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Published by salsabilaidrs, 2022-07-08 04:33:21

multi storey smart building

assignment for bqs552

Keywords: smart system

MULTI-
STOREY
SMART
BUILDING

AP224 4C

PREPARED FOR : DR SYED AHMAD QUSOIRI
SYED ABDUL KARIM



BUILDING SERVICES II (BQS 554)

GROUP
MEMBERS

NUR DANIA BINTI NUR NISA NABILAH BINTI
SHAHARUZZAMAN (2021601528) HAZAHARI (2021812552)

NUR ATHIRAH BINTI AZMAN
(2021868002)

03 NURUL SALSABILA BINTI IDRIS
(2021459866)
NURIN QISTINA BINTI FAZIOR @
FAIZOL (2021492144)

I

TABLE OF
CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION 01-02
FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEM 03-10
11-22
SPECIAL INSTALLATION
SYSTEM

TELECOMMUNICATION 23-30
SYSTEM

MECHANICAL HANDLING 31-45
SYSTEM

HVAC SYSTEM 46-53
CONCLUSION 54
REFERENCES
55-56II

TELEKOM TOWER
(TM TOWER)

INTRODUCTION

CASE STUDY

01

INTRODUCTION

The objective of this report are to increase
the understanding of building services
systems in a building through a real life
project. Furthermore, at the end of this report,
the integration of various building services
systems will be exposed. The basic
principles, processes, equipment of
numerous building services systems in a
building will be covered.

Therefore, we had chosen Telekom Tower as
our case study project in order to complete
the task given in observing the proposed
building services systems for a smart
building.

PROJECT BACKGROUND Meanwhile, the phrase "smart services installation,
building" refers to a broad
The Telekom Tower, often category of technologies that mechanical handling
known as the TM Tower, is a are being incorporated into
55-story, 310 meters tall buildings. Apparently, there is system, and lastly heating,
skyscraper in Kuala Lumpur, no clear definition of the term a
Malaysia. It is Malaysia's fifth "smart" building. The terms ventilation and air-
highest building and is "smart building" and "intelligent
designed like a sprouting building" are frequently used conditioning system
"bamboo shoot." It is served synonymously, unfortunately
by the Rapid KL Kerinchi LRT they are not always similar (HVAC) in this report.
station and is located along (Loy, 2016).
the Federal Highway, Sprint Besides, we had proposed
Expressway, and Jalan Thus, we had assigned some of some of building services
Pantai Baharu. This is an building services in Telekom that match the terms
intelligent 6 stars building Tower including fire fighting "smart building" that had
with 148,800 square metres systems, telecommunication been included in the
of area. system and networking, special report as we refer the
case study project.

02

FIRE FIGHTING
SYSTEM

SPRINKLER SYSTEM

03

INTRODUCTION

Fire is a natural and social occurrence that has an impact on both
people and the environment (Moshashaei and Alizadeh, 2016).
Firefighting system is the must-have services in a building. Fire fighting
is the act of battling a fire. It is crucial because putting out a fire helps to
protect property, the environment, and human life. Among the
additional causes of destruction brought on by fires in buildings are the
costs of medical care, saving, disability benefits, death compensation,
and other damages (Hai-Yun, 2011, as cited by Ahmed and Khudair,
2022).

Water, the removal of fuel or oxidants, or chemical flame inhibition can
all put out a fire; however, because different types of flames are caused
by different materials, such as grease, paper, electrical equipment, etc.,
a particular kind of fire extinguisher may be needed. The extinguisher's
classification is based on the kinds of fires it is better suited to put out.

04

FIRE
SPRINKLER

SYSTEM

A sprinkler system is a fire extinguishing system 05
that uses water as the extinguishing agent. A water
supply system that delivers sufficient pressure and
flowrate to a water distribution piping system,
onto which fire sprinklers are connected, makes up
a fire sprinkler system, an active fire protection
method. Despite previously its only being utilized
in factories and huge commercial structures, now
the sprinkler systems for homes and smaller
structures are now reasonably priced.

APLICATION OF FIRE 06
SPRINKLER SYSTEM

There are four types of sprinkler system that are
usually used. The four various types of fire
sprinkler systems are wet pipe, dry pipe, pre-
action, and deluge. Each of these technologies
contributes to controlling fire damage and
preventing the spread of flames. These types of
fire sprinkler systems differ primarily in their
applications and activation mechanisms
(Witkowski, A., 2019).

MENARA TELEKOM MALAYSIA
BERHAD

Automatic Sprinkler System

In Menara Telekom Malaysia Berhad. The type of
fire sprinkler system adopted is a wet pipe
system, which has water-filled pipes. This type of
sprinkler also known as automatic system.
Facilities must maintain a temperature of at least
40 degrees because the system contains water. As
stated by Witkowski, A. (2019), wet pipe fire
sprinkler can be turned on easily. A fire sprinkler
glass bulb breaks and releases water when it
exceeds a specified temperature.

The majority of systems really use extreme heat as
the trigger rather than the common
misconception that smoke and or alarms set off
fire sprinklers. Only the sprinklers required to put
out a fire discharge water, which reduces the risk
of expensive water damage throughout a
structure. Each sprinkler head is individually
triggered by a specific temperature in its area.
(Team, Q. 2013)

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER
SYSTEMS

1

The pipe is always filled with
water. In addition to that, the
sprinkler is kept closed by a tiny
glass bulb that contains a heat-
sensitive liquid.

2

When a fire started, the air directly
above it heats quickly. The hot air
is pushed toward the ceiling,
walls, or other spots where the
sprinkler heads are located.

3 The heat-sensitive liquid inside the
bulb expands when the air
surrounding them reaches a
specific temperature, creating
pressure until the glass bursts.

4

The high pressure water in the
sprinkler pipes forced out, and the
water sprays over a deflector plate
causing it to be distributed evenly
over the space.

07

INSTALLATION , CONNECTION
AND POSITION

INSTALLATION CONNECTION

1 Measure the pipe to required The valve usually positioned at the
length designated place, along with riser.
It will connected to the pipe, that
2 Connect to pipes to water are embedded or encased in wall
supply. and ceiling.
The pipe, after that, will be
3 Hack the wall if the pipe is connected to the sprinkler head.
embedded type. If not, fix the
pipe with the bracket. Check
the tightness of the blots.

4 Install the ceiling panels,
make sure that the plug to
connect with the sprinkler
heads are visible

5 Connect the sprinkler head

6 Final Inspection

PARTS POSITION 4 2

1.Sprinkler Head 3 08
2.Sprinkler Pipe
3.Hanger and Bracket 1
4. Valve

SPACE IMPLICATIONS

The sprinkler usually installed at the ceiling of the building. For
the building with a low ceiling height, a fire sprinkler cage
needs to be installed to avoid the sprinkler to bumped with
anything. But that not the case for Menara Telekom Malaysia
Berhad, because it has a high ceiling. The space implication of
the sprinkler system is as below.

1.Lobby

For the lobby of Menara TM, it is using the
concealed sprinkler head to achieve its
aesthetic value. The piping for the sprinkler
system is also hidden in the ceiling and
walls.

2. Office

As for the office in the Menara TM, the
sprinkler head used are the usual type of
head, which is called pendent. The
pendent head remain visible after the
installation; however, the piping is still
hidden.

3. Carpark

It is the different for the carpark at Menara
TM. Both sprinkler head and its piping
system are visible since the carpark
doesn’t require the aesthetic value.

09

FIRE FIGHTING
SYSTEM
REGULATION

Undang - undang Undang - undang
Kecil Bangunan 1984 Kecil 1984

(Pindaan 2012)

According to Samad, M. H. A. (2021), the 10
Malaysian Uniform Building By-Laws of 1984
(the latest amendment as of 2012)
established Malaysian fire safety standards.
Part VII - Fire Requirements and Part VIII -
Fire Alarms, Fire Detection, Fire
Extinguishment, and Fire Fighting Access
are where all the UBBL's fire requirements
are placed. Means of escape were created
using the conservative UBBL assumption
that if one staircase failed, the other would
still be capable of supporting the 100% of
the load. Means of escape was designed
according to UBBL conservative assumption
of if one staircase fail principle, the other will
carry 100% of capacity load. The capacity of
stairs, doors, horizontal exit of 100 person
per exit.

SPECIAL
INSTALLATION

SECURITY SYSTEM

11

SECURITY SYSTEM

Security system is a type of system in securing entry points into a building with
the sensors that communicate with a control panel installed in a suitable place
somewhere in the building. It is also a method of something that is secured
through the system of interworking components and devices. Security system is
consisting networks of integrated electronic devices that implemented together
with a central control panel which in purpose to against the criminal activities or
potential intruders. There are numerous options in the security system that can
be customized according to needs, suitable for individuals and families such as
smart door system with RFID, video surveillance, biometric access system and
many mores.

In Menara Telekom, there are three types of security system which consists of
CCTV, card access system and parking control. The purpose of installing an
access control system is to provide fast and simple access to those who are
authorized and restricting those who are unauthorized from entering the building
meanwhile for the CCTV to keep an eye on what is happening in the building.

APPLICATION OF SECURITY SYSTEM

01 CCTV 02 DOOR ACCESS
SYSTEM SYSTEM

Video surveillance or also known as closed- Card access system is a type of systems that
circuit television (CCTV) is a TV system in work on the simple concept of securing entry
which signals are monitored in a small points into a place which also mean only the
number of monitor and not broadcast to the authorizes and authenticates entry can enter
public. CCTV networks are widely installed to the building. The access card is also called as
identify and discourage criminal activities an electronic key, which it is used by the
beside to record any traffic violation, all individual that request for an access through
typically for security and surveillance the secured door. Each access using this
purposes. system is uniquely encoded special for every
individual. The size of card is similarly as same
as the size of credit card that can easily be
carried in hand.

12

SECURITY SYSTEM

CLOSED-CIRCUIT TELEVISON
(CCTV) SYSTEM

CCTV depends on a well-positioned cameras are the monitoring camera
input on the distant monitors. The terms of closed-circuit is referring to the
wireless communication links of camera that utilize to connect with
monitors, indicating the access to the footage to be restricted only to
those who are authorized. A CCTV system which consists of camera,
lens, recorder, and monitor can be scaled in and out, up, and down and
rotate in 360 degrees depending on the size of area to be monitored and
the types of system itself. It takes a continuous sequence of images,
which then relaying to the recording device to the display monitor. People
can view the photos as video footage through the time.

SPACE IMPLICATION OF
(CCTV) SYSTEM

Entrance and Reception and
Exits Office Area

These areas are flooded with many The CCTV cameras that placed at the
people that are regularly entering and
leaving through the business hours and building can aware the people that
the placement of CCTV can reduce the
chance of trespasser to attempt forced they are under observation, thus
entry to the building.
reducing the possibility of someone to

trespassing or causing damage to the

building property. 13

SECURITY SYSTEM

COMPONENTS OF (CCTV) SYSTEM

Camera

There are two camera options which is Internet Protocol Cables &
(IP) or analog. IP is usually the preferred choice due to Routers
its compatibility with most devices.

Supporting technologies like cables, and routers to
need to be integrated into your system for a wireless
connection.

Data Storage

The storage device for a security camera system should
be able to record, store and re-play videos non-stop
from multiple feeds.

Monitoring
Station

A monitor station is needed to view recorded images 14
and footage. The number of monitors is depending on
the are that are monitored.

Video
Recorders

The video recorder is for the storage and viewing the
video of surveillance. There are two types of video
recorders: DVR (Digital Video Recorders) and NVR
(Network Video Recorders).

SECURITY SYSTEM

INSTALLATION PROCESS OF
CLOSED CIRCUIT TELEVISION

(CCTV) SYSTEM

STEP 1 STEP 2

Before placing the CCTV, decide a Make a guide mark for drilling at the
camera to be place. Hold the mounting

suitable location and height that best fits. bracket against the wall to ensure the
screw holes align with the holes in the wall.
Ensure the angle of cameras are in a
good place to monitor the surrounding. STEP 4

STEP 3 Install the DVR inside a locked
compartment, which contains of all the
Plug the camera into the bracket and recorded surveillance.
inserting the required connector.
Manage all the cables from cameras to 15
DVR to connect for the display.

STEP 5

Switch on the camera followed by the
DVR and the display. Camera is ready to
use.

SECURITY SYSTEM

BENEFITS OF CLOSED-CIRCUIT
TELEVISON (CCTV) SYSTEM

01 Monitor 02 Various

surrounding of choices

The CCTV are able to monitor the The user gets to choose their own
surrounding of the building as well as preference CCTV cameras as it
activities of the occupants. It can comes in various size, design, and
boost the productivity among colours with their own specification of
occupants to feel safe and peace good.
without crime happens.
04
03 Records of
Deter Crime
Activities

The CCTV cameras has its storage of The camera can monitor and track all
recorded activities that we can view multiply the activities that happens at the
times and get to choose on what time to building which also can deter crime
view the activities. as trespassing and burglary.

PROBLEMS OF CLOSED-CIRCUIT
TELEVISON (CCTV) SYSTEM

01 02 Quite
Privacy Issue
expensive

The cameras are inevitably record everything Depending on the choice of the CCTV
that come across at its perimeter, so the facial cameras, it can be quite expensive and
recognition and other private things are also need a lot of money for a bigger storage
recorded within its view. It can lead to for the data.
personal information with sensitive data.

16

SECURITY SYSTEM

BUILDING REGULATIONS

According to Video Surveillance in Public Spaces by Malaysian
Communications and Multimedia Commission (SKMM), the
regulations for the closed circuit television system is as below:

01 When installing the CCTV system, all the
considerations such as privacy, workplace
surveillance, disclosure restrictions must
take into consideration.

02 The video surveillance must need
employee agreement if it is for other
reasons and not for the purpose of
monitoring their daily work activities. If
there is no information towards the
employee, it is considered illegal unless
authority is given.

03 Cameras are not placed at public facilities such
as inside toilet facilities or changing room.

04 The equipment and components of the
CCTV system must according to the
quality specification.

17

SECURITY SYSTEM

ACCESS DOOR SYSTEM

Door access system has a sensor that connected with a central control unit
that is installed in a convenient location somewhere in the building and be
control through a network. The control unit is connected to an alarm either by
an automatic telephone dialer or an Internet connection. This system is
available to 24-hours as it is connected to control unit that can receives an
intrusion signal. A wired security system uses a small radio transmitter to
transfer signals to the control panel as opposed to a wired security system,
which is connected by low voltage wires. If there is any power outage or
severed wires, the systems will depend on batteries power, and it will
automatically recharge when the panel is connected to the household power.

SPACE IMPLICATION OF
ACCESS DOOR SYSTEM

ENTRANCE
DOOR

Installed at the entrance door or
any required door, it is a keyless
door locks that do not take up
so much space as the wiring of
this device will be inserted
through the wall.

18

SECURITY SYSTEM

COMPONENTS OF
ACCESS DOOR SYSTEM

Access Control
Device

Access control device used to place the card
readers. It functions either as a contactless
RFID smart card reader or password
verification device. The controller will be
placed closer to the IT or other secure
location, which the wires are installed through
the walls to the required door.

The electromagnetic door lock system Magnetic Door
consists of a magnet that mounted on the Lock
door frame and a steel plate attached to the
top of the door. It is installed to ensure the
door are securely closed automatically.

Access Control
Keypads

The access control keypad has numeric keys
which look similar to the keys on a touch-tone
telephone. The access control keypad requires
that a person desiring to gain access enter a
correct numeric code instead of placing a card.

The access card may be thought of as an Access Card
electronic key. The access card is used by
persons to gain access through the doors 19
secured by the access control system.
Each access card is uniquely encoded.

SECURITY SYSTEM

INSTALLATION PROCESS OF
DOOR ACCESS SYSTEM

STEP 1


The type selected can be
determined according to
the budget, the size of the
building and the number of
users to be given access to
the security.

STEP 2

Find the expertise to setting up
the system that has been chosen.
The expertise may likely to visit
the area, discuss the needs, and
prepared the parts of installation.
It may take some time depending
on the number of doors to be
install and the complexity of the
system.

STEP 3

When the system is
already installed, the users
can be configured. The
access control system can
be adjusted according to
time for the users to be
add, edit, and deleted.

20

SECURITY SYSTEM

BENEFITS OF
ACCESS DOOR SYSTEM

01 Keeping track of entry 02 No hassle with
keys
and exit records
With key, there need an additional effort
This security system allows the occupants if the key holder loses their key. The
to keep track of who is entering and exiting user need to change all the locks to
from time to time in their building. If there ensure the security of the building. But
is any trespassing, the system will with access card, it can deactivate if the
automatically be alarming the occupants card is lost and then the user will assign
through a message no matter if the a new one. There will no need to
occupants are away. If there is any change the lock either to replace
security breach, we can observe who everyone new keys.
swiped their card to enter the building.

03 Easily manage

As it is a type of keyless entry, it is easier to manage. It is
easier in every aspects such as installation and maintenance
besides it also easy to keep.

PROBLEMS OF
ACCESS DOOR SYSTEM

01 Lack of True 02 Easy to Hack
Authorization

The detector is not able to know if it is the The access control system using a cheap
rightful owner that is swiping the card as device can easily be hacked by
the detector are allowing every access irresponsible person, that can lead to
within the rightful card only. Keycards criminal syndicates such as robberies.
either on purpose or unintentionally can The system installed must be up to date
easily end up in the incorrect person’s to secure the safety.
hand thus it is a bit dangerous.

21

SECURITY SYSTEM

BUILDING REGULATIONS

According to Uniform Building By-Laws 1984 (G.N. 5178/85), the
regulations for the card access door system is as below:

01 UBBL 133 - Interpretations: Final exit refers to the threshold that
separates 'still within the building' and 'out of the building'. The liability of
the design for the evacuation from the building ends at this point.

02 UBBL 166 - Every floor space shall provided at least two exits on the
basis that if one from them is inoperable, the other exit can function. This
'designing for redundancy' principle applies to all aspects of evacuation.

03 UBBL 169 - The protected passage from a storey exit that leads to the
final exit. It can include spaces that are designated as areas of refuge
anywhere between the storey exit and the final exit.

UBBL 171 - Exits that lead to an adjacent horizontal separated

04compartment within the same floor.

UBBL 174 - Exits from a floor which is of a different level from the 05
final exit. If it is on the same level, a distance away from the final exit.
A storey exit must lead to the final exit.

22

TELECOMMUNICATION
SYSTEM

23

INTRODUCTION

Telecommunications, commonly referred to as telecom, is the
electronic transfer of information across long distances, including
voice, data, and video. This is a broad term that includes a variety of
information-transmitting technologies and communications
infrastructures, such as telegraphs, landline phones, mobile phones,
satellites, microwave communications, fibre optics, and radio and
television broadcasts.
An entire single communications circuit consists of two stations—one
with a transmitter and one with a receiver. Any station's transmitter
and receiver can be integrated into a single device known as a
transceiver. Electrical wire or cable, commonly known as copper,
optical fibre, electromagnetic fields, or light can all be used as the
medium for transmitting signals. Wireless communications refer to the
electromagnetic field-based transmission and receiving of data over
free space.

24

Wireless Fidelity A telecommunications technology known
(Wi-Fi) as Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi), uses radio
waves to send and receive digital signals
and consequently, data. It was also
known as Wireless Local Area Network
(WLAN). The Wi-Fi Alliance created the
acronym Wi-Fi to represent the
technology since its technical term IEEE
802.11, which stands for Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineers was
thought to be a little too complicated for
consumers.

The wireless technology, Wi-Fi is used to
link computers, tablets, smartphones,
and other devices to the internet. Wi-Fi is
the radio signal that a wireless router
transmits to a device in the area, which
then converts the signal into information
you can see and use. A radio signal is
sent from the device back to the router,
which has a wired or wireless connection
to the internet. This makes nowadays
such a convenient time to be living,
providing Bluetooth, social networking,
real-time streaming, and access to a
limitless amount of information.

APPLICATION SYSTEM

TMobile applications Wi-Fi Mesh Network System
Business applications Mesh systems are designed to blanket a company
Home applications with wireless coverage. These systems are a hybrid
Computerized application of sorts, made up of several networking
Automotive segment components. There's a main router that connects
Browsing internet directly to the modem, and a series of satellite
Video conference modules, or nodes, that place throughout the office.
They are all part of a single wireless network, and
they share the same SSID and password. Unlike
range extenders, which communicate with the
router via the 2.4GHz or 5GHz radio bands, most Wi-
Fi system satellites use mesh technology to talk to
the router and to each other.

25

INSTALLATION PROCESS

Site Survey
An extensive evaluation of all internet connection access points is
conducted as the first phase in every Wi-Fi installation in order to prepare
for the subsequent design and implementation steps.

Design
Carry out a detailed plan for installing a stable Wi-Fi network when the site
survey is completed. Furthermore, provide a process map to future-proof
the Wi-Fi network and ensure that the administration guidelines are clear.

Installation
Install and integrate the Wi-Fi network as soon as a design plan has been
agreed on. Constantly check that the installer is complying to all rules
concerning the area.

Aftercare
Carefully test the Wi-Fi network at the building after installation is finished
to make sure it is performing at optimal efficiency.

26

BENEFITS

1. Convenience 3. Need for Speed
Through WiFi, people may move around the Having a strong internet connection will
office building and access network help staffs to perform well. As the world has
resources from almost anywhere. In the gone digital, certain software has been
office, WiFi links a variety of devices, created to help in making work easier and
including computers, video, security faster. However, some of it can only be
cameras, mobile phones, and more. This is accessed and used online. Data
essential since restricted guest access is administration, research, task management,
easy to manage, despite the increasing and material procurement all become
saturation of laptop-style computers and simpler and faster when there is a better
mobile phones. internet connection.

2. Increase Staff Productivity
This has shown that everyone in the
company can work more efficiently and
effectively regardless of where they are.
While moving from place to place, users
connected to WiFi maintain a wide range of
speeds. Staffs can cooperate and become
engaged much more quickly with the
relevant Internet tools and better
connection. As a result, it will reduce on
delays and boost staffs' productivity.

2. Security PROBLEMS
Only someone who has spliced into the
cable may intercept a wired network 1. Reduce Management Control
connection. However, since wireless Flexibility is something that many
connections are made over the air, all workplaces would like to provide, but it may
someone intending to steal the company’s make it difficult to find staffs when you need
information needs is a Wi-Fi receiver, some them, keep an eye on their day-to-day
time to wait, and a location to work where activities, and engage in informal
he can generate the signal. Even though the management conversations.
Wi-Fi Protected Access security protocol is
improved, a skilled hacker can still crack it. 3. Reliability
Wireless networks have a limited number of
channels and if every channel is used,
connections will lag or stop functioning
entirely. Radios that make Wi-Fi work are
also subject to interference. Cell phones,
walls, and big metal objects like file
cabinets can all interfere with Wi-Fi signals
and cause your network performance to be
unreliable.

27

FUNCTIONS, CONNECTIONS AND POSITIONS

Wi-Fi receivers, such as computers and The ability of network segmentation to
mobile phones equipped with Wi-Fi cards, isolate any problems caused by
pick up the radio signals that are produced cybersecurity breaches is a significant
by antenna and routers. When the computer advantage. For example, if a laptop
detects signals from the router within its 100- becomes infected with malware, it won't
to 150-feet range, it automatically connects be able to connect to the IoT network,
the device. The environment, whether indoors which is secured by a separate firewall.
or outdoors, affects the Wi-Fi range. The Wi- The firewall on the main network will
Fi cards will read the signals and generate prevent the problem from spreading to
an internet connection. As a device like those systems if an IoT device is hacked.
computer gets closer to the main source of
the Wi-Fi connection, its speed improves, and
as it gets farther away, its speed decreases

In addition, any frequency band can be In terms of its position in a multi-storey
used by WiFi radios for transmission. building, the router should be place in a
Alternatively, they can quickly frequency higher position. Higher positions enable the
hop between the various frequencies that router to broadcast with fewer signal-
enables simultaneous usage of several blocking things and allow more signal to
devices on the same wireless network reach the areas where staffs really use the
while reducing interference. One router Wi-Fi. When in doubt, follow the advice of
may be used to connect several devices to expert installers who will put routers on the
the internet as long as they all have ceiling or high on a wall, or even put them on
wireless adapters which is convenient and high shelves.
pretty reliable, but users may experience
interference or lose their connections if the
router malfunctions or if too many people
attempt to use high-bandwidth
applications at the same time.

28

PRINCIPLES

With Wi-Fi, people may connect to Wi-Fi receivers, such as computers
the internet and a network at high and mobile phones equipped with
speed without using any cables or Wi-Fi cards, pick up the radio signals
wires. Radio waves, antennas, and that are produced by antenna and
routers are the three key routers. When the computer detects
components that make up a wireless signals from the router within its 100-
network. The radio waves are key to to 150-feet range, it automatically
enabling Wi-Fi networking. The Wi-Fi connects the device. The
cards are installed in the PCs and environment, whether indoors or
mobile devices. Wi-Fi compatibility outdoors, affects the Wi-Fi range.
has been implementing a new The Wi-Fi cards will read the signals
invention to connect to the and generate an internet
community network within the connection. As a device like
ground. computer gets closer to the main
source of the Wi-Fi connection, its
speed improves, and as it gets
farther away, its speed decreases.

29

SPACE IMPLICATION

The major focus when it Along with choosing a AIf it's not possible to
comes to router central position, keep the centralise the router as if
positioning is to put the router away from walls the workplace is weirdly
router in a position that is made of concrete, brick, wired, give priority to
as central as possible. or plaster because they setting up access points
The overall signal quality might cause more signal in strategic areas. Place
will be poor if the router is loss than standard the router where it could
hidden in a remote area building materials like be access by a lot of
of the room and the sheetrock. users such as in an open
signal is only transmitted space.
by access points.

BUILDING REGULATIONS

Computer Crime Act 1997 Intellectual Property Law
The Computer Crimes Act 1997 (“CCA”) The Intellectual Property Law deals with
criminalizes the abuse of computers. intellectual property relating cases to
Criminal activities such as hacking, protect and enforce the owners’ or
phishing, cracking, virus attack, to name a creators’ rights. Areas of intellectual
few, are governed under this act property include copyright, patent, and
trademarks.
Communications and Multimedia Act There are two main issues surrounding
1998 websites and the Internet that you should
Based on The Malaysian Communications know, which are:
and Multimedia Commission (MCMC), this
act and the subsidiary legislation apply 1.Website’s domain name and how it
both within and outside Malaysia. The act relates to trademarks; and
covers content protection, which
prohibiting offensive and pornography 2.How we protect our published content
contents on the Internet by using copyright law

30

MECHANICAL
HANDLING
SYSTEM

LIFT

31

WHAT IS MECHANICAL

HANDLING SYSTEM?

The term "mechanical handling systems" refers to the equipment
that are used to manage the storage and transportation of goods.
They are vital in terms of providing a product distribution service
that is both effective and reliable. In the simplest form, mechanical
handling system is a way of moving goods or people from one
location to another. Some contemporary buildings and projects
often have some kind of mechanical transportation which may be
found both within and outside of these buildings. On the other
hand, the mechanical handling system will reduce the available
floor space, but it will make the structure of the building strong
enough to support the system. Depending on the building's design,
the mechanical handling system could result in a big and tall
structure. In addition, mechanical handling system will also affect
the cost since not only will there be an additional expense for its
installation and maintenance, but it will also raise both the selling
cost and the rental cost. Consequently, planning has to be taken
into consideration at a very early stage in the design process.

WHAT IS LIFT?

In this day and era, there have been a great deal of developments taking
place in a variety of industries, including business, computing, and
software. They have made substantial contributions to the advancement of
a wide variety of fields. You are able to appoint a metal box that will transfer
you from one level to another in a secure manner by pressing the switch or
the button. In point of fact, a building that is higher than four or five stories
is required to have at least one elevator installed. An elevator provides
simplicity and convenience for the majority of people, and it also makes life
simpler for those who have physical disabilities. Elevator, which may also
be referred to as a lift, is a vehicle that travels up and down a vertical shaft
to transport people and goods between floors of a multistory structure. The
vast majority of today's elevators are driven by electric motors, and they do
so with the assistance of a counterweight and by use of a network of cables
and sheaves(pulleys). The elevator, which allowed for the construction of
taller structures, was a significant contributor to the formation of the
distinctive urban topography of many contemporary cities. It also has the
potential to play an essential part in the continued growth of cities in the
future. According to our case study which is MENARA TELEKOM MALAYSIA
BERHAD, they use double deck passenger lift

32

APPLICATION

LIFT

An elevator is essentially a box made of metal that can take on a variety of
configurations and is suspended by an extremely strong metal rope. Within
the engine room, the sturdy metal rope travels via a sheave that is located
on an elevator. In this case, a sheave functions similarly to a wheel in a
pulley system by firmly grasping the metal rope. The use of a motor is an
option for operating this device. When the switch is set to the ON position,
the motor will be ready to run whenever the elevator travels between floors
or comes to a halt. The elevator may be built using a variety of elevator
components or elevator parts. The most important of these components are
the speed regulating system, the electric motor, the tracks, the cabin, the
shaft, the doors (manual and automated), the drive unit, the buffers, and the
safety device. This kind of lift is completely composed of a lift car that
travels vertically inside a lift shaft that has been specifically designed for
this purpose. The passengers are possible to traveled between floors at
quick speed. The control systems in the lift are typically built to provide the
most cost-effective distribution of passengers across the whole structure.
These elevators make highly effective use of the area it occupies, so it may
be installed in existing structures even when space is limited.

MENARA TELEKOM
MALAYSIA BERHAD

Users of the Menara Telekom Malaysia Berhad must take the

elevator up from the ground level to reach an even-numbered

floor. To reach a level with an odd number of floors, the user

must use the elevator from the lower lobby. The user pickup

and drop-off areas for the double-decker elevators are in the

lift lobby, which is situated in the centre of the building. The

whole building is equipped with 18 double-decker elevators

that are divided into three zones, each with its own set of

positions. 33

APPLICATION

DOUBLE-DECK ELEVATOR

An elevator that has cabs placed one on
top of the other is referred to as a double-
deck elevator or a double-deck lift.
Because of this, passengers on two levels
that are practically next to one another
are now able to utilise the elevator at the
same time, which considerably increases
the passenger capacity of an elevator
shaft. In buildings where the amount of
traffic would ordinarily require a single-
deck elevator to stop at each level, a plan
like this one may enhance efficiency and
make use of the space more effectively.
For instance, a passenger could board the
lower deck (which only serves odd-
numbered floors) on the ground floor,
while 0a1nother passenger co0u2ld board the
upper deck (which serves even-
numbered floors) on the basement level.
This is because the cab that serves even
floors is positioned on top of the cab that
serves odd floors. When there is the same
amount of human traffic, standard single-
deck elevators take up more room in the
centre of the building than double-deck
elevators do. Because elevators take a
large amount of floor space, this makes it
possible for skyscrapers to make
considerably better use of the space
available to them.

34

SYSTEM

DOUBLE DECK ELEVATOR

Elevator Group Supervisory Control Systems, also known as EGSCS,
are the control systems that are responsible for the systematically
management of three or more elevators in a building in order to
ensure that passengers are transported as quickly and easily as
possible. When compared to Single-Deck Elevator Systems, Double-
Deck Elevator Systems (DDES) exhibit more sophisticated behaviours.
This is because the functionality of Double-Deck Elevator Systems is
expanded in DDES to allow passengers to input their destinations at
elevator halls. A recently created evolutionary approach that is
based on graphs is called Genetic Network Programming, or GNP (Lu
et al., 2007)

MENARA TELEKOM MALAYSIA BERHAD

The Telekom tower was one of the first buildings to install a 6-star double-

decker lift for use in vertical transportation. This made it an early pioneer in

the field. This technique allows for a substantially greater number of

passengers and cuts down on the amount of time it takes to go to the top.

Additionally, there are four different zones for double-deck elevators, and in

order to reach your destination, you will need to use the elevator that is

designated for your level. For instance, the lift at zone 1 serves LG1 through

L18, whereas the lift at zone 2 serves LG1, L18, and L36. Regarding zone 3, it

includes LG1 lifts from L36 to L50, while zone 4 includes LG1 lifts from L50 to

L55. For the slowest speed, the lift can travel at is 2.5 metres per second, and

its maximum speed is 6 metres per second. Then, the typical wait time is

between 30 and 60 seconds. There are a total of 36 elevators, and the

building control centre serves as the location for the centralised monitoring

system while the cabin information System Display located within the Double

Decker elevators. 35

INSTALLATION
PROCESS

HOIST AND SPEED GOVERNOR

01 02

Connect the hoist to the Using the suspension
power source for three bar, attach the hoist
phases and double driven pulley to the
confirm that all of the centre hook at the top of
hoist's safety features the shaft, and then
are in working order connect the hoist rope
to the hoist.
03
04
Raise the hoist until it is
within the shaft. Using the hoist test
Maintain control of the bracket, determine the
hoist on the floor that is load hook's maximum
lowest in the building. carrying capability

05 06

Ensure that the over Mount the over speed
speed governor hanger governor on the rod, then
rod is appropriately secure it and make sure
positioned in the load the base plate is in the
hook at the top of the correct position.
shaft.

07

Slide the rope through
the groove of the
overspeed governor, and
let the ends of the rope
to fall into the pit..

36

INSTALLATION
PROCESS

SHAFT PLUMBING AND POSITIONING

01 02

Position the shaft Install the support for
plumbing jig so that it the plumbing jig on the
corresponds to the front wall of the floor
dimensions of the shaft that is the most
and the distance uppermost landing.
between the guide rails
(DBG). 04

03 Hang four sets of plumbing weights
into the pit; two sets are for
Attach the plumbing jig to the determining the placement of the
jig support, then adjust the vehicle guide rail, and the other two
position of the plumbing jig so sets are for determining the
that it is in compliance with location of the front wall. Ensure
the layout design, and then that the plumbing weights are
use clamps to make the jig as secure and do not move.
tight as possible.
06
05
At each landing, measure
Take measurements of
the lift shaft, and if the dimensions of the lift
required, make any
necessary adjustments well, and fill in the
to the location of the
plumbing jig. appropriate plumbing

07 table.

Make sure the plumbing
wires are properly
secured in the pit by
using the steadier
brackets, and ensure
that the lengths between
the plumbing wires are
accurate.

37

INSTALLATION
PROCESS

CAR

01 02

Using the hoist, lift the Support the platform by
car platform into the placing it on top of the
shaft, and then slide it vehicle buffers, and
onto the car guide rails check to see that the
in the right orientation. platform is level.

03 04

Adjust the rollers for the Integrate the overspeed
car's safety gear so that governor rope into the
they are in line with the car’s safety gear.
guide rails.
06
05
Mount the uprights and
Place the upper beam on secure them in place
the platform, raise it using the platform and
using the hoist, and the top beam. Verify and
place it on the top at a make sure that the
position that is about uprights are standing
equivalent to where it vertically.
should be.
08
07
Securely fasten the
Attach the car enclosure ceiling panels to the car
panels to the platform enclosure panels and fix
and the uprights on it rigidly.
three sides of the
vehicle. 10

09 Install the safety pedal
to the top of the car, and
Fix the kick plate and the then thread the rope to
balustrade that are the pedal from the
located on the top of the safety gear arm.
car.

38

BENEFITS
01 02

it gives a very comfort traveling Particularly space efficient for
among different floors. high-rise buildings.

03 04

fully fixed shaft meaning increasing High speed traveled between
in terms of passenger capacity of floors.
an elevator shaft.
06
05
Provides the potential to reduce
increases the number of passengers core area whilst maintaining lift
carried on each lift journey. handling capacity/performance,
increasing NLA to GFA ratio.

07 08

Suited to high rise commercial Reduced construction cost due
office accommodation with a large to reduced core and installation
NLA and population per floor. time.

09 10

With accurate design, the number During peak period, when both the
of hoist ways could reduce decks are fully loaded, energy is
considerably. saved.

11

Upper deck could be used as
passenger elevator and during non-
peak hours the lower deck could be
doubled up as service or goods
elevator.

39

PROBLEMS
01 02

Increased vertical Dual level lobbies required to
transportation capital and obtain operational efficiency by
operational cost allowing simultaneous loading or
unloading of upper and lower lift
03 cars which may be perceived as a
negative by prospective tenants
Some passenger frustration
may be experienced when a 04
lift car is delayed during
loading or unloading of the Escalators, stairs and DDA
upper or lower lift car access required between dual
lobby levels

05 06

Failure of one lift will result in The lobby designed will be
both lift cars being out of dictated by the selected double
service. deck or twin solution for example
double deck requires fixed floor
07 to floor and twin requires
minimum 4.5+ metre dependent
During non-peak hours, even on speeds.
though the traffic is less both the
decks will be operational. 08

09 Equal floor rise could be a
constraint.
For efficient usage of the double-
deck system, even number of floors
is preferred.

40

FUNCTIONS, CONNECTIONS,
POSITIONS

CABLE (ROPE) COUNTER WEIGHT DRIVE UNIT

It is used to support the The counterweight makes it easier for the motor to Everything that works
car passing over the raise and lower the car—just as sitting on a see- under electricity must
drive sheave to the saw makes it much easier to lift someone's weight have a motor attached
counterweight and pull compared to lifting them in your arms. for the functioning &
the car. usually number Thanks to the counterweight, the motor needs to driven by VVVF drives.
of lays depends on load use much less force to move the car either up or
and speed down.
Assuming the car and its contents weigh more than
the counterweight, all the motor has to lift is the
difference in weight between the two and supply a
bit of extra force to overcome friction in the pulleys
and so on.

HOISTWAY ELEVATOR MACHINE

The space enclosed by A traction machine is used

fireproof walls and on all traction elevator

elevator doors for the equipment types. A

travel of one or more standard traction machine

elevators, dumbwaiters or consists of a motor, drive

material lifts. sheave, brake and machine

It includes the pit and bed plate. The traction

terminates at the machine motor turns the

underside of the overhead drive sheave shaft to turn

machinery space floor or the drive sheave.

grating, or at the As the sheave turns the

underside of the roof hoist ropes pass over the

where the hoistway does drive sheave and pull the

not penetrate the roof. car through the hoistway.

ELEVATOR CABIN / CONTROLLER

CAR An Elevator controller is a
system to control the
This is the main part of elevators, either manual or
automatic.
Elevator which is The controller usually tune
down the voltage between
designed for enclosed 12V to 24V to the controlling
system, only the motor
transport of needs 3-phase power
supply. The low voltage
passengers and goods. power supply is for the
controlling component and
the fixtures to control the
elevator

Buffers Speed governors GUIDE RAILS

The buffer is an Most elevators have an entirely separate
speed-regulating system called a governor,
apparatus located which is a flywheel with mechanical arms Steel T-shaped or
built inside it. Normally the arms are held
at the bottom of inside the flywheel by springs, but if the lift formed sections
moves too fast, they fly outward, pushing a
elevator designed lever mechanism that trips one or more with guiding
braking systems.
to protect people. First, they might cut power to the lift motor. If surfaces installed
that fails and the lift continues to accelerate,
Buffers can stop a the arms will fly out even further and trip a vertically in a
second mechanism, applying the brakes.
descending car by Some governors are entirely mechanical; hoistway to guide
others are electromagnetic; still others use a
accumulating or mixture of mechanical and electronic and direct the
components.
dissipating the course of travel of

kinetic energy of an elevator car and

the car. elevator
counterweig4h1ts.

FUNCTIONS, CONNECTIONS,
POSITIONS

PLANK CROSS-HEAD

Steel T-shaped or formed Horizontally positioned at the upper
ends of two vertical stiles that form
sections with guiding the frame of an elevator car A door
header, door hanger assembly,
surfaces installed vertically door operator assembly, and a
cross-beam are all supported by
in a hoistway to guide and the cross-head.

direct the course of travel of

an elevator car and elevator

counterweights.

SERVO MOTOR

A servo motor is made

up of four parts which

are a standard DC

motor, a gear

reduction unit, a

position-sensing

device, and a control

circuit.

The DC motor is linked

to a gear mechanism,

which provides

feedback to a position

sensor, which is

typically a

potentiometer.

The output of the

motor is delivered to

the servo arm via a

servo spline from the

gearbox.

The servo motor’s

function is to receive a

control signal

representing a desired

output position of the

servo shaft and apply

power to its DC motor

until its shaft turns to

that position.

SAFETY BRAKE Doors

Each car ran between two vertical As normal doors, elevator doors
guide rails with sturdy metal teeth are also meant for entry and exit.
embedded all the way up them. At Automatic doors are the type of
the top of each car, there was a doors which are automatically
spring-loaded mechanism with opened as it is powered by a door
hooks attached. If the cable broke, operator and usually have a full
the hooks sprung outward and height photo-electric curtain to
jammed into the metal teeth in the
guide rails, locking the car safely in 42
position.
sense the entry/exit of persons.

PRINCIPLES

Elevator carrying capacity is mostly determined by platform area.
Each passenger need roughly two square feet to ride comfortably,
yet during rush hour, users will pack into an average of 1.3 square
feet per person. Increasing the platform size or the number of
elevators in a typical elevator takes up more room for hoistways
and leaves less for other uses.
Instead of expanding platform size and, therefore, hoistway space
consumption, engineers have been researching the alternate
potential of elevators with two platforms, one above the other. In
essence, the double deck elevator approach is analogous to
constructing a two-story colonial rather than a ranch home to
accommodate a large family on a short property.
Each double-deck elevator features an upper and lower cab in a car
structure that is about twice the standard height. The entrances
and interiors resemble those of traditional, single-deck elevators.
Users access the cabs from two lower terminal levels. The lower
terminal might have a split-level lobby, with elevator entrances on
the stress level and half a flight below, or on the stress level and on
a mezzanine level.
People travelling to odd-numbered levels use one terminal level;
those travelling to even-numbered floors use the other. Escalators,
steps, sloping moving pathways, or stationary ramps may connect
the two floors. Each double-deck elevator comes to a halt when it
reaches a level where passengers have pressed the necessary
control buttons.
Passengers will access and exit both upper and lower decks at
certain stations. However, at other stops, passengers will only be
able to enter or exit on one deck. Because certain stops allow the
double deck elevator to respond to requests for two levels, it often
requires fewer stops per trip than a standard, single deck elevator.
Total traffic handled in a given period is boosted further since
people access and exit both decks simultaneously, in less time
than a single car with an equal platform space. The time saved by
the double decker in passenger transfer allows it to finish each
journey sooner, make more trips in a given period, and transport
more people during that period.

43

SYSTEM

Double deck elevators with building's access control system
As elevator users pass through security gates for
authentication, their destination floors are registered and
the destinations are grouped by elevator for efficiency
Users do not need to press destination buttons outside
ORinside of elevators, so operation of multiple elevators is
optimized for enhanced transportation efficiency and user
convenience
Instead of pushing up or down, users in smart elevators
must first pick the floor to which they desire to go before the
elevator can function. After that, they are given instructions
on how to access an elevator that will take them to their
final destination with the minimum amount of stops along
the route.
A mixture of the two configurations, the Private Elevator with
Private Access to Selected Floors provides an additional
layer of protection above the other options. A passenger will
not only need a card read to call the elevator, but he will also
need to complete a card read after he is already inside the
elevator. This will ensure that he is only allowed access to
the floors that his credentials permit for him to be on.
When a conventional Destination Control System (DCS) is
used, the Destination Operating Panel (DOP) is the sole
place from which calls may be sent. Because of this
particular reason, the card reader is exclusively included
into the DOP. Integration of a turnstile is something that can
be done so that a direct home or call function is activated
whenever a person goes through it.
Access control systems are able to perform pre-determined
actions in response to the status of triggers sent from other
systems, and they are also able to transmit triggers to
external systems such as security, fire alarm, video, and
emergency systems.

44

SPACE
IMPLICATIONS

Should be easily accessible
Should be large enough to allow traffic to move in
both directions, without being obstructed by people
waiting for the lifts.
Double-deck elevators occupy less building core
space when compared with traditional single-deck
elevators for the same level of traffic. In
skyscrapers, this allows more efficient use of
space, as the floor area required by elevators is
significant.

BUILDING
REGULATIONS

Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (Act 154)

Sections 15 and 18 of OSHA stipulate the duties and

responsibilities of the owner (or building management) to

ensure fixtures such as lifts and escalators are safe for use.

Sections 20 and 21 of OSHA stipulate the general duties of the

designers, manufacturers, suppliers such as competent

firms to ensure fixtures such as lifts and escalators are safe

for use.

NADOPOD Regulations 2004 stipulate the requirement of

reporting any accident involving lifts and escalators to

Departmental of Safety and Health (DOSH)

Factories and Machinery Act 1967 (Act 139)

Section 19 of FMA stipulates that no person shall be

permitted to operate any certified machinery without a valid

CF.

Regulations 31, 32 and 33 of Factories and Machinery

(Electric Passenger and Goods Lift) Regulations 1970

stipulate the duties of competent firms, competent persons

and lift owners.

45

Heating, ventilation, and Air-Conditioning Systems

HVAC
SYSTEM

CONTENTS

Introduction HVAC systems Disadvantages
AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEMS Connections and Positions
Codes and system
Definition regulations
Application and Functions Space implications and
Installation Process Building regulations
Advantages

46

INTRODUCTION

WHAT IS HVAC SYSTEMS WHAT IS AIR-CONDITIONER

HVAC is an abbreviation for heating, The process of creating and
ventilation, and air conditioning. This maintaining certain temperature,
system heats and cools residential relative humidity, and air purity
and commercial buildings. HVAC conditions in interior environments is
systems may be found everywhere known as air conditioning. This
from single-family houses to procedure is commonly used to
submarines, where they provide maintain a degree of personal
environmental comfort. These comfort.
systems, which are becoming
increasingly common in modern Cooling, heating, humidification, and
constructions, utilise fresh air from
outside to produce great interior air dehumidification are all recognised
quality.
methods for controlling the physical
The process of replenishing or
exchanging air inside a room is qualities of air. An air-conditioning
represented by the V in HVAC, or
ventilation. This improves interior air system must be functional despite
quality by removing moisture, smoke,
odor, heat, dust, airborne bacteria, of the outside weather conditions
carbon dioxide, and other pollutants,
as well as controlling temperature and regulate four essential variables,
and replenishing oxygen. HVAC is
based on thermodynamics, fluid which are air temperature, humidity,
mechanics, and heat transfer. Just
like different types of automation movement, and quality. Air
systems, HVAC is one type of
automation system. conditioning is part of a system and

technology family that includes

heating, ventilation, and air

conditioning (HVAC). As for the

case study project, Telekom Tower, it

used district cooling system, air-

conditioning system and

mechanical ventilation system.

Therefore, in this report, we had

proposed air-conditioning system.

47


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