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Published by Alpha Omicron Pi, 2015-08-06 15:46:37

1931 October - To Dragma

Vol. 27, No. 1


of Alpha Omicron Pi

Volume 27 Number 1

• 9


Shadows Frontispiece
Back in School 3
Katbryn Bremer Mat on *
Alpha O Grand Officers 5
A Greeting From the Grand President 16
Stella Perry Elected Historian for Life 17
Take the A i r 19
It Was a Great Convention 23
"You Must Pay Your Way I"
Amanda Bradley, Fellowship Winner 30
The Frontier Nursing Service 31
Save a Baby, Save a Nation 32
Defining the Modern University 38
Helen Dietrich, Dramatic AJpba O 44
It's Fun Representing Alpha 0 49
"Hit the Books" 51
And Here A r e the District Superintendents S3
Do You Know That 54
Sing a Song of Alpha O 58
Mars Bids Admittance 59
Building Among the Greeks • 60
Alpha O Pictorial 62
The Quiet Corner Opposite page 64
Alpha O's in the Daily Press 65
Alumnx Notes • 67
Directory of Officers 71

• OCTOBER • 1931 •


A L P H A [A]—Barnard College—Inactive E T A fH]—University of Wisconsin,
Madison, Wis.
Pr [ r i ] — H . Sophie Newcotnb Memorial
College, New Orleans, L a . A L P H A P I I I [A*]—Montana State Col-
lege, Bozeman, Mont.
Itfu iN]—New York University, New
York City. No OMICRON [NO]—Vanderbilt Univer-
sity. Nashville, Tenn.
O H I C K O N LOJ—University of Tennessee,
Knoxville, Tenn. P s i l * ] — U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania,
Philadelphia, I'a.

K A * P A [K]—Randolph-Macon Woman's P H I l + J — University of Kansas, Law-
College, Lynchburg, Va. rence, Kan.

ZITTA [Z]—University of Nebraska, L i n - OMEGA IUJ—Miami University, Oxford,
coln, Neb. Ohio.

S I S M A [Z]—University of California, O M I C R O N P I f O F I ] —University of Michi-
Berkeley. Calif. gan, Ann Arbor, Mich.

TILETA 10}— DePauw University. Green- A L P H A S I G M A lAZ]—University of Ore-
castle, Ind. gon, Eugene, Ore.

BETA [B]—Brown University—Inactive. X i IZ)—University of Oklahoma, Nor-
D E L T A U J — Jackson College. Tufts Col- man, Okla.

lege, Mass. P i D E L T A in.1]—University of Mary-
land, CoUcge Park, Md.

G A M M A IT]—University of Maine, T A U D E L T A ITAJ — Mirmingham-Southern
Orono, Me. College, Birmingham, Ala.

EPSIEON [E]—Cornell University. Ithaca, K A P P A T i l ETA IKttJ — University of Cali-
N.Y. fornia at Los Angeles, Los Angeles,
Rito IP]—Northwestern University,
Evanston, 111. KAI-PA OMICROM [KO]—Southwestern,
Memphis, Tenn.

LAMBDA I A]—Leland Stanford Univer- A L P H A K H O lAI'J—Oregon Agricultural
sity, Palo Alto, Calif. College, Corvailis, Ore.

IOTA [I]—University of Illinois, Cham- C m D E L T A [X^J—University of Colo-
paign, 111. rado, Boulder, Colo.

TAU* [ T ] — University of Minnesota, Min- BETA T I I E T A I U B J — Butler University,
neapolis. Minn. Indianapolis, lnd.

C H I [X]—Syracuse University, Syra- A L P H A P I I A I I J — Florida State College
cuse. N . Y . for Women, Tallahassee, l'la.

U P S I L O N [T]—University of Washing- EPSILON A L P H A IJEA J—Pennsylvania
ton, Seattle, Wash. State College, State College, Pa.

No K A P P A [NKJ—Southern Methodist T U E T A E T A 1011] — University of Cincin-
University, Dallas, Tex. nati. Cincinnati. Ohio.

B E T A P H I [B«t»]—Indiana University, B E T A T A U IUTJ—University of Toronto,
Bloomington, lnd. Toronto, Out.

A L P H A TAU IAT]—Denison University,
Granville, Ohio.


N E W Y O R K A L U M NA—New York City. O M A H A A L U M N A — O m a h a , Neb.
cisco, Calif. SYRACUSE ALUMNA—Syracuse, N.Y.

PROVIDENCE A L U M N A — P r o v i d e n c e , DETROIT ALUMNA—Detroit, Mich.

Rhode Island. NASHVILLE ALUMNA—Nashville, Tenn.

BOSTON ALUMNA—Boston. Mass. CLEVELAND A L U M N A — C l e v e l a n d , Ohio.

L I N C O L N A L U M N A — L i n c o l n , Neb. MEMPHIS ALUMNA—Memphis, Tenn.

Los ANGELES A L U M N A — L o s Angeles. MILWAUKEE ALUMNA—Milwaukee, Wis.

Calif. BIRMINGHAM ALUMNA—Birmingham.

C H I C A G O A L U M N A — C h i c a g o , 111. Ala.

I N DI AN A P O L I S A L U M N A—Indianapolis, OKLAHOMA CITY ALUMNA—Oklahoma
City, Okla.
N E W ORLEANS A L U M N A — N e w Orleans,

MINNEAPOLIS AI.UMN A—Minneapolis, cago, 111.
Minn. MADISON ALUMNA—Madison, Wis.

PORTLAND ALUMNA—Portland. Ore. lnd.
K N O X V I L L E ALUMNA—Knoxville, Tenn. D E N V E R A L U M N A — D e n v e r , Colo.
LYNCHBURG A L U M N A — Lynchburg. Va. CINCINNATI ALUMNA—Cincinnati, Ohio.
WASHINGTON ALUMNA—Washington, TULSA A L U M N A — T u l s a . Okla.
A N N ARBOR A L U M N A — A n n Arbor, Mich.
DALLAS ALUMNA—Dallas, Tex. FORT W A Y N E A L U M N A — F o r t Wayne,
PHILADELPHIA A L U M N A—Philadelphia,
KANSAS C I T Y ALUMNA—Kansas City. ST. LOUIS A L U M N A — S t . Louis, Mo.
KOCH ESTER ALUMNA—Rochester, N . Y .
Mo. DAYTON ALUMNA—Dayton, Ohio.
SAN D I E G O A L U M N A — S a n Diego, Calif.

<yllpha Omicron *Pi

VOL. 27 OCTOBER, 1931 NO. 1




Send all editorial material to

313 Twelfth Street,
Neenah, Wisconsin


Box 262

Masonic Bldg.
State College, Pa.

To DRAGMA is published by Alpha Omicron Pi fraternity, 450 Ahnaip Street,
Menasha, Wisconsin, and is printed by The George Banta Publishing Company.
Entered at the Post Office at Menasha, Wisconsin, as second class matter under
the Act of March 3, 1879. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage pro-
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To DRAGMA is published four times a year, October, January, March and May.
Subscription price, 50 cents per copy, $2 per year, payable in advance; L i f e

Subscription $15.




1 •

I 1«


By G . H . M., Psi i

I happened to see my shadow
As it was reflected upon the wall,
A dark and inanimate object
Lying prone, where it chanced to jail.

It mimicked me at every turn
Until the reflections oj night upon us fell.
Then unobtrusively it slipped away,
To die in a Stygian dell.

Now in my ears I hear a voice
Questioning me to know.
Are you an animate entity
Or do you, too, lo a shadow grow?

And so with us, are we shadows,
Do we always follow, where others lead
Or oj ourselves do we entities make
Joining shadow with entity, thus to sue


• r. f

HE 11I s
1 Hi

0 ctober

(^P)ack in £chool

THE red and gold days are here. The days have come when fall
casts a fleeting, but warm glance over her shoulder as she flies from
that frozen scoundrel, Winter. These misty, leaf-smoky days are
filled with hurry and scurry, for you've all come back to the campus.

We welcome you to a new year. We hope your rushing has gone well.
We know you've found the "pick of the campus" even before the chapter
letters come to tell us so. Each year you do! It's a little compliment you
pay to the pledges.

W'e hope your faith in them won't be blighted—that when Winter
has descended, and initiation candles burn, you'll find it's time to replace
each sheaf of wheat with our monogram of pearls and rubies.

So it's hello to yourselves! May this be the best year of work and
play you've had yet!


introducing the ^A(ew

Grand President

OCTOBER, 1931 5

zjtlpha 0 Qrand Officers

- Cfrom Qfar and S^ear, from ^Many

Professions They Qpme to <§erve

Their ^Beloved Cjfraternity

k D D years mean new officers, for odd years bring national conven-
tion. So we take pleasure in introducing the women who will
guide the fraternity until another odd year rolls round. Most of

the names will be familiar to you, but except for the Grand Secretary,
the Panhellenic Delegate, and your Editor, you will find the names
following different offices.

I t has been four years since we have told you much about your
officers. A new chapter personnel has replaced the one who read those
accounts, so we have asked people who would know the most about
each officer to tell you about them.

Lucile Haertel ( T ) , speaks first of Kathryn Bremer Matson, our
Grand President; Erna G. Taylor ( A ) , belongs to the same chapter
that Muriel Turner McKinney does besides having migrated to South-
ern California where she has followed Muriel's career. Every day Anne
Jeter Nichols ( K ) , works across the room in the Central Office from Edith
Huntington Anderson, our Grand Secretary, so she has given you an
intimate picture of her. Lucile Curtis English ( A ) , has called Helen M .
Haller, the Grand Treasurer, for help many a time while she was presi-
dent of Los Angeles Alumna; chapter, and Helen was City Panhellenic
president. The Grand Historian, Stella George Stern Perry, has a page
all to herself, written by one who knows and loves her better than any
of her "children," if that were possible. The Examining Officer, Knoxie
M . Faulk, has told us about Mamie Hurt Baskervill, the Extension
Officer, and Lila Cantey Thigpen ( T A ) , sings the tale of Knoxie. Just
about the time we were wondering who could tell a whole and rounded
story of Pinckey Estes Glantzberg, your Panhellenic Delegate, there
came an interview, clipped from the Charlotte Observer. What, thought
we, would be more appropriate? We were talking to Margaret Melaas
Spengler ( H ) , our port of sympathy and good advice, one day about
this issue. Says Margaret, "That's all fine. Who's going to write about
the Editor?" Says the Editor, "Oh, I don't know. I hadn't thought."

I want to do i t , " says Margaret. So there you have it.



"Go to Kathryn, thou sluggard,

Consider her ways and be wise." i

ENERGY—insatiable love of
work, characterize our new
Grand President. But those of
you who have met her will

at once object and say, " N o

—her youth, beauty, and poise

are the qualities we observe."

Wherever I have visited f
chapters and Kathryn has pre-
ceded me, the girls comment on
her beauty and add, "And she

knows so much about fraternity

work; we just can't thank her ED1TH . , -H L GRO>I ANDERSON- (B*)
enough for the help she has NTIF
given us."
Grand Secretary

And so i t is with Tau and Minneapolis Alumna? chapters for as our

active chapter president said at Convention, "She is our guardian angel."

In her junior year, Kathryn came to the University of Minnesota

from St. Benedict's College. She was initiated by Alpha O in January

and before the end of the month was elected treasurer. I n April of the

same year she was elected president. I n 1921 at the age of twenty, she

received her degree, having completed her college work in three and one-

half years. The next year she served as alumna adviser and then decided

on graduate work at the University of California. During her stay there,

she affiliated with Sigma chapter, and as
might be expected, reorganized the man-
agement of the house for greater effi-

In 1923 at the Convention in Tennes-
see she was elected Business Manager of
To DRAGMA and was re-elected to this
office in 1925. I n 1927 she was elected
Grand Treasurer and was re-elected for
this office in 1929 and, as you know, she
was chosen Grand President at our last
Convention at Troutdale.

MURIEL TURNER MCKINNEY ( A ) In every office she has held her un-
Grand Vice President usual ability for organization and effi-
ciency has added to the progress of our

Fortunately for Alpha O, Kathryn's
family has objected to her entering any
professional field; thus her tremendous
desire for activity has been directed to-

ward her fraternity. I n addition to her

OCTOBER, 1931 7

national work, she has guided
Tau's progress. A year ago while
very ill and confined to bed for
six months, she planned and di-
rected the building of the new
chapter house at Minnesota.

Inspired by the ideals of her
fraternity, she is giving unself-
ishly of her ability; her devo-
tion to our rituals, her firm
standards for character, her op-
timism, patience, and friendli-
ness will endear her to all Alpha


Grand Treasurer MCKINNEY

SA I D Muriel as we were driving home from the San Diego Alumna;
chapter installation: " I like fraternity work. I like working with col-
lege people for a common interest, and I enjoy the social contacts." Very

casual. Just a young matron killing a bit of time, wouldn't you think?

Yes, but . . .

Muriel was just as casual as an undergraduate when she successfully
managed the Lambda dormitory and twenty or more turbulent boarders,
when she held house offices, when she exhaustively surveyed the Stanford
material for Alpha 0 husbands before she chose Verne McKinney—
a good choice, say we—when she departed college with her Phi Beta
Kappa key. (She was a math major, at Stanford, too.)

Then there was a year of teaching
in Oregon, a war wedding and two more
teaching years before Verne came home
from overseas and was demobilized.
Their first home was established in San
Francisco and Muriel was elected presi-
dent of the alumna? chapter. A repu-
tation for getting things done preceded
her to Los Angeles, where she soon
moved and promptly was chosen presi-
dent of that alumna; group. During her
presidency introduction of a four-year
course at U.C.L.A. pended, and seven
groups sought to petition Alpha Omicron
Pi- Muriel was chairman of the com-
mittee which after much labor chose to
sponsor Kappa Theta.

Her manner is casual. But because

K w J ^ t ™? P "3 t e n l
e r a t U r e a n d eX KNOXIE M . FAULK <TA)

"iDit a disheveled head, don't forget she Examining Officer


is among the busiest of the energetic Los
Angeles Alumna; group, she is always ac-
tively assisting Kappa Theta, was large-
ly responsible for financing and planning
Kappa Theta's lovely chapter house—
all this in addition to national office, i.e.,
two years as Alumna; District Superin-
tendent, four years as Examining Officer.
A count of the postage stamps she uses
or her telephone calls might make you
think Muriel a busy person. But, good-
ness, it looks awfully easy—the way
Muriel does it!

Editor of T o D R A G M A WISH that television were so perfect-
ed that writing about people had be-
MAMIE HCRT BASKERVILL come passe. Then you all could see
Edith Anderson as Alice Cullnane and I
Extension Officer do here in State College.

PlNCKNEY ESTES First you would find her at home
GLANTZBERG hurrying to get Barbaras shoestrings
tied and books collected for school, or spell-
National Panhellenic ing a word for Mary Eldrid who is printing a
Delegate note to Aunt Bess Wyman in long, wavery,
top-heavy letters, or soothing little Ann's
bumps, by-products of perilous adventures up-
stairs—and perhaps too swiftly down. Or else

she would be deftly
mixing ice-box cook-
ies or baking a cake
in preparation for
guests for dinner.
Dr. Anderson is a
professor in Biologi-
cal Chemistry at
Penn State, and
hence Edith, as the
wife of a member of
the faculty, finds
much entertaining
on her program.

But I am just
beginning to tell you
of her accomplish-
ments. I f you looked
in at the Central
Office, you would

OCTOBER, 1931 9

probably find her typing with the swiftness of the subway express in its
best moments; nor would you wonder that her accuracy and speed were
so in demand in 1918 that she was prevailed upon to leave Indiana for
a year and go to Washington, D.C., as secretary to Mr. Pettyjohn, di-
rector of the Committee on Public Information. You would see her desk
piled startlingly high with letters to Founders and fellow Executive
"Boarders," active chapters and alumna; chapters. You would be pleased
to note how seriously she takes fraternity problems and at the same time
how joyously rampant her sense of humor can be. Her ability to cope
with active chapter problems comes largely from an abundance of AOI1
experience. Edith was president of Beta Phi at Indiana in 1921, and
from there went straight to the University of Minnesota where she was
secretary to the Assistant to the President. Here, of course, she was
closely identified with Tau. After her marriage to Dr. Anderson she
moved to State College and immediately became interested in the fra-
ternity situation on the Penn State campus. In fact, it was not so long
before she had an AOIT namesake here—Epsilon Alpha chapter, which,
as you see, has the Greek letters for Edith's initials. She is also outstand-
ing in the fraternity life at State College and is adviser to the local Pan-
hellenic Council.

Her AOII activities have been so many—as one of the organizers of
the Washington Alumna; chapter, as Extension Officer, as Grand Secre-
tary—I can't discuss them all. I can say that Edith Anderson is doing
much to keep Alpha Omicron Pi a fraternity to which we are glad to


OMEGA'S Helen, Los Angeles Alumna; chapter's Helen, AOn's Helen
says of herself, "Outside of being in the flood of 1913 and being in
debt or broke all the time, there is nothing exciting in my life. I have
never been really in love, and have no husband or child to brag about,
so I know you're going to have a hard time writing about me!" I didn't
find it so when I came to write about her.

Beginning with the unusual distinction of the first student to gradu-
ate from a night high school in Dayton, Ohio, she continued to pile up
definite distinctions to her credit. She had time to earn her way through
Miami University, to participate in the highest offices of sorority and

Since leaving college her interest in her fraternity has never lagged.
She has been alumna adviser for Omega chapter; secretary, president
and treasurer of Los Angeles Alumnce chapter; all the offices including
the presidency of Los Angeles' City Panhellenic. She has given statistical
help to Kappa Theta chapter; she has done work on national com-
mittees and was District Alumna; Superintendent of the Pacific District
for the past two years.

Aside from these outside activities, professionally, she held the secre-
taryship to the Secretary of the Board of Trustees of Miami University
for six years. For the past seven years she has been cashier and statisti-
cal secretary for the University of Southern California.


What more can we ask in experience from a newly elected Grand
Treasurer? We have one schooled in the use of money from childhood.


MA M I E Baskervill's activity has not been confined entirely to work
in Alpha Omicron Pi. She is always " i n the midst of things," as
is shown by her very excellent work in A.A.U.W. and P.T.A., as well as
in AOI1. Truly, Mamie is a born leader!

In 1906, Mamie was initiated into Kappa chapter. Even in college,
her unusual leadership was recognized, for, during her senior year, she
served as president of the student body of Randolph-Macon and of her
chapter. During the Christmas holidays of 1908, she represented her
chapter at convention in New York City.

In January, 1911, Mamie Hurt became Mrs. George Baskervill. Dur-
ing the next few years, she devoted most of her time to her husband and
family. (She has two children, a son and a daughter, Margaret, now an
Alpha O at Randolph-Macon.) However, she did manage to find time
to be twice president of the Birmingham branch of A.A.U.W. and presi-
dent of the South Highland P.T.A.

In 1924, Mamie became very actively interested in establishing a
chapter of Alpha 0 at Birmingham-Southern. This child, Tau Delta,
adores its mother. She served as alumna adviser until appointed South-
ern District Superintendent in 1927, and her AOIT family was increased
to six chapters. During her four years as superintendent, two more
chapters have come into her fold. One can truthfully say that Mamie has
been a wonderful mother to her chapters, and it is with regret that they
give her up! Of course, they are thrilled over her new National Office,
but they will miss her regular visits and valuable advice! Mamie, in her
love and service, has given increased richness to the fraternity.


' I 'HIS is the story of Knoxie—formally, Knoxie Mae Faulk, teacher
JL of French in a Birmingham high school—but as one can in no way
associate the term "formality" with her, she is known by all merely as
Knoxie, the versatile, the good sport, and better pal.

Knoxie began her official career in things fraternal in 1925, her
senior year at Birmingham-Southern College, that memorable year when
we became a part of Alpha Omicron Pi. Nobody knows better the real
labor and anxiety of such an undertaking than Knoxie, who as cor-
responding secretary of the chapter wrote and answered letters galore.

Proving again the theory that "you can't keep a good man down,"
Knoxie displayed her leadership immediately upon her initiation into
the alumnae group. As its vice president in 1926-27 and as president
the following year she led the movement which culminated in our in-
stalling equipment in a children's Medical Clinic and drinking foun-
tains in a Children's Fresh Air Camp here.

Then came the Seattle Convention in 1927 when Knoxie really

OCTOBER, 1931 11

stepped into national limelight, and she modestly attributes it all to an
infected foot. People have various ways of obtaining front page publicity,
but we are convinced that hers is the best ever. Enroute to convention
Knoxie's foot developed a serious infection and she soon found herself the
center of attraction on the convention-bound special. Her affliction to-
gether with her warm personality and soft southern drawl won a place
for our sister among other girls, and when the Convention election was
held "the girl with the sore foot" was appointed on the Examining Com-
mittee to represent the Southern District.

This position she held for four years, being reappointed at the
Cornell convention. So we are not surprised at all when Knoxie recently
returned from Troutdale-in-the-Pines bearing the important title, Ex-
amining Officer. But never think we are relinquishing her entirely to
National work. She serves Birmingham Alumna? chapter as a Panhellenic
Delegate, and as secretary of the City Panhellenic for this year, she will
continue to court fame for herself and for Alpha Omicron Pi.


NO ONE can deny that the brain taken as a whole is formed on the
same general plan in the female as in the male," says Professor
Papez, curator of the Wilder brain collection, Cornell University, who
has examined the brains of more than a half-hundred noted men and
women, and it is his conclusion that there is nothing to show that the
brain of woman need be inferior to that of a man of equal rank. He
makes interesting observation on the question of sex differences.

But, if you had been told that at 110 William Street, New York City,
there is a successful woman lawyer, a leader in Tammany Hall, a match
for any man's wits, you would probably find your curiosity so aroused
that you would go down there and look at that forbidding glass door
with its dignified announcement—"Pinckney Estes Glantzberg, Attorney
and Counsellor at Law." And if you were a timid reporter, you would
just look and then scud away and write and ask if you might come
to see her at 460 Riverside Drive, which sounds just as top-lofty but
not quite so awesome! Then all the time between inviting yourself to
her home, and going there, you go around saying over and over, "a
successful woman lawyer; a politician; a feminist; a self-made egoist"
—and you get more and more timid about the visit.

Then you ring her doorbell shaking in your shoes! A perfectly cor-
rect maid admits you and all at once you have been introduced to a
group of charming people; you have been offered refreshments in the
cheerful manner of southern hospitality: you have made mental note that
the lady herself is small and vivid and speaks without any distinguish-
mg accent; and about then you realize that the conversation has turned
to cooking eels! This is the method, according to Pinckney Estes Glantz-

?; yA t t o m e and Counsellor at Law:

"First you catch them. I t isn't difficult. I caught one, once. I t was
an accident. I am not a very keen fisherman. I can't bait the hook with
a wiggling worm, you know. Do you know that every eel in every mud-


hole in the United States comes from some place in the Atlantic Ocean
— I have forgotten where. We catch them up in Maine, where we go,
summers. Anyhow, you catch the eel and put ashes on its tail, that's so
you can skin i t , then you clean it all nice—I never did clean an eel—
and then you boil it. The eel is rich in gelatin, and after it is boiled
the liquid is like calf's foot jelly. Then you flake the eel and season it
and set it away to jellify. I t is very delicious. M y husband is Swedish
and he loves jellied eel."

Mrs. Glantzberg's mother used to cook eels, too, but that was at the
little farm house at Chester, South Carolina, and she likely boiled the
fish, which is the southern manner of preparing it.

I t is difficult to select phrases which will in any way give a clue
to the joyous personality of this woman—self-made, successful, prom-
inent both socially and politically in Xew York and much beloved where-
ever she is. There is such room for conjecture between the stately name
and the charming femininity; the distance between the dignified office
of 110 William Street and the luxurious apartment on Riverside Drive
is much greater than the actual length of Manhattan; a great space
separates the Pinckney Glantzberg of the dignified Counsellor at Law
office and "Pinckney-Lee Estes," charming and petite as the name.
She is full of contradictions and surprises and it is useless to try to
define her.

"Well, you see, I was named before I was born," she explains, " I was
to be a boy, so I was given all the old family names of my father's
family. Then when my mother timidly said she would have to rename me.
my Aunt Polly was most explosive. I t was bad luck to rename a child
that had been named before it was born; anyhow, the resourceful Polly
said I could be called 'Pinckney-Lee.' That's how I came to have a name
that fits so well with my profession."

So Pinckney-Lee Estes began to be unusual at the very start. She
has followed stars all her life. Having reached a place that most folks
call "arrived" she announces, " I hope to be a judge, so I have no time
to relax."

" I am a rank feminist," she declares, but with a twinkle in her eye?
she adds, "how I love the attentions I receive because I am a woman!"

She began a declamation of her interest in politics and law and clubs,
but before she had made such headway she leaned forward in her chair,
interrupting herself to say impressively, " I am a good housekeeper."
She called in Serena, the colored maid, to vouch for the statement. "You
see, Serena, I am being written up for the paper; don't you think I might
prove I am a good housekeeper by my linen closet? Is it in order to show
visitors? Well, but Serena, there is an ink spot right here on this floor
that ought not to be there when visitors come—" there is a deal of
understanding between this maid and her mistress. The linen closet, re-
plete to satisfy any housewife, was exhibited. Its neat, well-stocked
shelves seem quite as important to Pinckney Estes Glantzberg as the
plain lettering on the door at 110 William Street where she works at
being a feminist.

Besides attending to her own law practice, Mrs. Glantzberg holds

OCTOBER, 1931 13

the position of trial counsel of the liquidation bureau of the New York
State Department of Insurance. At the recent session of the supreme
court, Mrs. Glantzberg appeared in Albany to plead 66 cases. " I f you
are a woman, you work at whatever job you have!" she announces em-
phatically. " I n the four months just past, I have examined over 800 cases
for one insurance company alone. I t is quite true that it is hard for
women to get themselves established as lawyers, but it is not true that
men have not tried to be fair and give our set a chance. Mostly our
failure to make good in any field of profession or business is because
we are not willing to make the sacrifices necessary. I do think we have
to work harder than men do to hold any little foothold we acquire—•
you remember I said I was a rank feminist. But in the courts I am
given the same courtesy that is given to men lawyers."

"Oh yes, I belong to a great many things," the little lady replied
with a naive sigh, as she counts on her fingers—there is something of
the Alice in Wonderland about it a l l — " I belong to the Presbyterian
Church, I am on the speakers board of Tammany, I work in the Busi-
ness and Professional Woman Club, the National Women's Party, the
American Association of University Women. I am Panhellenic Delegate
for my sorority, Alpha Omicron Pi. Oh, yes, of course I am a demo-
crat—didn't I come from the south and haven't I been born and reared
a democrat?"

Mrs. Glantzberg passes quickly over the story of her childhood. I t
was not happy. "One word obliterates all that might have made my
childhood happy—poverty." But as she relates stories of the long
tramp to the country school, of the friends of her childhood who are still
close in her affections, her life on the farm at Chester, we gather that even
"Pinckney-Lee" had the same effervescent sense of humor, the same will
to overcome that have characterized her grown-up life. I f she was not
n a P P v > none knew i t ; she laughed and marched with banners blowing!

The family names that she drops now and then give one the back-
ground for this forging-ahead spirit which is so dominant in her make-
up, as well as they supply the origin of the sturdy pride and keen intel-
lect she possesses. "Colonel Rueben Estes was on the staff of General
George Washington." "As a Carolinian, I am proud to claim Elizabeth
McNulty as my grandmother on my father's side." " M y mother de-
scended from the Yarboroughs, of English ancestry, who came down from

Self-made women, women in public life, or even college women were
frowned upon in Carolina when Pinckney Estes decided to go to college.
She went. " M y greatest asset is the fact that I am a southerner," she
says, and, with tears dimming her bright eyes, she adds, "my greatest
blessing had been the fact that I spent four years at Due West as a
student at Erskine College." Those were happy years in a home of re-

nement m ^ peace, with books, with people who were beyond her
wildest dream of culture and education. She was one of three women at
the college and the second woman ever to receive a degree from Erskine

When the father died, the Estes family of mother and six children


found themselves with $85 cash and a rundown farm. Something must
be done. And "doing things" being her specialty, Pinckney-Lee with
the help of a younger brother, who was earning the munificent sum of
$5 a week, took up the burden of the family. She taught country school
and during the summer worked in a printing office. Later came a job
in a law office, and then in a college office. Ten years of "getting no-
where," she says impatiently. But what could one do?

She had no social life; no time for it. She had been brought up
a strict Associate Reformed Presbyterian and her church was very
dear to her. Service on Sabbath and the midweek prayer meeting made
up her life outside her work. " I couldn't go on like that. Then I decided
to be a lawyer. That meant more straining, more running against the
current, more opposition, more struggle for money!"

One realizes that this valiant southern girl had a habit of thriving
on opposition. Women were not allowed to practice law in South Caro-
lina, women were not admitted to most of the law schools of the country,
and she had but $350 to start her law course. But Doctor Mikell,
Dean of the University of Pennsylvania, was from South Carolina, and
he was interested in this girl with the gay courage. He lent her the
first money she borrowed for her education.

"Of course the lack of money was the least of my worries. I did not
realize how pitiable a sum my savings of ten years were. I recall how
surprised and shocked I was when I went into the First National Bank
in Philadelphia and offered to deposit my $350. They politely told me
it was a rule not to accept less than $1,000. I t looked like so much
money to me, and I thought they ought to be glad to get $350!

" I worked my way through law school. The first year I lived on 65
cents a day. Most of the time I worked at the welfare bureau, making
reports, visiting poor little unmarried mothers—I hated the dreary
round, but it paid me about $70 a month."

There were only two women in the Pennsylvania University Law
School that first year and Pinckney Estes felt very small and timid.
But when she passed her first exams with a good average she began to
feel less afraid of the brilliance of her male classmates.

Due West people were shocked when once at a dinner party "Pinck-
ney-Lee" announced that she got her husband by advertising! Then
came the story of romance which began when the young law student,
tiring of the work at the welfare bureau, took to reading the want ads.
She answered twelve ads and finally went to work for Ernst Glantzberg,
well known manufacturer and mechanical engineer, as his secretary. She
had her education to finance, her own living to make and the family at
home needed some help. The job not only proved satisfactory and
lasted through her college years, but the employer too, was satisfactory
and six days before she was graduated she married him.

" I wore my cap and gown—I simply could not afford wedding
clothes," she says it a bit wistfully, but immediately launches into a gay
account of the wedding, which was as sparkling as any wedding. All the
men of her class at law school came to the wedding, for not only had
the dainty southern girl made good but she was popular and had en-


joyed three years of the happy times which a college girl always re-
members with sparkling eyes.

Her wedding gift from the bridegroom was "Gran Liden," the Maine
summer home, where each year they spend another honeymoon together.
The name is Swedish for Pine Cove. The place has all the charm possible
in a Maine paradise—the ten room house is filled all summer with gay,
brilliant guests, for Mrs. Glantzberg never forgets her southern hospital-
ity and her husband has often had the pleasure of bringing to this de-
lightful place honored and noble guests from his own country. Mrs.
Glantzberg closes her eyes and dreams aloud of the pines, the lake,
the big open fire in the friendly living room—"I love it up in Maine
and the people up there love me. I could be elected coroner or select-
man if I wished!" she boasts so quaintly.

" I am a naturalized Swede," is one of her astonishing announcements.
"The Cable Act which gives women separate and independent citizen-
ship was not passed until 1922 and I was married in 1921. So I had to
be naturalized. And this fact of my citizenship counted against me when
I took examinations for my present job. Amusing, isn't it?

"Immediately after my marriage and the honeymoon spent at the old
Waldorf, there was my graduation and then the bar exams. I t was very
hard then, even harder than now, for a woman lawyer to get a start.
I t is hard for a man, too. There has to be the long trying-out tune when
waiting for clients becomes maddening. So I took the civil service ex-
aminations for Assistant Corporation Counsel. I passed as third on the
Est As I said, the fact that I was a naturalized citizen put me down a
point. Anyhow, before I could take the job I heard of this position
which I now hold as trial counsel. I was endorsed by George L . Donnel-
lan, now supreme court judge. I love my job!"

One gets accustomed in a short time to Mrs. Glantzberg's enthusiasm
over everything she does. I f there is any arduous, uninteresting, dis-
appointing work, she seems never to have found it.

"No, indeed, I am not handicapped by being a woman in my posi-
tion. M y chief treats me in exactly the same manner he treats the other
lawyers—and he demands the same quality of work as he does from the
others. I consider this my greatest piece of good luck. I t results in my
being given full credit for every piece of work I do well. He is generous
and fair in his treatment—he is a southern gentleman."


IT IS just impossible! Imagine anyone attempting to tell you about
Wilma in 250 words! But that is the task before me and because
she is the very one who said only 250 words, I can tell you only a few
of her achievements. About two years ago she came to our twin cities
of Neenah and Menasha and when I tell you in that short time she has
become a member of the local Y.W.C.A. Board, secretary of the Parents
and Teachers Association of the Winnebago Day School, a teacher in
the Episcopal Church School, and a member of the local Federated
Woman's Club you can readily see what a full life she leads. I t ought

(Continued on page 64)

16 To



—from Our Grand President

T H K time for the opening of the colleges and universities which is also
-i- the beginning of a new administration for the fraternity has arrived again.
This year we are in the midst of a world-wide financial depression which is
being felt keenly in our universities. Many students cannot return to school
at all; many others come with only the barest necessities. The general situation
is sure to be reflected in the fraternities, and our chapters of Alpha Omicron
Pi everywhere will be called upon to exercise the keenest judgment, the most
balanced common sense they can muster. The chapters must not permit them-
selves to become involved financially. If they experience any difficulties, they
must bring them early to the Executive Committee. We are yours to serve;
we have your accomplishments and problems constantly on our minds. We
can be of service to you if you do not allow the situation to become grave
before calling it to our attention.

The national organization and many of our chapters are in splendid con-
dition, financial and otherwise. There arc some not so optimistic, but those
we can help if apprised of conditions NOW. W e all appreciate the fine work
and the splendid cooperation of the chapters in the face of difficulties, and
you may be assured always of our unlimited support and loyal help in any
difficulty you may experience. The fraternity stands ready now to help you
through this crisis and any others which may arise. Your Executive Com-
mittee is always at your service.

More than ever at this time we need to call to mind frequently the
purpose of our organization and the ideals for which we all are striving. We
expect harmonious chapters, ready to give and not always to get. We want
to help not only our own but to be ready to aid others less fortunate than
ourselves at this time. We can do that if we all cooperate, keeping in mind
our high aims.

The alumme need to realize anew the privilege it is to be a part of
Alpha Omicron Pi and to be ready to give of themselves at least in some
small service to the fraternity and through it to the world. The convention
just past has given us this opportunity through the new national philan-
thropic work adopted. We can make this undertaking a mere financial success;
or we can make our influence felt around the world, according to the zeal
and spirit which we put into the effort. To accomplish our purpose, we need
the prayer which I know is always on the hearts of the Executive Com-
mittee :

"From compromise and things half done— pride;
Keep me, O Lord, with stern, yet humble

And when, each day, the goal is won,
Lord, keep me still unsatisfied."

OCTOBER, 1931 17

I Selected
Historian since the found-
Historian for Life ing of Alpha Omicron Pi
was elected to that office
By E L I Z A B E T H H E Y W O O D W Y M A N , Alpha for life. Elisabeth H. Wy-
man ( A ) , will act as her
A T EVERY convention since the office of
/ A Grand Historian was created, Stella Perry assistant for life.

has been unanimously elected. This year,
to the satisfaction of everyone, the election was
made for life.

We need not seek far to find the reasons.
In addition to being a Founder, she has never
for one year lost touch with the fraternity and
its members. To her we owe the first chapter
which established us as a national fraternity, Pi,
in her native New Orleans. Xo chapter has been
proposed since then without arousing her keen
interest. While caution was essential she was
insistent upon slow growth and meticulous care
in accepting petitioners, lest ambition for num-
bers should endanger the fraternity's solidarity
or ideals. Now that all

fraternities are expand-
ing more rapidly with
their tightening organi-
zation, she believes the
same ideals may be
maintained. I n other
words, conditions may
change, b u t Stellars
faith in the chapters
a n d aspirations f o r
them never waver.
# Moreover Stella's
interest is highly per-
sonal. She rarely, if
ever, forgets a member
whom she has known
even slightly. T h i s
characteristic is more
than a social grace. I t
grows out of her honest


concern for each one as an individual. No tinge of the perfunctory en-

ters into her attitude toward her "children." I n any conversation with

her one is sure to hear this sort of interpolation: "Oh! you remember

Martha Blank! I've just heard—" and then follows an account of a let-

ter received, news of a child born or some other bit of life history, glad

or sad. Probably no one in the fraternity receives any considerable frac-

tion of the purely personal letters or items that come to Stella from those

who have known and loved her. f

Add to these qualifications an exacting literary conscience and you

who have not met Stella will realize why she is now our permanent

historian. I n preparation for her historical novel, "The Defenders," she

spent two years of constant research before she was willing to present

it to the public, though scene, history, and traditions had been familiar

from childhood. Whenever possible she has checked descriptive details

in her other books by a last minute visit to the scenes of their setting

to reinforce a memory that is unusually retentive and exact. The same

conscientiousness has made her unwilling to publish a history of Alpha

Omicron Pi until every chapter is assured of its due proportion of space

and credit. Charter members must all be presented, early experiences

recorded, illustrations found adequate and well balanced before the

artist, enthusiast and lover of truth in Stella can be satisfied.

And now the conclusion. Will you not help make this history what

it may be under the hands of your Grand Historian? I t is a labor of

love on her part, undertaken in spite of full days and exacting duties,

because she must know that no one else can do it so well. I t cannot be

finished until those of you from whom she is still seeking information or

photographic material are equally devoted.

t^f Word Cfrom The Qreeks

T H E Magazine of Sigma Chi celebrated its fiftieth anniversary of
continuous publication on June 6 at a banquet given to the fraternity and
sorority editors of the midwestern region. Nearly 40 were in attendance,
including your editor and her husband, Leland F. Leland, who presided
in his capacity as president of the College Fraternity Editors Association.
The golden anniversary edition of the Magazine was an unusually large
one and included 32 pages of colorful rotogravure and a four-color
cover showing the exterior of the proposed half million dollar Sigma Chi

I T HAS BEEN interesting to us to note that of the nine men who are
more or less prominently mentioned for the United States Presidency,
eight are members of college fraternities. The ninth and non-member is
the present incumbent, Herbert Hoover, whom the other eight, with
fraternity affiliations as follows, will try hard to dislodge: Newton D .
Baker, $ r A ; Owen D . Young, B Q I I ; Franklin D . Roosevelt, AA4>; Gov-
ernor Richey, A $ ; Dwight W. Morrow, B 0 I I ; William Borah, B O I I ;
Calvin Coolidge, QTA; and Gifford Pinchot, * Y .

a k e the <^4 i r

By A L I C E C O U L T E R . Chi

did the •"superior officer" raise his
eyebrows a fraction of an inch this morning when you walked
into the office?
"Well, what if he d i d ! " is your snappy comeback.
And you add—"Haven't I been working night and day, Sundays
and holidays—let him perk his eyebrows, what's five minutes to the
hours I've slaved."
Brother, you need a vacation and here's a tip—"take the air." You
won't need an adding machine to total up those five minutes a day
into a two weeks' vacation.
Here are some of my impressions of a trip taken last March when
-edded to "take the air." On the seventh (Saturday) to be exact, with
a suit case packed with summer clothes, I left the office—Norwich, New


York—at noon to keep a dinner date in Los Angeles Monday night.
As I make the same speed by going to Indianapolis by train and also
save a few dollars, I arrived there 7:00 A.M. Sunday morning in a bliz-
zard, to learn my first lesson about air travel. No authority can make
a pilot take out a plane when he does not consider conditions safe. They
may order him to stop or to stay; never to go. No pilot would take off
in a snow storm—so the traffic manager met me at the railroad station
and exchanged my air ticket for a first class rail ticket to Tulsa, Okla-
homa, assuring me that I would still be able to keep my dinner date in
Los Angeles Monday night. I was keenly disappointed in not being able
to fly all day Sunday as I had anticipated—but Monday morning I
was in Tulsa. The sun was shining and a gloriously warm spring-like
air as exhilarating as a cocktail welcomed me to Tulsa. At nine o'clock
I was out at the airport and the big tri-motored Ford was warming up
for the take-off.

We taxied the length of the field and the pilot tested the three motors
—turned and sped back at about 90 miles an hour. Two years ago I
flew from Paris to London, but again I experienced the same thrill as
I watched the wheel under me leave the ground and stop. It's the only
way you have of knowing that you have left the ground. I n the air at
last—and troubles leave you.

In two hours we were down at Oklahoma City and ten minutes later
in the air again bound for Amarillo, Texas. We encountered strong head
winds and the pilots found by flying at about 2,000 feet we could make
better time and so it was from the air I saw my first herd of cattle
being rounded up by real cowboys—a sight any easterner enjoys.

It's at Amarillo where most of the helium gas is secured for use in
"lighter than air" ships. The English Field at Amarillo is the largest air
field in the United States, planes come in and take off for all points.
We were late in arriving there but the Kansas City plane was late also.
Soon a siren blew—a signal to clear the field—and in a few seconds the
big Fokker plane appeared in the sky.

Everything about air travel is quick. When the signal is given " A l l

Our Fokker plane refuels at Amarillo, Texas.

We land at
Kingman, AArni-
sona, and tvalk
under cover to

the Airport.

1- *

Aboard!" they mean right now. I am sure that the twelve passengers
who boarded that big Fokker ship that day have the same deep feeling
of regret as I do because of the death of Pilot Fry, who three weeks
later was killed in the Rockne plane. He taxied the big plane down the
field and around into the wind, tested the three motors, and hardly
before I knew it we were up above the field, and the crowd that had
gathered to see us take-off were waving as we flew over the airport.

West of Amarillo I noticed the flat farming country of Texas, the
fields are very regular in design, squares, triangles and hexagons—not
at all unlike an old-fashioned bed quilt with brown the predominating

As we pass over Tucumcari the ground begins to be more broken—
below is nothing but vast red plains and scattered buttes and hills.
No towns are visible and very few ranches. The elevation is steadily
rising and we are soon high above the Sandia Mountains. We pass
directly over Sandia Peak, which is 10,609 feet high. I was able to get
a very good picture as we passed over this peak flying 12,000 feet. We
next pass through the Tijeras Canyon and I soon see the famous star-
shaped runways cleared on the floor of the desert for the Albuquerque
airport. WTe refuel and stretch for ten minutes.

Again on our way and to the south of us lies the Enchanted Mesa
and a little farther on to the north the Painted Desert with its bands
of pink, yellow and gray stretching away to the purple dusk.

Extinct volcanic craters and lava beds now appear on the left. I
wished that I knew more about geology and less about advertising, for
I felt that I was missing a wonderful opportunity to study the processes
of eruption which was spread out before me on such a grand scale.

We are nearing Winslow, Arizona, and the co-pilot let the passengers
one at a time listen in on the radio conversation between the pilot of our
plane and the Winslow airport. The plane was in constant communica-
tion with the airport it had just left and the one it was approaching.

At Winslow the plane stopped for refueling and supper-lunch was
taken on. We changed pilots here. They are all young men, with a


steady look that seems fixed on distant horizons. They have an ex-
pression of dependability and courage, clear and responsible. One way
to cure a fear of flying I think is to see the pilots.

Leaving VVinslow we follow the Little Colorado River and were soon
passing over Meteor Crater which our Air Log told us is 4,000 feet in
diameter and 600 feet in depth. The co-pilot then served the box sup-
per, with hot consomme, and many little fixings I never dreamed were
possible in the air. One feels quite nonchalant calmly consuming supper
and drinking coffee in a plane rushing along through the twilight at over
a hundred miles an hour. I t was quite dark below but we could still see
the red ball of the sun going down. As we neared Kingman, Arizona, I
could see the flood lights of the airport. We circled the airport, so that
the pilot could see the wind indicators, and the two side motors were
cut—we were sinking very quickly to the earth again . . . a perfect
night landing and we taxied up to the airport, where a number of people
had driven out from the tiny town of Kingman to see us come in.

At Kingman we found we were two and one-half hours behind
schedule and the hardest part of our trip was still to be taken—over the
San Bernardino Mountains in California. I t was very dark as we left
Kingman, we gained altitude at once—the lights in the cabin were turned
off, and the blackness of the mountains was intensified by the beacons
and the white hot exhaust flames from the side motors which barely out-
lined the forests below us. Although we were flying at an altitude of
about 10,000 feet the stars seemed as far away as they did on the
ground. I felt as though I were living the words of H . G. Wells: "Man
will stand upon the earth as on a footstool and will laugh and stretch out
his hands among the stars."

As we crossed the mountains, suddenly miles below us appeared an
ocean of colored lights—the city of San Bernardino. On the roads lead-
ing into the city, lights on the motor cars seemed to flit back and forth
like so many fireflies on a summer evening. Los Angeles was but a short
distance away—the wing search lights were turned on and we glided
down to the airport. I stepped down, digging the cotton from my ears,
blowing my nose, a bit bewildered but with a sense of superiority to
the earth-bound friends who had come to meet me. Across the continent
I had left behind advertising schedules, closing dates and galley proofs
—and eleven glorious California days were ahead of me before I should
again "take the air."

Our Tri-motor-
ed Ford takes
off at Tulsa,
Oklahoma, Cuts
courtesy of
Norwich Phar-
macol Com-

OCTOBER, 1931 23
3 t 'Was a Qreat (Convention

Long red busses took us via Lookout Mountain to

By W I L M A S M I T H L E L A N D , Tau

I T T IS said that a proper
setting and a receptive
audience will inspire an

artist to magnificence. I t may
have been the pine clad,
rock-walled mountain bowl
into which the 1931 conven-
tion headquarters had been
placed; it might have been
the eager, enthusiastic audi-
ence of delegates; or i t might
have been the kindly, world-
wise Founder who presided
as Grand President and who
so deftly untangled all parlia-
mentary muddles — that
made this Convention one to
be long remembered. I t was
an inspired and inspiring con-
ference that led to the es-
tablishing of a national phil-
anthropic work, that added a


Against a stage-like drop of lak

new fellowship to our others, that elected our Grand Historian for life,
that decided to try a state alumna; organization plan, that added the
Grand Vice President to the Executive Committee. Oh, yes, there's more
than all that, to be sure, but we're getting ahead of ourselves.

We wish every one of you could have joined the one hundred and
forty-eight Alpha O's who traveled by motor, train and plane to Trout-
dale-in-the Pines, Colorado, on June 21. We hope lots of you followed
us day by day through the AO Pizette which was so ably edited by Mary
Virginia Wells ( X A ) , and her overworked staff. We wish you could have
gone with us on the special train across hot Nebraska plains to board
big sightseeing busses for the trip via Lookout Mountain to Troutdale.
We wish you might have been at the lovely tea on Sunday afternoon
given by Omaha Alumnae chapter to welcome visitors and delegates.
In fact we wish you might have come to all the social affairs even though
you couldn't attend business meetings. For the swimming party on
Monday at noon, with its races and gay beach pajamas, hostess night
with a cabaret party in the dining room, luncheon for the new initiates
on Tuesday, Stunt Night with all its hilarity, a barbecue lunch in the
mountains and a dance on Wednesday, our Panhellenic luncheon with
Dr. Frederick M . Hunter, our guest speaker, on Thursday and the for-
mal banquet on Friday, were all perfect examples of how good hostesses

The spirit of the Convention was very well reflected in Elizabeth
Heywood Wyman's greeting which opened convention business on Mon-
day morning.

"What can I say to you in welcome that has not already been said

OCTOBER, 1931 25

>.. - I K 93)

*4 •

ft 1

* photographer took our picture.

by our cordial hostesses, by the mountain air, the wild flowers and
these towering hills?

"Perhaps only this, that we who are officers and have tried to guide
the destinies of Alpha Omicron Pi wisely the past two years, greet you
not only as friends from the past, as potential friends, but as bearers
of encouragement and strength from hundreds whom you represent.
Your presence inspires us to greater zeal for the accomplishment of our
mutual hopes for Alpha Omicron Pi.

"May these lofty altitudes generate lofty thoughts that we may
carry back to our chapters and offices a rich harvest of worthy aspira-

Margaret Moore Gorton (Z), who with the assistance of capable
committees and Carrie Marshall Klein (Z), as chairman of Agenda,
managed this most successful convention at a distance of some five
hundred miles, welcomed the delegates. There were telegrams from our
two absent Founders, Jessie Wallace Hughan and Helen St. Clair Mullan.
Mrs. Mullan's greeting came from enroute to Denver, for she arrived
later in the week. There were greetings from ZTA, from IIB$, KKT, $ M ,
XO, A$B, $A, AAIT, and XX; flowers from the Denver Alumna; chapter
of Heta Sigma Omicron and Fay Morgan (O); wires from Mary Neal
Mclllveen (B$), Josephine Pratt ( A ) , Pinckney Estes Glantzberg ( * ) ,
Roselyn Beal (B$), Nell Fain Lawrence (NO), Joanna Donlon Hunt-
mgton (E), Rose Gardner Marx (X), and Elizabeth Frazier (NO).

And now we can give you only the high lights of the business that
occupied the mornings and afternoons from Monday to Friday. The
Grand Vice President's name was added to the Executive Committee,


making the number of that committee four. During the next two years
alumna? work will have particular stress. State chairmen have been
appointed to organize or at least form contacts with alumna? in her
states. I t is desirable that where there are no city alumnae chapters,
some organization be effected. This will be the duty of the state chair-
men. I f you are isolated, you may expect a letter from her soon. I t is
the hope of every Alpha 0 who is interested in keeping ours a "fra-
ternity for life" that each of you cooperate and respond.

You will read elsewhere of the, newly chosen philanthropy, so we
won't dwell upon that now. A dollar from each of you will help a great
deal. Marion Abele Franco-Ferreira (P), is chairman of the social
service committee with Vera Riebel (P), and Mary Danielson Drum-
mond (A«r>), members. Marion and Mary Dee visited the scenes of
our endeavors and have told you about them.

In the Grand Treasurer's report, Kathryn Bremer Matson recom-
mended that our jewelry royalties be used for other than operating ex-
penses, and so there was created a Fellowship of $1,000 for members
of Alpha Omicron Pi, to be known as the Fellowship in memory of
Lillian MacQuillin McCausland (B). I t will be given bi-annually. This
makes the third fellowship of $1,000 which we offer: the Alpha Omi-
cron Pi Fellowship for non-members and the Fellowship in memory
of Ruth Capen Farmer for members.

Each member of the Executive Committee emphasized the import-
ance of a more rapid expansion policy, Miss Wyman saying that closer
vigilance, not fewer chapters, was the desire of those who had worked
for the fraternity for so many years. I t was decided that the Registrar
should spend time with any chapters who needed particular help. From
her investigations regarding traveling secretaries, Edith Anderson con-
cluded that at present she felt we would be wise to follow this other

Dues for associate members have been lowered to $1.50. This sum
does not include the annual subscription price of To DRAGMA which is
$2, and any member who desires the magazine should send her sub-
scription to the Central Office at once. I t was hoped that by lowering
the dues, more girls would feel bound to become associate members in
good standing. I t is hoped that by eliminating a compulsory annual
subscription price from the dues that just as many girls will subscribe
as before. Now is a good time to become a Life Subscriber and forget
about annual subscriptions.

Rollins College has been placed on the list of colleges approved
for expansion. And, joyful news, a charter was granted to a group at
the University of British Columbia.

The Manual of Information, the preparation of which has been
under the supervision of the Examining Officer, will be printed within
the year. I f you know of any girl whose name is worthy of inclusion in
the list of Alpha O notables, send it to the Examining Officer. Pacific
District led the fraternity in examination marks the past year. Their
average was 88.15. Southern followed with an 87.05 average; Great
Lakes, 86.68; Ohio, 86.53; Mid-Western, 84.27; Atlantic, 83.01. There

OCTOBER, 1931 27

zjlmong Those Present at 'Troutdale




Stella and Bess weren't posing. They
were just getting ready to have a
plate of barbecued beef and Spanish

salad at the picnic.
A group of delegates stopped a mo-
ment before they left. Here we find
Virginia Lefler ( N K ) , Numa Sur-
geon (KK), Anne Nichols ( K ) , Kath-

erine DcPuy (2), with some of
their friends.

'he food att tacts another group at Margaret M. Baskervill ( A T T , K) went
the barbe cueS. p From right to lerfTthorwne to the banquet in her mother's initia-
find Alice ear ( A ) , Ahce
tion dress. Twenty-five years ago
son (A), and Octavia Chapin (A) Mamie received her pin at


were 943 papers with only 46 failures. The national average was 86.12.
The chapter averages follow: A, 93.5; TA, 92.9; 2, 91.3; n , 91.1; K 0 ,
91; 0, 90.1; H, 90.54; T, 90; NO, 89.2; A«I>, 88.92; B0, 88.87; BT,
88.85; Y, 88.8; o n , 88.6; 011, 88.58; K, 88.5; A*, 88.3; fi, 87.85;
AT, 86.57; Z, 86.52; KO, 85.8; <I>, 84.95; I , 84.1; AS, 83.8; IiA, 83.8;
r, 83.7; 83.1; H, 82.71; N, 82.5; A, 82; O, 81.2; EA, 81; X, 80.6;
AP, 80.5; B*, 79.67; NK, 79.4; XA, 78.23; E, 77.6; P, 75.44.

The new song book made its debut at convention, but more of
that later.

We wish you could have heard the reports of the superintendents,
of the alumna; and undergraduate chapter presidents. Each told such
interesting activities of her group. But there isn't space for all of that.
Better come to next convention and hear them for yourself.

Stunt Night was the gay affair that it usually is. Pacific Coast with
their "An Alpha O Convention in 1950" and Southern District in a
spiritual meeting of the colored gentry tied for honors. A Great Lakes
District's circus, Midwestern's mother and children stunt, Ohio Valley's
tragedy in three speeds, Atlantic's portrayal of the final resting place of
AOlTs, Chicago's stunt on the city as it is reputed to be and as it is,
Zeta's rushing stunt, Portland Alumna; chapter's movies and Vivienne
Boulware's (A<J>), sweetheart song provided an evening of good enter-

Formal ritual service bought two new sisters. How proud Kathleen
Johnson ( X A ) , and Jane Carr ( Z ) , must have felt as Mrs. Perry
fastened on their pins. The memorial service which followed commemo-
rated sixteen members who have joined our Alpha Omega chapter.

Candle-lighting was followed by story-telling. We wish each of you
could come to these convention services. I f you could come to but one,

-1 m


* 1



Margaret Moore Gorton ( Z ) , was such a busy convention chairman that we had to
catch her on tlie fly. Anne Jeter Nichols ( K ) , and Alice Cullnane ( B * ) , our assistant

registrar and registrar, wanted to go swimming, but the water was cold.

OCTOBER, 1931 2o

• •

1 •*





The swimmmg party was a good place to kodak. Here we see Helen Lawton and Bca
Lempke, Eta's representatives and Edith Huntington Anderson (B«l»), and
Bess IVyinan ( A ) , Grand Secretary and Past Grand President.

we should recommend story-telling. Mrs. Perry's story of our founding,
our ideals, our ritual inspires us anew each time we hear it.

But all good things must end, and so Friday night we donned our
prettiest gowns for the banquet. Banquets are always lovely; perhaps
because everyone is happy and looks her best, but never have we seen
one quite so beautiful. Close your eyes a moment and picture a very
large room with long, narrow tables, row upon row, to seat nearly 180
guests, gleaming with silver and glass ware, great baskets of velvety
Jacqueminot roses placed not far apart along their lengths. Between
them lay streamers of kinnikinnick, its green leaves shining in the
candlelight, and pine branches. At each place a small green candle
burned merrily in a pine cone holder. The menu cards simulated bark
and bore a green pine tree. Lucile Ziegelmaier Haertel ( T ) , Midwestern
District Superintendent, introduced Mary Dee Drummond (A4>), the
toastmistress. Mary Dee had chosen as her scheme of toasts "The Cham-
bered Nautilus.'' Edith Anderson (B<I>), spoke on "The Low Vaulted
rast, "The Swift Seasons Roll," were representatives from each dis-
trict: Margaret Poulton, Pacific; Louise Wolff, Southern; Jean Frazer,
ireat.Lakes; Helen Wilkinson, Atlantic; Mildred Frazee, Ohio Valley;
and Lucille Hendricks, Midwestern. Miss Wyman told us of "More
^lately Mansions" and Mrs. Perry of "Each New Temple." We're
iun ye v e r pair of eyes was bright when Mrs. Perry sat down. We
vet W a n t e d Ps l i away to catch our breath. But there were awards
t t0

>et to be announced. Edna Kline fairly shouted when Mrs. Perry an-
nounced that Iota had won the Jessie Wallace Hughan Cup. Alpha
!gma was runner-up. Epsilon was awarded a copy of "The Defenders"

(Continued on page 52)


We Alumnae SaJ

"you Must "Pay your Way!

By F A Y M O R G A N , Omicron

WE A L U M N A are the folks who go about tacking up "Wet
Paint" signs on the posts of the highway of experience and who
later stand by to watch the actives come along and smear their
fingers in the paint to see if it really is wet.

We are the Greek chorus in the background sounding the timeless,
wistful chant of "Things aren't like they used to be when / was in the

Alumna; are also folks who have known intimately the ins and outs,
the ups and downs, the gray and the gay days which go to make up
chapter history everywhere.

We, too, have pledged faith and friendship, have thrilled to the
realization of a fellowship united by a common spirit and dream.

We, too, have stumbled and faltered and groped our way toward the
far horizons where beckons the living flame of idealism kindled thirty-
three years ago by that quartette of valiant dreamers—one of whom
so greatly honors us by her presence here tonight.

Because we have glimpsed these things, perhaps, and because our
journey has preceded that of you freshmen initiates who just fare forth
from the starting line, we would remind you of the one unalterable rule
of the road—"You must pay your fare—" not in silver or gold but in
the only coin of lasting value, minted in courage and loyalty and love.

There are two types of sorority members who ride blind baggage:
those who through selfishness or indifference or cowardice refuse to
realize their inherent possibilities; and those who through the wearing
of a pin which symbolizes virtues that they themselves do not possess,
assume a character before the world that is not rightfully theirs.

So today, we who have gone before salute you, our as yet untried
comrades of the way, knowing that if you will but follow the gleam of
the ruby in your pin, not only will the world be the better for your
being in it, but ultimately, it will lead you out beyond the singing stars
to that high place where the torch of AOI1 glows forever and ever
undimmed—in the land of far horizons.

OCTOBER, 1931 31

Each Tear AOFI Gives $1,000 to Encourage
Graduate V/or\

Amanda T.
Bradley will
work for a doc-
tor's degree at
Raddiffe Col-

manda Bradley is Win-

ner of $1,000 (fellowship

By E L S I E F O R D P I P E R , Zcta

A M A N D A TALIAFERRO BRADLEY, 1705 Woodland Avenue,
J \ Birmingham, Alabama, has been awarded the Alpha Omicron Pi

^Fellowship for graduate work for non-members for the year 1931-
32. This Fellowship is awarded biannually. I t is open only to graduates
of the institutions where Alpha Omicron Pi has chapters. The success-
ful applicant is not limited to any particular field of work. She is con-
sidered on the basis of her fitness for her chosen profession, her attitude
toward life, and her general needs and qualifications.

Miss Bradley received her Bachelor of Arts degree from Birming-
ham-Southern College in 1930, and her Master of Arts from Radcliffe
College in 1931. She expects to do her graduate work at Radcliffe
College pursuing her research in the drama of the Elizabethan Period
in preparation for her doctor's thesis. Miss Bradley was chosen from
twenty-seven applicants from nineteen different institutions. She pre-
sented a splendid scholastic record and very superior recommendations.

The AOYl


A F T E R reading the history of the Frontier Nursing Service which
/ - \ follows this article you will be indeed convinced of the soundness

of the organization with which we plan to cast our lot.
The Social Service Department of the Frontier Nursing Service will
be superintended by Miss Bland Morrow in conjunction with an ad-
visory committee composed of qualified members of Alpha Omicron Pi.
Miss Morrow will be introduced to us in the next issue of To DRAGMA.
That issue will also contain an article by Miss Morrow stating in detail
what constitutes social service in these remote regions.

The following, then, will be only a personal touch, a resume of a trip
Marion and I have just taken in the Kentucky hills. Both of us re-
gretted that Vera Riebel, the third member of our committee, could
not accompany us. Marion had visited the Frontier Nursing Service
once before and was especially desirous that I should get first hand
information and impressions.

We drove into Hazard at six o'clock on a drizzly Thursday evening
after passing hill after hill skirted by little cabins on stilts, all alike, all
equally dismal, a discouraged wisp of smoke from each chimney making
its weary way into the rain-sodden air. Hazard is a mining town. Enter-
ing the town proper we find it very busy this hour of the evening. The
one-way street is lined with small shops and stores, many of which bear
strange legends: "Goodbye, neighbor, you'll miss us. We are leaving.
Nothing will remain but the bare walls." However, we wish to talk of
Hazard only as a gateway to the Frontier Nursing Service.

frontier pursing Service

By M A R Y D E E D R U M M O N D , Alpha Phi

We are advised that it will be best to remain in Hazard over night
considering the rain and the darkness. The couriers will meet us the next
morning at Hurricane. We are tired enough after two days' driving so
we tuck in but not to sleep much. The rain drums a too-fierce march on
the tin roof beneath our window. We are up again at dawn.

After breakfasting at Mike's Place, we take the bus to Hurricane,
some twenty miles away. Hurricane is a creek and, perched like lugubri-
ous birds upon a log, we find our two couriers with our horses. Over
the hill to Wendover we ride.

Wendover is such a lovely name; it seems possessed of friendly and
hospitable qualities. Wendover proves to be all that its name implies.
We are welcomed to sit by a cheery fire. Steaming coffee and toast are
brought in. We feel instantly at home. A first impression that this is a

lovely summer lodge is soon dis-
pelled by an air of business ac-
tivity. A uniformed nurse de-
parts with saddle-bags slung
over her arm. Secretaries are

busy in an office. The tele-
phone rings; information is
given and received. Couriers
come and go. This is the
mountain headquarters of
the Frontier Nursing Service.

We chat and loaf for the
rest of the day in the big
comfortable living room.

I'? • frontier

Thev„i ch{tdren.
'"PPon. 1


On Saturday morning we leave with Miss Dougall who is to make the
regular visits to her patients. Marion, attired in the blue raincoat of the
service, looks like a Canterbury pilgrim. I t is still pouring. As we ride
along in creek beds and up steep trails Miss Dougall tells us about Dixie,
the finest horse on earth, and about her patients and her work. Soon we
dismount along a fence almost hidden by weeds. After more or less skill-
fully vaulting said fence we see before us a tiny cabin, gray and sagging
listlessly. The yard is small and bare except for a few lard pails in which
grow apologetically some zinnias, nasturtiums, a variety of primrose, and
weeds in abundance. A woman in a wrapper bids us come in. She is bare-
foot and holds a baby in her arms. The beds are neat and clean and
covered with spreads made out of flour sacks. The walls are papered
with pages from Sears, Roebuck catalogues. Miss Dougall gives encour-
aging advice about this and that and promises to look in again soon.

In the next home there is a brand-new baby. The mother too is new,
being only seventeen and this her first child. The room we enter boasts
of two beds, chairs, and a sourly-burning fire. Grandmother bustles about
proudly. This is her forty-third grandchild. The one window opening
has no glass but is covered with old curtain netting. The mantel is
adorned with the colored illustrations of Sears, Roebuck linoleum. The
lusty-lunged infant is bathed, instructions as to regularity of feedings
are given. The nurse will return day after next.*

As we ride on we see home after home clinging precariously to the
hillside. Children's tousled heads bob in the doorways. Corn grows clear
to the top of the hills. There is not much level space in these V-shaped
valleys. The nurse stops to thank a boy for the baby rabbit he had
brought her. The rabbit is getting along nicely, drinks milk, and nibbles

In one family the husband and wife had children by previous mar-
riages and now a baby of their own. The wife is a goodlooking woman
of thirty-eight but looks older. Her hair has an enviable hair line and is
neatly combed. A patient and fugitive smile is characteristic of these hill
people. A still resignation colors their very tone of voice.

Sunday morning brings a gorgeous sun. After dinner we depart on
horses for Hyden with Dr. Kooser. The road between Hyden and Wen-
dover is passable to trucks in summer only although the river has to be
forded in many places. We cover these five miles in no time. To reach
the hospital at Hyden we must traverse the town. The street, if it can be
called that, is one muddy ooze between the boulders. The pigs move
gruntingly out of our way—a little. The street is partly creek-bed. On
the hill is the hospital. Higher and higher we ascend. What prompted the
builders to put it so high? Perhaps the thought that their dreams of
service might need to be sustained by breadth of physical horizons;
perhaps the thought that high on the hill for all to see the hospital
would be a symbol of hope and help.

Ours is quite a cavalcade on Monday morning when we set out for
Confluence on our five horses. Dr. Kooser is to hold a three-day clinic
there. Bland Morrow and a courier form our bodyguard. Over gorgeous

OCTOBER, 1931 35

To market with a splint bottom chair to fay the hospital bill.

hills we ride, now and then to plunge into deep and muddy streams
swollen high by the recent rains. Muddy and a bit weary we arrive at
Confluence to find a hearty welcome and a magnificent chicken dinner
awaiting us. Scarcely have we finished eating when mothers with their
children begin arriving. One is impressed with the good looks of these
children and mothers despite the lack of proper food and clothing.
There is no fuss. They are to see the doctor, that's all. Their teeth, ton-
sils, general health, sores and bruises are scrutinized.

The afternoon slips by. Tea is served English fashion. You ask,
"Why English?" Most of the nurses are English because this country has
had no facilities for training nurses in midwifery. As you have read
m the history of the Frontier Nursing Service, many American nurses
have gone to England and Scotland on Frontier Nursing Service scholar-
ships to get this necessary training. One thing which impresses a visitor
m regard to these nurses is the absolute absence of sickly sentiment
among them. Theirs is a job to do with care and despatch. They know
and understand the people they serve. They do not talk of themselves,
but just mention that you think their horses and dogs are splendid! Gone
is English reticence. Every center has positively the best horses and

"At the edge of the dusk" we arrive at Bowlingtown where we stay for
the night. Miss Price and Miss Carson make charming hostesses and
much talk, both amusing and instructive, goes on before the fire.

The next morning we make calls. Mrs. B. has a new baby. A toddler
is on the floor, two blonde girls of four and five are busy stringing beans.
Another of ten is the housekeeper for the present. Though the kitchen
roof has fallen considerably, the place is swept clean, the children are
reshly scrubbed. The usual advice and encouragement are given and we
bid the family a cordial goodbye.

36 To D R A G M \

"We'll see a woman," says Miss Price, "who never will amount to
anything." The woman is young, stupid, and lazy. Two children roll on
the dirty floor, their features almost indistinguishable through the dirt.
One has picked his nose until the lower part of his face is raw. The nurse
tells us she has helped and worked and taught this family but to no

Mrs. W. G. is possessed of a most charming husband, we are told,
who roams the hills but leaves his family to starve. Such a pathetic
brown little wisp of a thing Mrs. G. is. The baby is covered with sores
over which she worries and she wants to know when the doctor is coming
to the clinic. Two small boys who should be in school can't go because
they have not much to wear. The weeds are so tall and so wet in the
early morning, and little boys do catch cold easily.

Mrs. N . is busy canning peaches. The peaches are the size of walnuts.
She proudly shows us the storage space for her canned goods. Humor
and resourcefulness flash in her eyes. But there are so many to be fed
and the work is pretty hard.

The Leatherwood school is in this neighborhood. Two rooms and
ninety children. Scarcely any equipment. However the children sing
lustily and well for us, and they have brought their teacher appies «s
gifts this morning.

Miss Price finds us a pleasant spot to rest and have lunch. Such sand-
wiches and such coffee out of saddle bags! I t is wonderful to stretch full
length on the warm clean earth.

But we must see M r . Couch, the man who makes chairs. We fin i him
in a tiny shed for a work shop, a venerable old man with a long white
beard. The chairs he makes he delivers astride his mule with the product
of his labor tied somehow on either side. "We must have roads," he says,
"we must have roads."

A storm is brewing. We are shown what trail to take to Brutus-on-
Bullskin. After bidding our hostesses a reluctant farewell we set out in
an almost trackless forest. The heavens open and torrents deluge us.
On and on we ride out of the forest into the creeks, out and in, again
and again. No one says anything. The day has been pretty full. We
spend the night with the two American nurses who are queens of all they
survey at Brutus. We learn of their experiences and their people.

Early next morning a little girl arrives on muleback carrying a half-
bushel of apples. She has come five miles to ask Miss Harris "to treat the
sores on her legs. The apples pay for salve and for past treatments. She
is a sweet child, her only complaint being that her mule is so slow.

The morning is beautiful. Our horses and ourselves are rested so we
start at a trot for Red Bird. Our courier rides a mule. Mules seem per-
petually rested. Speaking of couriers and mules, couriers do not always
ride mules. But have you seen a cultured Bostonian ride a mule with the
same grace she would ride a blooded mount? Have you heard of a mem-
ber of the so-called jazz-mad younger generation riding for miles into
the hills and back with a tiny infant in her arms and a sick mother fol-
lowing on a mule? Step by step, mile after mile, they reached their des-

OCTOBER. 1931 37

All of these children go to the Leathcrivood School. Two rooms serve from kindergarten
age to eighth grade.

tination. The courier had never held a baby in her arms and it did
worry her a bit when it set up a howl. But it is all in a day's work for a
courier of the Frontier Nursing Service.

At Red Bird we find a lovely log house with a bright flower bed be-
fore it. Miss Summers and Dr. Sturgess welcome us. We learn that
"Johnnie," the other nurse, has departed this morning for Manchester
and the county fair, armed with a miniature baby bed and crib, a life-
size doll, a model sanitary toilet, and many posters to be used in demon-
strating proper infant care. The screened crib is a necessity. Flies are so
bad. They crawl greedily into the babies' nostrils and mouths. And
what an improvement it would be if each child could sleep alone or by
two's instead of by four's! "Johnnie" calls up gleefully to tell Miss Sum-
mers she has ample booth space for her demonstration. There is so
much to be done.

On Thursday morning Miss Summers takes us to Big Creek. Big
Creek High School is found at the end of a little street. Imagine an an-
cient building with strange curvatures in its sides and weird leaning of its
roof. Inside we find twenty students, two teachers, an organ, and a wall
lined with dog-eared books. One student, a girl, won the Peace Prize
essay for the State of Kentucky last year. She is eligible for the national
competition this year. She writes well and loves history, says her proud

In the grammar school—three rooms—penmanship cannot be taught
except at the blackboard because the benches and desks are so battle-
scarred and time-worn. When it rains, the children must all line up
around the walls to escape the water which leaks in through the old

A school building is under construction however and will be fin-
•sned if and when money can be found.

Eighteen miles to Hyden. We must be on our way. Riding in the
warm and sunny air one feels resentment that the hills are so beautiful
da n so steep; one is angrv that the ineffective creeks have not carved


broader valleys, that the quietly flowing rivers do not rush faster, that
mules amble so slowly, that the little cabins look like blemishes in an
otherwise beautiful land. Resenting conditions is useless, however. These
hill people are like a field in which the soil is pretty fair. Until the Fron-
tier Nursing Service came, no one had thought to plow or to enrich it,
to plant seeds and cultivate the seedlings. The Frontier Nursing Service
has proven that these people are cooperative and intelligent. The Serv-
ice is not foisted upon unwilling recipients but is eagerly sought and

Where in this splendid scheme does Alpha Omicron Pi fit? Exactly
and neatly into a Social Service Department of the Frontier Nursing
Service. For years we have planned ultimately to aid handicapped chil-
dren. Is there anywhere a more environmentally handicapped child than
the mountain child? Of course, we shall work also with the parents but
it is through aiding the children that we can look in the future to see
that our efforts have had an influence in every phase of family and
community life. Out of this influence will come roads, those arteries along
which civilization flows; better homes, no matter how humble, in which
every member of the family is entitled to light, air, and space; better
nutrition, that a family may know what it should eat and why; recrea-
tion, that the family may learn to play and to laugh joyously; sanitation,
that water may quench the thirst without bringing dread disease; educa-
tion, that the mind may understand and adjust itself to the world in
which it lives; attention to individual cases of social maladjustment, that
needless suffering may be alleviated; a community spirit, through which
all things are possible.

Where could we find a more splendid challenge, a greater privilege
and opportunity for service?

<§ave a Haby, r§ave a Station—The Cfrontier

pursing ^ervice ^aves One a Day

THE Frontier Nursing Service, Inc., has prepared this detailed ac-
count of their fine efforts for To DRAGMA readers. You should read
every word to understand what a great opportunity we have.

Nearly 16,000 mothers die in childbirth every year in this country, about
166,000 babies at birth or in the first year. Nobody knows the exact number of
deaths unrecorded in backwoods regions where the mother often has no attendant
but an ignorant native midwife.

Responsible in large measure for this tragic toll of life is the absence of ade-
quate medical and nursing care in vast areas of isolated frontier country in the
Appalachians, parts of the Ozarks, islands and lonely strips of coastland, stretches
of prairies and inland forest, where it is estimated that millions of people eke out a
bare existence.

It is out of the question for these people to provide their own health protection
out of an annual cash income amounting in one-third of our rural counties to less
than $250 a person, and in the remaining two-thirds, to less than $500.

American ideals of equal opportunity will never be realized until the most
isolated family is assured the same safeguarding of health and life as the tenement-
dweller of our cities,

OCTOBKR. 1931 39

He's been to the clinic and can't hand
those doctors a thing, but look how
happy his sister looks.

This little lad wants you to look at his •
house. See how the window is without a
Pane. You can help him to a happier future.

The Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.. was organized by its present voluntary direc-
tor, Mrs. Mary Breckinridge, in 1925, to safeguard the lives and health of mothers
and children by providing trained nurse-midwives for rural areas in Kentucky and
elsewhere, as its means may permit, where there is inadequate medical service; to
give skilled care to women in childbirth; to give nursing care to the sick of both
sexes and all ages; to carry out preventive public health measures in cooperation
with State and Federal authorities; to educate the rural population in the laws of
health, and parents in baby hygiene and child care; to provide expert social service
whenever necessary; to help obtain medical, dental and surgical services for those
who need it at a price they can afford to pay; to ameliorate economic conditions
inimical to health; to cooperate with like-minded individuals and organizations in
the pursuit of these aims, and through the fulfillment of these aims to advance the
cause of social welfare in rural districts with the help of their own leading citizens.

. The Kentucky mountains were chosen for the demonstration, because few re-
gions are more inaccessible than the Appalachian ridges of Eastern Kentucky. For
hundreds of square miles there are no railroads, no automobile roads, no telephone
communication, no bridges over countless rivers and streams, creeks and forks.
Horseback and mule team are the only mode of travel. It was felt that if the
Project could be successfully demonstrated under such conditions, it could be dupli-
P ^c a t e anywhere aftenvards; secondly, it was felt that the old American pioneer

o c k , shut off in these mountains for over a century from the advance of medical
science, was well worth the effort of carrying the benefits of modern medicine, sani-
tation and hygiene to them.

tm ? *e o r e launching the Service, the Director devoted two months of horseback
el through three mountain counties to a survey of the existing obstetrical situa-


tion. From this survey, two facts stood out: First: that the existing medical supply,

especially if limited to state qualified doctors (for a number of so-called doctors
practicing on county permits were grossly unfit), could not possibly handle the
deliveries, was not even adequate for consultation nor always equipped for that
end. Secondly: that it was useless to try to improve the quality of the native mid-
wife. Fifty-three investigated in their own homes, proved to be of an average age
of 60.3 with no other qualification for their calling than that they had themselves
raised families. A l l were grossly ignorant and deeply superstitious, their practices
mediaeval if not primitive.

I n part of the three counties surveyed there was not one registered physician
for nearly 15,000 people. It took the nearest doctor six to twenty hours to reach a
patient, on horseback. Necessarily, the fee was prohibitive for any but a few families.
Neither the overworked small town practitioner, nor the patient living on land
worth only a few dollars an acre, can afford the burden of financial adjustment of
this mileage and time factor.

Turning for guidance to what had been accomplished by older countries on
behalf of their isolated fellow countrymen in remote rural regions, Mrs. Breckinridge
found in the sparsely settled Scotch Highlands and Islands, where conditions closely
parallel those in our Southern Appalachians, the working model for the Frontier
Nursing Service, Inc. For. every 700 people or so there a nurse-midwife of the
Queen's Nurses lives in the heart of her district, reporting to the nearest medical
man, and operating under a local voluntary committee of her own leading people.

Mrs. Breckinridge, already trained as a nurse at St. Luke's Hospital in New
York, took added training in midwifery in London at the British Hospital for
Mothers and Babies, qualifying by examination under the English Central Mid-
wives Board.

After nearly two years' careful preliminary study, surveys and preparations,

in the summer of 1925, the first unit of the Frontier Nursing Service, Inc., was

organized in the Kentucky mountains, adopting the Scotch Highlands district nurs-

ing system in most of the foregoing essentials.
Intended from the beginning as a model demonstration, a unit of 1,000 square

miles was decided upon as the first objective. The basis for the selection of this
size unit was twofold: a. Administrative: It was estimated, and has been success-
fully demonstrated, that the administrative costs of handling a service covering
1,000 square miles would not be very much greater than of handling similar service
over 500 square miles, b. Statistical: Dr. Louis I . Dublin of the Metropolitan Life
Insurance Company, who will tabulate the statistical data for the Service, advised
that an area of 1,000 square miles is the minimum unit that would be of value in
a mountainous area to demonstrate adequately that work of nurse-midwives in re-
motely rural areas does lower the death rate of mothers and young children, and
raise the general health level of the population.

Once the effectiveness of the Service has been demonstrated on a scale statis-
tically convincing in the first unit, it is planned to extend the scope of the Frontier
Nursing Service, Inc., in similar 1,000 square mile units in other mountain states,
as fast as means may permit.

Public Health authorities in all parts of the country, who are watching the
demonstration with interest, see in it a model for country-wide adoption:

"A program of fundamental soundness is being carried out with efficiency and
economy by a staff of remarkable quality and unexampled loyalty and devotion.

"The significance of what the Frontier Nursing Service, Inc., is doing extends
far beyond the areas to which you are bringing comfort and relief. A l l over the
world the outstanding health problem of the moment is to devise means of bringing
the benefits of modern sanitary science to the remote rural districts. I have had
opportunity to study efforts being made along this line in France, Italy, Poland,
Jugoslavia, Hungary and other countries, but I know of no district in the world
suffering from such economic handicaps as yours to which so complete and ad-
mirable a maternal health service is being rendered," said C . E . A. Winslow of the
School of Medicine, Yale University.

More than 700 square miles in the heart of the Kentucky mountains, or nearly
three quarters of the 1,000 square mile objective, are now patrolled by 28 mounted
nurse-midwives of the Frontier Nursing Service, Inc. This includes Directors, Super-

OCTOBER, 1931 41

visors and relief nurses, and three hospital nurses. The Service is decentralized.
Dotted over the territory are nine district nursing centers, each operating in a
radius of not over five miles, covering about 78 square miles.

At each center live two field nurses, always on duty. Field work means hard
horseback riding over rough trails in a country innocent of roads or bridges. Under
these arduous conditions, a full program of Midwifery, Bedside Nursing, Hospital
Care, Baby and Child Hygiene, Public Health and Sanitation is carried forward.

It is the pride of the Service that if the father can come for the nurse, she will
get through to the mother, regardless of the hour, the weather, or the state of the
trail. Each nurse saddles, grooms and feeds her own mount. She has two pair of
saddlebags—one for general nursing, the other for midwifery. After each case, she
re-sterilizes the contents and sets a filled lantern by it ready for the next. Few
mountain cabins have any light but the open fire.

If the confinement is normal, the nurse takes care of the delivery. The state
health officer, D r . Arthur T . McCormack, gives nurses special licenses on the basis
of their midwifery training.

If complications arise, the nurse sends for medical aid. It is the invariable
policy of the Frontier Nursing Service, Inc., in such cases to underwrite the doctor's
fee, which may be as low as $1 a mile on cases under 20 miles distant, or may
amount to $50 when an overnight stop is involved. The family repays what it can
of the fee to the Service.

j I n one district, a Frontier nurse works in cooperation with the physician at a
mission settlement. She takes care of his normal confinements, relieving him to give
clinical attendance at two of the other Frontier centers, each a day's horseback ride
distant, with no other doctor nearer.

Prenatal and post partum care are always included in the midwifery fee of
§3, payable in skins of "varmints," splint bottom chairs, or a husband's labor when
cash is scarce. U p to May 1, 1931, Frontier Nurses had attended over 800 maternity
cases, with the loss of but one mother, a cardiac case. Since January 1, 1931, the
Service has averaged over a baby a day.

TT j r ,0 n e of t h e health centers is combined with an 18-bed emergency hospital at

ttyden Emergency cases are' brought in on horse and mule back, by fiatboat up the

river, by stretchers with relays of bearers, sometimes many miles. Medical care is

given here by a physician of the State Board of Health, paid a part-time salary by

uie Service. Surgery is available from a town twenty-three miles away. The hospital

tee is $l a day or whatever the patient can pay. All children are taken in free. It
is an intrinsic part of the plan to have such a hospital and health center for clinics

3 UKC g centers,C V E R Y n m e 0 1 t e n d i s t r i c t n u r s i r |
spnrl *• ° a s e n e e d s t h e a t t e n t i o n o f a specialist, arrangements are made to

ena the patients for free treatment to hospitals in near-by cities, on free passes

1oS • T>mdlgent PATIENTS and their .n u r s e s by local railroads. From April 30,

tnVoi r° a y »1 1 9 3 1 ( delusive, the Hyden hospital took care of 436 patients a
total of 3,086 days.

vi<uM c 1 6 c o u r s e o f > 'd a i l rounds, every family in the entire area is regularly
hvt- • -P e C l a l a t t e n t i o n i s § i v e n the children. Instruction in child care and baby
F r S ^ A - P -D B Preventive measures are taken to keep them well.
Ven the mothers

2n« £ T - '3 0 1 '9 3 0 t0 M ay *> 1 9 3 1 » frontier nurses visited oaf n4d,7w13atcchheilddreonvotvier
FS5 t -v5 a n and 2,658 school children, a total
d st o d d l e r

l f i t s families. in

e x a J ^ V ?1 a r e n u r s e d i n t h e i r own homes, under difficulties which can hardly be

had tn h . y Se s p e c i a l l P A S T year of drought when water for bathing
durin the

it is f ^ r n e d a mile and often two, and four out of five wells went dry. I f

by strrtS §D e c e s s a r y t 0 b r i n cases out to the hospital, they must be transported

the niir ° i . 'V e r m I e S ° f r 0 U g h y >c o u n t r b y improvised rafts down river, or behind

nursPH • , ° . - PN H E R yM a > >1 1 9 3 1 1.97S serious illness cases had been

™ in their own homes by the Frontier Nurses.

the Unit ^ c n t i e r SN u r s i n Service, Inc., has been used" as a basis of operations for

Foundar P u h V l c H e a I t h Service in its Trachoma work, for the Rockefeller

" a d v a n " " 'ir l t S H o o k w o r m campaign, as well as for the State Board of Health
fountain r • y8 s a m t a r measures. Visiting specialists have given their services at

din clinics arranged by the Service in obstetrics, gynecology, pediatrics, ortho-


pedics, dentistry, eye, ear, nose and throat, helminthology. From mid-May to mid-
September of the drought summer, the following clinics were managed at the Hyden
Hospital: Gynecological: Dr. Scott Breckinridge made 29 examinations, performed
12 operations in three days, with wholly successful results. Eye: Dr. Carlton
Thomas did complete refractions on 103 patients, prescribed glasses for 84, in three
days. Five cases would have become quite blind without glasses, all desperately
needed them. Tonsils: Dr. C . B. Robert, of the State Board of Health, examined
202 patients, operated on 148 in five days. Children came in wagons as far as a
two days' journey. Dental: Dr. Arthur M . Laird of the Kentucky State Dental As-
sociation gave dental care to 680 children at a cost of ten cents each, met in two-
thirds of the cases; and similar care to pregnant and nursing mothers. Hookworm:
Drs. Harold Brown, B . H . Robbins and Paul Lamson, pharmacologists and
helminthologists, financed by the Rockefeller Foundation through Vanderbilt Uni-
versity, and Dr. Gilbert Otto, financed by the American Child Health Association
through Johns Hopkins University, set up a field laboratory for hookworm and
roundworm treatments, using the Frontier Nursing Service, Inc., as a basis of opera-
tions, treated 820 worm cases with a new drug called hexylresorcinol.

Within the territory covered by the Service, the people are now practically
100 per cent inoculated against typhoid, 80 per cent against diphtheria. Inoculations
against typhoid, diphtheria, smallpox and influenza are given under the orders of the
State Board of Health. At the urgent request of trie neighboring counties Frontier
Nurses went considerably beyond their own area during the drought to give these
inoculations, covering more than 1,000 square miles in all. Up to May 1, 1931,
Frontier Nurses, cooperating with the local Board of Health, had given 38,294

In a country where none but the most primitive sanitary arrangements exist,
in many cases none whatever, an energetic program of education has been carried
forward, construction of sanitary toilets has been subsidized, wells have been
chlorinated, in the uphill struggle against the prevalent hookworm, roundworm
and other diseases directly due to insanitary living conditions.

Such strenuous work calls for exceptional qualifications. Yet such is its appeal
that daily an average of three applications to join the staff comes from the far
corners of the earth.

Among the present 28 nurses, are nurses with war records and a string of
citations, a Truby King nurse from New Zealand; a "Bush" nurse from Australia;
two from Newfoundland and Nova Scotia who had worked among the fisherfolk
two years on snowshoes; a native Texan working for her Ph.D. on the Economic
Phases of Health Facilities in Remotely Rural Areas.

Every member of the staff including the Director has been trained in midwifery
either in England or in Scotland. A midwifery scholarship of $800 has been given
by the Service in some cases to the best qualified American nurses after a satisfac-
tory trial period in the field in other phases of the work. This scholarship covers
fees and living, amounting to about £35, laundry and textbooks, and the voyage
over and back, for half of which the nurse agrees to reimburse the Service on her
return, out of her first year's salary. T w o of the staff paid their own training in
full, a third has reimbursed the Service in full for her scholarship.

Following the Scotch model, the Frontier Nursing Service, Inc., works through
local committees of leading mountaineers who meet monthly at the district centers
to advise with the nurses. On these committees serve such responsible men as the
mountain lawyer from the county seat, the stone mason, the blacksmith, the school
teacher, the better type of merchant. The committees consider such matters of
local policy as relief for a family temporarily in straits, placement of an orphaned
or abandoned child, building of a new clinic, expansion into a new district.

Before opening up a new territory, a meeting is called of the influential men,
addressed by the Director of the Service usually accompanied by one of the moun-
taineer committeemen from an adjoining district. A rally is then held to bring
together the 150 or 200 heads of families in the new district. At that time at least
$500 support for the Service must be pledged. In every instance support has been
unanimous. Those who cannot contribute cash, give their share in timber, fence
posts, use of mules, or from four to ten days' labor.

OCTOBER, 1931 43

The Service has the backing of all the responsible mountaineers in its territory
of approximately 12,000 people.

The central record system used for tabulation of cost per family and other
figures vital for the future development of the work of the Frontier Nursing Service,
Inc., is financed by a two-year (1930-32) money grant from the Carnegie Corpora-
tion of $12,000 which covers the cost of tabulating daily reports from the district
nursing centers and hospital, and a $2,000 scholarship for the head statistical secre-
tary, under which she is qualifying for an M.A. degree in statistics at Teachers
College, Columbia University.

To make clearer the picture of what the present staff with existing facilities
accomplished in a typical year, figures are given here from the annual report for
April 30, 1930-May 1, 1931. During this period, a staff of 20 district nurse-mid-
wives paid 27,892 visits, including 17,250 family visits, and received 19,935 visits
at the nursing centers. They were on duty in all 58,837 hours. These nurse-mid-
wives delivered 347 women in childbirth without one maternal death. All were
given prenatal and post partum care. There were seven stillbirths, one miscarriage.
Doctors were called in fourteen times for abnormal conditions. There were 7,806
people in 1,675 families attended during the year by the Service. Of these, 2,055
were babies and toddlers under six years of age, which were seen at least once a
month, as far as possible, twice a month. These figures also include 2,658 school
children. Total number of children patients, 4,713. Bedside nursing care was given
477 very sick people, of whom 426 recovered. The little hospital at Hyden gave
3,086 days' hospital care to 436 patients. Another 59 patients with their attendants
were transported to distant hospitals on passes supplied by local railroads. In Public
Health there were: (a) Conferences. At 404 meetings for group work or confer-
ences, there was a known attendance of 1,944 men, women and children; at 12
public gatherings there was an estimated attendance of 2,269. (b) Field Clinics.
There were held during the year 276 field clinics, with a known attendance of
13,166 men, women and children; and 1 field clinic with an estimated attendance of
75. (c) Inoculations. At the request of the State Board of Health, and under the
direction of the County Health Officer in one of the counties (Leslie), the nurses
gave a total of 16,602 inoculations in Clay, Leslie, Perry and Bell Counties against
Typhoid, Diphtheria, Pellagra, Flu and Pneumonia, Smallpox and Whooping Cough
and Asthma, (d) Dressings and Nursing Treatments. Adults, 1,006; children, 1,053,
or a total of 2,059. Specimens of various kinds sent to the State Board of Health for
analysis were 551. (e) Dental Report of Dr. Arthur M. Laird. (The Frontier
Nursing Service, in affiliation with the Kentucky State Dental Association, through
the State Board of Health.) Complete dental care was given, over a period of four
months, to the following: children, 680.

This was the sixth year of operation of the Service. Because of business de-
pression it was the year when it was most difficult to raise money. But the budget
planned before the market crash, and allowing for expansion, was nevertheless met
in full, and money found for needed new buildings and improvements. It will be
seen from this that the Frontier Nursing Service, Inc., is a soundly managed or-
ganization. At present it owns in buildings, equipment, horses, etc. over $160,000
worth of property without lien, all paid for, and everything but the horses insured,
au m perfect repair.

The costs of the Service for this sixth fiscal year—May 9, 1930, to May 10,
I 9 3 l ~ a r e covered in full by this year's audit.

Omicron 'Wins Qup for Cjfloat

M I C R O N won the silver loving cup for the best float in the Carnicus parade,
dr a ' * P P 'a r g e r e < white sails, red moons, stars and a
Was a irate s m w tn tnree

w u - ° o n horning them. The Buccaneer was the worthy craft's name, and black and
nite skull and crossbone flags floated from the mastheads. Martha Hawkins, Mary
e, and Nell Nowlin were the attractive pirates who sailed the daring vessel.
—Helen Camp (O)


"Defining the ^Modern




zAn zSfddress Qiven at the (Convention
<rPanhellenic J^uncheon



University of Denver

IN T H E days when the "principal business cf a democratic people
is education" and "history becomes a race between education and
catastrophe," the question is timely—What is a University? A great
national sorority such as Alpha Omicron Pi may appropriately be in-
terested in a discussion of the question in view of the some one thous-
and self-styled institutions of higher education in this country and
the approximately one million youth included in the student rosters of
these institutions. For, regardless of its own internal policies of adminis-
tration, the social fraternity or sorority achieves its program through
the quality of the institutions in which its chapters live and work. Its
standing is made or marred by the recognized standards of the parent
institutions and not wholly by its own efforts. Moreover, each local
chapter owes and accords a loyalty to its college even superior to the
allegiance to its national relationship.

M y purpose today is to discuss the quality of institutions rather than
any technical distinction between university and college as recognized
by the standardizing agencies in the collegiate world. I assume that
your organization is interested in the standing and quality of institutions

OCTOBER, 1931 4;

not in technical distinctions, for your own standing is greatly affected
by what the colleges or universities are in which your chapters are

located. ,., ^
The chief executive of one of our greatest institutions of nigner

education has recently been widely quoted with the statement that not

more than a dozen colleges in the United States are fully entitled to

be called universities. Another distinguished president boasted a few

years ago that his institution has reached an enrollment of 200,000

persons through its extension division. The advertisements of some of

the highly developed correspondence departments offer lists of fifty

courses or more through a gamut ranging from Business Psychology,

Foremanship, and Poetry to Marketing, Harmony, and Stenography.

When the official reports of the office of education are consulted, re-

corded there are institutions with an "over-all" enrollment of astounding

proportions. I note one with 61,000 students; another with 59,742; and

others with 49,695 and 22,208. Such a conception is wholly consistent

with a very prevalent modern American tendency to call bigness, great-


Another definition for a University is being established in practice

by those who believe in "selectiveness." Some call it "exclusiveness" or

"snobbishness." There are executives who wish their institutions judged

by the list of students rejected and the proportion of students "cinched

out" during the freshman year. I n fact, a recent critic has written co-

gently to the point that unless an American University establishes ex-

clusiveness upon the basis of English and European Universities, it is

not entitled to recognition.

The standardizing organizations, such as the Association of Ameri-
can Universities, attempt to establish a schedule of "quality" standards.
They seek to measure the merit of work done partially upon the testi-
mony of expert evidence, partially upon statistical reports as to number
of students per instructor, amount of endowment per student, value of
laboratory equipment, value of income assets and the like. Upon stand-
ards of this organization there are some two hundred and fifty-six in-
stitutions listed as recognized universities and technical schools. I f this
and other organizations possessed a ready-made system of measuring
"quality" or if social measurement had arrived at a completely scientific
stage, we probably would have a system of finding out the merit of a
University by applying this scale and asking the question, "Do the data
show that the institution contributes measurably to the solution of the
problems of society of this day?"

Dr. Flexner, in his recent volume "Universities, English, German,
and American" holds that a University's chief concerns are

1. Conservation of knowledge and ideas
2. Interpretation of knowledge
3. Search for truth
4 Education of student clientele who follow-up and practice,
y our standardizing agencies were to accept this or a similar definition
for the purpose of a University, and were in command of a measuring
stick or a series of measuring sticks to establish social values, it would
D e in order to ascertain the frontier upon which the University should




7"/ic University of
Deni er is an urban

university with an
enrollment of 3,724
students and
teaching staff of


Chancellor Fred
erxck M. Hunter
seems very close to
tlpha O for his
wife is Emma
Schreiber 11 unto


work. I suppose we are all impressed with a feeling that so much has
been done in the tremendous progress of modern civilization that little
is left for the university to accomplish, and that the frontiers of achieve-
ment have been overridden and abolished. When we turn to our own
nation as an illustration of economic achievement, we find wealth un-
precedented and income upon a national scale never known in the world
before. No nation has ever possessed wealth of four hundred billion
dollars such as the American people possess today. No people has ever
had an income of ninety billion dollars each year. Production accom-
plished by the prodigious modern machinery developed by application
of science to business organization and resources has established a stand-
ard of living new to the world—and this has all come in our day. Wit-
ness: Stuart Chase's comparison of the home of today as compared with
the home of thirty years ago in its use of modern inventions.

OCTOBER, 1931 17


DEVICES I N 1900 A N D 1928

(From "Men and Machines"—p. 218)
/;/ 1900

2 bicycles $ 70.00
Wringer and washboard
Sewing machine *
Brushes and brooms

Total hi 1928 $ 105.00

Automobile $ 700.00
Radio 75.00
Phonograph 50.00
Washing machine
Electric refrigerator 150.00
Vacuum cleaner 250.00
Electric sewing machine
Oil heater 50.00
Sundry electrical equipment 60.00
Telephone, per year 500.00

Total $1,895.00

In the simplest realm of production—agriculture—a recent study
gives a fair comparison of our day and time with that of a generation
or two ago. (Witness: "Agricultural Production" article by Henry Giese
from Science of May 9, 1930.) This study shows that in Italian agri-
cultural production each worker commands .19 horse power; that is,
about one horse power for each five workers. In the middle west and
western United States the same study shows that there are 4.73 horse
power for each agricultural worker; in other words, about five horse
power for each worker in comparison with one horse power for each
five workers in the mediaeval field of production. The yield corresponds.
Each Italian worker produces $45 per year while the yield per worker
in the western part of the United States is $910 per worker per annum.

In medicine a long road has been traveled from the days when
William Harvev tried to convince Charles I of the circulation of the
blood. Within our memory there is Pasteur, Walter Reed, Lazear, Pinto,
and Banting, and an army of great who have moved to banish disease
and who have circled the globe with their scientific power as applied
to human welfare. A few days ago Northwestern University Medical
School announced the discovery of a cure for stomach ulcer and the
production of working medium in which the life cycle of bacteria may
be studied through all stages, including the normal or common forms,
granular manifestations, clear and filterable stages, and back again to
tbe original form—a discovery which mav possibly rank with the work
°f Pasteur.

In the field of pure science we vision Galileo with his miniature field


glass making the reservation "nevertheless it does move," and compare
him with Einstein and Michelson and his interferometer and the new
almost unbelievable conception of space and the universe. I n our own
institution a youth named Gustavson is able to produce hens with
cockerel feathers and says that mother love is the product of a chemical

To both layman and the casual observer it would seem that there is no
longer a frontier. Why not devote attention to interpretation and conser-
vation wholly? Why not spread what has been done until it becomes
as universal as the absorbing powers of the human race will permit?

No, this will never do. I t does not represent the facts. The Univer-
sity must seek its program in the realm where lieth problems of human

Not even the casual observer can fail to distinguish the difference
between the fields mentioned above and the tremendous universe of
unsolved problems in the area of human relations and the ability of the
human race to live together satisfactorily. I n these years of depression
with billions of wealth and income we have the problem of unemploy-
ment with some six or seven million of the people of this great nation
who are seeking the opportunity to make a bare living. Each year we
have a crime bill which exceeds many times the cost of education and
is more than the cost of government and education combined—a bill
which absorbs one-eighth of the total income of the American people.
Last year this nation of peace spent in preparation for war from the
money paid in taxes by its citizenship a larger sum than has ever been
spent in a single year by any nation in the history of the world.

Our universities and colleges can judge for themselves by the quality
of leaders they produce. Who among their output can meet or solve these
problems? I f a measuring scale of social values were applied would
their programs move toward finding a remedy for unemployment, to-
ward abolishing crime, toward the invention of a substitute for war?
The college or university which can prove that its program is in this
direction is meeting the problems of present day society. I t has a
"quality" program.

For the leader, who, trained in our laboratories, can come forward
and prove a remedy for unemployment there awaits a permanent place
in the ranks of the great. He who can say with proof "here is a substitute
for war" will be honored as no citizen of the world has yet been hon-
ored. The American who can say to our great cities "here is a successful
plan for municipal government" and show that it will produce those
results will live forever in history. The scientist who comes from a medi-
cal laboratory with a cure for cancer will be listed with the William
Harveys and the Pasteurs. The biologist who can say with certainty
"here is the origin of life" will be a benefactor whom the race will never
forget. I n the affairs of men there is a frontier which can never be
crossed. The needs of the human race are infinite. Their problems grow
age by age more complex and more demanding of solution. That institu-
tion is a true college or true university which brings forth men of vi-
sion, science, and leadership adequate to meet these always increasing

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