a visit to his regular physician, renzo
was outfitted with an insulin pump and his blood sugar
levels are more consistent.

After reading about homeostasis in this chapter,
create an explanation for renzo’s blood sugar levels
before and after his visit to the doctor.

A new Learn to Predict Answer ANSWER TO LEARN TO PREdIcT 1.1 AnAtomy Kn
box at the end of each chapter basis fo
teaches students step-by-step how The first Predict feature in every chapter of this text is designed Learning Outcomes AfterTrheeadHinugmtahnis Osercgtaionnis,myou should be able to19 and phy
to answer the chapter-opening to help you develop the skills to successfully answer critical A. Define anatomy and describe the levels at which anatomy the hea
critical thinking question. This thinking questions. The first step in the process is always to knowle
is foundational to real learning analyze the question itself. In this case, the question asks you to can be studied. duties.
and is a crucial part of helping evaluate the mechanisms governing Renzo’s blood sugar levels, B. Explain the importance of the relationship between pares a
students put facts together to and it provides the clue that there’s a homeostatic mechanism review
reach that “Aha” moment of involved. In addition, the question describes a series of events Instrcuhcatputreer a1,nwdefulnecatrinonth. at homeostasis is the maintenance rational
true comprehension. that helps create an explanation: Renzo doesn’t feel satisfied of a relatively constant internal environment. Renzo experienced and non
after eating, has elevated blood sugar, and then is prescribed Hhuunmgaenr daneasptoitme yeantidngp,haynsdiolhoigs ybliosotdhesusgtuadryleovfeltshewsetrreuchtiugrheerand
an insulin pump. ftuhnacntinoonrmofalt.hIen hthuims saintubaotidoyn., Twheeseheuma danisrbuopdtiyonhains hmoamneyoisntatrsiicsate An
pbaerctas uwseithhicsobolrodoidnastuegdafrusntactyieodnstomoahinigthainaeftderbeyaaticnogm. Npolerxmasyllsyt,em tigates
oafncinhcercekasseadndblbooadlansucgeas.r Tafhtercaoomredainl awtoeduldfurnectutironntoofthaellntohrempaal rts dissect,
orafnthge hbuymthaen abcotdivyitaylloofwinssuuslintosedcertectetdchbayntghees poar nsctirmeausl.i,Wrehsepnond
tbolosotidmsuulgi,aarnredtuprenrsfotromnomrmanayl,ointhsuerlinacsteicornest.ion stops. In Renzo’s
case, his pancreas has stopped making insulin. Thus, the doctor

prescribed an insulin pump to take over for his pancreas. Now

when Renzo eats, the insulin pump puts insulin into his blood and

his blood sugar levels are maintained near the set point.

Answers to the rest of this chapter’s Predict questions are in Appendix E.

SUMMARY Directional Terms

Knowledge of anatomy and physiology can be used to predict the body’s Directional terms always refer to the anatomical position, regardless of
responses to stimuli when healthy or diseased. the body’s actual position (see table 1.1).

1.1 Anatomy (p. 1) Body Parts and Regions

1. Anatomy is the study of the structures of the body. 1. The body can be divided into the head, neck, trunk, upper limbs,
2. Systemic anatomy is the study of the body by organ systems. and lower limbs.

Regional anatomy is the study of the body by areas. 2. The abdomen can be divided superficially into four quadrants
3. Surface anatomy uses superficial structures to locate deeper or nine regions, which are useful for locating internal organs or
describing the location of a pain.
structures, and anatomical imaging is a noninvasive method for
examining deep structures. Planes

1.2 Physiology (p. 2) 1. A sagittal plane divides the body into left and right parts, a
transverse plane divides the body into superior and inferior parts,
Physiology is the study of the processes and functions of the body. and a frontal plane divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.

1.3 Structural and Functional Organization of 2. A longitudinal section divides an organ along its long axis, a transverse
the Human Body (p. 2) section cuts an organ at a right angle to the long axis, and an oblique
section cuts across the long axis at an angle other than a right angle.
1. The human body can be organized into six levels: chemical, cell,
tissue, organ, organ system, and organism. Body Cavities

2. The eleven organ systems are the integumentary, skeletal, 1. The thoracic cavity is bounded by the ribs and the diaphragm.
muscular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, nervous, endocrine,
cardiovascular, urinary, and reproductive systems (see figure 1.3). The mediastinum divides the thoracic cavity into two parts. xix

1.4 Characteristics of Life (p. 3) 2. The abdominal cavity is bounded by the diaphragm and the
abdominal muscles.
The characteristics of life are organization, metabolism, responsiveness,
growth, development, and reproduction. 3. The pelvic cavity is surrounded by tUhenpievlevircsbaonl eFs.ree E-Book Store

Learning Outcome After reading this section, you should be able to phospholipid molecules and, in some cases, extend from the inner
A. list the four main functions of a cell. to the outer surface of the cell membrane. Carbohydrates may be

Cells are the smallest units that have all the characteristics of life. bound to some protein molecules, modifying their functions. The
Our body cells perform several important functions: proteins function as membrane channels, carrier molecules, recep-
tor molecules, enzymes, or structural supports in the membrane.

1. Cell metabolism and energy use. The chemical reactions Membrane channels and carrier molecules are involved with the
that occur within cells are collectively called cell metabolism. movement of substances through the cell membrane. Receptor
Energy released during metabolism is used for cell molecules are part of an intercellular communication system that
activities, such as the synthesis of new molecules, muscle enables cell recognition and coordination of the activities of cells.
contraction, and heat production, which helps maintain For example, a nerve cell can release a chemical messenger that
body temperature. moves to a muscle cell and temporarily binds to a receptor on the
muscle cell membrane. The binding acts as a signal that triggers a
2. Synthesis of molecules. Cells synthesize various types of response, such as contraction of the muscle cell.
molecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids.

The different cells of the body do not all produce the
PedaGoGicaL FeatUReS enSURe SUcceSSsame molecules. Therefore, the structural and functional Heart
characteristics of cells are determined by the types of 3.4 M34o7 veMent through the Cell

LEARN PREdicTLAeamrAnaNijSnoWgr EcORhuaTtnOcgoemyesouthwatilalrentooctlioc3es.elimeCynloeolcmtliehtnrmcieuckualneenlisdcsiitanghtwtneiohyainltps.herCtodhediaiflnuttlloisc-awoeclpSl.nchortaaowanudi’spusstehctddeeeitfbmrhfayicnehtPudoilstriyrcienenobcdccmroeeiomimcavrtptehupeincntaoehigncnreatradmetvtesaiiucLlowlvtaesneil.tfAaahronfortmdnefr MeMbrane After reading this section, you should be able to

trheevHieeaawbrnitnogrmthLaeel abbllroonoodding34O9utcomes
to PWreedleiacrntedqiunethsisticohanpsteratshatwtheelhleaartsvatlhveesomnSeaiunatnmaointmhaeaor.nrFey-o,r Cexraifmltoiwpclateh,lronTuegrhvheitnhcekelhilensagcrto,imnamtnhuidsncihcRaapteetevwr,ieiwtwhe are aware thAa.t bDloeofdine diffusion and concentration gradient.
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aolfsoblloeRoadrEnteVhdroItuhEgahtWathneinhaceoanmrtp—deftreoCnmtOvthaelMveatotiPorsniaoRecntooEeannttHthhoraeatEhtcveltnee.rnatSakrsin-I,dOwnithepnumtlmeuroisnncgalretyhceveellienlfsst,. actaruiusminigs rmetusrncilnegcferollms the lungs thrBou. ghexthpelain the role of osmosis and that of osmotic pressure in
As a result of the incompetent bicuspid vcaolvnet,rolling the movement of water across the cell membrane.
Studying Anatomy a3n.d3 PChelylsioMloeMgybrdaonees not have to be intimidatincghapter Summarysatnuddeuntitlsiziinngrewviheawt itnhgeyc’hveaplteearrnceodn.tent, evaluating their grasp of key concepts,sofviwtb234567891sihierrlg.........hotasnnhteaotterDDDDWSDWmatsaDdnlhhloietrfotcereeeeeefheoetfmafhhweleshalssssfrseeoaathiccgccccatietrshnswttilretrrrrtunnuibeeiiiiicaabmstbtrbbbbgnishiorhrooghriecioeeeeaetcpenamniSei.ufurtntuotttttmctuahhashhhhhnhvetsroUrnpetehteeeebtpedeathmaciaiesebldioa,esvstntdfrvMiarhiptlttnutzeatsloeortrr?treevaenasiuussiorenomgasnfcct.inccaedsMtaefnehkltWttnda?vcil.uuoltnbsoskdeaatairrAttatldhoneyunoeeteArlthaneswoesirdovducaaftiaircadoluapnnnousRiiotiablrnfsmgsddvfswtsirtoyfinpetYheutotaf,chfliht.iehgponSunroddioetecnepcuThctnnleoataeavalfolehcst.hyaftutfatrntctmerHhithaierntrl’oirbohvcseiaeaiacpoanflsenbetnatoiwrreiwa.iresordoeothooonsTtt.opngfce.ettddfndrhhoapsWlnuitotoehgethorvshotleooTctsahheefe,h,,s?tnnueceihineohtotgfbtorrimhrroetsg,sndeiemsiioodnemsr?lcmbhoib.let—hestdnouuniaiahOpeefcentwssfueabsberecrracpgaleopootucitaxnrrrelitniulmdetahymdstocyatalct?gg.nioue,lpceqreniogshdWrmunaciiulttoscnenneneelhhsaeaaah.i,mdtdddfpneesnallaTrooeetudxnerrhr.cmdapeottloauAiicanotcrefptstpaAsitehnyhhulomeutunleee.rbtrsnl22112211loiemammwrsa82976013rppfstieoel........oaou(tre)artpeafpnlnnsmhdmtDDDDWWDDa(vvdoslarntattsriasaeeeuniohndreeeeeeeobaarculnhhzrsygyfsssffeevhennlietrrstaaciii′ccclncheerennnaumayftt.estcrrreirgeiiaeeehncriiicreiemagdnEibbbrelsdyial˘navrateuccmltspeeeeedhe)nasueSaaicr,ricmmsseteuietneltbtamrrrctataechalvhhaddirttnalcihtnaan1pcsoeemeoeeurniiieharucdlaat2g,ifdoscmriiamlepiucccsavll.eonleddtmaueanf1areorehetvngsfisuoce.obbdf8afarnieesal,a’ytsssuDrgli)rcsclttorlenssoteeykc.tocmhaa.aateuteuplwsolctcsirhtaeetonsnnrrSsuyndhouuoaiarwect,ifgntaecueekcrrihepprp,nnsusmenlcpc,reuittyohefe.seridbmtithdeiariitletun.usofvacrceeasarrrctargssrt,uoda’otionair.shnhtshytncilslakwilgdvsuheunoeaPyfectchesleeefrmwnroeh,mifooubaihsen.evzcdaoaivppmneeedtocpotAeunereear.hitslihaliiucndcalusnadrmreutcattoathtotbhcilsutmi?dneantafsceqocelamploohiegrrWatettuancetncryeemiirr,seaiadcotcaleosohatoSanssrlunnoposorahdtynasntinrdimul.innauoeitfssdendaildatnlTntce.tnacotcmhrs,lfhhostllofettoleayeomeeofhyssaulrmconiearuepltnbtltiunaupoinplegddrrindeunrwncateaofyedotgtrtwascctCdta?l,Aehnesefhesiieleavst?e.tipCDaaue,hahlheentlltosaporsecilkllm.ei.ceticnrelenasuwadous.rrnrdas.eslmiuleDpDsCitdmenftaifaIessiraavi,orsocfleemnrxoitseoacsnneerleonemsmfetelfEundgomcmrmvirsctfas.Nlonetaeepnasrsbanseeect(isdeaaibKtrceosdo+eraacseneelre,+rulnar.siu)yebCearhSlornslsaayaau,iftdrirep2cabseaa+ofromntasrn-,ciftnectmcvdaooayaeeiottnunlnesseoitwcneitt,dhdrcsarelidebiia,eaatssCueccnliatcsastltdeshoteo−uinpdnvalthncddlooseao’ihtvisgrlnrtfaeryteefhaia.oxscudsennuoft,psirhosriceifaeoevpfeuncyrnenrionotnzvmrsdo,dyrne,tastamncehlli,tyisecatoynad.entbpcsenilptovlgei,rpdeanemarrge,settkcnlostipaymoreodntoaicnemsdinesonTcrsiatgopstohnscibipenaonoioeonoynrntlnmuer,rrgacstttsaoha,tceiuenothieuanahnmdncelnttnaltrstuaptdoa.emiiltofxonatithotaritnarnlhenasyrgyes--,y
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critical thinking QuestionsE231x...t4213e....TTBTec(crexaohhhnepvtr11eeteAPPAbmphpeaoi978iw01caraetrrrnaofn...luyenaee..rarfeitau,saorbrrddarrAeermidsttswirrliinDDDDamstDxeyeauleyccoihnmtfnyupruhcttrremeeeeutfoesaaderuehmieesusfsssuttsbrs?crhhhiupccecpccctertlitynih)prtocmneeetrearrrEtm.ivueisofiiieualtmttbimbbbxaeeeilthruhhrsreshssheecffeeeppisterpeen.cffcef.ey.eayltteeaoiTtattteaahiihSlrhhhoaccncnorrrrilrihaeeeheetsaeounttdtdtftae(aeldoeer.iooapvctvsntrtufrtvhdaurhthnnttuaeaeuvwtmitre?nrleagrgasteuneidnehSi.fdistncuhnsxcchteoteitehkyassttttsatpermaclruile)nomrsaataoraaipalrrhlcuotninrryunninEeetneatuinhnerdesrdaebdetCaooilrgiaiirltsaedctvrnltsffliat’Gooeeerynasegllcscibfnsorirfssnituolnpeuafrdyafcfuatraedtpnrveelrioewoltottvdtacdvrpechhdrnhbmiieiltnciiltenecoat.eoben.ayhfartacgHffllyrhacstaelprueobhiaecenemtdcaiodtihrlehtntndahdlroieweiaeueeasriotve.docwteathosashne.hitddtrcvanrdishaaansWteyooltiditlritetatsanesoocehrhnpcrhhrkasifhceteepeceteseifsehratcireltorrt.phclfeeahvthehipstlhcueesrelseaeotacaroeht,nsptnbhr.iafrarhfetiaceiydeoairnrehbtaatrdatisechieahetrluricccdhldersrateimuola?inseiceaatdaamr.hrrfdlclimotrsrnmaiboletugruiilmedogcmostinhcolhapatltdcehleyae.meqruusesicsle.R21o..u687t...TfpBavtbehrteluhlororno2222leiEAWgnatbAoomomuhto2314murouxlrdfttmaeed....hitongptonrmcafhafBnath,etlfltuhltaoavbHaDWDettleaesabaolnhhoeti..anthorr,xndlwneoehr,ltowylhoaihbiedtofsewvehtaasmoghsapwiotcheslcteeendnrefothaprprdaeriiudhafesuincngoteifouereirbmroysclfFntnaahtdncfoaclctuteleoamnsckSrtalhatosrimrtisoreafreternhtdasrawttdcliothexttadaiwhitteouto?oieaditsahbneeersnieahwmouelasareeeacotuciaetetfescsvthaTnrasofisnrifneeyteooonerongsfeiiohaotqdedantnenuyrofoaf’uthvlrurbt.sicuoh,tsntsutvaabtoeempahthltltupltlanocohilerlehuaeueaosltount,ouguoemtwhehetonfgotshebkrrsrsdfa,luodpmiesidepm.uetehttgoscstftupaoattFivptytuuhftpvaerslrharrvhttreustrmrttxsoeraotheo.ehnehltneht.cssilkvoeensmomuseasteeyElfwhmewesrseuonnmcmtinexlahuutahvralceateHevlbptldemheerlprrolrrsfroseleeale.deoyeetiaslawttcr.utaihuhtcoaaoietlaothlnFmnio?augetnreccnfrerdtunnarnh.tWihtetgtcotornsuhgiFhan,ettaitcmukmethsdnhheoarrhrtrs,aoaeddnaeanpa,eievttnrbmigttdaunheaeasreidoldhettededynnncohhfifottsosgsdtoffhellsfopfrnfyatefeeerdaeieeuofotmcaocfsprarrermttnntfttrtlmaoeitpshieplihudvadrroniogmuslaaaccltmeoencwthttehtttaahn?oteeheevtttlenorseetssehae.eeptsrf.stnthebsiaueictaasdeiecnhsmlsnlee.leifesildapcfo,nstqtrksi.lcgum.leroeareuwla,lasinetigoo?nr

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These innovative exercises
encourage students to apply
chapter concepts to solve problems.
Answering these questions helps
build their working knowledge
of anatomy and physiology while
developing reasoning and critical
thinking skills.

answers to Predict1. There aerelefcoturorccahradmiobgerarsmi.nHthoewhdeoarth. eTyhereleaftteatnodcoringthrat catiroian reevceenivtse?
3. Th2e8r.ighHtocwordoonacrhyaanrgtersyinhabsotdwyotemmapjoerabturarencihneflsu:etnhceeptohsetehreioart rate?
Questionsblo1o5d. frWomhavtecionnstarancdtifounncatniodnremlaaxinatliyonaserveesnetrsvooicrcsu. rCdounrtirnagcttihoenPoQf interval int2er9v.enLtriisctuthlaer caonmd mthoenriagghet-mrealargteidnahleaarrttedriiesse.ases that develop in elderly These innovative
the atriaancodmthpeleQteTs ivnetnetrrviacluolafrtfhiellienlgec. trocardiogram? 4. Blood rpeteuorpnlse.from heart tissue through cardiac veins to the Cardiovascular
2. The atria are separated internally from each other by the interatrial coronary sinus and into the right atrium. Small cardiac veins also critical thinking questions

septum. return blood directly to the right atrium. encourage students to become

CRITICaL THInKInG active learners as they read.

Predict Questions challenge the

1. A friend tells you that an ECG revealed that her son has a slight 6. What happens to cardiac output following the ingestion of a large understanding of new concepts
heart murmur. Should you be convinced that he has a heart amount of fluid? needed to solve a problem.
murmur? Explain. The questions are answered in
7. At rest, the cardiac output of athletes and nonathletes can be equal, Appendix E, allowing students
2. Predict the effect on Starling’s law of the heart if the but the heart rate of athletes is lower than that of nonathletes. to evaluate their responses and
parasympathetic (vagus) nerves to the heart are cut. At maximum exertion, the maximum heart rate of athletes and understand the logic used to
nonathletes can be equal, but the cardiac output of athletes is arrive at the correct answer.
3. Predict the effect on heart rate if the sensory nerve fibers from the greater than that of nonathletes. Explain these differences.
baroreceptors are cut.
8. Explain why it is useful that the walls of the ventricles are thicker
4. An experiment is performed on a dog in which the arterial blood than those of the atria.
pressure in the aorta is monitored before and after the common
carotid arteries are clamped. Explain the change in arterial blood 9. Predict the effect of an incompetent aortic semilunar valve on
pressure that would occur. (Hint: Baroreceptors are located in the ventricular and aortic pressure during ventricular systole and
internal carotid arteries, which are superior to the site of clamping diastole.
of the common carotid arteries.)

5. Predict the consequences on the heart if a person took a large dose Answers in Appendix D
of a drug that blocks calcium channels.


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Ninth Edition Changes

WHat’S neW and iMPRoVed? Skeletal System: Bones and Joints 137

Lateral Medial Foot

The ninth edition of Seeleyco’nsdEylsesentials of Anatomy & Pchonydsyiloelogy is the result of exteTnhseivmeeatnataalryssails(met′ă-tar′săl) bones and phalanges of the foot
soretfavtnihedewinteegdx, twcahintahdptaeenvrsae.lmuTaphthieoansreHiossefuaodlintnpaisustahfarrroeptmeernatfinooacntuosomfwytihtahenidnbepmlTthuoiabbyvnieaseryliodossiltefoyecgatyitouinrnesss,trawuffchotiorcdrhsinwfgohsaotnerheavscmwavtearuheeernptedaatramehtrelarnaoarobstsnrroaogtuelnhuenebeldgsodohpangeanhlerinyda--sdlaannrpueghmesabsolaemonrefegdwethshineaotaffolomtohntaegnaenhrreeatrnhcdvaonen(rsstyihedeeseirmmfaibgielltuayarrcesatohr6po.ta3hrtl5eeb)rm.otnTehethaasne-,
cal flow within the text. Updating of content, along with revision of Homeostasis Ftihgousreeosfathnedhtahned. Skeletal

addition of a new feature entitled Microbes In Your Body, make this an exciting editionT. here are three primary arches in the foot, formed by the

positions of the tarsal bones and metatarsal bones, and held in

Learning outcomes and assessment— place by ligaments. Two longitudinal arches extend from the heel
to the ball of the foot, and a transverse arch extends across the

Helping instructorFisbulatrack studenTitbiaprogress foot. The arches function similarly to the springs of a car, allowing
the foot to give and spring back.

UPdated! Learning Outcomes are carefully written to outline 6.8 JointS

expectations for each section Learning Outcomes After reading this section, you should be able to

neW! Microbes In Your Body feature discussing the many impor- A. Describe the two systems for classifying joints.
B. Explain the structure of a fibrous joint, list the three types,
tant and sometimes, little known roles of microbes and the physiol-
and give examples of each type.
ogy of homeostasis Medial C. Give examples of cartilaginous joints.
D. illustrate the structure of a synovial joint and explain the
UPdated! OnlLminaateelleraoslltuusdent questions and temstalbleaolnuks questions are
roles of the components of a synovial joint.
sctourdreelnattepdrowgritehs(saL)aenadrnuinngdeOrsutatcnodAminnetgesriotor vfieuwrther scaffold and mAnetearsiourre E. Classify synovial joints based on the shape of the bones in

(b) view the joint and give an example of each type.
F. Demonstrate the difference between the following pairs
tnureeWs w!itOhinnlitnheeFicgtleuixnrteicia6nl.c3ls4utuddinygqMueisBctorinooebnsesosaf rItenhebYLaoesugerd from clinical fea-
Body and System of movements: flexion and extension; plantar flexion
Pathologies, antdhearrigehtctoibriraealnadtefidbulwa aitrhe sLhoewanr. ning Outcomes and HAPS and dorsiflexion; abduction and adduction; supination
and pronation; elevation and depression; protraction and
Learning Objectives to further develop and measure higher level retraction; opposition and reposition; inversion and eversion.

thinking and application of learned content

EndocrineCSaysltcemaneus 279

Microbes in your body Do our bacteria make us fat?

Obesity has increased at an Bacteroidetes than Firmicutes, while the pathogens. Finally, germ-free mice display TTahrsiaslfbeoanteusre helps students to understand the

alarming rate over the last three decades. opposite is true for obese people. an enhanced stress rCesupobnoseid, which is sub-Integumentary

It is estimated that over 150 billion adults We now know that gut microbiota stantially reduced upon implantation of gut ▲ important role microbes play in helping various

worldwide are overweight or obese. In the affect nutrient processing and absorption, microbiota. Overall, these experiments dem-

United States, 1/3 of adults are obese. As hormonal regulation of nutrient use by body olantsiotrnatbeetthwaetenthbearectiesNriaaa,mvguuiccthuheglaarelrtaht,eor bceosrirtey-, systems of the body to maintain homeostasis.
obesity rates have increased, so have the cells, and even our hunger level. In addition,

rates of obesity-related health conditions our diet can influence the type of bacte- and anxiety than ever before realized.

such as insulin resistance, diabetes, and ria in our GI system. Studies of humans on Changes in gutMmeicdroiabiloctaunalesoifoalrtmer Fibula
cardiovascular disease. Why this dramatic Tibia
increase? There are two main reasons for dcaeMrmbooenhtsyatdrratatateerd-srtehasatlrticatfetedr or fat-restricted diets tIhneflamhomrmatoionna-lprroe1m0g0uoltIainntigtoenerffmeocf etsndouiftaraiteCnenhitamcpbuutaesnelr-.e5 iform
obesity: diet/lifestyle and gut bacteria; and weight loss, the num-
it seems these two may be related. binecbrreooafnsBeaedcs,tewrohiidleetethse(“nleuamnbpeerrsoofnF5”irbmacicteurtieas)
anced gut microbiotaLaistethroaulgchtuntoeiinfdourcme
The most familiar cause of obesity is diet Microbes in your bodyobesity via promoting insulin resistance, a
and lifestyle. The “typical” Western diet con-
sists of frequent large meals high in refined known autoimmune malfunction. This obser-
grains, red meat, saturated fats, and sugary (“obese person” bacteria) decreased.4This Navicular Using Bacteria to Fight Bacteria

makes sense in light of the fact that Firmicutes3 vat2ion is su1pported by the reduction in dia- Talus

bacteria break down ingested food more com- betes symptoms after gastric by-pass sur-
plePterloy xthiamn Baalctperhioaidleatens,xwhich makes the gery when patients exhibit a Amcnaejo(racsnheiftvulgaris) is the most difficult to study these bacteria, the incep- invasion of the skin by certain bacteria

ddireintsksr.icThhiisniswihnolsehagrrpaincso,nvteragsettatobleDhse,iagflrtiuhtiistesr, food’s energy easier to absorb by the human in gut microbiota pcoopmulmatoionnssk. inFincaolnlyd,ititonisin the United States. tion of the Human Microbiome Project (see through a natural metabolic process. When
well documented thaTthnoourgmhal8g0u%t moifcraobllioAtamerican adolescents “Getting to Know Your Bacteria” in chapter 1) P. acnes breaks down lipids, the skin pH
guMt. iOdbdeslee ipndhivaidluaanlsxstore the absorbed Endocrine
and nuts that help with weight control and
prevention of chronic disease. From an evolu- etonDewreigsiygthiant lgaapdiinhp.oaselatnissxue, which contributes mnaeneuttira-ohbturonalignsemsmr iisthtoecrrrmsitiaocannadbedlPoypesfo,vpnfrereirotagolu.soxnxerrpiodWicemmcraaehahacteattenineomntletlniyo-i,pcdcoeaa4ehofldp0snas.urseeSlltivdtasohesseinirfvr5acteixsa0nl ngmaailllsllioonabgeAemageffrreoiccuatpensds, allowed scientists to determine specific is lowered to a level not tolerated by the
tionary perspective, our bodies are adapted
to conserve energy because food sources Furthermore, experiments with germ- in normal gut microbsuiofftear, afrsomrelatcende.toUndfoiertt,unately, there is not genetic traits of skin microbiome bacteria. invading bacteria. Scientists have proposed
free mice—mice lacking normal gut microbi-
Using this technique, scientists have iOdfenthtie-Cut(b“hgoaotiodtdh”e strain of P. acnes in heCaalthlcyasnkien us
fied three unique strains of P. acnes. P. acnes)
kills off the pathogenic

were scarce for ancient humans. Many of us ota—have demonstrated just how important may very well disruptaDntoriirsemdtaaallnapdnthtir-ahuuelancgnuerxresfiogr- acne; however, new three strains, one strain is more dominant strains of P. acnes (“bad” P. acnes) in a
now have easy access to energy-rich foods. normal gut bacteria are for homeostasis. In enaatlsinagndangdutinpflearmmmeaamrbteoiialsoifetynyagrrlheecralaheavdtaeeientdxgfatottoomuoneoitndhbieneagsoitvyent.rha-etursaklinanmdiceroffbeicotPmiveehalaihnansgpseehoospwlen twhaitthMtheaicstnasettr-aafrrienseaoflskPbi.noa. cnRneeesssedaorcehs
Combined with a reduction in physical activ- the absence of normal gut microbiota, mal- sdiominlaorTt afahrsoshsitaonlth.beSoin“ncgeeoosadc”nes-taraffienc, ttehde people

iWtyeastnedrnledsies tsalenedpliffoesrtymleacnaynAlemaedritcoa(onabs),esthitey functions in germ-free mice warheenwgideersmSp-ruferaepdeericoarn vwTiheeemsweanoipbuselarvteatstgiorpuenetasctmimebisecorgnoftbbtihooaetcgateeqitrnuiaheo,esbtPaierolotsnhep:yio, ncilbeaacrtsekriinu.(mbUna)icqnuees onothteardtvweorssetlryaianfsfeocftP.thaecnheoMssat.ereHdopiwaaetlhveovgr,ieetnhwiec strain can take over and cause the annoy-
and significant. For example, ing skin eruptions of acne. Thus, perhaps in

and poor health. mice received gut microbiota transplants people to cause th(Pe.mactnoes)b,ecaoremefoulenadn?in sebum-rich areas to humans. So, how does this information the future to prevent acne, affected people

Figure 6.35 Bones of the Right FootHowever, could humans’ gut microbiota from normal mice, their body fat increased Several possibilities oefxistth,einsckliund, insugchtheasditsh-e forehead, side of help scientists learn how to prevent acne? can apply the “good” P. acnes in a cream to
It seems that the “good” P. acnes prevents prevent the “bad” P. acnes from taking over.
be just as responsible (or even more respon- significantly to normal levels within 2 weeks tinct possibility thathperensocsreib,inagndanbtaibciko.tiAcslthough it has been
sible) for obesity? Comparisons between the even though their diet and exercise level against bacteria associated with obesity

gut microbiota of lean versus obese indi- did not change. Studies have also shown could shift the metabolism of an obese per-

viduals seem to suggest the possibility of an that germ-free mice lack normal gastric son to become leaner. Another possibility is

important link between gut microbiota and immunity, but upon transplantation, their the use of prebiotics—non-digestible sugars Nails is a thin plate, consisting of layers of dead stratumxcxoir-
our weight. The human gut, like other ani- gastric immune system becomes functional.
mals, is densely populated with microbiota Germ-free mice also lack cell membrane that enhance theGgrloawnthdosf beneficial micro- The nail
consisting of at least 100 trillion microbial proteins important for tight junction forma-
cells divided into approximately 1000 differ- tion between the cells of the intestinal lining biota. Finally, probTiohteic musaejoisrangolathnedrspoosfsibthlee skin are the sebaceous (sē-bā′shŭs) neum cells that contain a very hard type of keratin. The visible
ent species. The majority (90%) of human (see chapter 4). Without the normal micro- intervention for ogblaensitdys. Parnodbiothtiecsswareeatnognla- nds (figure 5.6). Sebaceous glands are
pathogenic live bsaicmteprilae,thbartancocnhfeedr aachienaalrthglands (see chapter 4). Most are con- part of the tnhaeilniasilthreoonta(ilfigbuoUrdeyn,5.ai7vn)d.eTtrhhseeapcalurttFicorlfee,theoer nEeapi-olBncyoocvhoeirukemd Store
benefit to the hosnt.eTchtiesdis bayraapiddluycetxptoantdhiengsuperficial part of a hair follicle. They by skin is

Chapter-by-Chapter Changes

Chapter 1 • Process figure 3.26 revised for clarity
• Osmosis discussion revised for clarity
• Added figure legend to chapter opener photo to link photo more
closely to the Learn to Predict for a complete story Chapter 4

• Throughout the entire textbook, dividing lines were added • Table 4.1 was updated to match the art in this chapter
between the figures and the legends to help students clearly • Table 4.2 was updated for consistency throughout the chapter
visualize the art concepts • In table 4.2a, the histology image was replaced with a clearer

• Systems figures were enhanced to increase clarity one of simple squamous epithelium
• Homeostasis discussion was rewritten per reviewer feedback to: • In tables 4.4a, 4.6a, 4.7c, 4.9, and 4.10c a clearer histology

simplify, clarify, and make more accurate image was used for clarity
• New predict #2 question and answer written to reflect changes • The terminology was changed from “respiratory passages” to

in homeostasis discussion “respiratory airways” for clarity
• Figure 1.5 revised to match new homeostasis discussion • The language in section 4.6, “Tissue Membranes” was
• Throughout the chapter and the entire textbook, adipose tissue
clarified to indicate that the section describes tissue
replaces fat to be more accurate when referring to the material membranes and not cell membranes. “Fat” was changed
(adipose) where the chemical (fat) is stored to “adipose tissue” where appropriate
• Throughout the entire textbook, all homeostasis figures were
revised for consistency and accuracy Chapter 5
• Figure 1.7 was updated to enhance students’ comprehension of
positive feedback, which is frequently misunderstood • New Microbes in Your Body: Using Bacteria to Fight Bacteria
• Figure 1.14 was updated by adding in organ art to help students
relate the terms to actual organs Chapter 6
• New feature added: Microbes in Your Body, “Getting to Know
your Bacteria.” This helps the text to stay current in the field of • Throughout the chapter, the bone shading was lightened for
biology where there is a greater focus on the microbiome and its realism
importance in human health and homeostasis
• A photo caption was added to the cover opener photo to link it
Chapter 2 to the Learn to Predict

• Added a legend to the chapter opening photo to link better to • Figure 6.8 was updated to add an x-ray of a broken bone before
the Learn to Predict and after callus formation

• Updated the discussion in section 2.1, “Ionic Bonding” • In 6A, “greenstick fracture” was more clearly defined
for clarity • Throughout the chapter, the skull art’s coloration was

• Figure 2.2 was updated for better visibility and clarity substantially brightened to help students more easily
• Figure 2.3 was also updated for better visibility and clarity differentiate between the individual skull bones (figures 6.11
• For consistency throughout the entire text, some symbols have and 6.12a)
• In figure 6.12a, the nasal conchae drawings were clarified
replaced the words where appropriate (CO2, O2, and H2O) because in the former edition, the bones were not
• Added table 2.3 to distinguish amongst chemical bond types distinguishable from the background
• Figure 2.13b was updated to represent unsaturated fatty acids in • Figures 6.14, 6.15, 6.19a, 6.20, 6.25, 6.26, 6.31, 6.33 were
revised to add photos of actual skulls, which share leader lines
a more realistic way. Students need to see the molecule actually with the line art. This helps students conceptualize the anatomy
bent and not linear more clearly
• Figure 2.15 was updated to match other figures throughout • Figures 6.24 and 6.28 were revised for accuracy of leader line
the textbook placement
• Figure 2.17 was updated to match other graphs throughout • The definition of flexion and extension was updated and
the textbook corrected per reviewer feedback
• A figure legend was added to figure 2.20 to explain why the
bond between adjacent phosphates is represented differently Chapter 7
than all the previous bonds shown in the chapter. Students
without a chemistry background may be unfamiliar with • Throughout the chapter, the actin and myosin myofilament line
this symbol art was arranged so the myosin appears thicker than the actin

Chapter 3 • A new Learn to Predict question was written that is more closely
aligned with the chapter opening photo and muscle function
• Increased size of figure 3.1 for better visual of organelles
• Image coloration changed for cytoplasm clarity • A legend was added to the chapter opener photo to tie it in with
the Learn to Predict

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• The text for “Skeletal Muscle Structure” in section 7.2 was • Table 10.1 was updated to clarify the definition of autocrine
rewritten to flow logically from a macro view to a micro view chemical messengers

• Figure 7.2 was heavily revised so the art is oriented linearly • The definition of paracrine chemical messengers in section 10.1
and flows directly to the next, more magnified level of muscle was updated
• Section 10.3 was updated to clarify hormones’ sources as
• Figure 7.3 was also heavily revised: Part a was added to show groups of cells as well as glands
the logical flow from the macro to the micro; part b was
cropped so the myofibrils are oriented linearly on the page • Section 10.4 was updated for clarity and accuracy
and correlate more directly to part a; part c was added to • Updated section 10.5 “Inhibition of Hormone Release by
provide a visual orientation of myofilament arrangement
relative to each other Hormonal Stimuli” for clarity
• Section 10.6 “Classes of Receptors” was revised to reflect newer
• Predict question #2 is new and covers muscle fiber electrical
activity—a predict question topic that was missing in the research on membrane-bound receptor action by lipid-soluble
previous edition hormones
• Figures 10.7a and 10.8 were updated for consistency with others
• Figure 7.11 was revised to better correlate a given response to for style
its corresponding stimulus frequency • Figure 10.8 was updated to reflect the information about
membrane-bound receptor actions
• Table 7.1 was added for clear distinction amongst fiber types • Figures 10.9 and 10.10 were updated to match the style of others
• The section on Energy Requirements for Muscle Contraction throughout the textbook
• Section 10.6—“Membrane-bound Receptors and Signal
was updated to reflect the most up-to-date information about Amplification” was revised for clarity and to incorporate lipid-
lactate fate. The definition of aerobic and anaerobic respiration soluble hormones
in skeletal muscle was clarified • Section 10.7—“Hormones of the Posterior Pituitary” was
• The section on muscle fatigue was updated revised for clarity
• Figure 7.12 was heavily revised to visually differentiate between • Figure 10.17 was revised for consistency throughout the textbook
energy usage at rest vs. exercise • The term “intracellular receptor” was changed to “nuclear
• A section on fiber type effect on activity level was added receptor” throughout the chapter
• Table 7.3 on muscle nomenclature was added • Figure 10.19 was updated for clarity
• Figure 7.16 was updated to add a cadaver photo with shared • Figures 10.20 and 10.21 were updated for consistency with
leader lines with the line art. This helps students visualize the other figures
anatomy more clearly • Section 10.7—“Pancreas, Insulin, and Diabetes” was revised for
• Table 7.13 was revised for consistent pronunciation of “teres” accuracy. It now includes a definition of somatostatin
• The Diseases and Disorders table was revised to accurately • Figure 10.22 was revised to include somatostatin
discuss ATP production and not lactic acid production • Table 10.3 was updated to use adipose not fat where appropriate
• Figure 10.23 was revised for consistency
Chapter 8
Chapter 11
• New figure 8.2 better represents the organization of the
nervous system • Figure 11.1 updated to show blood as % body weight
• Figure 11.2 revised to introduce myeloid and lymphoid stem cells
• Revision of figure 8.11 more accurately represents saltatory • Revision of 11.6 clarifies the relationship between transfusion
reactions and kidney failure
• Dermatomal map added to figure 8.20 • Figure 11.13 revised to better represent the relationship between

Chapter 9 the maternal blood and fetal blood

• New figure 9.1 to present types of senses Chapter 12
• New section 9.2 describes types of receptors
• New figure 9.6 presents the pathways for the sense of taste • Revisions to figure 12.13 allow for better visualization of
• Figure 9.16a revised for clarity cardiac muscle cell structure
• New figure 9.20 presents the auditory pathway
• Figure 12.14 revised to contrast skeletal muscle and cardiac
Chapter 10 muscle refractory period and resultant tension production

• Added a new Microbes in Your Body—“Do Our Bacteria Make • Discussion of cardiac cycle revised to correlate with the
Us Fat?” boxed reading descriptions of blood flow and the ECG. Figure 12.17 also
updated according to these revisions

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Chapter 13 • Section 16.6—“Liver” was updated for accuracy with bile
production and gallstone formation
• Figure 13.24 revised to better represent influences of blood
pressure and osmosis on capillary exchange • Section 16.6—“Functions of the Pancreas” were updated for clarity
• Figures 16.22, 16.23, 16.24, 16.25, and 16.27 was updated for
• Clinical Impact “Circulatory Shock” updated to distinguish
between septic shock and blood poisoning consistency throughout the text

Chapter 14 Chapter 17

• Figure 14.11 revised to include plasma cells producing antibodies • Recommended fiber intake added to the discussion of
• New Microbes in Your Body feature: Do Our Gut Bacteria Drive carbohydrates

Immune Development and Function? • FDA proposed changes to food labels added to figure 17.2

Chapter 15 Chapter 18

• The Learn to Predict was updated to include questions about a • The Learn to Predict was revised to link more closely to the
ventilator to link it to the photo chapter opener photo

• The chapter opener photo was updated • Throughout the chapter, the term “Bowman’s” was changed to
• Section 15.1 was revised to incorporate the term pathogen “The Bowman” capsule
• Figure 15.2 was updated to better represent the pharyngeal tonsils
• Figure 15.7 was updated for accuracy • Figure 18.3 was updated for clarity and labels for Renal Column
• Section 15.3—“Pressure Changes and Airflow” was updated were added to parts a and b

for clarity; Pleural Pressure to direct students attention to the • Section 18.3 was revised to indicate “Production,” which is a
boxed reading more active regulation term and an analogy for kidney function
• The term “aerobic respiration” was converted to “cellular was added to help students conceptualize the mechanisms
respiration” for consistency throughout the textbook more clearly
• Figure 15.14 was updated for clarity and accuracy of legend text
• Section 15.6—“Generation of Rhythmic Breathing” was revised • Figure 18.5 was edited to reflect term changes
for accuracy regarding somatic nervous system regulation of • Table 18.1 was updated to give normal values for pH and
• Section 15.6—“Chemical Control of Breathing” was revised specific gravity
to distinguish between CO2 levels during exercise and • Section 18.3 was updated to give better filtration definition
hyperventilation • Section 18.3—“Filtration” was revised for clarity and accuracy
• Figure 15.7 was updated for consistency • Figures 18.11, 18.13, 18.17, 18.19 and 18.22 were edited for
• Section 15.6—“Effect of Exercise on Breathing” was updated
for accuracy regarding lactic acid production clarity and consistency throughout the textbook
• Figure 15B legend was revised for better distinction between the
two images and magnifications were added to the photos Chapter 19
• The Diseases and Disorders table was updated to correctly place
text with the “Thrombosis of the pulmonary arteries” • The Learn to Predict questions were updated to compare meiosis
in males and females
Chapter 16
• A caption was added to the chapter opener photo to link more
• A new feature “Microbes in Your Body—Fecal Implants” closely to the Learn to Predict
was added
• The box on “Descent of the Testes” was updated to include a
• Section 16.3—“Anatomy of the Oral Cavity” was updated to discussion of treatments
include the lingual tonsils
• The language was changed from “Sex Hormones” to
• Figure 16.5 was updated for consistency throughout the text “Reproductive Hormones” to reflect the more current style
• Section 16.3—“Salivary Glands” was updated for accuracy;
• Figures 19.7 and 19.14 were updated for consistency
“Saliva” for clarity • Figure 19A was updated to have more modern photos
• Section 16.3—“Esophagus” was updated for accuracy with
Chapter 20
skeletal: smooth muscle proportions
• Revision of Respiratory and Circulatory Changes in the
newborn to better explain the changes of oxygenated blood
and deoxygenated blood flow through vessels before and
after birth

• Discussion of segregation errors revised for clarity

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List of Clinical Impact Essays

Chapter 1 Chapter 13 366

Cadavers and the Law 5 Varicose Veins 354
Humors and Homeostasis 9 Blood Vessels Used for Coronary Bypass Surgery
Hypertension 368
Chapter 2 Circulatory Shock 376

Clinical Uses of Atomic Particles 28 Chapter 14

Chapter 3 Ruptured Spleen 389 393
Treating Viral Infections and Cancer with Interferons
Cystic Fibrosis 51 60 Inhibiting and Stimulating Immunity 398
Carbohydrate and Lipid Disorders 56 Use of Monoclonal Antibodies 401
Relationships Between Cell Structure and Cell Function
Cancer 65

Chapter 5 Chapter 15 432

Adaptive Advantages of Skin Color 98 Establishing Airflow 417
Acne 102 Pneumothorax 425
Effects of High Altitude and Emphysema

Chapter 6 Chapter 16

Bone Fractures 118 Peritonitis 444
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome 131 Dietary Fiber 449
Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis 453
Chapter 7 Peptic Ulcers 455
High- and Low-Density Lipids 466
Acetylcholine Antagonists 159

Chapter 8 Chapter 17 480
Spinal Cord Injury 209 Fatty Acids and Blood Clotting
Radial Nerve Damage 210 Free Radicals and Antioxidants
Biofeedback and Meditation 230 Enzymes and Disease 486
Autonomic Dysfunctions 231 Starvation and Obesity 493
Too Hot or Too Cold 496
Chapter 9
Chapter 18
Corneal Transplants 246
Color Blindness 251 Diuretics 513

Chapter 10 Chapter 19

Lipid- and Water-Soluble Hormones in Medicine 267 Descent of the Testes 533
Hormones and Stress 286 Circumcision 537
Anabolic Steroids 540
Chapter 11 305 Male Pattern Baldness 541
Cancer of the Cervix 545
Stem Cells and Cancer Therapy 300 Cancer of the Breast 547
Clinical Importance of Activating Platelets Amenorrhea 550
The Danger of Unwanted Clots 307 Control of Pregnancy 552
Erythrocytosis and Blood Doping 312
Anemia 313

Chapter 12 Chapter 20

Disorders of the Pericardium 321 In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer 566
Heart Attack 328 Human Genome Project 583
Fibrillation of the Heart 332
Consequences of an Incompetent Bicuspid Valve 337
Consequences of Heart Failure 339
Treatment and Prevention of Heart Disease 342

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In today’s world, no textbook is brought to fruition through the Thanks are gratefully offered to Copy Editor Beth Bulger for
work of the authors alone. Without the support of friends, family, carefully polishing our words.
and colleagues, it would not have been possible for us to complete
our work on this text. The final product is truly a team effort. We We also thank the many illustrators who worked on the
want to express sincere gratitude to the staff of McGraw-Hill for development and execution of the illustration program and who
their help and encouragement. We sincerely appreciate Brand provided photographs and photomicrographs for the ninth edi-
Manager Amy Reed and Product Developer Mandy Clark, for tion of Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology. The art program for
their hours of work, suggestions, patience, and undying encour- this text represents a monumental effort, and we appreciate their
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Content Licensing Specialist John Leland, Buyer Laura Fuller, the illustrations.
and Designer David Hash for their hours spent turning a manu-
script into a book; Media Project Manager Sherry Kane for her Finally, we sincerely thank the reviewers and the teachers
assistance in building the various products that support our text; who have provided us with excellent constructive criticism. The
and Marketing Manager Jessica Cannavo for her enthusiasm in remuneration they received represents only a token payment for
promoting this book. The McGraw-Hill Education employees their efforts. To conscientiously review a textbook requires a true
with whom we have worked are extremely professional, but more commitment and dedication to excellence in teaching. Their help-
than that, they are completely dedicated to their role as part of the ful criticisms and suggestions for improvement were significant
content team. contributions that we greatly appreciate. We acknowledge them by
name in the next section.

Cinnamon VanPutte
Jennifer Regan
Andy Russo

Reviewers Philias Denette Jose’ E. Rivera
Delgado Community College Indiana University of Pennsylvania
Malene Arnaud-Davis
Delgado Community College Lynn Gargan Edith Sarino
Tarrant County College—NE Campus Arizona Western College
Nahel Awadallah
Johnston Community College Ronald Harris Alice Shapiro
Marymount College Lane Community College
Yavuz Cakir
Benedict College Matt Lee Scott Wersinger
Diablo Valley College University at Buffalo, SUNY
Alan Crandall
Idaho State University Elizabeth Mays Paul Zillgitt
Illinois Central College University of Wisconsin-Waukesha
Lyndasu Crowe
Darton State College

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Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights
reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2013, 2010 and 2007. No part of this publication may be reproduced
or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill
Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.
Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
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ISBN 978-1-259-25175-7
MHID 1-259-25175-6

All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the copyright page.
The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website does not indicate an endorse-
ment by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented
at these sites.

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ChaPTer 1 The Human Organism

Learn TO PreDiCT

renzo, the dancer in the photo, is perfectly balanced,
yet a slight movement in any direction would cause
him to adjust his position. The human body adjusts
its balance among all its parts through a process
called homeostasis.

Let’s imagine that renzo is suffering from a blood
sugar disorder. earlier, just before this photo was taken,
he’d eaten an energy bar. as an energy bar is digested,
blood sugar rises. normally, tiny collections of cells
embedded in the pancreas respond to the rise in
blood sugar by secreting the chemical insulin. insulin
increases the movement of sugar from the blood into
the cells. however, renzo did not feel satisfied from
his energy bar. he felt dizzy and was still hungry, all
symptoms he worried could be due to a family history
of diabetes. Fortunately, the on-site trainer tested his
blood sugar and noted that it was much higher than
normal. after a visit to his regular physician, renzo
was outfitted with an insulin pump and his blood sugar
levels are more consistent.

after reading about homeostasis in this chapter,
create an explanation for renzo’s blood sugar levels
before and after his visit to the doctor.

Module 1 Body Orientation

1.1 anaTOmy Knowing human anatomy and physiology also provides the
basis for understanding disease. The study of human anatomy
Learning Outcomes After reading this section, you should be able to and physiology is important for students who plan a career in
the health sciences because health professionals need a sound
A. Define anatomy and describe the levels at which anatomy knowledge of structure and function in order to perform their
can be studied. duties. In addition, understanding anatomy and physiology pre-
pares all of us to evaluate recommended treatments, critically
B. explain the importance of the relationship between review advertisements and reports in the popular literature, and
structure and function. rationally discuss the human body with health professionals
and nonprofessionals.
Human anatomy and physiology is the study of the structure and
function of the human body. The human body has many intricate Anatomy (ă-nat′ŏ-mē) is the scientific discipline that inves-
parts with coordinated functions maintained by a complex system tigates the structure of the body. The word anatomy means to
of checks and balances. The coordinated function of all the parts dissect, or cut apart and separate, the parts of the body for study.
of the human body allows us to detect changes or stimuli, respond
to stimuli, and perform many other actions.

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2 Chapter 1 Chemical Level

Anatomy covers a wide range of studies, including the structure of The structural and functional characteristics of all organisms are
body parts, their microscopic organization, and the processes by determined by their chemical makeup. The chemical level of
which they develop. In addition, anatomy examines the relation- organization involves how atoms, such as hydrogen and carbon,
ship between the structure of a body part and its function. Just interact and combine into molecules. The function of a molecule
as the structure of a hammer makes it well suited for pounding is intimately related to its structure. For example, collagen mol-
nails, the structure of body parts allows them to perform specific ecules are strong, ropelike fibers that give skin structural strength
functions effectively. For example, bones can provide strength and and flexibility. With old age, the structure of collagen changes, and
support because bone cells secrete a hard, mineralized substance. the skin becomes fragile and more easily torn. A brief overview
Unders­tanding the relationship between structure and function of chemistry is presented in chapter 2.
makes it easier to understand and appreciate anatomy.
Cell Level
Two basic approaches to the study of anatomy are systemic
anatomy and regional anatomy. Systemic anatomy is the study of Cells are the basic structural and functional units of organisms, such
the body by systems, such as the cardiovascular, nervous, skeletal, as plants and animals. Molecules can combine to form organelles
and muscular systems. It is the approach taken in this and most (or′gă-nelz; little organs), which are the small structures that make
introductory textbooks. Regional anatomy is the study of the orga- up some cells. For example, the nucleus contains the cell’s hereditary
nization of the body by areas. Within each region, such as the head, information, and mitochondria manufacture adenosine triphosphate
abdomen, or arm, all systems are studied simultaneously. This is (ATP), a molecule cells use for a source of energy. Although cell
the approach taken in most medical and dental schools. types differ in their structure and function, they have many charac-
teristics in common. Knowledge of these ­characteristics and their
Anatomists have two general ways to examine the internal variations is essential to a basic understanding of anatomy and
structures of a living person: surface anatomy and anatomical physiology. The cell is discussed in chapter 3.
imaging. Surface anatomy is the study of external features, such
as bony projections, which serve as landmarks for locating deeper Tissue Level
structures (for examples, see chapters 6 and 7). Anatomical imaging
involves the use of x-rays, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imag- A tissue (tish′ū) is a group of similar cells and the materials surround-
ing (MRI), and other technologies to create pictures of internal ing them. The characteristics of the cells and surrounding materials
structures. Both surface anatomy and anatomical imaging provide determine the functions of the tissue. The many tissues that make
important information for diagnosing disease. up the body are classified into four primary types: epithelial, con-
nective, muscle, and nervous. Tissues are discussed in chapter 4.
1.2  Physiology
Organ Level
Learning Outcomes After reading this section, you should be able to
An organ (ōr′găn; a tool) is composed of two or more tissue types
A. Define physiology. that together perform one or more common functions. The ­urinary
B. State two major goals of physiology. bladder, skin, stomach, and heart are examples of organs (figure 1.2).

Physiology (fiz-ē-ol′ō-jē; the study of nature) is the scientific dis- Organ System Level
cipline that deals with the processes or functions of living things.
It is important in physiology to recognize structures as dynamic An organ system is a group of organs classified as a unit because
rather than fixed and unchanging. The major goals of physiology of a common function or set of functions. For example, the urinary
are (1) to understand and predict the body’s responses to stimuli system consists of the kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder, and urethra.
and (2) to understand how the body maintains conditions within The kidneys produce urine, which is transported by the ureters
a narrow range of values in the presence of continually changing to the urinary bladder, where it is stored until eliminated from
internal and external environments. Human physiology is the study the body by passing through the urethra. In this text, we consider
of a specific organism, the human, whereas cellular physiology eleven major organ systems: integumentary, skeletal, muscular,
and systemic physiology are subdivisions that emphasize specific lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular,
organizational levels. urinary, and reproductive (figure 1.3).

1.3 Structural and Functional The coordinated activity of the organ systems is necessary for
Organization of the Human Body normal function. For example, the digestive system takes in and
processes food, which is carried by the blood of the cardiovascular
Learning Outcomes After reading this section, you should be able to system to the cells of the other systems. These cells use the food
and produce waste products that are carried by the blood to the kid-
A. Describe the six levels of organization of the body, and neys of the urinary system, which removes waste products from the
describe the major characteristics of each level. blood. Because the organ systems are so interrelated, dysfunction
in one organ system can have profound effects on other systems.
B. List the eleven organ systems, identify their components, For example, a heart attack can result in inadequate circulation
and describe the major functions of each system. of blood. Consequently, the organs of other systems, such as the
brain and kidneys, can malfunction. Throughout this text, Systems
The body can be studied at six structural levels: chemical, cell, tissue, Pathology essays consider the interactions of the organ systems.
organ, organ system, and organism (figure 1.1).

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The human Organism 3

1 Chemical level. Atoms 1
(colored balls) combine
to form molecules. Atoms

2 Cell level. Molecules Molecule Mitochondria
form organelles, such as (DNA) 2 Nucleus
the nucleus and mitochondria,
which make up cells. Smooth Smooth muscle cell
3 Tissue level. Similar cells tissue 3
and surrounding materials
make up tissues. Urinary 4
bladder Epithelium
4 Organ level. Different Connective tissue
tissues combine to form Kidney Smooth muscle tissue
organs, such as the 5 Connective tissue
urinary bladder.
Ureter Wall of urinary bladder
5 Organ system level.
Organs, such as the Urinary bladder
urinary bladder and Urethra
kidneys, make up an Urinary system
organ system.

6 Organism level. Organ
systems make up an



PROCESS Figure 1.1 Levels of Organization for the Human Body

Organism Level highly organized. All organisms are composed of one or
more cells. Some cells, in turn, are composed of highly
An organism is any living thing considered as a whole, whether specialized organelles, which depend on the precise
composed of one cell, such as a bacterium, or of trillions of cells, functions of large molecules. Disruption of this organized
such as a human. The human organism is a complex of organ state can result in loss of function and death.
systems that are mutually dependent on one another (figure 1.3). 2. Metabolism (mĕ-tab′ō-lizm) is the ability to use energy
to perform vital functions, such as growth, movement,
1.4 CharaCTeriSTiCS OF LiFe and reproduction. Plants capture energy from sunlight,
and humans obtain energy from food.
Learning Outcome After reading this section, you should be able to 3. Responsiveness is the ability of an organism to sense
changes in the environment and make the adjustments that
A. List and define six characteristics of life. help maintain its life. Responses include movement toward
food or water and away from danger or poor environmental
Humans are organisms sharing characteristics with other organ- conditions. Organisms can also make adjustments that
isms. The most important common feature of all organisms is life. maintain their internal environment. For example, if body
This text recognizes six essential characteristics of life: temperature increases in a hot environment, sweat glands
produce sweat, which can lower body temperature down
1. Organization refers to the specific interrelationships to the normal level.
among the parts of an organism and how those parts
interact to perform specific functions. Living things are

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4 Chapter 1

MICROBES IN YOUR BODY Getting to Know Your Bacteria

Did you know that you have sequenced over 20 million unique micro- a detriment, this variation may actually
more microbial cells than human cells in bial genes. be very useful for at least one major
your body? astoundingly, for every cell in reason. There seems to be a correlation
your body, there are ten microbial cells. What did scientists learn from the between certain diseases and a “charac-
That’s as many as 100 trillion microbial human microbiome Project? human health teristic microbiome community,” especially
cells, which can collectively account for is dependent upon the health of our micro- for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases
anywhere between 2 and 6 pounds of your biota, especially the “good” bacteria. in (Crohn’s, asthma, multiple sclerosis), which
body weight! a microbe is any living thing fact, it seems that our microbiota are so have become more prevalent. Scientists are
that cannot be seen with the naked eye completely intertwined with human cells beginning to believe that any significant
(for example, bacteria, viruses, fungi, and that in a 2013 New York Times article, change in the profile of the microbiome
protozoa). The total population of micro- Dr. David relman of Stanford university sug- of the human gut may increase a person’s
bial cells on the human body is referred to gested that humans are like corals. Corals susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. it
as the microbiota, while the combination are marine organisms that are collections has been proposed that these changes may
of these microbial cells and their genes of different life forms all existing together. be associated with exposure to antibiotics,
is known as the microbiome. The micro- more specifically, the human microbiome is particularly in infancy. Fortunately, newer
biota includes so-called “good” bacteria intimately involved in the development and studies of microbial transplantations have
that do not cause disease and may even maintenance of the immune system. and shown that the protective and other func-
help us. it also includes pathogenic, or more evidence is mounting for a correlation tions of bacteria can be transferred from
“bad” bacteria. between a host’s microbiota, digestion, and one person to the next. however, this work
metabolism. researchers have suggested is all very new and much research remains
With that many microbes in and on that microbial genes are more responsible to be done.
our bodies, you might wonder how they for our survival than human genes. There
affect our health. To answer that question, are even a few consistent pathogens that Throughout the remainder of this text,
in October 2007 the national institute of are present without causing disease, sug- we will highlight specific instances where
health (nih) initiated the 5-year human gesting that their presence may be good our microbes influence our body systems.
microbiome Project, the largest study of its for us. however, there does not seem to in light of the importance of our body’s
kind. Five significant regions of the human be a universal healthy human microbiome. bacteria and other microbes, the preva-
body were examined: airway, skin, mouth, rather, the human microbiome varies across lence of antibacterial soap and hand gel
gastrointestinal tract, and vagina. This lifespan, ethnicity, nationality, culture, and usage in everyday life may be something
project identified over 5000 species and geographical location. instead of being to think about.

4. Growth refers to an increase in size of all or part of the 1.5 hOmeOSTaSiS
organism. It can result from an increase in cell number,
cell size, or the amount of substance surrounding cells. For Learning Outcomes After reading this section, you should be able to
example, bones become larger as the number of bone cells
increases and they become surrounded by bone matrix. A. Define homeostasis, and explain why it is important for
proper body function.
5. Development includes the changes an organism undergoes
through time; it begins with fertilization and ends at death. B. Describe a negative-feedback mechanism and give
The greatest developmental changes occur before birth, an example.
but many changes continue after birth, and some continue
throughout life. Development usually involves growth, but C. Describe a positive-feedback mechanism and give
it also involves differentiation. Differentiation is change in an example.
cell structure and function from generalized to specialized.
For example, following fertilization, generalized cells Homeostasis (hō′mē-ō-stā′sis; homeo-, the same) is the existence
specialize to become specific cell types, such as skin, bone, and maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the
muscle, or nerve cells. These differentiated cells form body despite fluctuations in either the external environment or the
tissues and organs. internal environment. Most body cells are surrounded by a small
amount of fluid, and normal cell functions depend on the mainte-
6. Reproduction is the formation of new cells or new nance of the cells’ fluid environment within a narrow range of con-
organisms. Without reproduction of cells, growth and ditions, including temperature, volume, and chemical content. These
tissue repair are impossible. Without reproduction of conditions are called variables because their values can change. For
the organism, the species becomes extinct. example, body temperature is a variable that can increase in a hot
environment or decrease in a cold environment.

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The human Organism 5

CLINICAL IMPACT Cadavers and the Law

The study of human bodies medical schools. Because the bodies were Today, in the united States, it is quite
is the foundation of medical education, not easy to obtain and were not always in simple to donate your body for scientific
and for much of history, anatomists have the best condition, two enterprising men study. The uniform anatomical gift act
used the bodies of people who have died, named William Burke and William hare allows individuals to donate their organs
called cadavers, for these studies. however, went one step further. Over a period of or entire cadaver by putting a notation
public sentiment has often made it difficult time, they murdered seventeen people in on their driver’s license. you need only
for anatomists to obtain human bodies for Scotland and sold their bodies to a medi- to contact a medical school or private
dissection. in the early 1800s, the benefits cal school. When discovered, hare testified agency to file the forms that give them
of human dissection for training physicians against Burke and went free. Burke was the rights to your cadaver. Once the donor
had become very apparent, and the need convicted, hanged, and publicly dissected. dies, the family of the deceased usually
for cadavers increased beyond the ability Discovery of Burke’s activities so outraged pays only the transportation costs for the
to acquire them legally. Thus arose the the public that sensible laws regulating the remains. after dissection, the body is cre-
resurrectionists, or body snatchers. For a acquisition of cadavers were soon passed, mated, and the cremains can be returned
fee and no questions asked, they removed and this dark chapter in the history of to the family.
bodies from graves and provided them to anatomy was closed.

Brain Spinal cord
Larynx artery
Trachea Esophagus
Aortic arch
Lung Diaphragm
Heart Spleen
Liver (behind stomach)
Pancreas (behind Stomach
stomach) Kidney
Gallbladder (behind stomach)
Kidney Small intestine
(behind intestine)
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(behind small

Figure 1.2 Major Organs of the Body

6 Chapter 1 Skull Temporalis
Hair Pectoralis
Ribs Clavicle major
Skin Pelvis Sternum
Humerus Biceps
Integumentary System Vertebral brachii
column Rectus
Provides protection, regulates temperature, Radius abdominis
prevents water loss, and helps produce Ulna
vitamin D. Consists of skin, hair, nails, and Sartorius
sweat glands. Femur Quadriceps

Tibia Gastrocnemius
Muscular System
Skeletal System
Produces body movements, maintains
Provides protection and support, allows body posture, and produces body heat. Consists of
movements, produces blood cells, and stores muscles attached to the skeleton by tendons.
minerals and adipose tissue. Consists of bones,
associated cartilages, ligaments, and joints.

Tonsils Nose Nasal Pharynx Salivary
Cervical cavity (throat) glands
Thymus lymph Pharynx Oral cavity
Axillary node (throat) (mouth) Esophagus
lymph Larynx Stomach
node Mammary Liver Pancreas
Lymphatic plexus Trachea Gallbladder Small
vessel Thoracic Bronchi intestine
duct Lungs Large
Spleen intestine
lymph node Appendix


Lymphatic System Respiratory System Digestive System

Removes foreign substances from the blood Exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide Performs the mechanical and chemical
and lymph, combats disease, maintains between the blood and air and regulates processes of digestion, absorption of
tissue fluid balance, and absorbs dietary fats blood pH. Consists of the lungs and nutrients, and elimination of wastes. Consists
from the digestive tract. Consists of the respiratory passages. of the mouth, esophagus, stomach,
lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other intestines, and accessory organs.
lymphatic organs.

Figure 1.3    Organ Systems of the Body

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The Human Organism 7

Brain Hypothalamus Pineal Carotid
Pituitary gland artery

Spinal cord Thyroid Parathyroids Jugular Superior
Thymus (posterior vein vena cava
Nerve part of Pulmonary
Cauda Adrenals thyroid) Heart trunk
equina Ovaries Brachial Aorta
(female) Pancreas artery Femoral
(islets) artery and
Testes Inferior vein
(male) vena cava

Nervous System Endocrine System Cardiovascular System

A major regulatory system that detects A major regulatory system that influences Transports nutrients, waste products, gases,
sensations and controls movements, metabolism, growth, reproduction, and many and hormones throughout the body; plays
physiological processes, and intellectual other functions. Consists of glands, such as a role in the immune response and the
functions. Consists of the brain, spinal cord, the pituitary, that secrete hormones. regulation of body temperature. Consists of
nerves, and sensory receptors. the heart, blood vessels, and blood.

(in breast)

Kidney Uterine Ductus Seminal
Ureter tube deferens vesicle
Urinary Ovary Prostate
bladder gland
Urethra Uterus Testis

Vagina Epididymis Penis

Urinary System Female Reproductive System Male Reproductive System

Removes waste products from the blood and Produces oocytes and is the site of fertilization Produces and transfers sperm cells to
regulates blood pH, ion balance, and water and fetal development; produces milk for the the female and produces hormones that
balance. Consists of the kidneys, urinary newborn; produces hormones that influence influence sexual functions and behaviors.
bladder, and ducts that carry urine. sexual function and behaviors. Consists of the Consists of the testes, accessory structures,
ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, ducts, and penis.
mammary glands, and associated structures.

Figure 1.3    Organ Systems of the Body (continued)

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8 Chapter 1

Body temperature 98.8°F Set point such as body temperature; (2) a control center, such as part of
(normal range) 98.6°F the brain, establishes the set point around which the variable is
98.4°F maintained; and (3) an effector (ē-fek′tor̆ ), such as the sweat
glands, can change the value of the variable. A changed variable
Time (min) is a stimulus because it initiates a homeostatic mechanism.
Normal body temperature depends on the coordination of
Figure 1.4 Homeostasis multiple structures, which are regulated by the control center,
or hypothalamus, in the brain. If body temperature rises, sweat
Homeostasis is the maintenance of a variable, such as body temperature, glands (the effectors) produce sweat and the body cools. If body
around an ideal normal value, or set point. The value of the variable temperature falls, sweat glands do not produce sweat (figure 1.5).
fluctuates around the set point to establish a normal range of values. The stepwise process that regulates body temperature involves
the interaction of receptors, the control center, and effectors.
Homeostatic mechanisms, such as sweating or shivering, Often, there is more than one effector and the control center
normally maintain body temperature near an ideal normal value, must integrate them. In the case of elevated body temperature,
or set point (figure 1.4). Most homeostatic mechanisms are gov- thermoreceptors in the skin and hypothalamus detect the increase
erned by the nervous system or the endocrine system. Note that in temperature and send the information to the hypothalamus con-
homeostatic mechanisms are not able to maintain body temperature trol center. In turn, the hypothalamus stimulates blood vessels in
precisely at the set point. Instead, body temperature increases and the skin to relax and sweat glands to produce sweat, which sends
decreases slightly around the set point, producing a normal range more blood to the body’s surface for radiation of heat away from
of values. As long as body ­temperatures remain within this normal the body. The sweat glands and skin blood vessels are the effec-
range, homeostasis is m­ aintained. tors in this scenario. Once body temperature returns to normal,
the control center signals the sweat glands to reduce sweat pro-
The organ systems help control the internal environment so duction and the blood vessels constrict to their normal diameter.
that it remains relatively constant. For example, the digestive, On the other hand, if body temperature drops, the control center
respiratory, cardiovascular, and urinary systems function together does not stimulate the sweat glands. Instead, the skin blood ves-
so that each cell in the body receives adequate oxygen and nutri- sels constrict more than normal and blood is directed to deeper
ents and so that waste products do not accumulate to a toxic level. regions of the body, conserving heat in the interior of the body.
If the fluid surrounding cells deviates from homeostasis, the cells In addition, the hypothalamus stimulates shivering, quick cycles
do not function normally and may even die. Disease disrupts of skeletal muscle contractions, which generates a great amount
homeostasis and sometimes results in death. Modern medicine of heat. Again, once the body temperature returns to normal, the
attempts to understand disturbances in homeostasis and works to effectors stop. In both cases, the effectors do not produce their
reestablish a normal range of values. responses indefinitely and are controlled by negative feedback.
Negative feedback acts to return the variable to its normal range
Negative Feedback (figure 1.6).

Most systems of the body are regulated by negative-feedback Predict 2
mechanisms, which maintain homeostasis. Negative means that
any deviation from the set point is made smaller or is resisted. What effect would swimming in cool water have on body
Negative feedback does not prevent variation but maintains varia- temperature regulation mechanisms? What would happen
tion within a normal range. if a negative-feedback mechanism did not return the value
The maintenance of normal body temperature is an example of a variable, such as body temperature, to its normal range?
of a negative-feedback mechanism. Normal body temperature
is important because it allows molecules and enzymes to keep Positive Feedback
their normal shape so they can function optimally. An optimal
body temperature prevents molecules from being permanently Positive-feedback mechanisms occur when the initial stimulus
destroyed. Picture the change in appearance of egg whites as further stimulates the response. In other words, the deviation
they are cooked; a similar phenomenon can happen to molecules from the set point becomes even greater. At times, this type of
in our body if the temperature becomes too high. Thus, normal response is required to re-achieve homeostasis. For example,
body temperature is required to ensure that tissue homeostasis during blood loss, a chemical responsible for clot formation
is maintained. stimulates production of itself. In this way, a disruption in homeo-
Many negative-feedback mechanisms, such as the one that stasis is resolved through a positive-feedback mechanism. What
maintains normal body temperature, have three components: (1) A prevents the entire vascular system from clotting? The clot forma-
receptor (rē-sep′tor̆ , rē-sep′tōr) monitors the value of a variable, tion process is self-limiting. Eventually, the components needed
to form a clot will be depleted in the damaged area and more clot
material cannot be formed (figure 1.7).

Birth is another example of a normally occurring positive-
feedback mechanism. Near the end of pregnancy, the uterus is
stretched by the baby’s large size. This stretching, especially
around the opening of the uterus, stimulates contractions of the

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The human Organism 9

CLINICALIMPACT Humors and Homeostasis

The idea that the body main- vessels, but sometimes they applied leeches, had been removed to restore a healthy bal-
tains a balance (homeostasis) can be traced blood-eating organisms, to the skin. ance of the body’s juices. Thus, the obvious
back to ancient greece. early physicians solution was to let still more blood, undoubt-
believed that the body supported four juic- Tragically, in the eighteenth and edly causing many deaths. eventually, the
es, or humors: the red juice of blood, the nineteenth centuries, bloodletting went to failure of this approach became obvious,
yellow juice of bile, the white juice secreted extremes. During this period, a physician and the practice was abandoned.
from the nose and lungs, and a black juice might recommend bloodletting, but barbers
in the pancreas. They also thought that conducted the actual procedure. in fact, The modern term for bloodletting is
health resulted from a proper balance of the traditional red-and-white-striped barber phlebotomy (fle-bot′o- -me-), but it is prac-
these juices and that an excess of any one pole originated as a symbol for bloodletting. ticed in a controlled setting and removes
of them caused disease. normally, they The brass basin on top of the pole represent- only small volumes of blood, usually for
believed, the body would attempt to heal ed the bowl for leeches, and the bowl on the laboratory testing. There are some diseases in
itself by expelling the excess juice, as when bottom represented the basin for collecting which bloodletting is still useful—for exam-
mucus runs from the nose of a person with a blood. The stripes represented the bandages ple, polycythemia (pol′e- -s-ı-the-′me--a˘),
cold. This belief led to the practice of blood- used as tourniquets, and the pole itself stood an overabundance of red blood cells.
letting to restore the body’s normal balance for the wooden staff patients gripped during however, bloodletting in these patients
of juices. Typically, physicians used sharp the procedure. The fact that bloodletting does not continue until the patient faints or
instruments to puncture the larger, external did not improve the patient’s condition was dies. Fortunately, we now understand more
taken as evidence that not enough blood about how the body maintains homeostasis.

1 Receptors monitor the 3 2 1
value of a variable. In this Control center Receptors monitor
case, receptors in the skin (brain) Nerves body temperature.
monitor body temperature. 4
Sweat gland 5
2 Information about the value Effector (sweat gland)
of the variable is sent to a responds to changes
control center. In this case, in body temperature.
nerves send information to
the part of the brain 5 An effector produces a
responsible for regulating response that maintains
body temperature. homeostasis. In this case,
stimulating sweat glands
3 The control center lowers body temperature.
compares the value of the
variable against the set

4 If a response is necessary to
maintain homeostasis, the
control center causes an
effector to respond. In this
case, nerves send information
to the sweat glands.

Figure 1.5 Negative-Feedback Mechanism: Body Temperature

uterine muscles. The uterine contractions push the baby against (heart) muscle. Contraction of cardiac muscle generates blood pres-
the opening of the uterus, stretching it further. This stimulates sure and moves blood through the blood vessels to the tissues. A
additional contractions, which result in additional stretching. This system of blood vessels on the outside of the heart provides cardiac
positive-feedback sequence ends when the baby is delivered from muscle with a blood supply sufficient to allow normal contractions
the uterus and the stretching stimulus is eliminated. to occur. In effect, the heart pumps blood to itself. Just as with
other tissues, blood pressure must be maintained to ensure adequate
On the other hand, occasionally a positive-feedback mecha- delivery of blood to the cardiac muscle. Following extreme blood
nism can be detrimental. One example of a detrimental positive- loss, blood pressure decreases to the point that the delivery of blood
feedback mechanism is inadequate delivery of blood to cardiac

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3 4
Actions Reactions

Control centers in the brain increase Effectors
stimulation of sweat glands and relax Respond:
blood vessels in the skin when Sweat glands
receptors detect increased body produce
temperature. sweat; blood
vessels in the
skin dilate. Sweat gland

2 Homeostasis Disturbed: 5 Homeostasis Restored:
Body temperature increases. Body temperature decreases.

Body temperature
(normal range)

Body temperature
(normal range)
1 Start Here 6

Homeostasis Disturbed: Homeostasis Restored:
Body temperature decreases. Body temperature increases.

Actions Reactions
Control centers in the brain decrease
stimulation of sweat glands and Effectors Respond:
constrict blood vessels in the skin
when receptors detect decreased Sweat glands cease
body temperature. sweat production;

blood vessels in Sweat gland
the skin constrict;
skeletal muscle
contracts (shivering).

Homeostasis Figure 1.6 Negative-Feedback Control of Body Temperature

Throughout this book, all homeostasis figures have the same format as shown here. The changes caused by the increase of a variable
outside the normal range are shown in the green boxes, and the changes caused by a decrease are shown in the red boxes. To help you
learn how to interpret homeostasis figures, some of the steps in this figure are numbered. (1) Body temperature is within its normal range.
(2) Body temperature increases outside the normal range, which causes homeostasis to be disturbed. (3) The body temperature control
center in the brain responds to the change in body temperature. (4) The control center causes sweat glands to produce sweat and blood
vessels in the skin to dilate. (5) These changes cause body temperature to decrease. (6) Body temperature returns to its normal range, and
homeostasis is restored. Observe the responses to a decrease in body temperature outside its normal range by following the red arrows.

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The Human Organism 11

SUBSTRATE SUBSTRATE + When you begin to study anatomy and physiology, the number
Enzyme A Enzyme A of new words may seem overwhelming. Learning is easier and
more interesting if you pay attention to the origin, or etymology
Inactive intermediate 1 Inactive intermediate 1 (et′ĕ-mol′o-jē), of new words. Most of the terms are derived from
Enzyme B Latin or Greek. For example, anterior in Latin means “to go
– Enzyme B before.” Therefore, the anterior surface of the body is the one that
Inactive intermediate 2 goes before when we are walking.
Enzyme C Inactive intermediate 2
Enzyme C Words are often modified by adding a prefix or suffix. For
Active product example, the suffix -itis means an inflammation, so appendicitis
Active product is an inflammation of the appendix. As new terms are introduced
(a) Negative feedback in this text, their meanings are often explained. The glossary and
(b) Positive feedback the list of word roots, prefixes, and suffixes on the inside back
cover of the textbook also provide additional information about
Figure 1.7  Comparison of Negative-feedback and the new terms.

Positive-feedback Mechanisms Body Positions

(a) In negative feedback, the response stops the effector. (b) In positive The anatomical position refers to a person standing erect
feedback, the response keeps the reaction going. For example, during blood with the face directed forward, the upper limbs hanging to the
clotting, the "active product" represents thrombin, which triggers, "enzyme A," sides, and the palms of the hands facing forward (figure 1.8). A
the first step in the cascade that leads to the production of thrombin. person is supine when lying face upward and prone when lying
face downward.
to cardiac muscle is inadequate. As a result, cardiac muscle homeo-
stasis is disrupted, and cardiac muscle does not function normally. The position of the body can affect the description of body
The heart pumps less blood, which causes the blood pressure to parts relative to each other. In the anatomical position, the elbow is
drop even lower. The additional decrease in blood pressure further above the hand, but in the supine or prone position, the elbow and
reduces blood delivery to cardiac muscle, and the heart pumps even hand are at the same level. To avoid confusion, relational descrip-
less blood, which again decreases the blood pressure. The process tions are always based on the anatomical position, no matter the
continues until the blood pressure is too low to sustain the cardiac actual position of the body.
muscle, the heart stops beating, and death results.
Directional Terms
Following a moderate amount of blood loss (e.g., after donating a
pint of blood), negative-feedback mechanisms result in an increase Directional terms describe parts of the body relative to each
in heart rate that restores blood pressure. However, if blood loss is other (figure 1.8 and table 1.1). It is important to become familiar
severe, negative-feedback mechanisms may not be able to maintain with these directional terms as soon as possible because you will
homeostasis, and the positive-feedback effect of an ever-decreasing see them repeatedly throughout the text. Right and left are used
blood pressure can develop. as directional terms in anatomical terminology. Up is replaced
by superior, down by inferior, front by anterior, and back
A basic principle to remember is that many disease states by posterior.
result from the failure of negative-feedback mechanisms to main-
tain homeostasis. The purpose of medical therapy is to overcome As previously mentioned, the word anterior means that which
illness by aiding negative-feedback mechanisms. For example, a goes before; the word ventral means belly. Therefore, the anterior
transfusion can reverse a constantly decreasing blood pressure and surface of the human body is also called the ventral surface, or
restore homeostasis. belly, because the belly “goes first” when we are walking. The
word posterior means that which follows, and dorsal means back.
Predict 3 Thus, the posterior surface of the body is the dorsal surface, or
back, which follows as we are walking.
Is the sensation of thirst associated with a negative- or a positive-
feedback mechanism? Explain. (Hint: What is being regulated when Proximal means nearest, whereas distal means distant. These
you become thirsty?) terms are used to refer to linear structures, such as the limbs, in
which one end is near another structure and the other end is farther
1.6 Terminology and the Body Plan away. Each limb is attached at its proximal end to the body, and
the distal end, such as the hand, is farther away.
Learning Outcomes After reading this section, you should be able to
Medial means toward the midline, and lateral means away
A. Describe a person in anatomical position. from the midline. The nose is located in a medial position on the
B. Define the directional terms for the human body, and face, and the ears are lateral to the nose. The term superficial
refers to a structure close to the surface of the body, and deep is
use them to locate specific body structures. toward the interior of the body. For example, the skin is superficial
C. Know the terms for the parts and regions of the body. to muscle and bone.
D. Name and describe the three major planes of the body
Predict 4
and the body organs.
E. Describe the major trunk cavities and their divisions. Provide the correct directional term for the following statement:
F. Describe the serous membranes, their locations, and When a boy is standing on his head, his nose is ______ to his mouth.

their functions.

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Right Left Superior
Proximal (cephalic)
Midline (cephalic)

Medial Anterior Posterior Inferior
Lateral (ventral) (dorsal) (caudal)







Figure 1.8 Directional Terms

all directional terms are in relation to the body in the anatomical position: a person standing erect with the face directed
forward, the arms hanging to the sides, and the palms of the hands facing forward.

TABLE 1.1 Directional Terms for the Human Body

Term Etymology Definition* Example

right Toward the body’s right side The right ear
The left ear
Left Toward the body’s left side The nose is inferior to the forehead.
The mouth is superior to the chin.
inferior Lower Below The teeth are anterior to the throat.
The brain is posterior to the eyes.
Superior higher above The spine is dorsal to the breastbone.
The navel is ventral to the spine.
anterior To go before Toward the front of the body The elbow is proximal to the wrist.
The knee is distal to the hip.
Posterior Posterus, following Toward the back of the body The nipple is lateral to the breastbone.
The bridge of the nose is medial to the eye.
Dorsal Dorsum, back Toward the back (synonymous with posterior) The skin is superficial to muscle.
The lungs are deep to the ribs.
Ventral Venter, belly Toward the belly (synonymous with anterior)

Proximal Proximus, nearest Closer to a point of attachment

Distal di + sto, to be distant Farther from a point of attachment

Lateral Latus, side away from the midline of the body

medial Medialis, middle Toward the middle or midline of the body

Superficial Superficialis, surface Toward or on the surface

Deep Deop, deep away from the surface, internal

*all directional terms refer to a human in the anatomical position.

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The Human Organism 13

Head Frontal (forehead) Otic (ear)
Neck Orbital (eye) Buccal (cheek)
Nasal (nose) Mental (chin)
Oral (mouth)
Clavicular (collarbone)
Axillary (armpit)
Thoracic Pectoral (chest) Brachial (arm)
(thorax) Sternal (breastbone)
Antecubital (front of elbow)
Mammary (breast)
Antebrachial (forearm)
Trunk Abdominal (abdomen) Upper limb
Umbilical (navel)
Carpal (wrist)
Pelvic (pelvis) Palmar (palm)
Inguinal (groin) Digital (fingers)
Pubic (genital)
Coxal (hip)
Femoral (thigh) Manual (hand)

Patellar (kneecap)

Crural (leg) Lower limb


Figure 1.9    Body Parts and Regions Talus (ankle)
Dorsum (top of foot)
The anatomical and common (in parentheses) names are indicated Digital (toes) Pedal (foot)

for some parts and regions of the body. (a) Anterior view.

Body Parts and Regions (hı̄-pō-kon′drē-ak), umbilical (ŭm-bil′i-kăl), right and left lumbar
(lŭm′bar), hypogastric (hı̄-pō-gas′trik), and right and left iliac
Health professionals use a number of terms when referring to dif- (il′ē-ak) (figure 1.10b). Clinicians use the quadrants or regions as
ferent regions or parts of the body. Figure 1.9 shows the anatomical reference points for locating the underlying organs. For example,
terms, with the common terms in parentheses. The central region the appendix is in the right-lower quadrant, and the pain of an
of the body consists of the head, neck, and trunk. The trunk can acute appendicitis is usually felt there.
be divided into the thorax (chest), abdomen (region between
the thorax and pelvis), and pelvis (the inferior end of the trunk Predict 5
associated with the hips). The upper limb is divided into the arm, Using figures 1.2 and 1.10a, determine in which quadrant each of
forearm, wrist, and hand. The arm extends from the shoulder to the the following organs is located: spleen, gallbladder, kidneys, most
elbow, and the forearm extends from the elbow to the wrist. The of the stomach, and most of the liver.
lower limb is divided into the thigh, leg, ankle, and foot. The thigh
extends from the hip to the knee, and the leg extends from the knee A CASE IN POINT
to the ankle. Note that, contrary to popular usage, the terms arm and
leg refer to only a part of the respective limb. Epigastric Pain

The abdomen is often subdivided superficially into four Wilby Hurtt has pain in the epigastric region (figure 1.10b), which
sections, or quadrants, by two imaginary lines—one horizontal is most noticeable following meals and at night when he is lying
and one vertical—that intersect at the navel (figure 1.10a). The in bed. He probably has gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD),
quadrants formed are the right-upper, left-upper, right-lower, and in which stomach acid improperly moves into the esophagus,
left-lower quadrants. In addition to these quadrants, the abdo- damaging and irritating its lining. Epigastric pain, however, can have
men is sometimes subdivided into regions by four imaginary many causes and should be evaluated by a physician. For example,
lines—two horizontal and two vertical. These four lines create gallstones, stomach or small intestine ulcers, inflammation of the
an imaginary tic-tac-toe figure on the abdomen, resulting in nine pancreas, and heart disease can also cause epigastric pain.
regions: epigastric (ep-i-gas′trik), right and left hypochondriac

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14 Chapter 1

Occipital (base of skull) Cranial (skull)
Nuchal (back of neck) Acromial (point of shoulder)

Dorsal Scapular (shoulder blade)
(back) Vertebral (spinal column)

Olecranon (point of elbow) Upper limb

Trunk Lumbar (loin)
Sacral (between hips)

Dorsum (back of hand)

Gluteal (buttock)
Perineal (perineum)

(b) Popliteal (hollow behind knee)
Sural (calf)
Figure 1.9    Body Parts and Regions (continued)
Lower limb
(b) Posterior view.
Plantar (sole)
Calcaneal (heel)

Right-upper Left-upper Right Epigastric Left
quadrant quadrant hypochondriac region hypochondriac
region region

Right Umbilical Left
lumbar region lumbar
region region

Right-lower Left-lower Right Left
quadrant quadrant iliac iliac
region region

(a) (b)

Figure 1.10    Subdivisions of the Abdomen

Lines are superimposed over internal organs to demonstrate the relationship of the organs to the subdivisions.

(a) Abdominal quadrants consist of four subdivisions. (b) Abdominal regions consist of nine subdivisions.

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The Human Organism 15


Cerebellum Nasal cavity
Spinal cord Pharynx (throat)

Vertebral Trachea

(b) Sagittal section of the head

or horizontal,

Frontal, or Liver Stomach
coronal, plane Large
Kidney intestine
Spinal Spleen
cord Vertebra

(c) Transverse section through the abdomen

Adipose tisse

Hip muscle

(a) Coxal bone

Thigh muscles

Figure 1.11    Planes of Section of the Body (d) Frontal section through the right hip
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(a) Planes of section through the body are indicated by “glass” sheets. Also shown
are actual sections through (b) the head (viewed from the right), (c) the abdomen
(inferior view; liver is on the right), and (d) the hip (anterior view).

16 Chapter 1 Planes
Longitudinal section
At times, it is conceptually useful to discuss the body in reference
Intestine to a series of planes (imaginary flat surfaces) passing through it
(figure 1.11). Sectioning the body is a way to “look inside” and
Transverse Oblique observe the body’s structures. A sagittal (saj′i-tăl) plane runs
section section v­ertically through the body and separates it into right and left
parts. The word sagittal literally means the flight of an arrow and
Figure 1.12  Planes of Section Through an Organ refers to the way the body would be split by an arrow passing ante-
riorly to posteriorly. A median plane is a sagittal plane that passes
Planes of section through the small intestine are indicated by “glass” through the midline of the body, dividing it into equal right and
sheets. The views of the small intestine after sectioning are also shown. left halves. A transverse (trans-vers′) plane, or horizontal plane,
Although the small intestine is basically a tube, the sections appear quite runs parallel to the surface of the ground, dividing the body into
different in shape. superior and inferior parts. A frontal plane, or coronal (kōr′o-̆ năl,
kō-rō′nal; crown) plane, runs vertically from right to left and
divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.

Organs are often sectioned to reveal their internal structure
(figure 1.12). A cut through the long axis of the organ is a longi­
tudinal section, and a cut at a right angle to the long axis is a
transverse section, or cross section. If a cut is made across the
long axis at other than a right angle, it is called an oblique section.

Body Cavities

The body contains many cavities. Some of these cavities, such
as the nasal cavity, open to the outside of the body, and some do
not. The trunk contains three large cavities that do not open to the
outside of the body: the thoracic cavity, the abdominal cavity, and
the pelvic cavity (figure 1.13). The thoracic cavity is surrounded
by the rib cage and is separated from the abdominal cavity by
the muscular diaphragm. It is divided into right and left parts

Mediastinum Esophagus Thoracic
(divides Trachea cavity
thoracic Blood vessels


Abdominal Diaphragm Abdominal
cavity cavity

Pelvic cavity Symphysis Pelvic
(a) pubis cavity


Figure 1.13    Trunk Cavities

(a) Anterior view showing the major trunk cavities. The diaphragm separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. The mediastinum,
which includes the heart, is a partition of organs dividing the thoracic cavity. (b) Sagittal section of the trunk cavities viewed from the left. The
dashed line shows the division between the abdominal and pelvic cavities. The mediastinum has been removed to show the thoracic cavity.

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The human Organism 17

by a median structure called the mediastinum (me′dē-as-tı̄′nŭm; A pleural (ploor′ăl; associated with the ribs) cavity surrounds
wall). The mediastinum is a partition containing the heart, the each lung, which is covered by visceral pleura (figure 1.15b).
thymus, the trachea, the esophagus, and other structures. The two Parietal pleura lines the inner surface of the thoracic wall, the lateral
lungs are located on each side of the mediastinum. surfaces of the mediastinum, and the superior surface of the dia-
phragm. The pleural cavity is located between the visceral pleura
The abdominal cavity is bounded primarily by the abdomi- and the parietal pleura and contains pleural fluid.
nal muscles and contains the stomach, the intestines, the liver, the
spleen, the pancreas, and the kidneys. The pelvic (pel′vik) cavity The abdominopelvic cavity contains a serous membrane-lined
is a small space enclosed by the bones of the pelvis and contains cavity called the peritoneal (per′i-tō-nē′ăl; to stretch over) cavity
the urinary bladder, part of the large intestine, and the internal (figure 1.15c). Visceral peritoneum covers many of the organs of
reproductive organs. The abdominal and pelvic cavities are not the abdominopelvic cavity. Parietal peritoneum lines the wall of the
physically separated and sometimes are called the abdominopelvic abdominopelvic cavity and the inferior surface of the diaphragm.
(ab-dom′i-nō-pel′vik) cavity. The peritoneal cavity is located between the visceral peritoneum
and the parietal peritoneum and contains peritoneal fluid.
Serous membranes
The serous membranes can become inflamed—usually as a
Serous (sēr′ŭs) membranes line the trunk cavities and cover the result of an infection. Pericarditis (per′i-kar-dı̄′tis) is inflammation
organs of these cavities. To understand the relationship between of the pericardium, pleurisy (ploor′i-sē) is inflammation of the pleu-
serous membranes and an organ, imagine pushing your fist into an ra, and peritonitis (per′i-tō-nı̄′tis) is inflammation of the peritoneum.
inflated balloon. The inner balloon wall in contact with your fist
(organ) represents the visceral (vis′er-ăl; organ) serous membrane, a CaSe in POinT
and the outer part of the balloon wall represents the parietal (pă-rı̄′ĕ-
tăl; wall) serous membrane (figure 1.14). The cavity, or space, Peritonitis
between the visceral and parietal serous membranes is normally filled
with a thin, lubricating film of serous fluid produced by the mem- may Day is rushed to the hospital emergency room. earlier today,
branes. As an organ rubs against another organ or against the body she experienced diffuse abdominal pain, but no fever. Then
wall, the serous fluid and smooth serous membranes reduce friction. the pain became more intense and shifted to her right-lower
quadrant. She also developed a fever. The examining physician
The thoracic cavity contains three serous membrane-lined concludes that may Day has appendicitis, an inflammation of the
cavities: a pericardial cavity and two pleural cavities. The peri- appendix that is usually caused by an infection. The appendix is
cardial (per-i-kar′dē-ăl; around the heart) cavity surrounds the a small, wormlike sac attached to the large intestine. The outer
heart (figure 1.15a). The visceral pericardium covers the heart, surface of the appendix is visceral peritoneum. an infection of
which is contained within a connective tissue sac lined with the the appendix can rupture its wall, releasing bacteria into the
parietal pericardium. The pericardial cavity, which contains peri- peritoneal cavity and causing peritonitis. appendicitis is the most
cardial fluid, is located between the visceral pericardium and the common cause of emergency abdominal surgery in children, and
parietal pericardium. it often leads to peritonitis if not treated. may has her appendix
removed, is treated with antibiotics, and makes a full recovery.

Outer balloon wall Outer balloon wall
Inner balloon wall (parietal serous
Cavity Inner balloon wall
Fist (organ) (visceral serous

Fist (organ)

(a) (b) (c)

Figure 1.14 Serous Membranes

(a) Fist pushing into a balloon. a “glass” sheet indicates the location of a cross section through the balloon. (b) interior view produced by
the section in (a). The fist represents an organ, and the walls of the balloon represent the serous membranes. The inner wall of the balloon
represents a visceral serous membrane in contact with the fist (organ). The outer wall of the balloon represents a parietal serous membrane.
(c) View of the serous membranes surrounding the lungs. The membrane in contact with the lungs is the visceral pleura; the membrane
lining the lung cavity is the parietal pleura.

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18 Chapter 1 Parietal Organs Parietal
(a) pericardium surrounded peritoneum
Visceral by visceral Visceral
pericardium peritoneum peritoneum
Pericardial Mesenteries Peritoneal
cavity cavity
containing containing
pericardial peritoneal
fluid fluid
Heart Retroperitoneal
Parietal Mesentery
Visceral Retroperitoneal
pleura organs
Pleural cavity
containing (c)
pleural fluid



Figure 1.15  Location of Serous Membranes

(a) Frontal section showing the parietal pericardium (blue), visceral pericardium (red), and pericardial cavity. (b) Frontal section showing
the parietal pleura (blue), visceral pleura (red), and pleural cavities. (c) Sagittal section through the abdominopelvic cavity showing the
parietal peritoneum (blue), visceral peritoneum (red), peritoneal cavity, mesenteries (purple), and retroperitoneal organs.

Mesenteries (mes′en-ter-ēz), which consist of two layers peritoneum covers these other organs, which are said to be
of peritoneum fused together (figure 1.15c), connect the visceral retroperitoneal (re′trō-per′i-tō-nē′ăl; retro, behind). The retroperi-
peritoneum of some abdominopelvic organs to the parietal peri- toneal organs include the kidneys, the adrenal glands, the pancreas,
toneum on the body wall or to the visceral peritoneum of other parts of the intestines, and the urinary bladder (figure 1.15c).
abdominopelvic organs. The mesenteries anchor the organs to the
body wall and provide a pathway for nerves and blood vessels to Predict 6
reach the organs. Other abdominopelvic organs are more closely Explain how an organ can be located within the abdominopelvic
attached to the body wall and do not have mesenteries. Parietal cavity but not be within the peritoneal cavity.

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The Human Organism 19

ANSWER TO Learn to Predict In chapter 1, we learn that homeostasis is the maintenance
of a relatively constant internal environment. Renzo experienced
The first Predict feature in every chapter of this text is designed hunger despite eating, and his blood sugar levels were higher
to help you develop the skills to successfully answer critical than normal. In this situation, we see a disruption in homeostasis
thinking questions. The first step in the process is always to because his blood sugar stayed too high after eating. Normally,
analyze the question itself. In this case, the question asks you to an increased blood sugar after a meal would return to the normal
evaluate the mechanisms governing Renzo’s blood sugar levels, range by the activity of insulin secreted by the pancreas. When
and it provides the clue that there’s a homeostatic mechanism blood sugar returns to normal, insulin secretion stops. In Renzo’s
involved. In addition, the question describes a series of events case, his pancreas has stopped making insulin. Thus, the doctor
that helps create an explanation: Renzo doesn’t feel satisfied prescribed an insulin pump to take over for his pancreas. Now
after eating, has elevated blood sugar, and then is prescribed when Renzo eats, the insulin pump puts insulin into his blood and
an insulin pump. his blood sugar levels are maintained near the set point.

Answers to the rest of this chapter’s Predict questions are in Appendix E.

SUMMARY Directional Terms

Knowledge of anatomy and physiology can be used to predict the body’s Directional terms always refer to the anatomical position, regardless of
responses to stimuli when healthy or diseased. the body’s actual position (see table 1.1).

1.1 Anatomy    (p. 1) Body Parts and Regions

1. Anatomy is the study of the structures of the body. 1. The body can be divided into the head, neck, trunk, upper limbs,
2. Systemic anatomy is the study of the body by organ systems. and lower limbs.

Regional anatomy is the study of the body by areas. 2. The abdomen can be divided superficially into four quadrants
3. Surface anatomy uses superficial structures to locate deeper or nine regions, which are useful for locating internal organs or
describing the location of a pain.
structures, and anatomical imaging is a noninvasive method for
examining deep structures. Planes

1.2 Physiology   (p. 2) 1. A sagittal plane divides the body into left and right parts, a
transverse plane divides the body into superior and inferior parts,
Physiology is the study of the processes and functions of the body. and a frontal plane divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.

1.3 Structural and Functional Organization of 2. A longitudinal section divides an organ along its long axis, a transverse
the Human Body   (p. 2) section cuts an organ at a right angle to the long axis, and an oblique
section cuts across the long axis at an angle other than a right angle.
1. The human body can be organized into six levels: chemical, cell,
tissue, organ, organ system, and organism. Body Cavities

2. The eleven organ systems are the integumentary, skeletal, 1. The thoracic cavity is bounded by the ribs and the diaphragm.
muscular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, nervous, endocrine, The mediastinum divides the thoracic cavity into two parts.
cardiovascular, urinary, and reproductive systems (see figure 1.3).
2. The abdominal cavity is bounded by the diaphragm and the
1.4 Characteristics of Life   (p. 3) abdominal muscles.

The characteristics of life are organization, metabolism, responsiveness, 3. The pelvic cavity is surrounded by the pelvic bones.
growth, development, and reproduction.
Serous Membranes
1.5 Homeostasis   (p. 4)
1. The trunk cavities are lined by serous membranes. The parietal part
1. Homeostasis is the condition in which body functions, body fluids, of a serous membrane lines the wall of the cavity, and the visceral
and other factors of the internal environment are maintained within part covers the internal organs.
a range of values suitable to support life.
2. The serous membranes secrete fluid that fills the space between the
2. Negative-feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis. parietal and visceral membranes. The serous membranes protect
3. Positive-feedback mechanisms make deviations from normal even organs from friction.

greater. Although a few positive-feedback mechanisms normally 3. The pericardial cavity surrounds the heart, the pleural cavities
exist in the body, most positive-feedback mechanisms are harmful. surround the lungs, and the peritoneal cavity surrounds certain
abdominal and pelvic organs.
1.6 Terminology and the Body Plan   (p. 11)
4. Mesenteries are parts of the peritoneum that hold the abdominal
Body Positions organs in place and provide a passageway for blood vessels and
1. A human standing erect with the face directed forward, the arms nerves to organs.

hanging to the sides, and the palms facing forward is in the 5. Retroperitoneal organs are found “behind” the parietal peritoneum.
anatomical position. The kidneys, the adrenal glands, the pancreas, parts of the intestines,
2. A face-upward position is supine and a face-downward one is prone. and the urinary bladder are examples of retroperitoneal organs.

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20 Chapter 1


1. Define anatomy, surface anatomy, anatomical imaging, and 11. Define and give an example of the following directional terms:
physiology. inferior, superior, anterior, posterior, dorsal, ventral, proximal,
distal, lateral, medial, superficial, and deep.
2. List six structural levels at which the body can be studied.
3. Define tissue. What are the four primary tissue types? 1 2. List the subdivisions of the trunk, the upper limbs, and the lower
4. Define organ and organ system. What are the eleven organ systems limbs.

of the body and their functions? 13. Describe the four-quadrant and nine-region methods of subdividing
5. Name six characteristics of life. the abdomen. What is the purpose of these methods?
6. What does the term homeostasis mean? If a deviation from
1 4. Define the sagittal, median, transverse, and frontal planes of the
homeostasis occurs, what kind of mechanism restores homeostasis? body.
7. Describe a negative-feedback mechanism in terms of receptor,
15. Define the longitudinal, transverse, and oblique sections of
control center, and effector. Give an example of a negative-feedback an organ.
mechanism in the body.
8. Define positive feedback. Why are positive-feedback mechanisms 16. Define the following cavities: thoracic, abdominal, pelvic, and
generally harmful? Give one example each of a harmful and a abdominopelvic. What is the mediastinum?
beneficial positive-feedback mechanism in the body.
9. Why is knowledge of the etymology of anatomical and 17. What is the difference between the visceral and parietal layers of a
physiological terms useful? serous membrane? What function do serous membranes perform?
10. Describe the anatomical position. Why is it important to remember
the anatomical position when using directional terms? 18. Name the serous membranes associated with the heart, lungs, and
abdominopelvic organs.

1 9. Define mesentery. What does the term retroperitoneal mean? Give
an example of a retroperitoneal organ.

CRITICAL THINKING 4. Describe, using as many directional terms as you can, the
relationship between your kneecap and your heel.
1. A male has lost blood as a result of a gunshot wound. Even
though the bleeding has been stopped, his blood pressure is 5. According to “Dear Abby,” a wedding band should be worn closest
low and dropping, and his heart rate is elevated. Following a to the heart, and an engagement ring should be worn as a “guard”
blood transfusion, his blood pressure increases and his heart rate on the outside. Should a woman’s wedding band be worn proximal
decreases. Which of the following statement(s) is (are) consistent or distal to her engagement ring?
with these observations?
a. Negative-feedback mechanisms can be inadequate without 6. In which quadrant and region is the pancreas located? In which
medical intervention. quadrant and region is the urinary bladder located?
b. The transfusion interrupted a positive-feedback mechanism.
c. The increased heart rate after the gunshot wound and before 7. During pregnancy, which would increase more in size, the mother’s
the transfusion is a result of a positive-feedback mechanism. abdominal cavity or her pelvic cavity? Explain.
d. Both a and b are correct.
e. Answers a, b, and c are correct. 8. A bullet enters the left side of a male, passes through the left lung,
and lodges in the heart. Name in order the serous membranes and
2. During physical exercise, the respiration rate increases. Two the cavities through which the bullet passes.
students are discussing the mechanisms involved. Student A claims
they are positive-feedback mechanisms, and student B claims they 9. Can a kidney be removed without cutting through parietal
are negative-feedback mechanisms. Do you agree with student A or peritoneum? Explain.
student B, and why? Answers in Appendix D

3. Complete the following statements using the correct directional
terms for the human body.
a. The navel is _______ to the nose.
b. The heart is _______ to the breastbone (sternum).
c. The forearm is _______ to the arm.
d. The ear is _______ to the brain.

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2C H A P T E R The Chemical basis of life


Rafael is playing the soccer match of his life. How-
ever, hot weather conditions are making this match
one of his hardest yet. As the game began, Rafael
noticed himself sweating, which was helping to keep
him cool. However, he had been ill the night before and
had not been able to hydrate as was normal for him.
Towards the end of the second half, he realized he was
no longer sweating and he began to feel overheated
and dizzy.

After reading this chapter and learning how the
properties of molecules contribute to their physiological
functions, predict how Rafael’s inability to sweat affects
his internal temperature.

2.1 BASIC CHEMISTRY The sweat on Rafael's skin will evaporate, cooling his body.

learning Outcomes After reading this section, you should be able to Module 2 Cells and Chemistry

A. Define chemistry and state its relevance to anatomy and A basic knowledge of chemistry is essential for understanding
physiology. anatomy and physiology. Chemistry is the scientific discipline
concerned with the atomic composition and structure of substances
B. Define matter, mass, and weight. and the reactions they undergo. This chapter outlines some basic
C. Distinguish between an element and an atom. chemical principles and emphasizes their relationship to humans.
D. Define atomic number and mass number.
E. Name the subatomic particles of an atom, and indicate Matter, Mass, and Weight

their location. All living and nonliving things are composed of matter, which is
F. Compare and contrast ionic and covalent bonds. anything that occupies space and has mass. Mass is the amount
G. Explain what creates a hydrogen bond and relate of matter in an object, and weight is the gravitational force acting
on an object of a given mass. For example, the weight of an apple
its importance. results from the force of gravity “pulling” on the apple’s mass.
H. Differentiate between a molecule and a compound.
I. Describe the process of dissociation. 21

Chemicals make up the body’s structures, and the interactions of Universal Free E-Book Store
chemicals with one another are responsible for the body’s func-
tions. The processes of nerve impulse generation, digestion, muscle
contraction, and metabolism can all be described in chemical
terms. Many abnormal conditions and their treatments can also be
explained in chemical terms, even though their symptoms appear
as malfunctions in organ systems. For example, Parkinson disease,
which causes uncontrolled shaking movements, results from a
shortage of a chemical called dopamine in certain nerve cells in
the brain. It can be treated by giving patients another chemical,
which brain cells convert to dopamine.

22 Chapter 2 some of which have an electrical charge. The three major types of
subatomic particles are neutrons, protons, and electrons. Neutrons
Predict 2 (noo′ tronz) have no electrical charge, protons (prō′ tonz) have posi-
tive charges, and electrons (e-lek′tronz) have negative charges. The
The difference between mass and weight can be illustrated positive charge of a proton is equal in magnitude to the negative
by considering an astronaut. How would an astronaut’s mass
and weight in outer space compare with that astronaut’s charge of an electron. The number of protons and number of elec-
mass and weight on the earth’s surface?
trons in each atom are equal, and the individual charges cancel each
The international unit for mass is the kilogram (kg), which is
the mass of a platinum-iridium cylinder kept at the International other. Therefore, each atom is electrically neutral.
Bureau of Weights and Measurements in France. The mass of all Protons and neutrons form the nucleus at the center of the
other objects is compared with this cylinder. For example, a 2.2-lb
lead weight and 1 liter (L) (1.06 qt) of water each have a mass of atom, and electrons move around the nucleus (figure 2.1). The
approximately 1 kg. An object with 1/1000 the mass of the standard
kilogram cylinder is said to have a mass of 1 gram (g). nucleus accounts for 99.97% of an atom’s mass, but only 1-ten-

Elements and Atoms trillionth of its volume. Most of the volume of an atom is occupied

An element is the simplest type of matter having unique chemical Electron Nucleus
properties. A list of the elements commonly found in the human cloud
body appears in table 2.1. About 96% of the body’s weight results
from the elements oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen. Proton
However, many other elements also play important roles in the (positive charge)
human body. For example, calcium helps form bones, and sodium Neutron
ions are essential for neuronal activity. Some of these elements are (no charge)
present in only trace amounts but are still essential for life.
Figure 2.1    Model of an Atom
An atom (at′ ŏm; indivisible) is the smallest particle of an ele-
ment that has the chemical characteristics of that element. An The tiny, dense nucleus consists of positively charged protons and uncharged
e­ lement is composed of atoms of only one kind. For example, the
element carbon is composed of only carbon atoms, and the element neutrons. Most of the volume of an atom is occupied by rapidly moving,
oxygen is composed of only oxygen atoms.
negatively charged electrons, which can be represented as an electron cloud.
An element, or an atom of that element, is often represented
by a symbol. Usually the symbol is the first letter or letters of the
element’s name—for example, C for carbon, H for hydrogen, and
Ca for calcium. Occasionally, the symbol is taken from the Latin,
Greek, or Arabic name for the element; for example, the symbol for
sodium is Na, from the Latin word natrium.

Atomic Structure

The characteristics of matter result from the structure, organization,
and behavior of atoms. Atoms are composed of subatomic particles,

Table 2.1 Common Elements in the Human Body

Element Symbol Atomic Mass Percent in Human Percent in Human
Number Number Body by Weight Body by Number of Atoms
Hydrogen H
Carbon C 1 1 9.5 63.0
Nitrogen N 6 12 18.5 9.5
Oxygen O 7 14 3.3 1.4
Sodium Na 8 16 65.0
Phosphorus P 11 23 0.2 25.5
Sulfur S 15 31 0.3
Chlorine Cl 16 32 1.0 0.22
Potassium K 17 35 0.3 0.05
Calcium Ca 19 39 0.2 0.03
Iron Fe 20 40 0.4 0.06
Iodine I 26 56 1.5 0.31
53 127 Trace Trace
Trace Trace

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