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Published by Elkhan Julian, 2016-09-12 07:02:46

How It Works Book Of Incredible History

How It Works Book Of Incredible History

Keywords: how it works,history

Horse What were Soldiers of
armour velociraptors Ancient Rome
explained
really like? Howdidthe
gramophone
How was the Flying
work? aWWII
gwllotine plane
Invented?
The biggest
Da Vinci's flying prehistoric
machine predators

BOOKOF



EVERYfHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THE WORLD WE LIVED IN

The American Inside St Mark's Who were the Trench
Basilica fearsome Celts? warfare
Sherman
army tank

Cuckoo Darwin's
docks
theories
explained

How didNative The
Americans light?
development
of explosives



Welcome to

a.u;

BOOKOF

INCREDIBLE

Haveyou ever wonderedwhat Ancient Rome invented? What IJfe
would have been like in the time of the dinosaurs? How

dynamite was invented?Whatit was like to bea ZUlu warrior ora
musketeer? With current technological advancements it Is easy
to forget the wars, the discoveries, the creaturesand the people

that have led us to where we are today. This revised ed IUon
celebrates the pastand takes us ona journeybackin time
through someof the ages, customsand traditions that shaped the
world we live in, and the lasting legadesand monuments thatwe
cherish to this day. Covering theandent world, the Iconic
buildingsand landmarksscatte.red around the globe, ground-
breakingweapons and warfare,theinventionsthatchanged the
world, the influential Visionaries from the past, and prehistoric
creatures that once roamed Earth, there's somethingfor
everyone to learn aboutand enjoy. EverysubjectIs accompanied
bystunningillustrationsand marked diagramsso that you ca n
best understand the topiccoveredin perfectdetail. So, turn the

page and let's bring history to life!



~
BOOKOF

INCREDIBLE

HI RY"

Imagine P\blishi"lg Ud
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oKow It Works Book of lnctecf.ibl& History Volume 2 fbrllsed Edition 2015 .,agine Publlshlnc Ud

LSBN 9781910439951

Part of the

bookazine series

1aaa•••

PUBliSH INC

BOOK OF
INCREDffiLE IDSTORY

010 VI Inventions of l Buildings, Places i Weapons &War
Ancient Rome
&Landmarks 072 Inside a Whippet tank
016 The Circus Maximus 074 Life in the trenches
018 History ofice mummies 038 Saint Mark's Basilica 078 Flying a WWII plane
018 What are the Nazca 040 Sagrada Familia 082 The Sherman Tank
042 The Pantheon 084 Brutal battering rams
lines? 044 Seville Cathedral 085 Secrets of the Zulu
019 Maldng the Terracotta 046 Florence Cathedral
048 Jerusalem under siege Warriors
Army 050 Bucldngham Palace o86 Meet the musketeers
020 Ancient Egyptian o88 Battle of Agincourt
uncovered 092 TheA7V
cosmetics 054 Massachusetts State 094 Gunpowder
o2o Origins of chocolate 094 Horse armour
021 How sundials tell the House
The Globe Theatre's explained
time story 095 Inside the F-4 Phantom
Inside a Japanese
021 Horse shoeing castle II fighter jet
022 The art of 059 The FogongTemple 096 jousting explained
Pagoda 098 How drawbridges
mummification o6o Brooklyn Bridge
023 Britain's tribal o62 Whatwentwrongat worked
Chernobyl? 099 Flint weapons
territories o64 Exploring Macchu 099 Brealdng the sound
024 Ancient Greek theatres Picchu
026 Greek tomb o66 How was the Sistine barrier
Chapel's ceiling
construction painted? The Roman
027 Greek warriors o68 Cardiff Castle army
028 Aztec warriors
029 Native American 010

warrior
o:.o Chinese junks
032 The ancient Celts

Faster than

S011Dd

099

162

Prehistoric
predators

006

o68

Cardiff Castle

Understanding "'\ Industry & 124 The SonyWalkman
morse code • Invention 124 Hearing aid evolution
125 How did the first
119 102 Inside a cotton mill
104 Medieval writing electric refrigerators
r work?
equipment 126 How Leonardo da Vinci
104 The first hearing aids tried to fly
105 Apothecary secrets 127 How the gramophone
105 Compass of the oceans worked
106 The origins of 127 The bow drill
1J6 Da Vinci's flying
helicopters machine
106 Pocket watches
1JO Benjamin Franklin
explained 1J2 Isambard Kingdom

107 Meet Madame Brunei
Gu1llotine 1J4 Guglielmo Marconi
1J6 The Wright brothers
107 The first telephone 1J8 'fYcho Brahe
108 The Colossus computer 11f0 Albert Einstein
110 How dry stone walls 1lf2 Max Planck
144 Michael Faraday
are buift 11f6 Alfred Nobel
110 Inside metronomes 11f8 Peter Higgs
111 What were pneumatic 150 Charles Darwin

tube systems used for? ~ Prehistoric
112 The Parsons steam
154 Age of the dinosaurs
turbine 162 Prehistoric predators
111f Racl<-and-pinion 166 Biggest ever land

railways mammal
116 Preserving the Mona 168 Velociraptors
170 Ankylosaurus
Lisa
118 The first electric 172 The~ant

submarine Brae ·osaurus
118 Who was the Piltdown 174 Sabre-toothed cats

Man?
119 Electric telegraph

machines explained
120 Darkrooms illuminated
122 How do overhead

projectors work?
122 The first vacuums
12J How are bronze statues

cast?
12J What are life-

preserving coffins?

007

010 VI Inventions of 022 The art of I
Ancient Rome mummifitation
Ancient
Explore the six best inventions Unwrap the process of Celts
preserving mummies
that the Romans gave to us 032
023 Britain's tribal
016 The Cirtus Maximus territories 030

See the largest stadium in the Locate the native tribes of Chinese
ancient Britain
history of the Roman world j11D){S
024 Ancient Greek
018 History ofite theatres
mummies
Discover how these massive
How did these ancient amphitheatres were built

corpses freeze in ice? 026 Greek tombs

018 What are the Learn about the unique Greek
Naztalines? tomb structures

Where did these Peruvian 027 Greekwarriors

ancient drawings come from? The most feared fighters

019 Making the 028 Aztet warriors
Terratotta Army
Learn how these fierce
Meet the immortal warriors warriors fought battles

built over 2,200 years ago 029 Native Ameritan
w a r n• o r
020 Andent Egyptian
tosmetlcs Check out the key kit of a
Native American fighter
Find out why makeup was so
important in ancient Egypt 030 Chinese junks

020 Origins of chotolate Dynamic sailing at high speed

The sacred Mayan beginnings 032 The ancient Celts

021 How sundials tell How the Iron Age
the time revolutionised the Celts

How did our ancestors tell the

time of day

021 Horse shoeing

From the olden days we have

protected their feet- how?

Greek
tombs

026

008

Muntmification

022

-/ .• •..

- .• • • • • • • •• • ••
..,~• ·••••• •• ' • ..:.1 ••
I.• • • ••
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•• • 4 ...• •• •'
• •



024

.... Roman

theatre

- 009

I

Inventions of Ancient Rome

--------------------~~

How the Romans
changed the world you live in

Perhaps the greatest ofall the ancient One of the most remarkable traits ofall networks like the Cloaca Maxima.They were
civilisations, the Roman Empire though, was the ability for the Romans to work also famously proficient at town planningand
represented the age ofclassical all their schemes and inventions into fully building large structures.
antiquity and helped create the world we live in functioning cities within an extensive empire.
today. The massive engineering projects that Rome itself was a bustling metropolis that no Home life was revolutionised under the
were undertaken and the advances in medicine other civilisation matched in prosperityand Romans. Also, as is well known, the army was
a nd society ensure Roman influence can still be size for centuries afterward. Nowhere else in an all-conqueringjuggernaut that took the old
felt now. For example, concrete and cement the ancient world had grand shopping centres world by storm. To commemorate their affect on
were first popularised in Ancient Rome, as was .likeTrajan's Market, specialised landfill sites modern society and technology, we discover
a type ofcentral heating known as a hypocaust. such as Monte Testaccio or extensive sewer just how innovative and ground-breaking this
civilisation really was.

010

Carthage Alexandria Rome

'The cenue of the The Egyptian city became Wrth an estimated
ptosper-ous In the population of 1million
defeated Carthaginian
Ptolemaic dynasty and by and the homeor the
Empire, Rome made the time or Roman emperOJ:. Rome was
Cafthage one of its main conquest had 500.000 the empire's main
sateJiites with as many to 750,000 Inhabitants. wban metropolis.

as 500,000 people.

I•Jl•l\1!WI:m•IW Lugo in spain is now the only city in Europe to still be surrounded by intact Roman walls

Engineering in Roman home life

The technology insidea Roman house

The citizens of Rome had to be properly housed one or two storeys high a nd included Jots of every year. If you wanted some retail thera py,
to ensure that the vast urba n sprawl could different sections. Ideally adapted to the Trajan's Market had over one hundred ta bernae
opera te as a n organised society. Prior to the Mediterranean heat, tbe typical Roman house (shops) sellinga variety of goods.
Romans, impressive structures were built by often had no w indows (glass was rarely used),
the Egyptians and the Greeks bu t never on the instead fitted w ith an atrium to act as an Not every citizen was lucky or rich enough to
scale of the Roman Empire with its extensive open-air courtyard in the middle of the owna house. Lower classes were put in to one of
housing projects. building. Life in a house was boosted bya fully Rome's many 'insulae' apartment buildings
functioni ng public welfare system that and thereare believed to have been over 40,ooo
Roman building techniques owed a lot to provided grain to 30o,ooo of Rome's families of these in the dty. ln fact, these apartments
Greek a nd Etruscan influences. Houses were ou tnumbered family houses by 20 to one!

The Roman residence Building blocks Roof tiles

More than just a roof above your head, the The Romans used pulleys and A stonesman would carve thin
Roman house was quite complex levers to shift large building tiles from stone. These were
blocks. Slaves carried out the laid on top o f wooden beams
hard graft. and fixed w ith nails.

Mosaics

Chips of stone were laid into

cement to create beautiful
works of art. This technique

borrowed f rom Greece.

Heating .. Clay bricks

larger residences were Roman bricks were
heated by a hypocaust fired clay. Roman
system, an ancient method
of underfloor heating. legions operated mobile
kilns and bricks were often
Hypocaust heating system stamped with the mark of

Convection Roman roads the legion.
currents
Roman roads interlinked cities and towns and 011
Underneath a allowed rapid m ilitary and administrative
raised floor, vents
allowed heated air oommooications. Construction began with a
to t ravel freely and trench, which was filled with a base of stones
and rocks. These were packed together
used convection
currents to heat the tightly, usually with cement, to creat e a firm
tiles above. The foundation for armies to march on and
warm air came chariots to ride across. large paving stones
from a wood- were used on the surface. These were placed
burning furnace. and fitted by hand along with channels on the
side of the road that allowed water to run off
Running the hypocaust Disadvantages into surrounding fields. In the UK, roads such

Slaves kept the system running by keeping the The hypocaust was reserved only for as the A1 and AS owe their origins to the
flame alight. It is still unknown how well the the wealthiest villas and large Roman conquest of Britain.
convection currents worked and whether some
rooms got too hot because of the system. bathhouses. Also, the burning of wood

produced toxic carbon monoxide fumes.

I

Inventions of Ancient Rome

Aqueduct engineering Hydraulics

How the Romans built their immense water-management network Despite having a limited

Aqueducts weren't Invented by water out of the cityan d into the (measured angles) and chorobates know1edge of construction
Romans but were popularised by RiverTiber.The first-ever aqueduct (measured horizontal planes). science, the Roman builders
them. These structures were the Iife was the Aqua Appia, built in 312 These were handled byskilled army
stream of a city.t,JOO drinking BCE. lt he lped relieve the demand engineers who designed a gravity realised that gravity and wate<
fountains and 144public toilets for water ina rapidlygrowing based system with d ropsha fts a nd
were located in Romea nd th ey Rome. Where possible, the majority chutes to help the water flow. This pressure would play a key part.
were all fed by the complexsystem ofa n aqueduct was bu ilt demonstrated excellent structu ra l
ofaqueducts, which brought in undergrou nd to protect it from engineeringa nd water Groma
fresh drinking water from rura l e nemies. The iconic raised a rch es managementexpertisea nd they
areas. Thesystem was were only requ ired when the were built so well thatsomea restil l An important
accompanied by an elaborate s tructures neared a city or needed operationa l to th is dayl surveying instrument
network ofsewers. to cross a ravine. in Ancient Rome, the
Topography groma was used to
Rome's main sewer was known The bas ic yet effective tools used measure straight lines
as Ooaca Maxima and carried dirty in cons truction were the dioptra Each aqueduct had to be tailored and right angles.

to the shape of the land it ••

traversed so careful planning was •

put into how best to construct it.

I Building mateel1ls Scaffolding
Aqueducts were pri marl ly
constructed out of limestone thatwas While underconstruction, the
mined from neighbouring quarries. aqueduct was propped up by
These slabsof rock were bound wooden scaffolding. This
together by Roman concrete and
cement, which was made out of maintained the structure as
durable and waterproofvolcanic sand
called pozzolana. stone was imported from

2 Piannlng nearby quarries.
The building ofaqueductswas
often financed by the emperors
themselves, so meticulous planning
was put into the operation. The Ia nd
needed to be surveyed by engineers to
make sure it was fit for construction.

3 Construction techniques
The reinforced Roman concrete
arch was an essential part ofthe
aqueductas it could hold the pressure
and weight ofthe water after the
wooden construction supports had
been removed. Pulleys, wedgesand
screws were used as lifting apparatus.

Jl Design and •= as

All-rhe water was carried a great
distance from spring to urban area and
was then held in cisterns in the city
and ontoa network ofpipes to each
individual building. Aqueductsalso
aideda town'ssewersystemand
protected against fires.

012

RECORD ILLIO ROME'S LONG-STANDING RECORD
BREAKERS
Rome's population peaked at1 million people when the empire was at
CROWDED CAPITAL
the height of its powers. This numberwasn't topped in Europe for nearly

z,ooo years, until London began to prosper in the Industrial Revolution.

I•Jl•l\1!WI:m•IW Rome's aqueducts provided up to 1,ooo litres [264 gallons) of water for every person in the city

Covering Arches

On the overground parts Arches were a popular

of an aqueduct, a roof feature of Roman

called a 'specus· was architecture. Strong

sometimes used to and versatile, an

protect the water from aqueduct would have

• the elements, keeping it been much less
fresh and clean. ef'fective without them.

keep Senate minutes private.They were also pioneers ofthe ):!Ostal
service.The Cursus Publicus was a state-run couriersystem that

013

I

Inventions of Ancient Rome

Buildings

The biggest cities were home to the biggest buildings

In its prime Rome was one of the, if not the The Colosseum became the cultural centre of
most, technologicallyadvanced cities in the Rome after its construction in So CE, but the
world. Containing huge, expansive buildings, capital also contained oneof the largestsports
revolutionary architecture and a housed, fed stadiums ofall time, the Circus Maximus, as
and watered population within its walls, the well as other examples ofstunning
vast empire's capital In Rome was well ahead engineering, such as the Pantheon, the Arch of
ofits time. Septimius Severus and the Theatre of Pompey.

The Colosseum All in a name Dimensions

How the centrepiece of the empire The name 'Colosseum' comes from 48m (157ft) high and 189xl56m
and its a rchitecture was built the word 'colossus' which was the (620x512ft) in length and width, the
name of giant statues erected in the
Concrete and cement city by Emperor Nero. Colosseum had room for around
50,000 bloodthirsty Romans!
Pozzolanic ash·based oement
made buildingsmuch
sturdier and allowed

several levels to be

builton topof
each other.

-

Tickets

Not unlike modern
sta<f~a, spectators

were given

numbered tokens as
tickets and wooden

barriers helped

maintain order on

the terraces.

Velarium Construction Arches Underground labyrinth

All the spectators in the The Colosseum's outer wall was 80 concrete arches meant the Underneath the Colosseum was a
Colosseum were protected from made from lOO,OOOm' (3.53mn system of tunnels that elevated
the hot Mediterranean sun byan Colosseum had an extremely cages into the arena using a
awning called the velarium. ft') oflimestone held together by slave·run pulley system.
300 tons of iron clamps. durable design, which has allowed
014 it to stand for nearly 2,000 years!

STOP 180Organisation 2Traii'Wlg 3• Pay 4•Annyoath 5Clothing and armour
legionnaires wero In a century. Training lasted four months Alegionnaire would eama
FACTS Together, slxcenturiesmade a andconsisted of marching, basic 225denarii for ayear's Each soldier would s~l"a • Almour wasligl>t butsturdy.
cohortof480 men.A legion had formation and weapons seMce. OUt of thiswage • 'sacrementLm'wtlen they
ROMAN MILITARY The helmets and annour
ten cohorts and the entn anny training. Recruits also • packet were deductions for began their service, pledging could repel projectiles while
k!arned to swim, ride ahorse
contained 30legions, a total of and usea bow and a sling. equipment, foodandellt'n a their alegiance tothe emperor • the miilaly·lssoo tunic was
regimentsavings bank.
arot.old 150,000 soldiers. andvownever to abandon comlortallleenough t o
Yo'eaton long marches..
comrades or desert a battle.

I•Jl•l\1!WI:m•IW Soldiers hod to be able to march 32krn [2omi] in five hours while corrying around 2o.skg [45lb] of equipment

Military

Ingenious conquerors

On both land and sea, the Roman Empire The war at sea Greeks and Carthaginians, maritime
dominated warfare for centuries, invading superiority was essential for victory in the
large portions ofEuropeand makingsignificant On the high seas of the Mediterranean, the PunicWarsand Egyptcampaigns.The senior
inroads into Africa and Asia Minor. The Romans Romansenjoyedeven more dominancethan arm of the Roman navy was known as the
outwitted their opponents using expert battle on land. Using triremes and galleys propelled Classis Misenensis and except for internal
tacticsand perfectly engineered weapons and by teams ofovenoo men, shipsattacked dvil wars, achieved total marine dominance
armour. Soldierswere divided into legions that either by ramming the opposition or boarding for Rome after the Punic Wars.
served different territories and swore an oath of their ships. Owinga lot of their strategies to
loyalty to the centurions. One of the main reverse-engineering methods learnt from the
reasons why the Romans consistently beat their
enemies (and what links them to today's Formation Centurions
military) is the fact that the army was a
professional conscripted force. Afull-time Legionnaires would form a A centurion usually commanded a unit
operation, a soldier was one of the highest-paid defensive front using their of 80 men and was in charge of their
and most-respected occupations in the empire. rectangle scutum shields, training and discipline after rising
which was a progression on through the ranks.
Romans on the Greek phalanx formation.
Ranged warfare
the battlefield legionnaires
The pilum and verutum
What a battle between the Empire and a The legion was were spears used for
barba rian horde would have looked like the main unit of long distance attacks to
the army and unsettle the enemy
Cavalry applicants were ranks before a charge.
required to be
Roman cavalry Roman citizens
riders supported between the ages
the legionnaires of17 and 45.
by attacking an
army's f lanks.
They could also
chase down any
enemies that
tried to escape.

Auxiliaries ~·--- Close-quarters combat

Auxiliaries (non·citizen Discipline Either a gladius or pugio was
soldiers) formed the rest of used in tight hand-to-hand
the Empire's m ilitia and could The strict Roman ranks were extremely combat when the two forces
only be granted citizenship effective against the barbarian hordes, , engaged in a close proximity.
who had no effective response to the
after 25 years' service. Testudo (tortoise) formation. /

I ...D. . . 015

I

The Circus Moximus

1• rcus •mus

Explore the largest stadium in the history of the Romanworld
and find out what spectacular events were held there

As the name suggests, the Circus centuries, the Circus Maximus essentially including musical recitals, athletics
Maxi mus was Rome's biggest circus, competitions, plays and staged animal hunts.
or racetrack. It was established by remained the same forthe next 4oo years.
Tarquinius Priscus, the fifth king of Rome, in Despite the massive cost of the circus's With the advent ofChristianityand the
the sixth century BCE. The first circus to be construction and the popularity ofchariot crumbling Roman Empire, the fortunes of the
erected in the city, the original building was a racing, admission was entirely free - anyone Circus Maximus quickly declined. The last
wholly wooden construction.lncreasedin size could attend races, including poorer citizens. recorded chariot race took place in 549 CE, after
which Rome's greatest entertainmentvenue
byJulius Caesar, a triple stone a rch was later Betting was popular with all classes and was abandoned and became a quarry.
added to honour Emperor Titus, before the under the stands were food stalls, stables and
entire structure was rebuilt in stone and s hops that serviced charioteers and public In1587, the two Egyptian obelisks that stood
concrete by EmperorTrajan in 103 CE, after a fire alike. Severalsmall temples and shrines were on the central spine were removed by Pope
destroyed its wooden predecessor. also incorporated into the complex and Sixtus Vto adorn different parts of the city; the
religious festiva ls were held annually within its rest of the building disappeared soonafter.
Although various monumental additions walls. Other forms of entertainment also Today, the circus's site is used as a pu blic park
were continuallyadded during the following featured in the venue's yearly calendar, and there is little to indicate its former glory.

A trip to the Roman circus Metae Egyptian obelisk

How was the Ci rcus Maximus laid out to enable vast crowds Made from three conical Removed from Heliopolis
to comfortably enjoy sport and other spectator events? stone pillars, these in Egypt by Augustus, the
turning posts marked the
Starting gates ends of the central obelisk commemorated
dividing barrier and the Roman victory over
Charioteers entered the protected it from damage Antony and Cleopatra.
circus from the starting - as the chariots cornered.
gates located at the
northern end of the arena.

Spina

Running down the
length of the circus,

chariots raced around
this central brlcl<and

stone barrier.

Circus Moximus Rising some three
storeys or more in
Length: 621m (2,037ft) height, the seating in
W odth: 118m (387ft)
Height Up to 30m (98ft) the Circus Maximus was
Area: 84,000m' (904.200ft2) built of stone and brick,
Seating capacity: 250,000 w ith wooden sections
added at the top.
016

Stadia.an of Constantinople Circus
Hippodrome Maximus
Philippopolis
450m(L476ft) in length, Al621m(2.037) long and
Built nea( PloYdlv, Bulgafia,
the Hippocltomebuilt next with a 250,000 capacity
in the second century CE. (accor<ing to Pliny), this
to the Gfeat Palace in great Roman circus was
tl1is stadium Is 240m Constantinoplecould seat
(787ft) long and could never surpassed
100.000 spectator'S.
host 30,000 people.

I•Jl•l\1!I!J13N•IW The ce/ebmtion for Italy's World Cup 2006 victory was held on the site of the Circus Moximus

The centre of Roman Known as the Ravian
public life, the Amphitheatre, this
rectangular forum was the largest
was surrounded by amphitheatre in the
statues, temples and empire. It too hosted
government buildings. public spectacles, like
animal hunts and
In the neighbourhood...
- -,,.1. ',(".•-<t gladiatorial battles.
located to the south of the city's was the Septizonium, a huge marble
f ac;ade, which functioned as an Aqua Claudia
heart, the Circus Maximus was a ornamental fountain. Rising above
functional building as well as a This aqueduct supplied
prestigious monument proclaiming the c ircus on its southern f lank was water to the districts of
the glory of Rome. Towering over the the Aventine Hill, crowded with Rome from mountain
t emples and private villas, while to sources 72km (45mi) away.
circus on its northern flank was the the west st ood smaller buildings and
great Palatine Palace, built by the the River Tiber. This picture details Also called the Ravian
emperors Vespasian, Titus and the location of the Circus Maximus Palace, this was the
Domitian. Bordering both the palace and other landmarks in its vicinity. principal seat of the
and the circus at its southern end emperors of Rome.

Circus Maximus

Like the Colosseum, It
hosted public events called
'ludi'~ including horse races,
plays and athletics, but Its
_ . .... capacity was far greater
than the amphitheatre's.

Imperial box Drainage canal Chariot racing in
Roman times
Located on the palace Dug between the
bottom of the seating Chariot racing was probably the Roman world's
side of the circus, the and the edge of the equivalent of football. Inherited from the Ancient
Imperial box allowed track, the canal helped Greeks and Etruscans, the sport was refined by
the royal family to drain the floor and also the Romans and practised throughout the
protect spectators from empire. Dangerous to horses and chariot eers
watch races in chariot crashes. alike, there were frequent accidents and even
deaths during races in the circus.
entrance
There could be as many as 24 chariot races in
Civic and religious a circus per day and although there were basic
processions entered the rules for behaviour while racing, charioteers
circus at its southern often deliberately crashed int o opponent s or
end under a triple arch tried to force them into the central barrier.
erected In honour of
Emperor Titus. An average race in the Circus Maximus would
see up to 12 t eams of charioteers lined up
against each other, each chariot drawn by four
horses competing over a dist ance of 6.4
kilometres (four miles). There were f our principal
teams - the Reds, Whites, Greens and Blues-
the latter two of which rose to great prominence.

Fans followed their team's progress closely,
much like football clubs do today. Fierce rivalry
often resulted in v iolence between factions and
sometimes even riots.

A highly paid sport, the most famous Roman
chariot eer, Gaius Appuleius Diodes, won 1,462
out of his 4 ,257 races. When he retired at the
age of 42, he had amassed winnings of
35,863,120 sesterces - approximately £9 billion
($15 billion) in today's money - making him the
highest-paid sports star in hist ory.

017

I

Ice mummies 1 No--z-c-o--l-in--e-s------------------------------------------

are the

History of Andent drawings coverthe Peruvian
1• cemumm1• es plains, butwhere did they come from?
Preserved in ice for centuries, even
millennia, how did these people freeze? The Peruvian coastal plain inSouthAmericais home to a
wonder ofarchaeology. The ground is scarred by images, or
On an early autumn arbitrary violence, an accident or, geoglyphs, known a s the Nazca lines, thought to have been
afternoon in 1991, Erika in a more recent a nd famous case, constructed by the people of Nazca between 500 BCEand 500 CE.
and Helmut Simon were a ritua Isacrifice . The ice mummy The ancient artworks - mos t easily viewed from the air - were
walkin g off the bea ten track in the juanita was found in1995 on top of created by method lea lly removing dark-coloured gravel from the
Alps when they e ncou ntered a Mou nt Ampato, Pe ru, having been surface to reveal lighter materia l below.The plains' unique climate
corps e protruding from the ice of a sacrificed to lncan gods at the age has preserved the lines for thousands ofyears. Each year, the region
retreating glacier. It looke d so ofonly 12-14at s ome pointin the receivesjust zo minutes of ra infa ll on average, and the ground Is
fresh that theyassumed itwas the 16th century. mostly stone and gravel. which prevents the striking images from
body of an unfortunate sk ier or eroding in thewind.
climber- but this was Otzi, a n The s ub-zero conditions would
early-Bronze Age hunter who have preserved their bodies Going on a Nazca safari...
roamed the area 5.300 yea rs ago. As indefln itely. But after removing
valuable an archaeological find as the m from the ice, the museums in
he was though, Otzi Is fa r from a which they're housed need to keep
unique specimen. the ir humidity high {around 90 per
Ancient corpses interred in ice cent)and temperature below -6
have been found across the g lobe, degrees Celsius (21.2 degrees
whether they were the victi m of Fa hrenheit) to make sure that they
do not deteriorate.

• •ec

~~ Dog Spider Hummingbird ;<;;

thewortd This 511Jl (167ft) An Impressive 45m The Nazca c
canine Is thought to (150ft) In length, hummingbird
1 MountAmpalo, Peru bean image of an this Nazca arachnid ;;
2 TheAlps. Ualy ancestor of the was one of the very measures 97m(J:l8ft)
3 Altai Mountains, Russia hairless Peruvian firs t figures to be from beak to tail. ";;.
dog. Itwas kept by studied In the region Carvedonaraised
4 QUaldtsoq, Greenland the Nazca as a pet, by scientists back In plateau, it Is one of ~
used as a watchdog. the Thirties. the mostpromirlent
5 BeecbeyIsland, Canada of the animals. I
6 El Plomo Peak. Chile
8
018
j/

~
.!1

c

."Q..'.

aking the Terracotta Army

Meet the immortal warriors builtto defend the Chinese Emperor Qin Shi
Huang and find out how theywere constructed over 2,200 years ago

The Terracotta Army comprisesa huge exposure to the air, when originallycompleted The Terracotta Army is but one feature -
collection ofsculptures found within thesesculptures would have been brightly albeit the most impressive one to date - ofQin's
the mausoleum of the Hrst emperorof painted and highly detailed- evidence of larger mausoleum and necropolis, with the
China, Qin Shi Huang. Featuring close to 9,ooo which can still be found on a few well- emperor's tomb and underground palace yet to
figures, objectsa nd weapons, th e massive preserved specimens. What does remain be e xcavated.According to famous Chinese
earthenware cohort was built to accompany
Emperor Qin into the afterlife. unchanged is their origina l layout, with the historia n Sima Qian (circa 145-90 BCE), all
The terracotta army was ma nufactured by thousands ofstatuesarranged in accurate ma nneroftreasuresare concealed there, but
thousands oflabourersa nd craftsmen during military formations, with generals and other the site is considered sacred so there are no
Qin's reign around 220-210 BCE. The material important officers identified. Immediate plans to disturb the tomb.
used to build the sculptu res was harvested
from the site of the mausoleum - Mount Li in
Shaanxi Province. According to detailed
examination ofthe Hgures, their heads, arms,
legs and torsos were modelled and Hred
separately, only being assembled afterwards,
so many more were probably made but
damaged duringproduction.

While today the excavated figures
have reverted to their natural

orange-red colourdue to

All about Qin

Qin Shi Huang, the legendary first

emperor of China, brought the

Warring States period to a close in
221 BCE. His reign was t ypified by
military conquest , with campaigns
into modern China's southern
lands, as well as massive public
projects; examples include the

unification of state w alls into the

Great Wall of China and a national
road system. Qin ruled unopposed
until his death in 210 BCE - an
event he reportedly attempted to
avoid by undertaking a search for
a fabled elixir of immortality.

-.. •. •

'•.



••



Egyptian cosmetics 1 Origins of chocolate

Ancient ·an cosmetics

Makeup was once an important part of everyday life in Egypt- find outwhy

lnAndent Egypt, the image of Applicator Bronze mirror
an individual often acted asa
substitute for the body in the afterlife. Theapplicator was The Egyptians used
Therefore, in funerary paintings, both males mirrors of polished
and females are shown In their best clothes, used to add rouge Pnii'W'l bronze. The handle was
wigsand makeup. often carved In the form
In life, the Egyptians utilised a variety of to the lips. It was of an Egyptian goddess.
pigments to adorn the face. The most made of wood,
predominant of these was koh I, which was Cosmetic jars
used to line the eyes. Koh Icame from two ebony or ivory.
sources: a green eye paint made ofmineral The Egyptians' special oils
malachite and a black liner derived from ./ and unguents were stored in
galena, a form of lead ore. Women used red containersmade from glass,
ochre to forma light blush for cheeks and lips, W ig Cosmetic spoon faience ceramic and stone.
while henna was used to paint the nails and
dye the hair. Cosmetics were also applied for Because of lice infestations, These spoons are
practical reasons- the military wore it to Egyptians often shaved their highly decorative - the
protect their eyes from the intense glare of the head. They wore elaborate one shown here is
African Sun. Moreover, It had a religious wigs of real human hair, fashioned in the shape
resonance- each day, In the holysanctuaryof of a swimming gitt.
the temple, the god was anointed with makeup which were adomed with
asa symbol ofcelestial regeneration. flowers and braids.

020

How sundials tell the time

Discover how this ancient contraption worked

Thesundial is one of the world's oldest The mechanism'sdial is knownasa gnomon or pathsacross theskyindifferent partsoftheworld
styleand contains numerals representing the
scientificinstruments. Designed to tell hours ofthe day, so when a shadow (or shard of so a sundialmust be tailored for the location it is
the time to the nearest hour, the ancient lightinsomevariations) is present ona specific in. Also, the time shown canvary by how close it
contraptionwas first created by the Babylonian number, that is the current hour. Sundialsvary by is to a time-zone boundary. Clearly, they work
their latitude. TheSunappears to take various betterin sunnierareas, so theyare more effective
and Egyptian civilisationsand works by
measuring the Sun's movement across the sky. inthe Mediterranean than inEngland! 0

Telling time Sun position

The base of the sundial is Throughout the day,
marked with the daylight the Sun appears to
hours. The shadow w ill tell move across the sky
you the t ime, depending on because Earth is
where it falls. spinning on its axis.

Sundial points north • Model of a Babylonian
time spire in the Clock
Sundials need to point north and Shadow length Museum in Zacatlan,
sit on a flat surface. The gnomon Puebla, Mexico
- the part that protrudes from The Sun is highest in the sky
the dial - casts a shadow. at midday and casts short
shadows. When It is lower in
the sky, shadows are longer.

Horse shoeing

Why do horses wear shoes and howare they fitted?

Ever since horses were first manicure by levelling offthe hoof with a rasp
domesticated thousands of years ago, and trimming excess growth. Next, they take a
horsemen realised th e importance of shoe made steel or aluminiu m and heat it in a
protecting their animals' feet. On hard or rocky forge until it glows red-hot.The shoe is quickly
terrain, shoes protected a horse's hooves from placedagainst the hoofto makes an
cracking or wearing down faster than they could impression, which the farrier uses as a guide for
grow. In soft. wet terrain - like the farmlands of
northern Europe-shoes stopped theirhooves reshaping the malleable metal with a hammer
from becoming porous and unstable, as well as and anvil. The shoe is cooled in water and fixed
to the hoof with nails, which are angled so they
helping the horse gain a good footing.
To prepare the foot, a farrier - an expert who exit the outer wall of the hoofand can be bent
down to form clenches. Finally, the edges are
s hoes horses for a living- gives the horse a basic smoothed down witha rasp. 0

021

I

Mummification explained

mumm•

Mummies havebeenfoundinmanypartsoftheworld, butEgyptianmummiesarethe
most well-lmown due to their distinctive appearance and unique embalming process

fi~ Andent Egypllans used to bury their An extremeway
dead directly In the hotsand, which ofwrappingup
dried and preserved them somewhat warm forwinter
• When they began using caskets, the
bodiesdecayed instead. Around 2.6oo BCE, "The practice of mummification was
used for nearly 3,ooo years"
Egyptians began experlmenUng with a way to
preserve their ancestors. They learned that bodies
decayed from the Inside out, sta rtlngwith their
organs. Embalmers perfected a process by which

the organs were removed and the body dried prior
to burial.This practice, lmownas mummification,
was used for nearly ),ooo years.

Mummification was an expensive processand
could take up to 70days to complete.The

embalmers worked In open tents, out In the desert
and away from the general populallon. After
washing the body, they removed the brain from the
skull. In order to get Into the bra In cavity,

embalmers puta chisel up the body's nose and hit It
with a hammer to crack through the bone. Then,
they Inserteda long hook to pull out brain matter.

After cuttinga slit in the leftsldeofthe body,
embalmers removed theabdominal organs. They

werewashed, wrapped In linenand packedInjars.
Natron, a naturallyoccurrlngsalt, was added as a
dryingagent The body was rinsed with wineand
filledwith incenseand natron, then covered with

more natron.Aslanted table allowed fluids to drip
from the bodyas It dried while guards kept away
scavengers.Once the body was dry, embalmers
wrapped itIn linenstrips In severalstagesand
coated itwith resin. The linen helped keep the body

togetherand prevented moisture from entering. A
rigid scaffold was then fitted over the bodyand a
funeral maskattached to the face. Finally, the
completed mummy was placed Into a container

decorated to look likea person, called a suhet. 0

/

022

Before the Roman L lceni
invasion in 55 BC,
Britain was Located: Norfolk
characterised by a
large number of Facts: One ofthe most rich and
ancient tribes, each powerfullribes In Britain. thelceni
with its own culture
revolted against the Romans after
While the first modern !hedeath of their dlent-ldng
Prasutagus and werelead until
humans populated the
herdeath by Prasutagus'wife, the
area we now ca II renowned Queen Boudicca.

Britalnattheendofthe •.lt;JI..,..., 2. Catuvellauni

Ice Age (6,500 BC), very llttle Is Loated: So.Jth.east
Facts: One of !he most pro-
known about the intricaciesof their Roman trh$. the ca.tuve~atn
~adopled Romanlifeslyles
cultureand peoples untll recorded
and. as aresult.""""madevery
history beginsdrca the Roman
rich and powerl\L One of the
invasionof55 BC.lndeed, IfIt were not 0 Thevlewolan endrdlngditCh
around Danebury hill lon most -British tribal kings.
for the Roman chroniclersofthe time 0 •0
Cu>oiJEinus. heralded from the
suchas Tacitusand Ptolemy, who met Sel ovae
theandent tribes of Brltalneltherln trade catuvelaunl.
0
orin war, oursketchy pictureof these peoples 3. Durotriges
would be even more Incomplete than It Is today.
Located: Dorset
However, centuriesof historical records, storiesand Brigantes Facts: A southem tribe, the
Durotrlges differed from others by
archaeological finds have at least given us a snapshot remaining largely In hill forts long

oftheir llves, leadersand customs. afterothers had abandoned them.
They were huge tradersand.
Before the Roman Invasion there were over 2:1separate thr'ough numerous harbours,

tribes living in Britain.These people had grown from the oxchanged many goods with

early hunter-gathers who had Inhabited the area, and the Romans.

later the farmers who had developed agriculturally Maidencastle,a great
exampleofanlronAge,
focused societiesand who had builtsuchsophisticated
multi-ditCh hilllort
structuresasStonehenge. For the last 6oo years BC though,
0 23
influenced much by the arrlva Iolthe Celtsfrom the

continent, expansionist tribal kingdoms headed by 0

dynastic and highly territorial rulers and chieftains arose, 0 Native
delivering culturesoffierce violenceand sophisticated
manufacture, artistryand trade. tribes of

While the Romans are oftencredited with bringinga Britain

unified currency,as well as structured townsand a host of Accurate locations of
each tribesettlement
amenitiesand technology, these features-at least In part

-werealready Integrated Into areas of British tribal Catuvellaunl

sodety. Some tribes suchas the Venlcones burled their 0

deadinstonecasings, very much akin toa tomb or 1Q
coffin.Others, like the lceni, Catuvellaunland

Atrebates, hadalready createdand distributed

currency throughout their territories. 0

Over 200 years, however, from 55 BC until well Into Oubunni

themd CenturyAD, theandent tribes of Britain

were eitherconquered or Indoctrinated Into the Roman

empire, a process that largelyconverted the popufallon's

attitudes and cultures to those shared on the continentand

sawa gradual cllmb insociety towards standardsof

administration, architecture,sanitarysystemsand DumnonH
health care that resonate with today's society.

I
Ancient Greek theatres

Discover how these massive Thyroma Episkenion
amphitheatres were built and used
These stnJCtures were The upper stoo-ey of the
stone pillars into which
vertical grooves were skene. Accessed by a
cut. The grooves ramp or stairwells, it
received the painted
background panels and provided anadditional
held them in place.
acting/singing space.
With the invention of tragedies in the Tour of the theatre
late-sixth century BCE, comedies in Prohedria
the fifth century BCE and the satyr Take a guided tour of the theatrical building
play tragicomedies around the first century at the heart of Ancient Greek entertainment
BCE, the Ancient Greeks had to build a huge
number ofimpressive theatres to do their plays Kerkis
justice. As the centuries went on-and the
popularity of the theatre grew and grew- the The koilon was composed
buildings had to expand and adapt to meet the of a series of wedge-
demand. Indeed, manyofthese semicircular shaped seating blocks
amphitheatres could seat well over10,000 (kerkides) arranged in a
peopleand were used frequently during semicircle. These were
religious festivals such as the Dionysia, a major divided by various
celebration centred around the god Dionysus. walkways and stairs.
While the theatresof the AnctentGreeks
beganassimple clearings with a smatteringof Analemmata
wooden benches for the audience to sit on,
before long they had grown into full-blown Often the theatre's koilon
sanctuary-like facilities. These included large was built into a hillside,
banksofstone seats, a vastorchestra and acting which acted as a natural
area, a complex backstage network of rooms, brace. However, the outer
entrances and trapdoors, as well asa wide edgescould be left
selection of ornate and decorative scenic exposed and so were
bacl<drops.These features, along with the secured by analemmata
Ancient Greeks' love for festiva Is, led theatres - ie retaining walls.
to take a central role in cementing and
spreading Greek culture- something the
Romans would lateradopt for themselves.
Theatres were made primarily out ofstone,
often with the amphitheatre'sseats placed into
the side ofa hill for extra support. while
traditional construction methods for civic
buildings and temples were transferred for the
production ofcolonnades, sceneryand
entranceways.lnterestlngly, thegreatest
technical feat in constructing many ofthese
theatres were the excellentacoustics, with the
shapeand angle ofthe seatingarrangement
and materials (limestone was a popu Ia r choice,
for instance) serving as acoustic traps. These
would filter out low-frequency sounds like
spectator chatterand enhance the high
frequencies of the performers' voices.

024

Theatre Odeonof Theatre of
of Delphi Herodes Atticus Epidaurus

l ocated behind the With a capacity oi S,OOO, &.lit In the fcnth century
TempleofApollo In the ·BCEand able to seat
theOdeon is located 00 me
Sanctuaryof Delphi,this 15,000.this theatre Is one
Acropolis In Athens,Greece, ofthe lafgest classical
t:Matre has 35 rows of examples In the world.
seats fOf'spec-tatOf's. and Is still used for

perfOf'mances today.

I•Jl•l\1!WI:m•IW Members ofAncient Greek acting guilds were referred to os 'technitoi'

Pinakes Skene Diazoma "n1e role of masks

Pinakes were the painted This background structure ' Midway up the kollon a The wearing of masks in a theatre setting was
wooden panels used as was used by the actors and ~~-- semicircular walkway,
changeable backdrops to theatre workers to change -~ known as the dlazoma, not invented by the Ancient Greeks but was a
indicate where the action costumes, assemble props split the amphitheatre's key part of all their productions. For one thing,
was taking place. They and operate any mechanical seating area in two. masks were closely connect ed to Ancient Greek
were inserted into the apparatus. It would often religion, w ith many of their gods -who famously
skene's slotted thyromata. resemble a Greek temple.
liked to meddle in the affairs of humans -
Parodos depicted in each performance. The m asks worn
by the actors therefore both allowed them t o
Both act ors and audience transform int o a deity visually, as well as
members could enter venerate them in a form of ritual perlormance;
through parodol into the indeed, records indicate many masks were
theatre proper. Typically, burned after each show as a sacrifice.
entrances were located
either side of the skene. Secondly, masks enabled each actor t o be
bet ter seen by the audience, w ith exaggerat ed

features such as noses and mouths, as well as
facial expressions, more easily transmitted at a
d istance. The hiding of the f ace also enabled
each actor to play mult iple roles- especially

female characters, as women were banned from
acting w ithin the theatre at this time.

One of the most common deity m asks worn

was that of Dionysus, w ho among other
hedonistic roles - such as the god of w ine and
revelry - w as also the god of the theatre.

This was an altar-like Klimakes ••
structure used by the
leader of the chorus to Located at either side
direct the other singers, of the kerkldes were
much like a conductor. It
was located at the centre -' kllmakes, narrow stone
of the orchestra.
t steps that led from the
Proskenion
bottom of the koilon to
The proskenlon was the '-""-,~ the top. They were the
platform/stage directly
• in front of the skene. It primary means of
typically included a reaching the epitheatron.
colonnade and wide open
acting space located In Epitheatron
front of the prohedria.
- Any seating above the
diazorna was part of the
epitheatron. Seats here
cost less than those
below the dlazoma.

...

025

I

Greek tomb construction

ree tom Who were the

construction Mycenaeans?

Learnabout the unique structures inwhich the The Mycenaean civilisation occupied much of
elite ofthese Ancient Greek people were buried modem-day central Greece and flotnshed

There were two rna in types of These beehive tombs were accessed via a between 1600 and 1100 BCE. Unlike the earlier
Mycenaean tomb: chambertombsa nd long approach corridor, or passage, that was Minoan settlers of the area whose society
tholes tombs. The former predates the knownas a dromos, which culminated in a
latter and consisted ofa rhomboidal chamber large entranceway, called a stomion. The expanded and prospered through trade, the
cut into rock/earth and finished with a square stomion consisted ofa large rectangular brick
stone pyramid on the top. No examples ofthese opening commonly flanked by two stone Mycenaeans advanced theirs through military
tombs have been found in modern times, columns and topped with a single giantstone conquest. One ofthe most notable examples of
however theyare detailed in ledgersor the mantle. Above the mantle a triangular hole was the Mycenaean expansion through war is
ancient Babylonian dty ofUruk. often filled with a decorative reliefsculpture. recorded in Homer's The Iliad, where the king of
The latter, which became the more common Mycenae, Agamemnon, and the united forces of
tomb aiten5oo BCE, is ofa grander design. Inside, off the main conical chamber, layan Greece took the city of Ilium (Troy) in north·vvest
Tholos tombs, which resemble the shape ofa antechamber, which was typically rectangular. Anatolia (Turkey). Another advance saw the
beehive, were conical. false-domed chambers This could be used either for burials - other Mycenaeans capture the island of Crete.
built outofmud bricks and stone. The bricks family members- or more likely grave goods,
were laid in a circle on top ofoneanother up to suchas jewelleryand weapons. There's
a tapered centre point. The entire domewas evidence that both the antechamberand main
then covered byan earthen mound )tumulus). stomion were installed with wooden doors, the
latter setslightly back from the main fa~de.

A tholos tomb unearthed

Discover the major elements tha t made up the final
resting places of the Mycenaean ari.s tocracy

Dromos Tumulus

The tholos was Upon the dome a small
approached by a dromos, mound of earth called a
an avenue leading up to tumulus was placed. This
its entrance. These were protected the tomb from
either cut into natural the elements and hid it
from potential raiders.
rock or built from ashlar

masonry (stone bricks).

Antecha mber • Stomion

Commonly a small At the end of the dromos
stood a far~ stomion, an
antechamber abutted the
main chamber in which the entranceway typically
person's grave goods and constructed out of cut
even deceased relatives
may have been placed. stone and flanked by
ornate stone pillars.
026

A,jax Agamemnon Heracles

A mythological hero and Also In the Iliad. but A divine hero inGreek
key player In Homer's lOad. suspected by SOf"')e to be mythology, Hetaeles was
real, Agamemnon wasa Earth'sgreatest warrlOf'.
Ajax is a warriO!' with the
wan·iot king of Myc~e. During his 12 l aboutS, he
strength ofmany men. killed the Nemean lionaod
During the story he kills a He was commander-In· a nine-headed hYdra.
lot of Trojan warrior'S. chief of the Greek forces.

I•Jl•l\1!WI:m•IW Panoply is the term used to describe o complete set of hoplite armour ond weaponry

ree Hoplite kit Helmet
warr1• ors
We look at the major armour Various styles of helmet
The hoplites ofAncient Greece and weapons used by were worn, ranging from
were some ofthe most feared these elite soldiers the heavy-duty Corinthian
fighters in the world- find out
why theywere so hard to defeat Breastplate to the lighter Chalcidian
variety seen here. The
Both in Homericand post-HomericGreece, Both linen and metal
hoplitewarriors were considered the most breastplates were wom , crest colour and design
deadly and efftctentsoldiers on the planet w ith the richer and more varied between city-states.
Armed with avariety ofhighly refined weapons - important warriors wearing
suchas spears, swordsand daggers, protected by very omate bronze Shield
toughened bronze armour andadeptat executing examples. Here, the warrior
cunning tactics and formations, these Andent Greek is wearing a linothorax, a The Ancient Greek
warriors tore through many an enemyarmy with linen variety popular in warrior's shield was
considerable ease. later periods. called an aspis and
Arguably, hopl!tes really cameinto their own consisted of a concave
around the sixthcentury BCE. Prior to this point Sword circle of bronze-coated
Greek warriors - who weresell-armed and trained wood that measured
civilians- fought for personal, familial or national Hoplites also carried a
honour singularly. They obviouslygrouped under short sword called a l m (3.3ft) across.
city-state banners towage wars, but when the battle xiphos. This secondary
started, the onus was very much on man-to-man weapon was only used 027
single combat; l.ndeed, many battlesofthis period when the spear wa.s
began with army commanders/heroesfactng off damaged or a phalanx
against eachothersolo. formation broke ranks.
After the introduction ofadvanced military
formations suchas the phalanx - see 'Wall ofdeath'
boxout for more - ctrca 700 BCE, soldiers began to
fight battles as cohesive militaryunits.
This increased theirbattle prowessfurtherand,
bythe timeofthe massive Persian invasion of48o
BCE, enabled them to win aseriesofdedsive battles
against forces that, going on the numbers, they
should have lost.

Wall of death Spear

Aside from their good training, weapons and The primary weapon of
armour, a key reason hoplite warriors were so any hoplite was a 2.5m
f eared was their use of f ormations. Chief among (Bft)-long spear or lance.
t hese was the phalanx, a rect angular mass These were t ipped w ith
f onmation composed of heavy inf antry that, by a leaf-shaped blade on
engaging the enemy as one, allowed the
warriors t o effectively crush any foe in their one end and a short
path. The phalanx was created by arranging spike on the other.
hoplites in lines t ypically eight to ten men deep,
w ith the front rank of sold iers interlocking their Greave
shields toget her. The long rectangular body of
soldiers would then slowly advance, spears M etal greaves were
outst ret ched, skewering any enemies ahead. common, with the pieces
of armour hammered out
of iron or bronze sheets.
They stretched from the
top of the foot to the knee.

I

Aztec warriors

warr1• ors Headgear

Readyyourself for battle as you learn about the An eagle-head helmet was
martial side of this CentralAmerican civilisation
a sign that a warrior had
ent ered the elite f~ghtlng I
force of the Eagles, whlle
members of the Jaguar

warrior force wore the

head of a slain jaguar.

The Aztecs were a fierce called the 'Eagles' and 'jaguars' - Clothing Long-range weapon
and powerful groupof dressed as their namesakes. Eagle
warriors, defined by their warriors donned feathersa nd a n The bravest warriors who Aztec warriors also used
religious fervour and class system. eagle-head helmet (see annotated captured four prisoners could arrows., slings and spears.
New warriors had to work their warrior), while Jagua r fighters were wear eagle helmets and
way up from the bottom by wrapped in th e skin of the South feathers or jaguar skins, but The lattercould be thrown
ca ptu ring prisoners. Th ls was an the base layer was typically many metres w ith the atlatl
important part of a young warrior's American big cat. The higher up the - basically a stick with a
introduction into the martial social rank you rose, the more made of thick cotton. mini sling at one end.
society, as the Aztecs would elaborate the costume became.
sacrifice prisonersto thegod
Huitzilopochtli. Once a warrior had Their main weaponwasthe
captured a prisoner, he would maquahuitl, a wooden sword with
attain the rank ofa warrior. vicious shards of obsidian
Most Aztecs wore padded cotton embedded down the sides. This
armour called ichcahuipilli, which d eadly tool was capable of
remained cool in the Intense heatof beheadinga human.TheAztecs
Mexico but was also tough enough were also proficient users of arrows,
to deflectmostarrows and darts. slings and the atlatl, a tbrowing
However, the elite lighting forces- device that allowed them to hurl
spears harderand faster than

possib..l..e w...ith thearm alone. 0

Protection from missiles
came in the form of the
chimalli, a round shield
made of wood, w ith fibres
twisted into it for strength.

Maquahuitl Footwear

The maquahuitl was a brutal Ordinary citizens and
w arriors were barefoot.
wooden sword edged with
obsidian shards. This was However, upper-class
said to be able to decapitate
citizens and the elite fighting
men and even horses. They forces were allowed to wear
also used the tepoztopiUi, a
2m (6.6f0 pole, which was cactli. These sandal-like
lined with sharp stones too. shoes had straps wound

around the ankles tohold

028

What did tribal chief Sitting Answer:
Bull do after he surrendered?
ln 1885 Sitting Bull became an attractionat Buffalo
A Move to Canada B Open a shop CJoin a circus Bill's Wild West shovv', riding around in traditional
Native Ameticangatband posing for pictures and

signing autographs. Allegedly, he would curse the

aucience in his native tongue.

I•Jl•l\1!WI:m•IW Despite the stereotype, only o select few Native American tribes practised scalping

ative er1• rr1• or

Check out the key kit as carried by a fighter from the Dakota Sioux tribe

Despite being lightlyarmoured, Native Headgear Long-range
weapon
American warriors were fierce Unlike many modern
combatants, well-trained in both depictions of Native The short bow and arrow
hand-to-hand and ranged combat. Armed with American warriors, was the Native American
a selection of bows, spears, swords, daggers, they did not enter
axes and even- in the later decades of the 19th battle wearing grand long-range weapon of
century- guns, Westerners coming to claim the headpieces. Instead, choice- something which
Indians' land were in for a shod<. a simple selection of
Indeed, despite their superiorfirepower, bird feathers was they used with aplomb.
armour and resources, British and American wom in the hair, while Arrowheads were typically
made of iron, while the tail
armies often found themselves outmanoeuvred the face and bodY
and outfought, with the Native American would be covered feathers of birds were
warriors' expert horsemanship skillsallowing with war-paint. used as fins.
them to strike quickly and with deadly
precision, taking out large swathes of the Shield , Clothing
invading forces before retreating to the safety
granted by their knowledge of the territory. The only form of protection Native American warriors
against incoming missiles, were not heavily armoured,
Both the Native Americans' excellentcombat with leather, fur and animal
a small circular wooden
skillsand innovative use of terrain in battle shield covered w ith animal skins providing their only
tactics meant that it took the British and then form of protection. This
Americans over150 years to evictall of the skins and/or leather could
Native American tribes in North America onto be used to deflect arrows. light armour granted them
the reservations that rna ny of their descendants excellent agility and
inhabit today. And they did so at great cost, with •••••• •• manoeuvrability.

thousands ofsoldiers being cut down bytheir Hand-to-hand
fierce and agile opposition right up until the weapon
turn of the 2oth century. 0
Native American warriors
In battle, the Native Americans were carried a variety of
tenacious and fierce warriors
handheld weaponry,
including axes, daggers,
spears and even swords.
Axes were popular, as they
could be thrown as well as

used in melee combat.

Footwear
Moccasins were the

footwear of choice. Made
from soft leather or

deerskin and adomed
with embroidery and
beading, they offered no
protection but were light

and comfortable.

029

I
Inside the iconic Chinese vessel

Paintingof the Kangxl

Emperor travelling by

Chinese junk

c

!

e

d!

"

Hig})lyversatile, the Chinesejunk
has beenused since the second
CenturyAD, granting dynamic
sailing controls andhigh speed

Chinesejunks-va rlouslysized trading overly large keel and seriesoflee treasureships, boasting
nine masts and crewed by
and transportation ships used In Asia and centreboards(lifting foils) to over130 men. During He's1405
from the second CenturyAD to the
modern day-work by partnerlnga remain stable. Hulls were also tour ofthe Indian Ocean, the explorercommanded
sturdy keelless hull with a versatile and mobile strengthenedgreatly by multiple over300 junksand )0,000 men.
sail-plan, in order to generate a fast and highly partitioninglengthways and sideways
internally, creatinga seriesof interior Today, the roleofjunkshasdiminished from its
stablesailing platform. military and trading height due tothertseofmodem
The sail-planofa junk differs from that of compartments.The addition ofthese technologyand transportation methods. However,
matrix bracesincreased hull integrity-
traditionalsquare-rigged ships, with thejunk's especially from sideways pressure-andalso theyare still commonly used by dvilians to fish,
various sailscapable ofbeing moved Inwards dramatically reduced flooding speed if commute, trade and tra11el, as well as by tourists
who board them onsightseeing tours. t)
towards the ship's lengthy centralaxis, allowing it to breeched, with a seriesof limber holes (dralnage
beeasily modified ln order to saIllnto the wlnd. The holes) transferringwater outside.
sails themselves also diller from the nadlllonal
variety, with long horizontal strutscalled battens Chinesejunksdeveloped from smallerliving or
providinga rigid shape-akin to that ofVenetian 6shingboatssuchassampansinthe Han Dynastyof
:w6BCE-zzoAD, being used primarily to traverse
blinds-and greater tear-resistance In high wind.
Furtherincreasing the power and speed ofa junk Is inland waterwaysand coastal waters. However, by
its tendency tospread itssans over multiple masts,
with five or more commonon largervessels. the15thCentury AD theirsizeand role had evolved
massively into trans-continent tradingand mllltary
junkhulls were traditionally constructed from vessels, carrying hundreds of men and tons of
softwoodssuchas cedarand sporteda horseshoe-
shaped stern, elevated poop deck and flat base with products. Indeed, according to Chinese historical
no keel Duetothls,junk hullsareflttedwlthan documentation, during the missions of renowned
explorerand mariner Zheng He,junkshad been

transformed into 420-feetlong. tSo-feetwide

030

Taiwan San 2.lmco cia Conti Trade Origami
Theword enteredthe English
l in 19SS, sixmen sailed a Mlng 0 language In the rrid 17th 3 DtJring his expeditions In Asia 4• The primary use of Chine<e 5 One of themost famous
(1419-1444), Venetian iJn1<s were as tradingvessels. origamidesigns of all tme Is
Dynasty-style replica junk Centuryvia the PortlJg<Jese caled the Chinesejunk, a
6,000 miles from Taiwan to word 'junco•. Othernames merchant a n d explorer According to RichardCocks,
orultl-stage folding method
JUNKS San Francisco. In 1959. Catalan include 'jong' inMalayand Nlccolo da COnti sightedjunks • head oftheEnglish trading tocreate foul' distinct objects
'chuan' in Mandarin. weighing over 2,000tons with
men also used a junk to sail 0• factory in Hirado, over 60 from one sheet of paper.
from Hong Kong to Barcelona. fil/e sails and orultlple masts.
junks lllsited Nagasaki in 1612

l•)M(l!I!113~•W Chinese junks developed in the Hon Dynasty of 206 BCE-220 AD

Sail t!!i;@i

Unlike tradlt!onalsquare-rigged
ships, junksaUscould be moved

Inward,ailowing it to easllysail
lnlo thewind Thesailswerealso
supported bya seriesofbattens
(solldstrlpsofwood),improvlng

theresistance to tears.

~H Rudders ,..,kJunk

II. J u n k s u s e d s t e m-m o u n t e d Along with sampans, ships
rudders thatcould beadjusted developed from smaller fishing
according towaterdepth.They
weretradltlonaJJy madeoutof vessels. Theil' flat·bonomed
elmorotherhardwoods andon
design and Venetian bind·type
largerboatsneededmultlple sails allowed them to l'emain
mentoadjust them.
stable in rough conditions aoo sail
Hull
against the wind with gn~at ease.
Junk hullswere typlcaJJy They originated In Asia but spread
carvedfromsoftwoodsand throughout the Middle Eastand
Africa through trade In the early
sportedhorsesh~aped centuries AD.

sterns and high poopdecks. '.
Hullswerefla~ however,
withno keel. Galleon

Compartments Evolving ftom the car'rack- the
predominant sailing 1/eSsel of
A notable featureofjunkswas their the 14th and 15th Cenn.y - the
Interiorcompartments, whichwere galleon wasa multi·decked
shipused for' warlate and ttade.
rareat thistime.Theyatdedcargo Galleons developed In Portugal
storage,slowed floodingand and Spain In the 16th century
strengthened the bull. and were used throughout
Europe,Africa and the
Caribbean to transport goods
along tr'ade toutes.

'.

Lee/centreboards (not shown) Freighter

Leehoardsandcentreboardswere used to The predominant method used
stablllsethejunkandlmprovelts today to ttade by sea CNet long
capabilitytosail upwind distances, frelghtei'S can carry
hundreds of tons' worth ofmetal
The design spread containers filled with goods.
through Asia, as seen In These containet ships wer-e
del/eloped In the rriddle of the
20th Century and nCNVaccount
for90 per cent of woridwlde
trade in oon·bulk goods.

0 31

I

Ancient Celts

How the IronAge revolutionised this pre-Roman civilisation

Thediscoveryofhow to extract iron Ifthere was a negative to the Iron Age it was in
from its ore changed the world. As the medicine. Still very primitive and led primarily
Iron Age was born, new tools could be by druids, one of the onlysurgical operations
made for warfare, agriculture, hunting and was the trepanning procedure. Headaches
fishing. Among the main beneflclarles of this were believed to come from evil spiritsso if
new age were the Celts. The IronAge in Europe you were feeling unde r the weather, a hole
lasted from Boo BCE until43 CEand signalleda was drilled into your skull to release the
significant development ofsociety. demons. With the coming of the Iron Age
Ploughs, scythesand sickles were fashioned to and sharper, tougher tools, archeologica I
tend to and gather crops. Rotary querns were evidence hasshown that this gruesome
introduced to turn grain into Hourand hunting practicewasstill popular. Itseems the
tools becamesharperand tougher. With iron, an
array ofswords, helmets and armour could also Celts had an obsession with the human
be fashioned. Clothingaccessories developed head.They believed the head harboured
too, with the creation of iron broochesand torcs. the soul and that's why, after a
The Celts lived in small farming communities, victorious battle, they would cut off
often in hill forts for added protection.The the headsoffallen enemiesand
houses had thatched roofs and one of the biggest displaythem on their houses,
settlements in Britainwas Colchester, believed
to be the oldest town in Britain. both as braggingrightsand to
warnanyonewho messed
with them.

A Celtic hill fort

Discover how Celtic farming
communities worked

Well

Without the technology
of aqueducts, water was
collected from rain or
nearby springs for the
hlll·fort community.

Outdoor fire

Outdoor ovens were

used to cook bread
and meat to feed the

1lcenl 2Dobunni 3Dumnonii 4Catuvellauni 5Silures
famous torb<!lnglod by This tribewas oneofthe Occup)1ng Comwal~ Devon Ono of the most poo.wrf\.11 After the lceni, this bandof
Boudloca. the Ieoni w.... largest in Britain a n d - and Somerset, theDo.rnnoni tribc!s, the CellM!IIaunl were Celts gave the Romans the
11'\ldoout of 5<!\'l!l'al smaller
located in""""""~ East on the modem English-Welsh favoured small fanns 0\101' most trouble. Originating In
-rule, SUpportlng Roman ) thevalleysofSouth wales,
-people....,.,Angllaand"""'"a woafthy, - .I.Hil<e many others, largerseulemenl$ and VerulanU11 (St Allons
led many po-eterred healthyreladons they weredescribed as •
the Dob<n'ieasilysUlmitted was abig Roman settlement
<eliCits against RomanNe. v.1th Brittany in l'nlnce. strongandwarlike nation.
to Ron>iYl rule.

l•lfiM•lM:w•g Female Celts lxld just as mony rights as men. They would fight, own land and achieve status

A rotaldhouse was t ypically

constructed from a wooden
frame with a straw roof.

Celtic cities

Celts lived in small

communities led by a

chieftain and a band of

wa~ There were

few alliances among the

different tribes and no

sort of centralised state
or government.

Indoor fire The buildings within the Who were the Celts?

The indoor fire was sometimes fort's society served A term used for many d ifferent tribes, the Celts
used for extra cooking but different functions and
primarily for warmth in the roles to ensure survival varied from region to region. For instance, the
harsh winter months. and development.
Gauls were based in what is now France and the
Celtiberians were located in modern day Spain
and Portugal. As their European influence began
to come under threat from t he Romans and

Saxons, many migrated to Britain around 500

BCE. Despite invasions from the Romans, Angles,
Saxons, Jutes and Vikings, the Celts still
remained established inhabitants in many areas
of Britain by the 8th century. However, their
lands were now pushed back to Wales and
Scotland rather than England, which was
primarily Anglo-Saxon territory. Their influence

can still be seen today with the uncovering of the

Tal-y-Uyn hoard of Iron Age metal tools and
weapons and substantial evidenceof Celtic hill

forts in Maiden Castle and Old Oswestry.

The remains of the Celtic

hill fort at Maiden Castle

Hil l fort location z. area

Often surrounded by a .&u:
wooden or stone wall, both
natural and man-made -•~

defences made the fort

I

Ancient Celts

How the Celts fought back

TheCelts had a reputation for beingfearsome Roman ninth legionandsacked the Roman-
warriors, but the advent ofthe Iron Age made Celtic ruled Colchester, Londlnium{London)and
Britaineven more resistant to overseasattack than Verulamium(StAlbans). Boudicca was finally
before.The mighty Roman army took three defeated by Romangeneral Paulinusat the
attempts to conquer Britainand continually BattleofWatlingStreet, but the Iceni's
struggled to rule over large partsof the Island, stand proved that Roman rule was
espedallyin Scotland and Wales. TheCelts had
access to the tech nology to make their ownswords, far from invincible.
spearsand axes, as well as shieldsfor protection.
According to bothGreek and Roman
historians, the Celts would often go Into
battle without armour or even completely
naked, covered only In war paint. Although
there Issomeevidence that they used
helmets and bodyarmour, these were
apparently rare, possiblyonly used by
chieftainsand hlgh-rankt ng warriors.

TheCelticmilitarywasprlmar!ly based
around infantry, but theyalso used
chariotsand- occasionally-cavalry
during battles. Their tactics weren't as
advanced as the Roman testudo, for
instance, but they still had some bold
strategies up their sleeve.

The most famous is perhaps the Furor
Celtica.Translated to 'CelticFury', It was a
mass charge on the frontofan enemyline that
was used todisruptandsplltenemy ranks.
Celtson the continent were known to be more
defensive and used a tight phalanxset-up, much
like the original Greek formation.

TheCeltic tribes had many Iconicchieftains
suchas Verdngetorix, caratacusand
Cassivellaunus, but the most famous,
without a doubt, was Boudtcca (or Boadtceat.
The fierce and Influential wa rrtor queen of
the lcenJ tribe, she led a resistance force
against the Roman Invaders. Successfully
formingan alllance with various otherclans
around the British Isles, her forces defeated the

034

STRANGE Who invented the first Answer:
BUT TRUE European road network?
The Romans areoftenattributed withcmatiog the
ON THE A The Celts B The Romans C The Aztecs infrastructure of Europe but recent rese-arch has
ROAD AGAIN shown the Celts may havepc'eceded them.Not as
long lasting 01well built, Celtic roads such as the
Via Her-adea sti l provided a tr-aosport system.

I•Jl•l\1!WI:m•IW The celts didn't have a writing system, so much ofwhat we krlowcomes from artworkand secondary accounts

There were other The Dun Carloway broch
types of settleme11ts on the Isle of lewis,

Hill forts were the most common type ofsettlementin Celtic Scotland. It is one of the
best preserved in the world
Britain, but there were other types ofcommunitiestoo. In
Scotland, for instance, brochs were very common. Stone was Place of origin

more readily available than wood in the north so hollow dry The Celts originated in an
stone towers were built. Astructure known as a crannogwas area known as 'Hallstatt'
also popular on the sideofthe lochs ofScotland.
in the foothiUs of the Alps
Hill forts themselves also differed across the British Isles. in modem-day Austria.
Where the terrain was not hilly, a plateau orvalley fort had to
East expansion
rely on man-made defences for protection. Otherswere builton
Theextentof Celtic
river confluences forwater access while others were purposely expansion reached as far
east as parts of Romania
constructed on coastlines. Lastofall, some forts were not built by 275 BCE before the

with defence as a priorityso had smaller walls and enclosures. '\,_
Even the buildings themselves differed, with Britainhaving

roundhouses while in mainland Europe; rectangle orsquare

buildingswere preferred.

On the map

• The largest extent of
Celtic lands at
around 275 BCE

British Isles ...... ..,.

Scotland, Wales, Ireland, The Alps
Cornwall, the Isle of Man
and Brittany in France are The two main Celtic
known as the 'Celtic
Nations' where old Celtic cultures are believed to
t raditions and cultures can be from this area, the
still be seen and heard. Hallstatt and the La Tene.

Historians disagree over •
the likelihood of a Celtic
presence on the Iberian
Peninsula where
'lusitanian Celts' are
thought to have settled.

035

038 Saint Mark's 050 Buckingham Palace 062 What went Wl'ong at
Basilica Discover how the home of the
British monarchy emerged Chernobyl?
The treasures within Venice's from marshland
Learn how a runaway reaction
most famouch church led to a nuclear disaster

040 Sagrada Familia 054 Massachusetts 064 Exploring Macchu

Why is Spain's most iconic StateHouse Picchu

church still not finished being Behind Boston's most Discover this ancient Incan
built after 130 years? complex perched between
recognisable building two mountain peaks in Peru

042 The Pantheon 056 The Globe o66 How was the Sistine
Bask in the brilliance of Theatre's story
Roman architectural design Chapel's ceiling
The original home to William painted?
044 Seville Cathedral
Take a closer look at the Shakespeare's greatest plays Explore the tools, techniques
largest Gothic cathedral in and challenges behind
the world 058 Inside a Japanese Michelangelo's lofty
Rennaisance masterpiece
046 norence Cathedral castle
o68 Cardiff Castle
Crowned with the largest Explore the impressive Himeji
masonry dome in the Explore the Welsh captial's
Castle in Japan central castle
world, Florence Duomo is a
Renaissance masterpiece 059 The Fogong Temple

048 Jerusalem under Pagoda 660 Paintine the
Sistine hapel
si• ege Read about the oldest
wooden pagoda in China
Why has this city seen so
o6o Brooklyn Bridge
much conflict?
Discover of New York's most
recognisable landmarks

Florence

Cathedral

046

Japanese
castles

058

037

Saint Mark's Basilica

int

Why does Venice's most storied and famous church have so
much treasure within its walls?

An eye-catching mix of Eastern Inside the Proclamation stone
Byzantine, Western Gothic and even Church of Gold (not shown)
Islamic styles ofarchitecture and art,
Saint Mark's Basilica In Venice, Ita ly is The many origins of St Mark's interior Important announcements
testament notjustto the wealth a nd power of
the Medieval Republic of Venice in Winged lion were made from the red Pietra
northeastern Italy, but to its swashbuckling del Bando, or 'proclamation
adventures in the Mediterranea n- not just as The winged lion stone'. which was stolen from
traders, but as conquerors. with an open book Syria during the Crusades.
In 828, two rather unscrupulous Venetian is the symbolof
merchants stole what they believed were the Saint Marl< and of
remains of Saint Mark the Evangelist from Venice itself.
Alexandria in Egypt. Declaring Saint Mark
their home city's patron saint, they then built Horses of Saint Mark
a church to house the body. Instead of hiding
its origin, one mosaic In Saint Mark's Basilica Replicas of the bronze horses
even boasts of the theft - showing the that were stolen from
Venetians in question hiding the stolen saint
in barrels of pork, which the Muslim Constantinople in 1204. The
Egyptians were forbidden from touching. so originals can now be seen in
that the customs officials wouldn't inspect
their cargo too closely. the church museum.
After the original church was damaged in a
fire in 976, it was restored and then rebuilt Confession
some time before 1094around the striking
central dome that stillstands there today. The 17th-centt.y mosaic
With Venice at the height of its powers in the
u th to 14th centuries, the city provided nava l over the southernmost
support to Europea n armies in the Crusades door shows the theft of
and actually led the Fourth Crusade against Saint Marl<"s body from
Constantinople (now Istanbul in Turkey, but Alexandria, Egypt
then the Greek OrthodoxChristian capital of
the Byzantine Empire) and too k the
opportunity to loot Its many religious relics,
gold and chalices, as well as four bro nze horse
statues, to further embell ish their Basilica.
The Venetians even stole mosaics, columns
and carvings from various churches and
houses of worship across the Middle East to
pile onto their own back in Venice.
Not everything that found its way into the
Basilica was taken by force, though, for it was
also a tradition for Venetian merchants to
bring back gifts from their travels, making
Saint Mark's Basilica- or to give it its nth-
century nickname, Chiesa d'Oro, or 'Church of
Gold' - one of the most beautiful cathedrals in
not only Italy, but all of Europe.

038

976 1094 1202 1797

The original SaintMari<'s The Basilica Isdamaged The new cht.wch Is Venice leads the Fourth Napoleon Bonaparte
Basilicais oonstructed by a fired!Oing a consecrated. It wil be steals many treasur'es
Crusade against
to housethe saint's modified many tlmesowr Constantinople; Saint fromSaint Mark's.
the oomlngcenturies. Mark's Is showered in booty. Mostare laterrE!ttlmed.
pifered remains.

False dome Altar screen

The original domes were The beautiful Pala
extended with lead- d'Oro, or 'golden
covered wood in the 13th pall', altar screen
century to match the style was bought from
of the palace next door. Constantinople in
1102, rather than
Mosaics being stolen.

There are 8,000m' The
(86,100ft') of mosaics,
many in gold. That's more Italian churches often have bell
than enough to cover a towers, or 'campaniles', separate from
f ootball pitch. the main building and Saint Mark's
Campanile, which stands SOm (164ft)
high, was built in the 9th century.
The tower is so iconic that not only
does it adorn postcards, magnets and

T·shirts, but replicas - most often
used as clock towers - can be found
around the world.

But even Saint Mark's Campanile
itself is something of a replica. In the
early hours of 14 July 1902 a crack
appeared in the wall, which continued
to grow. Then at 9.45am, the tower
completely collapsed. It was rebuilt
with stronger foundations and finally
opened on 25 April1912. The

reconstruction cost 2.2mn lire
(£88,000), a vast amount at thetime.

Doge's platform

To the left of the altar
is a platform where

Venice's ruler, the
doge, would appear
after his election.

Columns

wp:;:;:: There are more than

500 columns, many

stolen from the
Byzantine Empire and
dating from the 6th to

11th centuries.

Syrian columns RIGHT View of the
Basilica from Saint
Two Byzantine columns Mark's Campanile
stolen from Syria in the

crusades - they date from
the 5th or 6th century.

Sogrodo Fomflio

iconic church still not finished Sagrada Fa milia is not a cathedral_
because it doesn't have a bishop. But it
The statistics... was intended from the outset to be
sagroda Familia cathed ral sized. The design calls fortS spires,
seven side chapels and three grand facades.
Ler.,th: 90m The raised choir space has room fort,too
Height: 170m singersa nd the six separate organs will be
Area: 4,500m2 playable from a central console to give a single
Spires: 18 instrument with S,ooo pipes. When itis
Seats: 8,000 completed, Sagrada Familia will be the
ta llest church building in the world. But
VisitO<S: 2 million per year the extraordinary gingerbread
architecture has divided opinion
from the very beginning. George
Orwell called it "one of the most
hideous buildings in the world."

The church was commissioned bya
pious bookseller calledjosep Maria
Bocabella and the first stone was laid in
1882. The Spanish architect Antoni Gaudi
took charge of the design a year later. Because
it has never received money from government
or the Catholic Church, the pace of building
work hasalways depended on the money that
could be raised privately. During Gaudi's
lifetime only the crypt, theapseabove itand
one of the spires had been completed. Gaudi
himself was not concerned with the slow
progress and famously said: "My client is not in
a hurry."
Today, Sagrada Familia is a UNESCO World
Heritage Siteand one ofthe most popular
touristattractions in Spain. The admission
c harge a nd other fund raising generates more
than €25 million (£20 million), which now
a llows an extraordinary level ofcraftsmanship
and detail on the construction. ButSagrada
Fam!lia is nota museum piece. Modern
construction techniques and materials are
used wherever possible, includingreinforced
concrete, computer-aided design and
3D-printing of plaster decorations. Even though
Antoni Gaudi lies buried in the cryptat Sagrada
Familia, a team of engineers, artists and
cra ftsmen remain dedicated to finishing the
work he began.

Construction

ahead 1882 1883 1894 1926

The road toward completion of the Work begins under the Gauditakes More than a decade later, Gaudidies,
Sagrada Familia has been long and architect Francisco de over after the crYJ>( and apse (the aged 74. He has
a rduous - a nd there is still some Paula del Villar y lozano. It the original architect
way to go... is originally designed as a semi-clnoular area behind spent over 42 years working on
disagrees with the project Sagrada FamOia, but more than
Gothic revival church. the altar) are the first parts 75 percent of it is still unbuilt
promoter and resigns.
of the church to be finished.

040

LLONG ~~h Ajuda National Siena

Korea Palace, Portugal Cathedral, Italy

Begun In 1987,1t took 20 The official residence of the A massive extension to this
years to finish the exterior Portuguese royal family was
ancient catheaal was
of this 105·storey hotel begun In 1796 but wats and
and It still hasn't opened. a revolution stalled commenced In 1339 but
construction indefWlitely.
was halted by the Black

Oeath and never finished.

fl)l•1'00I!Jll.1N•Pi!t> Thejesus tower will be 1m [3-3ft] lower than Montjuit Hill- Goudibelieved his creation should not exceed God's

Inspiring Jesus tower
architecture
Wor1< on this tower has not
Every tower and entrance represents a even started, but it will
eventually be the tallest of
different part of the New Testament the spires at 170m (558ft).

The Mary tower Vaulted roof (not Modem interior
shown)
Currently missing the top Sagrada Familia uses elaborate
half of the spire, this tower The ingenious double roof branching internal columns to
w ill be 123m (404ft) high direct all the weight of the
w hen finally completed. space is angled so that building downward. This allows it
to have a durable stone roof,
light from the side instead of the traditional wooden
design, and avoids the need for
windows is directed down flying buttresses (which Gaudi
called 'crutches') to prop up the
into the church below. walls on the outside. The shapes
of the columns are modelled on
Evangelist towers Apostle towers twisting plant stems. At their
••n>- (not shown) base, each column begins as a
These will be topped w ith polygon or star, and the number
a statue to represent each One for each of Jesus' 12 of sides or points doubles at
apostles. The four at the intervals as the columns rise, until
of the four canonical south end represent they all become cylinders at the
gospel writers: Matthew, top. The stained glass windows
Andrew, Peter, Paul and are another deliberate departure
Mark, Luke and John. James the Greater. from traditional Catholic church
design. Nor mally, the panes at the
Nat ivity facade bottom are in lighter colours than
those near the top, to give even
The earliest facade and the illumination. At Sagrada Familia
only one w ith sculptures it's the other way around. The
designed by Gaudf himself. w indows at the top of the central
His original vision called for nave are completely clear, to flood

"riiift: all the statues to be vaults with light .

e Gloria facade

fl .... e e { Construction of this facade

rSacristy e (j only began in 2002. It
A private chamber where
t he priest prepares for the represents humanity's
service. There is another
on the opposite side. f j ascension to heaven and will

Passion facade Eeventually be the grandest of

The three facades depict the three facades.

different parts of Christ's

story. The Passion facade

shows his crucifixion and

is more austere.

1933 1936 1978 1992 2010 2026
The aim is to have the
The Nativity facade is The Civil War interrupts The four towers of The Barcelona The roof of the church completed in fi'
finished. It is intended to construction. Catalan the Passion tacacle Olympics speed up central nave is completed and time for t he centenary
set the standard for the anarchists burn down ofGaudts death - 144 "~'
Gaudl 's wor1<shop. His are built and wor1< funding by bringing Pope Benedict XVI consecrates
structure and decoration models are destroyed. starts on the .li
of the rest of the church. facade itself. in millionsof extra the basilica so it can be used
years after work began. Q
tourists to the city. for religious services at last.

041

The Pantheon

Bask in the brilliance ofRoman architecture Facade

You may have heard of the Roman The writing on the front
Emperor Hadrian- he has a wa ll f~e reads: " M Agrippa
named after him In Northern England LF. Cos Tertium FE>eit"
- but his most famous and inRuential project is ("Marcus Agrippa, son of
the Pantheon. Nestled in the heart ofAncient
Rome, it is the largest u nreinforced concrete Lucius, three·time consul,
dome in the world. it was completed in a roun d made this").
125 CE a fter the original was burnt to a cinder.
Th e Panth eon served as both a temple to the Columns
gods and a lso as a place where the emperor
could make public appearances. Originally covered in white
The front of the structure is Greek in styleand marble, the porch's eight
is not too different from many ofthe buildingsin lLSm (39ft) Corinthian
AndentAthens in its pomp. The remainder is a columns were copied by
classical Roman style and contains an 8.8-metre
(29-foot) oculus in the dome. This opening the Romans from Ancient
allowed theSun to llghtthe main chamber. Greek structures such as
While the Greek columns were made of marble, the Parthenon.
the Roman arches inside are constructed from
brick. The vast dome Is held up by internal
archesand step ringsand signifies a major
breakthrough in architecture. These techniques
enabled the Romans to construct the biggest
structures everseen in that period.
With the fall of the Western Roman Empire,
Eu rope experienced a period of architectural
decline known as the Oa rk Ages. As citiesacross
the empire were ransacked, many of the great
Roman buildi ngs were destroyed by ba rbarian
hordes. One of the exceptions to th is was the
Pantheon.itwas converted to a Ch ristian
Church ca lled the St Mary of the Martyrs in 6o8
CE. Christianity was the main religion of Europe
a t the time so this is probably what saved it
from being levelled. Currently, the building
servesas a symbolic tomb for the old Italian
monarchy andasa constant reminder ofthe
greatness of Ancient Rome.

to the crown

From the Paltheoo in Paris to the little closer to home in the Vila ~Thebronzedo~ors~of ~~~~~~~'i~~~~~t~~~~~~~

Pantheon at National Revival Heroes Alrnerico-Capra in Italy. Ancient the Pantheon weigh
Roman architecture has been the
in Bulgaria, the legendary structure 20 tons and the
template for many structuresand exterior w alls are
has influenced building style around since the Pantheon is undoubtedly 7.5m (25ft) thick.
one of the best presetWd of them al,
the wortd. You'l notice the it's only natural to look to it for
inspiration. As they say, imitation is
symmetrical design with rows at
the sincerest form of flattery.
Corinthian colwnns reproduced in the

us Capitol Building and the Jefferson

Memorial in Washington, USA. and a

042

OitaBank 2. BIGGER AT&T Stadium Si.pore
NatiOnal
Dome The SO,OOO·capachy Stadium
home of the NFL's famous
This impressive stadium At"'' imn>ense 312m
Dallas Cowboys, the
in Japan p layed host to (!,024ft), the
oonoo is the biggest In the
three faxtute:s ln the 2002 United States at a huge fetfac:table roof is the
FIFA WorldCup and has a daddyofall domes.
domeof 270m (886ft). 274m (900ft).

fl)l•1'00I!Jll.1N•Pi!t> Every year. on 27June, the rays of the sun at the summerequinox shine from the oculus through the front door

Oculus

The small hole in the
top of the dome was
originally the only
lightsource w ithin
the building.

Dome

The dome's rotunda is
43.3m (142ft) in diameter
and is constructed from
pozzolanic concrete.

Main room

The main room is designed
to symbolise the heavens
while the oculus depicts
the Sun.

Pantheon
through
the ages

1600

ARenaissance
period regeneration

Drainage system Roman religion Interior design 18)5
The short-lived bell
Rain water entering Seven shrines represent the Due to renovation and towers areseen here
through the oculus is five planets the Romans restoration projects over the
carried from the centre of knew of (Mercury, Venus, years, the interior is now 2014
the temple through drains. Mars, Jupiter and Satum) and decorated in a Christian
design rather than Roman. Today, it hosts mass
the Sun and Moon. and weddings

043

Seville Cathedral

The largest Gothic cathedral in the world, when completed it
was regarded as awonder ofits age. It's easy to see why...

The Cathedral ofSt Mary of the See, Up close with the
more commonly known as Seville iconic giralda
Cathedral, is the mother church of
Andalucia. The cathedralwas built on the site of The cathedral's bell tower started life as the
a former 12th-centuryAlmohad mosque. This minaret of the original mosque of Seville.
house ofprayeroriginally consisted ofa Constructed between 11S4 and 119S, by the
rectangular courtyard, Oanked by the mosque architect Ahmed Sen Sasso, the brick tower was
itself- a low rectangular building, oriented east topped by large decorative gilt bronze spheres.
to west, containing many aisles divided by long After Seville was taken by the Christians in the 13th
lines of pillars. Built ofstone and brick, the century, the minaret was converted into the
mosque had a tall minaret on its eastern Hank. cathedral's bell tower by the addition of a belfry
After the Christian conquest of the city in stage. After an earthquake in the mid-14th century,
1248, the mosque was quickly converted into a the Islamic bronze balls collapsed and they were
church- the minaret pressed into use as a bell replaced by a large central bell house topped by a
tower. By the beginning of the 15th century, cross. This was in turn replaced when the
however, the structure of the old mosque had Renaissance architect Heman Ruiz the Younger
become so dilapidated that it was decided to designed a new belfry surmounted by a spire
buildan entirely newcathedral instone. This topped by a large bronze statue representing the
newchurch largely followed the ground plan of
its predecessor, butIt was considerably taller triumph of Christianity. Finally completed in 1568,
and contained fewer columns. In result, the
cathedral has a vast, hall-like interior. many architects have since found inspiration in the
But despite its massive walls and complex
system offlying buttresses, which supported giralda's design and fusion of architectural styles.
the stone vaults, the new cathedral's design
was far from perfect. Structural instability
resulted in the collapse ofthe central tower in
1511, which was then rebuilt to an improved
design. However, it again fell down in t888-
this time due to an earthquake- and its
reconstruction didn't take place til lt903.
The cathedral also contains many famous
tombs. The most notable Is that of the explorer
Christopher Columbus, which stands in the
south transept. Three klngs ofCastile are also
buried in the cathedral- Pedro I, Alfonso Xand
St Ferdinand Ill. Due to itssize, a rchitectural
importance and the artistic treasures that it
houses, Seville Cathedral was designated a
UNESCO World HeritageSite in 1987.

Cathedral 1184 1248 1401 1507
progress
The building of the SeviiJe is conquered by Worl<onthe The main body
Key events in cathedral history Ferdinand Ill and the mosque of the cathedral
original Almohad turned into a church. present·day church is finished.
044 mosque began.
cathedral starts.

I . LONG Seville Liverpool StPeter's
cathedral Cathedral BasHica

Despite being the largest The longest C<Jthedral in It may be C1l/ef 400years
Gothic cathedral in the
Btitain. at 188.7m (61910. old, bot at 2ll.Sm (694ft).
WOt'ld, at 132m (433ft) StPetet's Basilica In
Uverpool's 20tlrcentury Rome, Italy. Is the loogest
Seville cathedral's length cllU'ch by a long chalk.
Is pretty ave(age. cathedr'al is the wOJ'Id's

second loogesl

fl)l•1'00I!Jll.1N•Pi!t> In 1401 the cathedral chapter resolved to build o church so forge thot oil who sow it would think they were 'mod'

Tour of Spire and statue Sacristy

Cathedral The 16th-century spire is surmounted Covered by a great dome,
by a statue representing the triumph the sacristy contains all
Although an apparently of the Christian faith.
compact structure, the the vestments and sacred
cathedral evolved over Capilla real
many centuries vessels used in services.
The domed chapel which
Giralda stands immediately
behind the high altar.
Built between 1184
and 1568, the tower Tomb of Columbus
is 105m (344ft) high.
The tomb of 15th-century
Retablo explorer Christopher

The retablo, or altarpiece, Columbus stands in the
is covered in religious centre of the south t ransept
sculpture and forms the
backdrop to the high altar.

El Patio de
los Naranjos

The courtyard to the north
of the cathedral takes its
name from the orange
trees that grow there.

Architects: Alonso Martinez, West fa~ade
Pieter Dancart, Heman Ruiz The west front contains
Architectural style: the cathedral's main door
Gothic, Renaissance and great circular
Years of construction: stained-glass window.

!401-1507 Choir
Type of building/purpose:
Metropolitan cathedral Lined w ith wooden stalls,
Location: Sevide, Spain the choir stands before the
Spire height: 105m (344ft) high al tar where all the
Nave height: 42m (138ft) major services are held.

Area of site: Side chapels

Jl,520m' (124,000ft') The north and south sides
of the church are lined with
1569 small chapels in which daily
services are conducted.
The top stages
of the bell tower 1656 1888 1898
are finished.
The baptistry, w ith its The cathedral's Christopher Columbus's
painting The Vision Of central tower and bones are interred to
St Anthony, is built. vaults collapse. Seville Cathedral.

045

Florence Cathedral Meditet •anean

Heiylot 114.5m (375ft)
Length: 153m (502ft)
W odth: 38m (125ft)
Cost: A! least £500m ($802m)
Date of constTu<:tlon:
1296-1436

Crowned with the largest masonry dome in the world,
Florence Duomo is a Renaissance masterpiece

Popularly ca lied the The cathedral's exteriorwalls A tour of the basilica
Duomo, Florence
Cathedral's name is are faced in alternate vertical and It looks deceptively simple but Florence Cathedral
derived from the Latin 'domus dei' horizontal bands ofcoloured boasts some very sophisticated architecture
-the House ofGod-and is marble-white from Carrara, green
dedicated to the Virgin Mary Santa from Prato and red from Siena. Ba ptis try West fa~ade
Maria del Fiore (StMary of the Despite the manyarchitects to This was the last part
Flower}. The present building was work on it the building retains a This octagonal building's of the cathedral to be
started in 1296 and is the third remarkable architectural and eastem doors are a completed between
cathedral to stand on thesite. aesthetic cohesion. The interior is Renaissance masterpiece 1876-1887 to the
s parselydecorated, but contains a by the sculptor Lorenzo designs of architect
Taking 140 years to bu lid, the number of major Renaissance Ghiberti. Its panels Emilio de Fabris.
original plan was only changed artworks and 44stained-glass illustrate scenes from
once during construction when the windows- in fact. the largest the Old Testament.
eastern hall ofthe cathedral was e xpanse of glass installed during
massively expanded to allow for 14th and 15th-century Italy.
the now iconic dome. Work on this
extraordinary structure began in Above the main door is the
1420 and was completed In just 16 basilica's one-handed liturgical
years. Higher and wider than any clock, which shows aU 24 hours.
previously built, the octagonal Erected in 1443, it is still working
dome was constructed without today. The largest cathedral in
usinga temporarywooden Europe when it was built, it bas
supporting frame. Consistingof a become symbolicof Florenceand
doubleshell made ofsandstone, its dome is instantlyrecognised
marbleand brick, the base ofthe around the globe. Such is the
Duomo's cultural importance that
dome is 52 metres(171 feet) above
the ground and has a staggering the cathedral complex was
44-metre (144-foot)diameter. designated a UNESCO World
Heritagesite in 1982.

046

KEY l296 1436 1439 1865 1887

DATES Therolding of the Thecathedral is The Coonci of Florence Flo<onceis made capital The cathedral's
present cathedral begins is hold to try and rounlfy oftho newly =ated
THEDUOMO fonnallyconsocrated by Kingdomof Italy: the noogothlc west fac;ado
to the eastof theold Pope Eugene IV (right). the Orthodoxand Duomois itscathedral.
is finally con'Clleted.
cathe<ral o f St Reparala. catholic churches.

fl)(•:roo.t!1ll.1N•l~!t> The famous Eng/ish mercenary, SirJohn Howkwood, was buried in Florence Cathedral in 1394

Lantern Dome The Baptistry
of StJohn
A stone lantern crowns The double-skinned dome
the dome and is comprises more than 4 This oct agonal building stands slightly to the
surmounted by a gilt- million bricks and over west of the cathedral. Built t o house the font in
copper cross and ball which all Christians in Florence were baptised, it
containing holy relics. 37,000 tons of material. was construct ed bet ween 1059 and 1128. The
baptistry is famous for three sets of artistically
Dome interior .... important bronze doors. The eastern pair, f acing
the cathedral, so impressed Michelangelo that
The interior surface of the he called them the 'Gat es of Paradise'. M ade of
dome is covered in an sandstone and faced with marble incorporating
enormous fresco depicting many reused fragment s of Roman buildings, the
The last Judgement, exterior features many sculptural groups and
painted by Giorgio Vasari. two massive porphyry columns.

Campanile The interior of the baptist ry is clad in marble,
while the inside of the dome which roofs the
Considered by many to be st ructure is inlaid with magnificent gold mosaics.
ltaly·'s most beautiful bell The floor is covered in marble featuring a design
tower, the top of the based on the zodiac. Unusually, the bapt istry also
campanile can be reached houses a numberof tombs, including that of the
by climbing 414 steps. antipope John XXIII which is considered a
signif icant early-Renaissance sculptural work.
••
Giotto's
campanile

The campanile, or beU tower, was
designed by the celebrated painter
Giotto di Bondone and it houses
seven bells. Standing next to the
cathedral, it is built from the same
coloured marbles and so blends in
well with its neighbour. The tower
is square in plan with sides
measuring 15 metres (47 feet) and
it soars 87 metres (278 feet) high.
Embraced by polygonal buttresses

at its comers, it's divided into five
separate levels - the upper three

of which contain windows. Each of
the three top levels is larger than
the one below it in every
dimension. These differences in
size counter the effect of
perspective so when viewed from
below, the three top levels of the
tower look equal in size. Although
Giotto originally intended the
campanile to be surmounted by a
tall spire, after his death it was
decided to build a large projecting
terrace instead, which lendsthe
tower a dramatic 'broken off' look.

Nave Crypt Transept

Consisting of four l ocated bene.ath the body The cathedral's small
vast bays, the nave is of the basilica, the crypt tran.septs (the 'cross
designed for processions arms') house a number
houses the tombs of the of chapels, tombs and
and to accommodate bishops of Rorence and major sculptural works.
large congregations other notable people.
of worshipers. Chancel

The silver shrine of St
Zenobius, the first bishop of

Florence, is located in the
chancel's eastern chapel.

047

jerusalem under siege

• The battle for
Jerusalem
s
Discover how the city was besieged
From Roman battles to WWI, city has
seen more than its fair share of conflict on the First Crusade in 1099

In its long history, the city ofjerusalem Th is victory led to a counterattack in 1187 Inner city
has been besieged over 20 times. One from Saladin ofthe Ayyu bid Dynasty. The c.ity,
of the oldest cities in the world, it has still un der Christian rule, was defended by The Jerusalem citadel contained
been the scene of Roman civil wars, holy Ba!ian of Ibelin. At first, Saladin negotiated for a some or Islam's holiest sites such
crusades and even a world war. peaceful surrender bu t after it was rejected he as the AI-Aqsa Mosque, the Dome
The first siege of the Common Era was when began besiegingjerusalem. or the Rock and the Tower or David.
the city was under Roman rule in 70 CE. Started
by the Great jewish Revolt in 66 CE, thejews He focused his attacks on the Tower of David Attack the walls
were incensed when a Roman official stole from and the Damascus Gate.Theassault was
the synagogue. jews rose up againsttheir repelled so the attentionwas turned to the A direct offensive was
oppressors' rule and establishedjerusalemas Mount of Olives, which had no gate. This proved launched and ladders
the centre of rebeLlion. Subsequently, Emperor to bea tactical masterdassand, justas the were put against the
Vespasian ordered a force led by General Titus Christian stronghold was about to fall, Balian battlements as crusaders
to retake the c.ity. Battering rams, catapults and offereda negotiatedsurrendertowhich Saladin tried to rush t he city.
siege towers were used to destroy the wa Us and eventuallyagreed. The laterThird Crusade led
sacred relics from the c.ity's temple were stolen.
The Arch ofTitus in Rome was built to by Richard the Lionheartand Philip 11 in n89
commemorate the victory.
Perhaps the most famous ofall jerusalem's aimed to reclaim the c.ity, but ultimately failed.
conflicts, though, were the Crusades. In the The nextmajorsiege was centuries later in
First Crusade of1099, a Christian army with
12,ooo infantry and 1,500 cava lry took the city. 1917 during World WarI. Abattle between the
Siege towers and scaling ladders were used to British and the Ottoman Empire, the city fell
overwhelm the defences of one of the best- into Allied hands afterseveral days offighting.
defended metropolises of the age. The city remained under British rule until1948,
when the Arab-Israeli War divided jerusaIem
between Israela nd jordan, leading to decades
of internal conflict. Today, it is the capital of two

sovereign sta tes: Israel and Palestine.

Why is so

Jerusalem has been regarded as a city Jews believe the city was designed
of religious significance for Jews, for them by God. For Islam, the city
Christians and Mus§ms for over 2,000
years. For Crusaders, the city needed contains one of the holiest mosques
to be recaptured from Muslim rule, as
it w as essential to pilgrimages. In after that in Mecca and is known as
Judaism, Jerusalem is considered holy
AI-Quds. Jerusalem was also
and is often known as Zion.
geographicaly important for empires

to get a foothold on the Middle East
for miftary campaigns and trade.

Road to Nov1095 Dec Jun1097

Jerusalem Christian armies from 1096 The Anatolian c.ity or

Jerusalem w as the main the West, encouraged Westem forces Nicaea is captured.
target for the First by Pope Urban II,
Crusad e - here's how arrive in the followed by an
the conquest unfolded decide to recapture
Byzantine capital eight-month siege or
the Holyland from
or Constantinople Antioch (right).
the Muslims.
to begin the war.

048

STOP 1Gibraltar 2•••••••••••••••••The Alamo ••••••3•••••••Candia 4•••••••••••••••••Constantinople 5•••••••••••••••••Staingrad
The GreatSiege ol Gibraltar
FACTS wasa Ftench and Spanish Fought during theTexas War l.astlng for two decades, the In 1453, just!O,OOO men In 1942. Sollie! cilyStalingrad
atte~ to take<:Ner the British stood against 100,000 wasSUTounded byGerman
FAMOUS SIEGES ofl~inl836,the •••• Siegeofcandia is thelongest fOI'C:eS. Fiefcest:reeHo-street
stronghold. l.astlng <Nei three in history. 60,000 Ottomans Ottomans.cannons and f~ghtlng ensued, ewntuolly
years, the British held out Alamois renowned forthe resulting ina Russian victory
despite navyblod<ades. attacked theVenetian cityin wat5111ps led to not just the anda rum ol thetidein WWII.
br.....,. of 200Texans who
O'ete in 1648 and~ ewntuolly dty's demisebutalso the
held out <Neia 13-day siege sucetmbed in 1669. fallo1 theByzantine Empire.

against6,000 MeJclcans.

fl)l•1'00I!Jll.1N•Pi!t> 2oos's Hollywood blockbuster film Kingdom Of Heaven is based on the 1187 Siege ofjerusalem

Surrounding the city

With certain areas heavily

defended, the attackers widened
their assault and targeted

weaker areas of the walls.

Siege towers

' Huge towers were '0~~-~
constructed after help -~ ,
Defence
• from Genoese allies.
The defenders fought back
Hordes of crusaders by throwing projectiles
from the ramparts and
·• could now swarm using ranged weapons to
bring down the ladders and
over the walls.
!11''-1 slow the Christian advance.

Camp (not shown)

The Christian Crusaders
arrived on 7 July and
established a camp. Their
full force was reportedly

around 13,000 men.

Siege engines

Weapons such as

trebuchets and
mangonels were built for
long-range attacks on

the city' s fortifications.

Jul1097 Dec Jun Aug1099
1097 1099
The first big Jun1098 At the Battle of Ascalon,
skirmish of the The Muslims, led by The Siege of
campaign at The Battle of the Orontes an Egyptian force of ~
Dorylaeum results Duqaq and Ridwan, Jerusalem
in heavy losses but sees a 75,000-strong 50,000 is defeated by j
a Christian win. strike back in two Islamic army, low on begins and the the Crusaders. With
:0c
battles at Harenc morale, defeated by Crusaders are Jerusalem still under
but are repelled. Christian control, the 1-
15,000 Christians. victorious by First Crusade ends.
~
July (right).
~

Q

049

Buckingham Palace uncovered

The London home ofthe British monarchy is recognised
the world over, but how did it emerge from marshland?

Although one of London's most popular Grand entrance

historic landmarks, Buckingham State ballroom This Is the official
Palace as we know it today is less than entrance and exit point
2ooyearsold. Part of the medieval manor of The largest room in the to the palace through
Ebury, the land on which the palaces tands, palace, the ballroom which all distinguished
came into royal possession under Henry VIII. was added by Queen
Planted upasa mulberrygarden by King Victoria in 1854.1t is :;o--=- visitors pass.
jamesl (16o)-1625} !nanattempt to rear 37m (121ft) long, 18m
(59ft) w ide and l3.5m 1624
(44ft) high.
First house built
silkworms, the site ofthe future palace passed
Sir William Blakebuilds
through various hands before Goring House, the first houseon the site.

Arlington Houseand then Buckingham House Bought by lord Goring in

were built on the same site In less than150years. 1633. the original structure
is extended and becomes
Little is known aboutthese houses, but theyare known as Goring House.

thought to have stood where thesouthwingof

the palace is located today.

In 1761George lll purchased Buckingham

House for his wife, Queen Charlotte, as a quiet

family home close to Stjames's Palace. A rather

simple redbrick building, the kingremodelled The statistics...
the house in 1762and itwas redesigned again on

the accession of George IVIn 1820. ln1826 the

king decided to transform the old-fashioned

house into a palace. The celebrated architect

john Nash doubled the s ize of the building by

adding a new s uite of rooms in a french

neoclassical s tyle. The north a nd south wings of Architects: John Nash, SirAston Kitchen and
staff quarters
the old house were demolished and rebuilt on a Webb. Edward Blore and others
Most of the everyday
largerscale, witha triumphal arch - the Marble Built: 1762-!914 work in the palace
happens behind the
Arch - as the courtyard's centrepiece. Area: 77,000rri' (830,000ft') scenes in the staff
quarters. They are
With the accession of William IV, Nas h was Height: 24m (79ft) located all around and
even under the palace.
replaced by Edward Blore who finished work on Humber of rooms: 775
1674
the palace. The king, however, did not care for Cost Estmated at c:Ner £lbn --
the building, failed to move inand even offered • ($1.7bo) today Fir e!

'-.• ..r .• • • •• Purchased by Henry
Bennet, First Earl of
The palace 1536 .. .•• '·-....••• • Arlington, Goring House
bums down in 1674. Its
overtime land sold . ...·, .•J replacement is called
Arlington House.
Take a tour through Buckingham King Henry VIII takes the ..:'·... ~~:~... '•t •.,• ),
Palace's history and discover the
Manor of Ebury, Which :·t-.•• . '••••. '
key events that made it the includes the land where
the palace now sits, off ,t
Westminster Abbey and
.

f'
~~: .'•

lanctnark it is today leases it to royal landlords.

050


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