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Published by nuraisahsulaiman1988, 2022-05-06 00:50:15

Pendidikan Psikologi (Mind Map Topik 1 - Topik 12) _Nur Aisah Sulaiman (SX200491HPRHS01)

Mind Map

Keywords: Mind Map

tPChroeofmTeespaslceiohxniitnygof Teaching:- Effective Professional
Not fix, might change (never routine) Skill
Has multiple goals (PESS) Professional
Knowledge Planning Skill
Physical - Prepare a lesson plan which
Emotion Contents Knowledge help before, during and after
Spiritual - Expert in teaching subject / know class
Social syllabus well Communication Skill
Involve relationship with a diversity of learners Pedagogical Knowledge - Using an appropriate intonation /
(knowledge, interest, motivation, skill and etc) - How to teach/ What method or
Require knowledge of child development language manners to gain
(how to gain attention from learners based on strategy to use / What approach will attention, practice two ways
their ages, how to prepare examination question help increase the effectiveness communication
if its involve multiple level of learners, and etc) Knowledge about Learners Motivation Skill
- Well know about student - Use reward / punishment method
Topic 1: background / skill/ interest / level of Assessment Skill
Becoming an thinking - How many examination question
Effective Classroom Curriculum Knowledge (easy, moderate, difficult), Time
- Syllabus, activity, reference needed to answer, What type of
Teacher questions (subjective / objective)
Classroom Management Skill
Research Methods - Arrangement of chairs & tables,
class rules & regulations
Technology Skill
- Software / Application / Computer

Descriptive Studies Correlational Studies Experimental Studies Action Research Things to Avoid

Describe / Explain / List down Relationship / interrelated Differentiation + Effect Improvement DON'T immediately ask for volunteer after
i) Cross Sectional between 2 variables Example: Example: After 3 years teaching, you ask a question. Give them time to
Example: Class 1 : Use method A observe students not fully think the answer.
- short period (example: Relationship between Class 2 : Use method B understand about the subject, DON'T turn classes into PowerPoint shows.
research take place in 1 teacher's characters and and see the effect of teacher use Method C with hope DON'T only provide 1 example of
year (at all once) students achievement students interest there's an improvement of instruction. Give a variety of instruction &
ii) Longitudinal student understanding & explanation to increase the effectiveness
- long period (example: achievement DON'T leave your students working in a
research take place a few group without individual accountability.
years to complete) DON'T teach without clear learning Prepared by:
objectives. Nur Aisah Sulaiman
DON'T disrespect your students

Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development

Schemas Assimilation Equilibrium Disequilibrium Accomodation

Mental network of organized information Fitting new information into Cognitive State: Consistent & Not Confuse Cognitive State: Conflict & Confuse Altering schema or creating new
'Building block' existing schema 'Everything seems to fit the theory' 'Doubt on the theory happen. schema to fit new material/new
Schema for cat: Tail, Fur, Meow, Stripes 'Build a theory according to schema' Conclusion: This is definitely a CAT Figure out some Schema not the same information
(See tail, fur, meow, stripes) (there are dots on the animal body
Conclusion: This is a CAT instead of stripes)'
Impact: Doubt occur
Conclusion: Is that a CAT?
Sensorimotor Stage Preoperational Stage
New information is added into the Schema:
(Birth to 2 years) (2 to 7 years) Human Development All the above are CATS
Involve sensation & motor skills Start to use mental ability to
represents events & objects Topic 2: Characteristic:
(heat, sight, feel, taste,etc) Human Development 1 I) Relatively orderly (From child -> teenager -> adult -> elder
(using symbols, gestures, II) Take place gradually (From alphabet -> syllables ->word -> sentence)
communications) - logical reasoning Cognitive, Socio- Physical

not yet organized / developed III) Happen at different rates (Example: body growth of women and man)Personal &

Cognitive & Language Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD Social

Learners can do without assistance Cognitive

Piaget's Stage of Example: Counting numbers (1,2,3,4..) Language
Learners can do with assistance of others

Example: Mathematic operations (+, -, x, /)
Learners cannot do even with assistance of others

Example: Mathematic operations (+, -, x, /)

Concrete-Operational Formal-Operational Practical Implication of Vygotsky's Theory
Stage Stage
i) Find students ZPD
(7 to 11 years) (11 years and above) ii) Instructional Methods :
Stable, think operationally and Capable on doing reasoning
use logical reasoning rather than & thinking in more abstract, a) Scaffolding - Providing supports at early stage of learning , gradually removed based on mastery
hypothetical and idealistic b) Guided Participation - Teach steps by steps
intuitive thought c) Apprenticeship - Mentor & Protoge
iii) Encourage inner / private speech
TERMS iv) Ongoing assessment

Object Permanance Centration Symbolic Thought Pretend Play Egocentrism Conservation Classification Seriation

Know the object exist Focus on the most Put finger on Broom represent the Can't accept peoples Constant / remain the Grouping an objects on Able to arrange objects
eventhough cant see perceptually obvious mouth = Silent Guitar opinion same the basis of common on the basis of
aspects Available during play: 1L of water pour into characteristics
Finger heart = Broom containers will remain Orange, Papaya: Fruits increasing/decreasing
I love you Not available during 1L regardless of Cat, Rat: Animals length, volume Prepared by:
play: Guitar containers shape or weight Nur Aisah Sulaiman

Piaget's Theory of Moral Development Kohlberg's Theory of Moral

PARENTING Supportive Unsupportive H(1esttecOpsroubtonnaensigyoseehmqr:muuo1leeeu0nnsscyttmeesasao/vrnrsoaeialdgintaydtibveelow) Pre-Conventional Post-Conventional
Demanding High Involvement Low Involvement (A2untdoPannesotrdacmnegoeievgu:inso1gt1miaryobuerllaaeelrsistbyaenindgabfloevxeib)le eIaPnxnudcdnihviosaihdbnmuegdaeeliniesntmce& Conventional SUpronicnivicaeilrpcsloealntract
Undemanding Strong Discipline cILnoatwnefr-oaprnemdrs-iotoyrndaelr
Authoritative Authoritarian
Low Discipline
Democratic / Flexible Controlling / Punishment

Permissive Neglectful

(Lenient / non-directive) (Uninvolved / Distant

Identity Status

Secure Avoidant Moral Development Achievement - explored realistic
options then make decision
Mother - quick / fast Mother - Distant / Disengaged
reaction, sensitive Child - Emotionally distant Diffusion - engaged in a
Child - Secure, happy disorganized examination of
Trust his / her His / her needs probably Student's judgements about what is different choices and fail to make a
needs will be won't be met right and wrong choice
met Changes in student's reasoning: why is right Foreclosure - follow the steps of
Attachment Style Topic 3: and why is wrong others (usually parents)
Human Development 1
Social, Pshycosocial, Moratorium - Pause on any decision
making and remaining on hold
Moral Development
Ambvivalent Disorganized Erikson's Stage of Psychosocial
Peer Status Development
Mother - Inconsistent Mother - Extreme, Frightening
(sometimes sensitive, Child - Depressed, non-responsive, Angry Trust vs Mistrust - Infant (0-18 months)
sometime neglectful) Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt (18 months - 3 years)
Severely confused with no strategy to have Initiative vs Guilt (3 - 5 years)
Child - Anxious, Insecure, Angry his / her needs met Industry vs Inferiority (5 - 13 years)
Can't rely his / her needs to Identity vs Role Confusion (13 - 21 years)
be met Intimacy vs Isolation (21 - 39 years)
Generativity vs Stagnation (40 - 65 years)
Types of Family Integrity vs despair (65 years and above)

Nuclear Family Realism Diffentiation
(Husband + Wife + Children) - live together
Overinflated Categorization
Blended / Reconstituted Family (I'm the prettiest in (social, academic and
Divorced partners with children married the world) physical)
Extended Family (I can fly, I can stop
(Parents, Children, Grandparents, Aunts, uncles, cousins & etc) - live the time)
under one roof
Popular Rejected Self Concept
Common - Law Family Nominated as best
Partners live together with or without children but not legally friend Infrequently nominated as best Abstraction
married Rarely dislikes by others friend
Actively dislike by peers Defining oneself
Childless Family Average (Physical VS Non-Physical:
Partners are married but have no children Controversial I'm Tall and Hardworking)
Single-Parent Family Receive average +Ve Frequently nominated as
Consist of one parent (mother / father) and his / her children and -Ve nomination someone's best friend and as
being dislike
Transitional Family Example: Rich peers
Mother / Father temporarily leaves the work force to take care the
young children Prepared by:
Nur Aisah Sulaiman
Dual - Income Family
Both parents work full-time and generate income

Behavioral Views of Learning Behavioural of Stimuli and Responses ConPdaivtlioovn’isngClPaasrsaicdailgm
Learning Theory
The behavioral view:
Learning is a relatively Before Conditioning After Conditioning
enduring change in
observable behavior Classical Conditioning (by Pavlov) Unconditioned Unconditioned Conditioned Conditioned
that results from experience. Pairing automatic responses to stimulus response stimulus response
new stimuli (UCS) (UCR) (CS) (CR)

Operant Conditioning Stimuli - without prior Behavior - produced in Stimuli - with experience, Response - linked to a
(by Thornedike & Skinner)
Actions by a learner, the
Reinforcement vs. Punishment consequences of which influence learning, produces an response to a stimulus produces a learned or particular stimulus through
further behavior automatic response without prior learning, acquired response conditioning by being paired
Deliberate actions Example: automatic response Example: with the stimulus
to“operate”on the environment Teacher said "please be Effect: Teacher clapping a hands Effect:
to change it in a certain way quiet" Students automatically Students become silent due to
Reinforcement Mediated by the law of effect become silent due to teacher clapping a hands

- Process of applying teacher asking During Conditioning Phases of Classical Conditioning
reinforcers with the aim "please be quiet" UCS + NS lAecaqrnuiinsigtinoenw- arceqspuoirninseg /
to increase desired / cEoxntidnictitoionned- dstyiimnguloufs
desirable behaviour Topic 4: Example:
Human Learning I: Teacher said rprSeerpsegpovaoniionntuaisnsnegleyobcuaoscnkrdeitcthoioevneerdy -
Behaviour -> Reinforcer - > Punishment Behavioural Views of "please be quiet" +
Strengthen / repeated - Process of applying Learning Classical Teacher clapping a hands Generalization and Discrimination
behaviour reinforcers with the aim Clapping hand is a neutral
to decreased undesirable stimulus (NS)
Behaviour -> Punisher - > conditioning Fix (F)- Can predict
oocSfcauatridaaetnsicoirena–obWflethhbeeenhdateovsoiioramr bduleecchbreerheaisanevfsiooWbtrrehceheeaamkveeionnut/ rdecreased Operant conditioning Ratio (R) - Number / Total
Variable (V) - Cant predict
Interval (I) - Time

1.(FR) - Who get score 5/5 in quiz 1,
will get McDonald
2.(FI) - Who can answer the
questions less than 5 minutes in
quiz 1, will get McDonald
3.(VR) - Who get score 5/5 for one
Reinforcer - Cause a behavior to become more frequent Punisher –A consequence of behavior that weakens or of the quiz, will get McDonald Generalization - Tendency for a
new stimulus that is similar to
Reinforcer decreases behavior Punisher 4. (VI) - Who can answer the the original stimulus to produce
questions less than 5 minutes a similar response (Example:
for one of the quiz, will get the Every time hear teacher claps 3
McDonald times - students will stop
talking and be silent). Original
Positive Negative Positive Negative conditioned is one time clap
Reinforcer Reinforcer Punisher Punisher only.

Time - Out - Remove students from the Discrimination - Individuals
When give, increases the When removed, increases When give, decreases the When taken away, class and physically isolate them from respond to certain stimuli but
frequency of a behavior the frequency of a behavior frequency of a behavior decreases the frequency their classmates not to others.
Example: If can answer all Example: If can answer all Example: Coming late to of a behavior Detention - Keeping students in school (Example: Even though hears 3
questions correctly, questions correctly, teacher school, teacher give Example: If fail in outside of school hours times claps, students will stop
teacher will gives a star will withdraw the punishment rattan examination, parents take talking and keep silent only
assignment that he/she plan children handphone when Teacher A does it, not
to give to students In-school suspension - Transfer student
to different place but follow the same Teacher B , C or D).
activities scheduled in the original class (Example: Students Only stop
Response cost - Give them tablet / talking when hear 3 times claps,
not once or twice or more than
phone, but if problems occur, then 3 times
withdraw it / remove the privileges

Prepared by:

Nur Aisah Sulaiman

Definition of Learning Storing & Rote learning Meaningful learning
Behaviour view - permanent Remember information without Make connections between new
change in observable behavior Storing Encoding understanding through information and prior available
Cognitive view - enduring change rehearsal (memorize & repeat) knowledge
in mental structures Copy of new information is Information is elaborated Elaboration - using one’s
saved into long-term or organized and saved Distributed practice - prior knowledge to expand on
Information Processing Model memory into long-term memory Learning one by one a new idea
Massed practice - One
Sensory memory Sensory register time learning (crammed Organization - orderly
Holds sensory information up to 0.5 second for Large capacity at one time) structure to multiple pieces
visual and 2-4 seconds for auditory Short duration of information (eg,mind map)
(Audio, Visual, Tactile ,Olfactory, Gustatory)
Short-term memory Topic 5:
Human Learning II:

Cognitive View
of Learning

Holds perceptions for analysis up to 30 seconds Long Term Retrieval
without rehearsal Memory Opposite process to storing and encoding
Long-term memory Pulling information from long-term memory
Relatively permanent storage and unlimited An enduring memory storage into working memory
capacity Conscious and unconscious
An enduring memory storage Recognition vs. recall
Information Processing Terms Rehearsal and Organization of Episodic memory –Long-term memory
Short-Term Memory of particular places and events in a Knowledge Activation
Attention person’s life (knowledge about Becoming aware of information in long-term
Automatic processing - has sufficiently Maintenance rehearsal - repeated ourselves) memory
practiced a procedure to allow for the to oneself frequently Semantic memory –The memory a Spreads from one idea too the other ideas
procedure to happen with minimal use Elaborative rehearsal - connecting person has for meaning (general that are related
(requires minimal attention) it to something that is already well knowledge about the world) Reconstruction
Conscious processing - Extremely known
demanding of cognitive resources Chunking - grouping of bits of Types of Knowledge Forgetting is due to:
(requires full attention) data into larger, meaningful units Decay - faded away (information not used)
Declarative knowledge: What? Interference - other information interfere the
Perception Semantic knowledge - general retrieval of an information
Gives meaning to sensory input knowledge (Example: what is the Cue-dependent theory - Lack of effective
name of______________?) retrieval cues
Working Memory Episodic knowledge - knowledge Tip-of-the –tongue phenomena (I know that I
The 2nd memory system - of life experiences or events know it but I just could not figure out what is
information that has been attended (Example: How old are you it)
to and perceived is held temporarily when___________? )

and processed Procedural knowledge–how to?
Visuospatial sketch pad (VSSP), Example: Bake a chocolate cake
Phonological loop (PL), Central
executive (CE), Capacity= 7 +/–2, Conditional knowledge–when and why Prepared by:
Duration = 15 to 30 sec unless Example: Baking a cake when there is no electricity (should you use steamer Nur Aisah Sulaiman
maintained through rehearsal or fryer or stove-oven? Why can you use different method of baking?

Complex Cognitive Anderson and Rule Theory of Theories of Exemplar
Processes Krathwohl’s Concept Concept Formation Theory
Taxonomy of
Cognitive processes go beyond cognitive objectives Prototype
simply remembering new Theory
information (Example: KBAT)

Discover the rules related Prototype is the best Exemplars are from real
to the concept attributes representation of a examples experienced by
E.g.: Triangle defining rules category or class individuals
are three straight lines E g Bird if you stay in
joining together at each Langkawi, most probably E g This software is not
end your prototype of a bird is friendly user, difficult to
a Eagle use based on previous
Reasoning experience
Misconceptions ncnhEInoooa.gdntnt.cud:wnlcAuotatdwtnsiievttciceuettedhoIiKetabe.ntAunTtttthhr(teekaehrihtsestatueetuisasneducahehhsceneehr-trr/eh/>hmrdiisoadmigemo.she)ts Topic 6:
Complex Cognitive
Naïve theories Incorrect analogies
Processes Metacognition
E g once you know Undergeneralization E g Punishment in this world Problem Solving Methods to Promote
the Arabic alphabet, is similar in the hereafter Concept Formation
Transfer of Learning
you can know how Use Schema activation,
to read the Quran Fail to include relevant Transfer of Learning Analogical reasoning - using
objects or events Overgeneralization example that familiar to student
E g Mammals are nwPeoawssSiGtllpeeeiveanaecrrenintrfeariincadl gnttirsrnoaafretnnhrsssefof-eelSpvrroainmsgtefntahecwiinligtparttohebaltem
considered as animals, Include irrelevant objects or t(EnwNbh.egeeaawcgts.:aa1llRueet0Masiav0err1en0nweitinisdresgasbhinmniasgavtfghelelereeprr-prttSeahhvosaaitmonnhue1Ristn)luhydipnelieragsahtrnh1ea0dt00 Concept Attainment Model
events 3 stages approach:
whereas fish or E g Drinking we assume that
worms are not all animals drink the same Presenting examples and non
considered as animals way examples
Checking to see if students have
A whale is a fish (in reality understood the concept
whale is a mammal) Having students analyze their
thinking strategies
Decision Making Problem Solving Algorithm - Consists of a set of
Thinking flaws: Well defined problems - clearly defined steps Concept Map
enough information to solve Example: How to bake a cake Constructing maps representing the
BOHCeiovnleniderffsciriopgmneharftistdebioevinanescrbeainabcsieas Ill defined problems - require Heuristics - may solve problem but are relationships among concepts
multiple solution strategies not guaranteed to solve problem
and there are more than one
acceptable solution

think4inelgem(Neincktsercsroitnic, a1l988) Problem solving model 5 steps Means ends analysis - Breaks down complex problem into simpler problems Prepared by:
CMKMoneomottawipvcolaoentgdiegonnneittisoknills (cyclical) Working back strategy - Starts at the end state and moves back to the initial state of the problem Nur Aisah Sulaiman
Analogical reasoning - Uses exemplars from previously stored information to a new situation/problem
Problem Identification -> Trial and error -Tries alternative solutions in no specific and systematic way
Problem representation ->
Strategy selection - > Strategy Incubation - postponing any attempts
implementation ->Evaluation to solve a problem after having engaged in
deep reflection about the problem

Reciprocal Causation Unique Aspects of Reinforcement Modeling Live Model: real people
Model Observational Learning Punishment Factors for
Successful Symbolic Model: cartoon; fictional character
Social Learning - Learn from Introduced by Bandura (2006) Vicarious learning:
observing the behavior of others refer to the interrelationship Observing the Modeling Modeling Effects
and observing the outcomes / between students’ environment, consequences of
consequences of the behavior their personal beliefs and their another’s actions Inhibitory
behavior Prevent (observe and not do)
Behaviour Component Enactive learning: Eg: Observe someone being punished because
Physical: Persistence, Environment Component Direct experience - of cheating in exam - decide not to follow
Effort Teachers, Parents, Peers learning from own
Emotional: anger, Pride experience Disinhibitory
Prompt (observe but will do)
Personal Component Capability to perform Eg: Observe someone excel in Test 1 received
Self -Efficacy or achieve a goal reward - decide to follow
Relationship between
Outcome Expectancy performance and the Response facilitation effects
Attributions outcome Cue to prompt behavior
Eg: yawning (eventhough not feeling sleepy),
Zimmerman’s Model of The Self Topic 7: raising one’s eyebrows to prompt certain
regulation Cycle Sociocognitive behavior, purposely looking at your watch
View of Learning
Forethought Phase
Learner processing
Task analysis
(setting goal, arrange strategy) Attention (attend relevant information from model)
Self beliefs Retention (remember the observed behavior to imitate in the future)
(positive expectation on plan) Production/performance (convert the mental representation created
during encoding to motor activity).
Self-reflection Phase Performance Phase Motivation (motivated to learn from the model and to reproduce what they
Self evaluation Self control
Self imposed (self recording, self instruction) Model Characteristics
(contingencies conclude) Self monitoring
Power and prestige (Attend to models that appear to have power and
prestige in the modeled domain)
Competence (Demonstrate behaviors flawlessly and with great self
Similarity (Attend to models that appear to be similar to them (peer)
Coping (competent in a specific task or domain yet had to struggle
along their path to mastery

Prepared by:
Nur Aisah Sulaiman

Constructivist Topic 8:
Views Constructivist View of

Students actively Learning
construct their
knowledge from their
personal experiences
with others and the

Individual Social Vygotsky
constructivism constructivism

Individuals construct their Emphasizes the role of social
understanding context in knowledge
Social interaction is not construction
emphasized Learners share individual
perspectives with others to
Discovery learning construct understandings
Finding a solution to a problem or together
an explanation (Eg: How to edit a Distributed cognition:
video) distribution of learning
across many minds with the
Pure discovery - minimal goal of drawing on multiple
guidance knowledge bases and ideas
Guided discovery -teachers
provide hints and directions

Cooperative learning Tutoring and reciprocal Communities of learners Problem-based learning Classroom discussion Informal learning
Elements for successful teaching Appropriate for older , Students work in IRE –Initiate, response, experiences
cooperative tasks: self-regulated students collaborative groups to evaluate
Promote comprehension Participating in solve a complex ill- Involvement of teacher Out-of-classroom learning
Positive strategies multiple zones of defined problem as a facilitator - Libraries, Zoos,
interdependence proximal development Uses problem solving - facilitate the materials botanical gardens,
Individual Summarizing Sharing the gained strategies - Arrange the groups Industrial and agricultural
accountability Generating questions expertise with the –Algorithm sites
Face-to-face interaction Clarifying community members –Heuristics (Means-end and seating
Social skills (trust, Predicting - Monitor the progress
respect, agreeableness, Example: Peer-Assisted analysis, Trial and - Help students evaluate
cooperation) Learning Strategies error, Working-back outcomes
Group processing - Excellent student teach strategy)
average / non-excellent
Structural approaches : think-pair- student
share (Think alone-> together)

Prepared by:
Nur Aisah Sulaiman

Flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 2003) Example

Psychological processes Perceived Level of High Anxiety Flow Anxiety - Not good in Algebra,
that initiate, direct and Challenge Low Apathy Boredom perceives as difficult
sustain students’ behavior
Low High Boredom - Good in Algebra,
toward learning Perceived Level of Skill perceives as easy

Intrinsic Topic 9: Apathy - Not good in Algebra, Arousal, Anxiety,
Intrinsic and Extrinsic perceives as easy and
The motivation to be involved in a
learning activity for it sown sake Motivation Flow - Good in Algebra, Performance
Example: A student spends longer Motivation Theories perceives as difficult yet
time to solve a challenging challenging
question even though there is no
grade for the correct answer The relationship between arousal and performance

Extrinsic Motivation
The motivation to be involved in a
learning activity as a mean to an
end (aim to get something)
Example: A student completes a
task to get a good grade

Behavioral theories Cognitive theories Sociocognitive Humanistic theories

Rewards Interest theory Expectancy X value Self-Actualization Growth
To inform Dispositional interest(individual) Expectancy–expectation for success Aesthetic Appreciation Needs
To control Situational interest(activated by are affected by students’ self-schemas intellectual Appreciation Deficiency
environment) Values: Self-Esteem Needs
Feedback Seductive details–‘false advertising’ (Intrinsic interest, Importance, Utility Belonging
Informational feedback (engagement in a task based on task Safety Prepared by:
(how performance can Goal theory value), Cost (time, money etc.) Survival Nur Aisah Sulaiman
be improved) Mastery goal
Performance feedback Performance-approach goal Attribution theory –relationship between
(in relation to others - Performance-avoidance goal students’ explanations for their academic
compare with others) Social goal success and failure and their motivation

Social Recognition Self-determination theory Locus of control (internal vs external)
E.g:A teacher Classrooms - Autonomy-supporting Stability(stable vs unstable)
nominates a student classrooms & Controlling classrooms Controllability(controllable vs
into school chorals 3 psychological needs: uncontrollable)
peaking team Competence, Autonomy/Control &
Relatedness Self-efficacy theory - Judgment about ability to
perform a task with particular characteristics

Beliefs about Knowing

Structure of Stability / Ability to Learn Speed of Learning Nature of
knowledge Certainty of Learning
Simpler (Car has wheels, Fix (Forever you will not How quickly you can gain a Memorizing facts
doors, windows) Fix (Rainbow has 7 understand about knowledge? Developed by integrating new
Complex (Car can colors) algebra) information into previous
accelerate due to Evolving (Phone Changeable (If you study Tapping Interest understanding
accelerator in a car that technology improve harder, you will gradually
controls the flow rate year by year) understand about Four-phase model of interest development: 2 Types of Interest
of the fuel to the algebra) 1) situational interest triggered
combustion chamber 2) situational interest maintained Personal interests
Topic 10: 3) emerging individual interest More enduring; general
Beliefs about Ability Beliefs and 4) well-developed individual interest
Self-perception Situational interests
Short-lived; aspects of the
Entity view - belief that ability situation that hold students’
is stable attention

aInbcilriteymceanntaclhvainewge- beliefs that Beliefs about Self-Worth Guidelines: Building on Students’ Interests

Beliefs about Causes and Mastery - oriented students Guidelines: Coping with Anxiety and Curiosity
Control Focus on learning goals
Believe ability can be Use competition carefully Relate content objectives to student experiences
Attribution Theory (Weiner’s) improved Avoid situations where highly anxious Identify student interests that can be incorporated into
Locus have to perform before large groups lessons and discussion
Failure -avoiding students Make sure instructions are clear Use humor, personal experiences (Share your hobbies and
Internal - Excellent in Avoid failure by sticking to Avoid unnecessary time pressures interests with students)
mathematic because love the what they know, by not Remove some pressures from major tests Use material with interesting content or details
subject taking risks and exams Create surprise & curiosity
External - Got A in Develop alternatives to written tests
mathematic because the Failure -accepting students (Try oral,open-book,or group tests)
questions are all easy) Engage in behavior that Teach self-regulation strategies
blocks their own success in
Stability order to avoid testing their
(causes around the event stable true ability
or unpredictable)

(Controllable / uncontrollable)

Prepared by:
Nur Aisah Sulaiman

History of Intelligence Topic 11: Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of
Issues in Individual Intelligence
Binet(1905) - Published (with Simon) the
first set of intelligence scales Variations Analytical - Ability to respond
Binet & Simon(1916) - Mental age–Age level effectively to problems
associated with the ability to perform Psychologist Creative–Generating new ideas
certain tasks Counselor Practical–Ability to handle everyday
Stern working with Terman (1920) - problems and issues
Intelligence quotient (IQ) Method for Entrepreneur
communicating the level of a person’s Bodyguard
intelligence Athlete
Terman (early1900s) - Developed Binet’s
scales into the Stanford-Binet intelligence Guitarist
test Singer
Goddard (1920) - Intelligence is an innate
ability or the ability a person was born with Drummer
Thurstone (1957) - Proposed a model of
intelligence with seven primary mental Scientist
abilities Detective
Cattell(1963) - Fluid intelligence (acquire Computer
new skills), Crystallized intelligence Programming
(acquired skills and knowledge such as
reading and languages kills)

Wildlife biologist


Interior Designer
Graphic Designer


Customer Service

Prepared by:
Nur Aisah Sulaiman

Definition of classroom Successful learning Impact of good classroom
management environment management

Skills and strategies that Is not one in which students Enhance students’ achievement
teachers use to organize have been managed into being Enhance students’ motivation
instruction and maximize quiet and orderly. Enhance students’ participation
the productive use of their Maximize student’s learning / involvement
instructional time opportunities
Avoid promotes students’ Example of
Needed skils for Teacher passivity organizational skills
Planning Making good use of the
Organizing Topic 12: instructional time
Witness (attentive to everything Classroom Having instructional materials
that happens in their classrooms) Management prepared for their lessons
Overlapping (addressing Developing routines and
behavioural issues without Characteristics of procedures for handling typical
interrupting instructions) well-developed plan classroom business
It is aligned with learning
3 components of witness objectives Effective physical
Watching for behaviour - It is connected to related learning arrangement in a classroom
discrepencies from the intended experiences A Flexible Layout
program of action It takes into consideration the Furniture for Utility
Monitoring the pace and duration diversity of students’ needs, Technology Integration
of classroom events, making sure interests and goals A Light-Filled Environment
that activities run smoothly It is flexible, allowing for changes
Attending to what is happening that result from unexpected Prepared by:
without disregarding individual student Nur Aisah Sulaiman
behaviors and activities within
small group 3 environmental conditions
that support a productive

Arranging the room in a way
conducive to effective
Beginning the school year with a
clear set of classroom procedures
Setting the rules of conduct that
will guide classroom interactions

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