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Published by mroberg, 2019-06-04 14:32:26

Final Product: Portfolio Martin Roberg

Final Product_ Portfolio - Google Docs

6/4/2019 Final Product: Portfolio - Google Docs

Quarter 1

2018-19 Blue Science Portfolio

Directions: Keep track of your assignments for your portfolio on this document. There will be a
separate document for each marking period. The final portfolio will be due in June using the
website: http://anyflip.com/ You are encouraged to add any assignments or SmartBoard notes to
your portfolio. Your portfolio should be creative and show growth for the year.

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Scientific Method Presentation 2/310

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Scientific Method Practice 4/310

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Video Notes: Identify Scientific Method in Chemistry

Directions: Watch both videos in the playlist and look for IV, DV, Constants and Control.

Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLANqGp_egeoaLAkB5bWLeZ3e8LMeoGbAf

Video 1: Alkali Metals
1. How do the reactions of the elements represent the scientific method in action?

Cutting
IV: Type of Metal cut
DV: Reaction To Air
Constants: Same Knife, Same Size
Control: Reaction without being cut open

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Water
IV: Type of metal put in water
DV: Reaction to the water
Constants: Same Water, Same container, Same size
Control: Reaction out of water

2. What were the results of the experiment?
As the experiments went farther and farther down the periodic table the reactions were more
extreme. In the air experiment the corrosion started happening so quickly that you couldn’t even
see it, when in the beginning it was easy to see. In the water experiment the reactions went from
a slight bit of steam to a full on explosion the further that you went down the periodic table.

Video 2: Dissolving M&Ms
1. How did the M&M's dissolving represent the scientific method in action?

IV: Type of Water
DV: Amount of candy coating removed
Constants: Same Color M&M, Same Amount of Water, Same time mixed, Same Container
Control: Amount of Candy Coating removed out of water

2. What causes the liquids in video to dissolve the M&Ms differently?
The liquids acted differently in the experiment because of positive and negative charges. Because
both the sugar candy coating and the water have positive and negative charges, they attract
which led to the water removing the most of the candy coating. The alcohol doesn’t attract any of
the candy coating itself, but because it has water in it it does remove a slight bit of the coating.
The oil, has no reaction and because of that none of the candy coating came off of the M&M.

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Graphing

A scientist was studying fruit flies. She wanted to determine whether flies arise from
fruit or are simply attracted to fruit. To determine the relationship between fruit flies and
fruit, the scientist took two glass jars and placed some ripe fruit in each. She covered
one jar and then placed both jars outside for three days. At 10 AM and 7PM each day,
the scientist would observe the two glass jars and count and record the number of fruit
flies present in each jar. Figure 1 contains her data. Using the data given in Figure 1,
plot the total of fruit flies present in each jar (covered and uncovered) after three days.
(Line graph)

Figure 1:

Number of Fruit Flies

Day 1 Day 2 Day 3

10 AM 7 PM 10 AM 7 PM 10 AM 7 PM

Covered Jar 00 00 00

Uncovered 2 12 28 40 61 102
Jar

Graph: (Place your graph here!)
Questions: Refer to the Fruit Fly Experiment
1. What is the Problem Statement?

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Would there be a difference in the number of fruit flies that come out of the fruit when one jar is
covered and the other jar isn’t.

2. Read the experiment completely and write a possible hypothesis. (Use If...then…)
My hypothesis was: If the jar with the fruit in it is covered, then no flies will be attracted to the fruit.

3. What is the Independent Variable in this experiment?
Uncovered or covered jar

4. What is the Dependent Variable in this experiment?
How many flies come out of the fruit

5. Write a brief conclusion related to the data.

This experiment was conducted to figure out the relationship between fruit flies and the
fruit that their near. The experiment asked the question are the fruit flies attracted to the fruit or
are they already in the fruit. My hypothesis was: If the jar with the fruit in it is covered, then no flies
will be attracted to the fruit. This experiment took place over the span of 3 days and every day at
7 AM and 10 PM the number of fruit flies attracted to the fruit would be counted. One of the jars
had the lid on while the other one didn’t. The constants of the experiment were the same fruit, the
same jar, the same amount of time, and the same time that the jars were checked on each day.
My hypothesis proved to be right, that no flies would be able to get to the fruit that had a lid on it’s
jar. Throughout the experiment, the number of flies in the closed jar stayed at zero while the
number of flies in the open jar quickly rose. By the end of the experiment, the number of fruit flies
in the open jar had risen to 102 while the number of flies in the closed jar remained at zero. In
conclusion, it is clear that the fruit flies are attracted to the fruit, and don’t live in the fruit as some

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previously thought.

Quiz: Scientific Method

Scientific Method

Directions: Read the following description of an experiment and complete the
components of the scientific method.

Experiment:
Option #1: Patrick believed that fish would become smarter and complete a maze
faster if they ate food that was placed in a microwave first. He had 100 fish that he
could use for the experiment. He evaluated their intelligence based on their time in

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seconds to complete the maze. Try to create 3 different situations for the fish using the
microwave.

Option #2: Mr. Smithers believed that Caffeine may make people more alert. Mr.
Smithers tested 100 people by using their scores in the same video game. Devin had 3
different brands of drinks with 10 g, 20 g, and 30 g of caffeine respectively. He
measured their scores on a video game that had a range of 0-1000 points. Some of
the players were not given caffeine drinks. on the game

*Help Mr. Smithers design an effective experiment and write a conclusion that analyzes
your results.

Problem Statement
When you give a person caffeine, are they more focused when playing a video game?

Hypothesis
If you give 30 g of caffeine to a person playing video games then they will become more
alert when playing the game.

Independent Variable 20 g 30 g
Control: No caffeine 10 g Same Group Size

Dependent Variable
How many points they get
Constants (Pick 2)
Same Video Game

Control
No caffeine

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Basic Procedures:

(List 5-8 steps)

1. Write hypothesis
2. Split into 4 groups

a. Group 1 No caffeine 25 people
b. Group 2 10 G 25 people
c. Group 3 20 G 25 people
d. Group 4 30 G 25 people
3. Distribute caffeine to group based on which group they are in
4. Set up video game, start game
5. Add up the total score for each group
6. Divide all four scores by 25 each
7. Graph results
8. Write Conclusion

Data Table: (Place data table here and use only 2 columns: A and B) Include ALL Titles!

Amount Of caffeine Group Average
None 259
10 G 476
20 G 587
30 G 650

Graph: (Place graph here)

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Conclusion:
Purpose, Hypothesis, Description, Data or evidence, Improvements, Conclusion

The purpose of this experiment was to figure out if caffeine affects a video
game players focus. My hypothesis was that the more caffeine the player
had, the better that their average score would be. For this experiment, 100
people were split into four groups of 25 and were given a different amount of
caffeine according to what group they were in. Group A got no caffeine,
Group B got 10 Grams, Group C got 20 Grams, and Group D got 30 Grams
of caffeine. The four groups all played the same video game, which had the
same score setup for both teams of 0-1000 with the only thing being
different was the caffeine. My hypothesis was proven correct as there was a
consistent increase with more caffeine. Group A (No caffeine) averaged the
lowest score out of the four groups with 259, Group B (10 Grams) averaged
a score of 476, Group C (20 Grams) averaged a score of 587, and lastly
group D averaged a score of 650. A possible improvement to the
experiment would be to get 100 people that are about as good as the rest of

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them at video games, for example no experience, or professional. This
would help give a more conclusive picture than 100 people that likely were
very different as to how well they play video games. In conclusion, this
experiment proves that caffeine does impact the focus of somebody when
they play a video game.

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Metric System Calculations

Do Now 9-20-18

1. What is the Metric System?
The metric system is a measurement of distance used in most countries around the
world.

2. Where is the standard kilogram kept in storage?
The Standard U.K. kilogram is kept in a basement vault in NPL

3. Research the Metric Chart from KM to mm and copy into notebook. (You can
paste image here as well)

4. Measure the length of the following items in the classroom using the appropriate
unit:

Object Appropriate Metric Convert to another unit
Unit
Width of Textbook 2.2 dm
Length of Textbook 22 cm 280 ml
Width of Desk 28 cm 6 dm
Length of Desk 60 cm 1.36 m
Height of cabinet 136 cm 7.3 dm
Width of paper clip 73 cm 5 ml
Length of pencil eraser .5 cm 5 ml
.5 cm

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Radius of door lock 7.5 ml 0.0075 m
Width of scotch tape 2.5 cm 25 ml
Width of Classroom 8.16 m 816 cm

Research the following distances and convert to meters

Distance Kilometers Meters Scientific Notation
Earth to Sun 149,600,000 km 149,600,000,000 m 1.496*108
Mars to Sun 222,900,000 km 222,900,000,000 m 2.229*1011
Earth to Moon 384,000 km 384,000,000 m 3.84*108
New York to LA 4,489 km 4,489,000 m 4.489*106
Paris to London 463.5 km 463,500 m 4.635*105

Metric Practice - Portfolio
Directions: Research the metric measurement in the 1st column and write down the

most appropriate unit. Convert to two other units of length in the metric system. Write
one of the numbers in scientific notation in the last column. You can put a picture of the
object in the 1st column.

Place Metric Chart here for help:

Measurement Unit #1 Unit #2 Unit #3 Scientific Notation

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Length of Titanic 269 M .269 KM 26,900 CM 2.69*104 CM

Paris to Moscow 2,842,400 M 2,842.4 KM 284,240,00 CM 2.8424*106 M

Mass of an African Elephant 6,350,000 G 6,350 KG 6,350,000,00 6.35*106 G
CG

Mass of a house fly 20 MG 2 CG .2 DG 2*10-3 MG

Volume of Olympic Swimming 2,500,000 L 2,500 KL 250,000,000 CL 2.5*103 KL
Pool

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Distance Sun to Jupiter 7,790,000,000 779,000,000 779,000,000,00 7.79*1011 M
HM KM 0M

Volume of Can of Soda 355 ML .355 L 35.5 CL 3.55*10-3 L

Wingspan of 747 Jet 6,845 M 6.845 KM 684,500 CM 6.845* 105 CM

Height of Freedom Tower 546.2 M .5462 KM 54,620 CM 5.462*102 M
(meters)

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Mass of a paper clip 1G .001 KG 100 CG 1*10-3 CG

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Density Calculations

Activity: Density Lab Simulator

Directions: Yesterday you learned how to measure Mass and Volume of an object. Today,
you will apply those concepts to the study of Density by using the Density simulator.

1. Open Website: https://www.simbucket.com/density/
2. Design an experiment to find the density of the materials in the simulator.
3. Use the equation: Density = Mass/Volume
4. Create a data table to organize your results.
5. Graph your results
6. Try to change the liquid and describe the effects that your changes had on the

objects.

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7. Write a conclusion using your data.
Screenshots of Activity:

Data Table:

Object Mass Volume Density
Gold 40.53g 2.1 ml 19.3gmL3
Lead 72.32g 6.4 ml 11.3gmL3
Foam 2.76 g 12 ml 0.23 gml3
Ice 9.2 g 10 ml 0.92 gml3
Iron 31.48g 4 ml 7.87gmL3
Wood 1.95g 3 ml 0.65 gmL3
Rubber 0.52 G 0.4 ml 1.3gmL3
??? 18.58 g 5.7 ml 3.26 gml3

Graph:

Conclusion: 23/310

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In this experiment, we were testing different objects and their densities on an online
density lab. In this experiment, we would weigh the object to find the mass, stick the object
into the water to find the volume, and then divide the mass by the volume to get the
density. In this experiment, I thought that the higher the mass was, the lower the density
would be. In the experiment, the highest density was with the Gold, that had a density of
19.3. The gold weighed the second most, causing it to sink straight to the bottom. The
Gold only had a volume of 2.1 mL, which with its large mass lead to the density being the
highest. However, lead weighed almost 30 grams more and it’s density was only 11.3,
which still was the second most. This threw out my hypothesis that the greater the mass,
the greater the density. However, mass did seem to have a major effect to the density as
the three objects with the highest mass (Lead, Gold, and Iron in that order) did end up
having the highest three masses overall. A pattern that could be seen with the experiment
was the relationship between the volume and the density. The experiment showed that the
lower the volume, the higher the density. This makes sense as the volume is what you
divide the mass by to get your density and if the volume is low, the mass that is divided is
less which leads to a higher density. In conclusion, there is no definite pattern when
looking at densities of different metals, but there are patterns that can possibly take effect.

Name: Martin Roberg
Class: Galileo
Teacher: Lopez
Date: 10/1

Investigation Title:

I. Investigation Design
A. Problem Statement:

Out of 7 different metals, which of them is the densest?

B. Hypothesis:

Out of the 7 metals the densest will be lead because it has the largest mass.

C. Independent Variable: x
Levels of IV

Aluminum Copper Zinc Aluminum Tin Lead Aluminum
1 2 3

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D. Dependent Variable:y
Density of the different metals

E. Constants: Same amount of water, same measurements, same formula
F. Control: No metal
G. Materials: (List with numbers)

1. Three different types of aluminum
2. Copper
3. Zinc
4. Tin
5. Lead
6. Graduated Cylinder
7. Calculator (Or computer/phone etc.)
8. Dropper
9. Water

H. Procedures: (List with numbers and details)
1. Find mass of the different metal, by weighing it
2. Put 50 mL of water into graduated cylinder
3. Insert metal into cylinder, measure volume
4. Subtract end volume from beginning volume
5. Divide mass by end volume to get density

II. Data Collection
A. Qualitative Observations:

Descriptions of metals ( 2 or 3)
All around the same size, different shapes
All but aluminum 3 fit in graduated cylinder

B. Quantitative Observations: (Key data)
1. Data Table

Object Mass (g) Volume Volume After Volume Density
Before (mL) (g/cm3)
Aluminum 29.5 Grams (mL) object (cm3)
Copper 30 Grams 50 Milliliters 14.75 g/cm3
Zinc 29.8 Grams 62 Milliliters 12 cm3
Aluminum 22.2 Grams 50 Milliliters 10 g/cm3
53 Milliliters 3 cm3
50 Milliliters 7.45 g/cm3
54 Milliliters 4 cm3
50 Milliliters 2.77 g/cm3
58 Milliliters 8 cm3

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Tin 29.5 Grams 50 Milliliters 53.9 Milliliters 3.9 cm3 7.56 g/cm3
90.3 Grams 50 Milliliters 58 Milliliters 8 cm3 11.3 g/cm3
Lead 85.5 Grams / / 1.953 cm3 43.776 g/cm3
49 Grams 50 milliliters 50 milliliters 0 cm3 0 g/cm3
Aluminum
28.6 Grams 50 Milliliters 54 milliliters 4 cm3 7.15 g/cm3
Water
(control) 30.5 Grams 50 Milliliters 52 milliliters 2 cm3 15.25 g/cm3

Undefined 21.5 Grams 50 Milliliters 59 milliliters 9 cm3 2.39 g/cm3
Metal A
28.5 Grams 50 Milliliters 54 milliliters 4 cm3 7.125 g/cm3
Undefined
Metal B 29.5 Grams 50 Milliliters 58 milliliters 8 cm3 3.69 g/cm3

Undefined 22 Grams 50 Milliliters 57 Milliliters 7 cm3 3.14 g/cm3
Metal C

Undefined
Metal D

Undefined
Metal E

Undefined
Metal F

2. Graph

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3. Calculations

Show 3 Math Examples

Copper

D = m/v

D= 30 g
3 cm3

D = 10 g/cm3

Tin

D=m/v

D= 29.5g
5 cm3

D=5.9 g/cm3

Lead

D=m/v

D= 90g
10cm3

D= 9g/cm3

III. Data Analysis/Conclusion
In this experiment, we were finding the densities of different metals, some that we were given the
type of, and others we didn’t know. Based off of the last experiment online, we knew that the
lower the volume was, the higher the density was. In this experiment, we took seven metals that

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we already knew, and six metals that we didn’t know and measured the density of these metals.
To measure the density, we first found the mass, then found the volume, and divided the mass by
the volume to get the density. Our data showed that the metal with the greatest density turned out
to be Aluminum. This is because it had a high mass and a low volume, this combination leading to
a high density. Overall, the data we had wasn’t too consistent as the range for the different
Aluminum’s was way higher than it likely should’ve been. However, there was one example of
very close data between one of the undefined metals and one of the defined metals.This seemed
to be undefined Metal A and copper. This is because they have similar Masses and Volumes.
Even though the densities weren’t the same the Masses were only off by 1.4 grams and the
volumes were off by 1 cm3. This led to a density difference of 2.85 g/cm3. Overall, as with the
online experiment, a higher mass and lower volume led to a higher density.
IV. Research (Scientific Phenomena)
5 6-8 sentences about your topic
*How does Density relate to Plate Tectonics?

The reason that the Titanic sunk has way more to do with density than many people think. To
keep the Titanic afloat, the density was made to be less than the water around it. When the Titanic
hit the iceberg, water started to flow into the ship. When the water went into the ship this raised
the density of the ship to a point where it was greater than the water around it. Because of this,
the Titanic naturally started to sink and eventually got to the point where it had very little time to
stay afloat, as the density continued to rise as more water went into the ship.

Test: Scientific Method 28/310

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Phase Changes Videos:

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Practice Phase Changes:

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Phase Change Reflection
Hero’s Engine

Directions: Write a reflection about the Hero’s Engine observed in class today. How does it
relate to phase changes and the role of heat energy? How does it relate to energy resources?

Today in class we observed the Hero’s Engine and how it relates to phase changes. In this
experiment, we hung a hero’s engine
filled with water, over a bunsen burner
and heated up the water. Once the
water reached the boiling point, it
started spraying out of holes on the
sides in the form of steam, as the heat
had caused the water to go from a

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liquid to a gas. In addition, the Hero’s engine started spinning around, while spraying the steam.
This happened because when the water reaches its boiling point, it started to evaporate into a
gas. From a molecule standpoint, what happened was as the water got warmer the molecules
themselves started to evaporate and the fewer molecules there were the more the water turned
into steam. This relates to phase changes as it is a direct example of a phase change. The water
started in the phase of liquid and went through the phase change of evaporation, and then finally
ended up in the phase of a gas.

Water Experiment

Height Mass Start Temp End Temp Change In
Temp
8 cm 20 ml 20oC 21oC
4 cm 20 ml 20oC 21oC 1oC
2 cm 20 ml 20oC 21oC
1oC

1oC

Do Now 10/23

Do Now 10-23

Directions: Research the specific heats of aluminum, copper, and gold in calories/gC. Make a
chart on this document and explain how the substances are different from water. Discuss with
your partners or lab group.

Table:

Substance Specific Heat Heat Energy
(include pictures) (cal/gC) (calories)

Water 1.0 cal/goc Heat = M ass * Δ * SH
H eat = 3g * 1.0 cal/goc * 5oC
H eat = 15 calories

Aluminum .215 cal/g0c Heat = M ass * Δ * SH
H eat = 3g * 0.9cal/goc * 5oc

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Copper H eat = 3.225 calories
Gold
.386 cal/g0c Heat = M ass * Δ * SH
H eat = 3g * .386 cal/goc * 5oc
H eat = 5.79 calories

.0301 cal/g0c Heat = M ass * Δ * SH
H eat = 3g * .0301 cal/goc * 5oc
H eat = 0.4515 calories

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Graph of Specific Heats:

Graph of Heat Energy:

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Conclusion: What is the relationship between Specific Heat and Heat Energy required to
change each of the above substances’ temperatures? How is Heat different from temperature?
Use evidence from the data table.

In this experiment, we took the specific heats of 3 metals and water from a Table of Specific Heats
and then found the Heat Energy. To do this we took the formula H eat = M ass * Δ * S H . In the
experiment, we kept a constant with the mass (3 grams) and the change in temperature (5
degrees Celsius). What we changed was the Specific Heat was, depending on what we found. In
the experiment, we found that gold has the lowest heat energy (0.4515 calories) and water had
the highest (15 calories). This showed that with a lower Specific heat, the Heat Energy would be
higher.

3. Activity: Phase Change of Water

Directions:
● Melt the ice water and record the temperatures every 30 seconds until you reach the
boiling point of water.
● Record the temperatures on the following data table:
Construct a graph of your results. *Use Link on Classroom
● Respond to the Critical Thinking Questions

Graph:

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Critical Thinking Questions:

1. When did the temperatures stay the same on the graph? Why did the
temperatures stay the same at 2 points during the lab?

The temperature stayed the same during the experiment multiple times. The
first time was right before it started to bubble, although it didn’t stay for
long. This was because it was in the process of switching more from a liquid
to a gas. Once it started bubbling it stayed at the same temperature multiple
times (90 twice, 91 four times, 95 twice) this is seen in the diagram as it
shows that it would start to stay the same when it was in the gas phase.
However, when melting the ice, we quickly flew past without it slowing down.

2. How would the graph be different if we tried this experiment with Gold?
Explain:

Melting Point: 1064oC
Boiling Point: 2700oC
If we had used gold in this experiment the results would’ve been very different.
This is because of the golds melting point and boiling point, which is way higher
than the melting point and boiling point of water. The ice started to melt into
water at 0oC, when the melting point of the gold is a staggering 10640C. The
boiling point of water, 100oC, was 27 times less than the boiling point of gold.
This would’ve made the experiment way longer and slower, as in the span of 25
minutes the water only reached a tenth of the melting point of the gold.

3. What is the role of energy during the phase changes?
The role of energy in phase changes can be seen in the experiment. When the
kinetic energy was high, the water got warmer and warmer, far quicker than
when there was no kinetic energy as the temperature either stopped going
up, or went down.

4. Describe the motion of the molecules throughout the experiment. Find
diagrams that show the motion.
When the experiment began, the molecules were all packed together as it
was a block of ice. When the ice started boiling, the molecules started
moving around gradually getting quicker and quicker. When the liquid
started becoming a gas, the molecules would escape the cylinder in the
form of steam, whilst moving around very quickly.

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5. How does the Average Kinetic Energy change throughout the experiment?
(Be specific)

Throughout the experiment, the average kinetic energy went through many
changes. At the beginning of the experiment, it started to pick up more and more
to the point that in 30 seconds, the water had gone up 9 degrees. However, once
the water started transitioning into a gas, the average kinetic energy took a big
hit as the temperature stalled at just about every number, even going down
sometimes.

6. Suppose you had 200 mL of ice in one beaker and 400 mL of ice in another
beaker. Compare and explain the following in the beakers after they have
reached the boiling point:

A.Heat Energy
The heat energy of the beaker that started with 400 mL of ice would be
higher. While the temperatures would be the same, the 400 mL of ice would
have a higher heat energy because there is a greater quantity of steam than
with the 200 mL beaker.

B. Temperature
The temperatures for the two would be the same. The boiling point of water will
always be the same, no matter how much water you have, meaning that the 200
mL beaker and the 400 mL beaker would have the same temperature.

C.Average Kinetic Energy
The average kinetic energy between the two would be equal. This is because they
would be boiling at the same speed, meaning that the average kinetic energy
would be the same.

D.Specific Heat

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The specific heat between the two would be the same. Water will always
have a specific heat of 10C, no matter the quantity.
E. Latent Heat (Define it)
Latent Heat is the energy required to turn a solid to a liquid, and a liquid to a
gas, without a change in temperature. The Latent Heat would be the same
between the two.
7. Why do we put water in a car’s engine? Explain:
Water is put into a car’s engine for one reason, to cool the engine down. The
system is set so that the water flows through the car safely so that it doesn’t
damage the engine, while cooling it down at the same time.

Calculate Heat Energy: * SH

Apply the following Equations:
Heat = Mass * Heat of Fusion
Heat = Mass * Change in Temperature
Heat = Mass * Heat of Vaporization
Data Table:

Metal Mass Heat of Melting Pt. Boiling Heat of Specific Heat
Fusion (C) Pt. (C) Vaporization Heat Energy
(cal/g) (cal/gC) (cal)
(cal/g)

Water 65 g 80 0 100 540 1 46,800
cal

Aluminum 65 g 95 660 2467 2500 0.21 193,340.
55 cal

Gold 65 g 15 1063 2800 377 0.03 26,267.1
5 cal

*SHOW ALL MATH STEPS
Math Steps (____ out of 4)
A. Aluminum

Heat = m * Hfusion
Heat = 65g*95 cal/g

Heat = 6,175 cal

Heat = m * ΔT * SH
Heat = 65g*1807oC*0.21 cal/gC
Heat = 24,665.55 cal

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Heat = m * HeatVaporization
Heat = 65g*2500 cal/g
Heat = 162,500 cal

Total: Heat + Heat + Heat
Total = 193,340.55

B. Gold

Heat = m * Hfusion
Heat = 65g*15 cal/g
Heat = 975 cal

Heat = m * ΔT * SH
Heat = 65g*1737 caloC*0.03 cal/gC
Heat = 3,387.15 cal

Heat = m * Hvaporization
Heat = 65g*337 cal/g
Heat = 21,905

Total: Heat + Heat + Heat
Total = 26267.15 cal

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C. Water

Heat = m * Hfusion
Heat = 65g*80 cal/g
Heat = 5,200 cal

Heat = m * ΔT * SH
Heat = 65g*100 caloC*1cal/gC
Heat = 6,500 cal

Heat = m * Hvaporization
Heat = 65g*540 cal/g
Heat = 35,100
Total: Heat + Heat + Heat
Total = 46,800

Graph your Results: (total heat energy)

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Questions:
1. How are the substances different?

Each substance has a different Heat of Fusion, Melting Point, Boiling Point, Heat of Vaporization,
and Specific Heat. With these different variables, the heat energy of these objects is different from
each other.

2. What is the difference between Heat and Temperature? Use evidence from the equations.
There is a clear difference between heat and temperature. Temperature is how hot the water is
and heat is the amount applied. In the data table, this is shown as the boiling point of the water is
100o but the heat energy of the boiling point is greater than 6,500.

3. Explain the Phase Change Diagram here:

The Phase CHange chart starts at a solid. It starts to go up but stays at the same temperature at
its melting point. After that, the temperature starts to rise again until it hits its boiling point, in
which it stops at a certain temperature depending on the object while it melts. After that, it is a has
and continue’s to go up.

4. What happens to the molecules throughout the Phase Change Diagram?
When a solid, the molecules are all close together and not moving. When the solid becomes a
liquid, the molecules start moving quicker and with more space. When the liquid turns into a gas
the molecules start moving rapidly, escaping the base that they were once stuck together in.

5. Place your Heat Energy results in Scientific Notation.
Aluminum- 1.9334055*105 cal
Gold- 2.626715*104
Water- 4.6800*104

6. Why do metals have such low specific heats? How does this relate to Conductors?
Because of how close the molecules are to each other in a metal,

7. How are Heat and Temperature different for the following pictures of boiling

water? Explain: (Hint: Use the Heat equation)

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100 C 100 C

1. Vocabulary - Define and make note cards or quizlet

Solid Heat Insulator Calorie
Turbine
Liquid Temperature Heat of Fusion Generator
Molecules
Gas Heat Engine Specific Heat

Heat of Vaporization Conductor Average Kinetic
Energy

2. You are in charge of a company that needs to convert a metal into a gas. Your furnace only
has a limit for the amount of heat energy (calories) that it can generate. Your task is to compare 2
metals of your choice from the Periodic Table and decide which metal is possible.

You must present the graphs and include vocabulary and math on your poster.

3. Make a list of all the unit for the following:
Mass
Volume
Density of Solid
Density of Liquid
Temperature
Heat
Specific Heat

Our company wants to buy a furnace that can heat a metal enough so that it vapors into
gas. We have two options for metals, bismuth, and gold. To do this, we found the heat energy of
the two metals and bought the furnace that could accommodate the metal with the lower heat
energy of the two.

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