The words you are searching are inside this book. To get more targeted content, please make full-text search by clicking here.

இலங்கையின் இயற்கையனர்த்தங்களும் அவற்றில் செல்வாக்கு செலுத்தும் காரணிகளும்

Discover the best professional documents and content resources in AnyFlip Document Base.
Search
Published by anbu.19970223, 2022-07-11 04:34:36

இலங்கையின் இயற்கையனர்த்தங்களும் அவற்றில் செல்வாக்கு செலுத்தும் காரணிகளும்

இலங்கையின் இயற்கையனர்த்தங்களும் அவற்றில் செல்வாக்கு செலுத்தும் காரணிகளும்

Nju;r;rp

• ,aw;ifadu;jj; k; njhlu;ghf Vw;glf$; ba Mgj;J epiyikfis mwpe;J tpopg;Gzu;Tld; nraw;gLthu.;
• ,aw;ifadu;jq;fshy; Vw;gLk; Mgj;J epiyikfis ,ad;wsTf;F Fiwg;gjpy; gq;fspg;G nra;thu.;

nry;tehafk; Rgh\pdp>

Muk;ggg; pupT - ‘E’
Rw;whly; rhu; nraw;ghLfs;
=ghj Njrpaf; fy;tpapaw; fy;Y}up
gj;jid.

cs;slf;fk;

• mdu;j;jk; vdw; hy; vdd; ?

nrawi; fadu;jj; k; vdw; hy; vdd; ?
,aw;ifaduj; j; k; vd;why; vd;d?
,aw;ifaduj; ;jjj; pw;F VJthdf; fhuzpfs;

• rpy ,aw;ifadu;j;jq;fs;.
• ,yq;ifapd; ,aw;ifadu;j;jq;fs;
• tul;rp

tulr; papd; gy;NtW epiyfs;
tulr; papd; vjpu;T $wyf; s;
tulr; p epiyik Vwg; Ltjw;fhd tpQQ; hd mbgg; ilapyhdf; fhuzpfs;
tul;rpapdhy; mjpfsT ghjpf;fgg; Lk; khtll; q;fs
tulr; papdhy; Vwg; Lk; ghjpg;Gfs; my;yJ tpisTfs;
tulr; p mduj; j; Kfhikj;Jtk;
,yqi; fia ghjpfF; k; tulr; p

• Rdhkp

Rdhkp Vwg; Ltjd; fhuzk;

Rdhkp mdu;jj; Kfhikj;Jtk;

Rdhkpapd; Kd; mwpFwpfs; vit
RdhkpapypUe;J vtt; hW jg;gpf;nfhs;tJ
Rdhkp mduj; ;jj;jpd; gpd; vd;d nraa; Ntz;Lk;

• epyr;rupT

epyr;rupT mdu;jj; k; Vw;gLtjpy; nry;thf;F nrYj;Jk; fhuzpfs;
epyr;rupnthdw; pid Kd$; l;bNa mwpeJ; f;nfhs;Sk; mwpFwpfs;
epyr;rupT ,lupid ,optsthfF; tjw;fhd eltbf;iffs;
,yq;ifapy; epyrr; upT mghaKs;s khtl;lq;fs;

• nts;sg;ngUf;F

nts;sg; ngUf;fpdhy; mjpfsT ghjpff; g;gLk; gpuNjrq;fs;

nts;sg;ngUf;F Vw;gl nry;thf;F nrYj;Jk; fhuzpfs;
nts;sg;ngUf;F mdu;jj; jpd; ,optsthfF; tjw;fhd topKiwfs;

• #whtsp

,yq;ifapy; #whtspapdhy; ghjpff; g;gLk; rpy khtl;lq;fs;

#whtsp mdu;jj; j;jpidf; Fiwj;Jf; nfhs;s Nkw;nfhss; Ntz;ba eltbf;iffs;.

• kpd;dy; jhf;fk;

kpd;dypd; %d;W tiffs;

kpd;dy; jhf;fj;jpid Fiwj;Jf;nfhst; jwF; Nkw;nfhss; Ntz;ba eltbf;iffs;

• mdu;j;jq;fs; Vw;gLtjdhy; ,yq;if vjpu;Nehf;Fk; rthy;fs;
• ,yqi; fapy; mduj; j; KfhikjJ; t Ntiyjj; pl;lk;
• rhuhkr; k;

mdu;j;jk; vd;why; vd;d?

• NguhgjJ; k; ,ayhikAk; Nrue; J; cUthFtJk; ,lu>; MgjJ; vdg; tww; hy; Vw;gLk; xU
tpisT my;yJ epuf; ;fjpahd mty epiyjhd; mdu;jj; khFk;. mduj; ;jk; 2 tifg;gLk;.
1. nraw;ifadu;jj; k;
2. ,aw;ifadu;j;jk;

nraw;ifadu;jj; k; vdw; hy; vdd; ?

,tw;wpy; nraw;ifadu;jj; k; vd;gJ kdpjdhy; cUthf;fg; gLgitahFk;.
mit ,aw;if epajpfsy;y. cjhuzkhf mgptpUj;jp Aj;jq;fspidf; Fwpgg; plyhk;.; ,dp
,aw;ifadu;jj; q;fs; gww; p ,qF; tpupthf Muha;Nthk.;

,aw;ifadu;j;jk; vd;why; vd;d?

• ,awi; fadu;j;jk; vdgg; LtJ ngsjfP #oypy; ,aw;if epajpfshy; kdpjDfF; NfL
tpistpf;Fk; tifapyhd epfoT; fs; ,lk;ngWtjhFk.;
Mifapdhy; jhd; ,awi; faduj; j; qf; is jLjJ; epWjJ; k; rfj; p kdpjuplk;
,yi; y vdyhk.;

(,aw;ifaduj; j; q;fs; Vw;gLk; kPbwd; mjpfupjJ; nry;Yk; Nghff; py; fhzgg; LfpwJ. ,J gpujhdkhf

jpl;lkplgg; lhj mgptpUj;jp > #oy; khriljy>; kdpj jiyaPLfs; > kwW; k; kdpj jiyaPLfshy;
Vw;gLfpd;wJ.) jfty; - kpJu\; h

,aw;ifadu;jj; jj; pw;F VJthd fhuzpfs; vit?

1. fhyepiy khw;wk;
2. Gtpapay; mikgG; Nfhyqf; s;

fhyepiy khw;wk;

• Fwpjj; xU fhyg;gFjpapy; mjhtJ 10 tUlk; my;yJ mjw;Fk; mjpfkhf
Gs;sptpgutpay;uPjpapy; fhyepiy %yf$; Wfspd; mstPLfspy; Vw;gLk; khw;wq;fs;
fhyepiy khww; q;fs; vdg;gLk;. fhyepiy %yfq;fshd gbT tPor; ;rp >
ntg;gepiy> fhw;W Kjypaw;wpy; cyf uPjpahfNth my;yJ gpuNjr uPjpahfNth
toikf;F khwhf Vw;gLfpd;w khw;wk; fhyepiy khw;wk; vdg;gLfpwJ.

Muk;gf; fhyg; gFjpfspy; fhyepiy khww; j;jpw;F ,aw;if fhuzp;fNs fhuzkhf
,Ue;jd. Mdhy; ,d;W ,aw;if fhuzpfSld; khdplr; nrawg; hLfSk; fhyepiy
khw;wjj; py; nry;thf;F nrYj;jp tUfpd;wd.

• me;j tifapy; fhyepiy khww; j;jpy; nry;thf;F nrYj;Jk; ,aw;if fhuzpfshf
#upaf; fjpu; tPrypd; jhf;fk;> Gtp Rw;Wtl;lg; ghij khw;wk;> vupkiyf;
ff;Fiffs; Kjypatw;iwf; Fwpg;gplyhk.;

Gtpapay; mikg;Gf; Nfhyq;fs;

• nghJthf ,aw;ifadu;j;jq;fs; Fwpjj; g; gpuNjrj;jpd; Gtpapay; mikg;Gf;Nfw;gNt
epfo;fpd;wd. cjhuzkhf Rdhkpadu;j;jk; fiuNahuq;fis mzk; pjj; g;
gFjpfspNyNa ghjpff; pd;wJ. cau;e;j kiyg;ghq;fhdg; gFjpfspNyNa kz;rupT
mdu;jj; k; epfo;fpd;wJ.

rpy ,aw;ifadu;j;jq;fs;

• GtpeLf;fk;
• Rdhkp
• Vupkiy ntbg;G
• epy rupT
• Ropf;fhw;W
• nts;sk;
• kpd;dy; jhf;fk;
• tul;rp
• gdpkiy cilT
• #whtsp
• fhl;Lj;jP

,yq;ifapd; ,aw;if mdu;j;jq;fs;

• ,yqi; fj;jPthdJ epyeLf;fk; kw;Wk; epyeLff; g; gFjpfspypUe;J ntFj;
njhiiytpYs;s ehnld ekg; g;gl;lhYk; KO ,yq;ifj; jTP k; ,e;jpag;
ngUq;fly; Rdhkpahy; kwW; k; ngupastpyhd ntg;g kzl; y #whtspfshy;
mr;RWjj; gg; lf$; bajhf fhzg;gLfpdw; J.

• Mdhy; ,t;thwhf mupjhf mrR; Wj;jf;$ba ghupaj; jhf;fq;fis
tpistpf;ff;$ba mdu;j;jq;fis tpl ehshe;j tho;tpy; nts;sqf; s>; tulr; p>
epyr;rupTfs; > kpd;dy; jhff; q;fs; Kjyhd mdu;j;jq;fs; tUle;NjhWk;
Vw;gl;Lf;nfhz;bUf;fpd;wd.

• me;j tifapy; ,yq;ifj;jPtpd; ve;jnthUg; gFjpAk; fhyepiy
khw;wq;fspypUeJ; k; mdu;j;j epiyikfspypUeJ; k; ghJfhg;ghf ,yi; y
vdN; wf;$wyhk.;

• 2017,y; khjj; puk; cyfpd; gy ehLfspy; mduj; ;jq;fshy; Vw;gll; ghjpgG; fis
ikakhf itjJ; N[u;kd; epWtdk; fhy epiy khw;wqf; shy; Vwg; lf$; ba
Mgj;Jfs; njhlu;ghd cyf ehLfspd; ju tupirapid ntspapl;Lss; J.

• ,j;ju tupirapy; cyfshtpa uPjpapy; ,yqi; f ,uz;lhtJ ,lji; jg;
ngw;Ws;sJ. ,J vjpu;fhyj;jpy; ,yqi; f gy mduj; ;jq;fis vjpu;nfhs;sf;$ba
Mgji; j NkYk; tYgg; Ljj; f; $bajhf css; J.

,JtiuapYk; ,yq;ifapy; Vw;gl;Ls;s ,aw;ifadu;j;jqf; s.;

• Rdhkp
• nts;sk;
• tul;rp
• #whtsp
• kPd;kio
• rptg;G kio
• ,b> kpd;dy; jhf;fq;fs;

,yq;ifapd; ,aw;ifadu;j;jq;fs;

• tul;rp

• ezP l; Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpw;F kiotPo;rr; p fpilf;fhikahy; Vwg; Lk; epiyikNa
tulr; p vd mjid vspikahf tiutpyf;fzg;gLj;jyhk.; tul;rpapd;
tiutpyf;fzk; ehl;Lf;F ehL > gpuNjrj;jpw;F gpuNjrk; > fhyj;jpw;F fhyk;
khWgLk.; cjhuzkhf ypgpah ehl;by; tUlhe;j kiotPor; ;rp 180mm I tpl
FiwAk;NghNj mJ tul;rpahff; fUjgg; Lk.; mjidg;Nghy If;fpa mnkupff; htpy;
,uz;L jpdqf; Sf;Fs; 2.5mm ,w;F Fiwe;j kiotPo;rr; p fpilf;fg;ngwpd; tul;rp
Vwg; l;Ls;sjhff; fUjgg; LfpwJ.

mt;thW ,yq;ifapy; ahNjDnkhU gpuNjrjj; pwF; fpilfF; k; tUlhej;
kiotPo;rr; papy; 75% ,w;F Fiwthff; fpilfF; k; NghJ mgg; puNjrjj; py; tul;rp
Vw;gl;Lss; jhff; fUjgg; Lk.;

• epyj;jpd; Nkw;gugg; pwF; gy;NtW topfspy; ePu; fpilf;fpd;wJ. kiotoP ;r;rp> %Lgdp >
gdpkio Mfpad mtwW; s;slq;Fk.; ,yq;ifiag; nghUj;jstpy; gpujhdkhf
kiotPo;rr; p %yNk epyjj; pw;F euP ; fpilf;fpd;wJ. kiotPor; r; pf;F Vw;g
gpuNjrqf; is <utyak;> ,il <utyak; > cyu; tyak; vd %d;W tyaq;fshfg;
gpupf;fyhk.; xtn; thU tyaj;jpYk; vjpug; g; hu;f;fg;gLfpdw; kiotPo;rr; pf; Nfhyq;fSk;
kiotoP ;rr; papd; msTk; cs;sd. ahNjDk; xU fhy ,ilntspapy; fpilff;
Ntz;ba kiotPo;rr; pia tplf; Fiwthd kiotPo;rr; p fpilfF; k;NghJ tul;rp
epiyik Vw;gLfpd;wJ. ,j;jw;fhypf epiy FWfpa fhyjj; pw;F my;yJ ezP ;l
fhyj;jpw;F fhzg;glyhk.; ,J ghiytd fhyepiyapypUeJ; NtWgLfpdw; J.
vdpDk; ePz;l fhy tulr; p > ghiy epyk; cUthff$; ba epiyikia Vwg; LjJ; k.;

tul;rpapd; gy;NtW epiyfs;

• tulr; papd; ghjpg;G> epyTk; fhy msT vd;gtw;iw mbgg; ilahf nfhz;L tulr; papd; 4 epiyfis
,dq;fhzyhk;.

1. thdpiy rhu; tulr; p

2. tptrha tsur; r; p

3. ePupay; tul;rp

4. r%fg; nghUshjhu tulr; p

tul;rpapd; Mukg; epiy thdpiyrhu; tulr; p vd miof;fg;gLk;. toikahd fhyepiyf; Nfhyjj; py;
Vw;gLk; khw;wjj; hy; Fiwthd kiotPo;rr; p ngwgg; Lk; NghJ kz;zpy; cs;s ePupdm; sT FiwtileJ;
gapu;fSfF; ghjpgG; Vw;gLk.; ,J tptrha tul;rp Muk;gkhFk;. ,f;fhyepiyj; njhlue; ;jpUfF; k; NghJ Xilfs>;
MWfs>; thtpfs; > Fsq;fs; vdg; tw;wpd; ePu; kll; k; Fiwtiltjhy; ePupay; tulr; p Vw;gLfpd;wJ.,k; %d;W
tul;rp epiyikfspdJk; nkhjj; ghjpg;ghf r%fg; nghUshjhu tul;rp epiyik cUthFk;.

tul;rp gw;wpa vjpu;T $wy;

• tulr; pahdJ cldbahfj; Njhd;Wtjyy; . MfNt tul;rpiag; gw;wp vjpu;T$w
mjpfsT jftyf; s; Njitgg; Lfpdw; d. kiotPo;rr; papd; msT> euP ;epiyfspYs;s
euP pd; kll; k;> kz; <uypg;G> gpuNjrj;jpd; MtpAapu;gG; gw;wpa jfty;fs; mtw;wpDs;
rpythFk.; ,j;jfty;fis tpQ;Qhd uPjpapy; gFj;jha;e;J tul;rp epiyik
Njhd;Wtjw;fhd vrr; upf;ifia tpLff; KbAk.; rpy gj;jpupiffspd; jiyg;Gfs;
tUkhW…..

• tulr; p vd;gJ gpuNjrj;jpwF; g; gpuNjrk; NtWgLk; epiyikahFk.; vdpDk; Fwpj;jg;
gpuNjrqf; spy; Vwg; Lk; khw;wq;fis khj;jpuk; mbg;gilahf; fUj;jpwn; fhs;shJ
gy;NtWg; gpuNjrq;fspd; tulr; p epiyikia xgg; Ltjw;F nghUj;jkhd
mstPnlhd;iw thdpiy Muhar; r; pahsu;fs; Kd;itjJ; s;sdu.; ,J epak
kiotPo;r;rpapd; Rln; lz; ( Standardized Precipitation Index – SPI) vd mioff; gg; Lk.;



tul;rp epiyik Vw;gLtjw;fhd tpQ;Qhd mbg;gilapyhdf;
fhuzpfs;

• kiotPo;r;rp Nfhyj;jpy; khw;wj;ij Vwg; Lj;Jk; vy;yhf; fhuzpfSk; Neubahf
tul;rpia Vw;gLj;JtjwF; fhuzkhfpdw; d.

• tulr; p Vw;gl 2 fhuzpfs; fhuzkhfpd;wd. ahNjDk; fhy ,ilntspapy; fpilf;Fk;
kiotPo;r;rp Fiwtiljy; > kiotPor; r; pf; Nfhyj;jpy; Vwg; Lk; khww; k; vd;gd fPOs;s
mbg;gilapy; epfof; pdw; d.

tul;rpapdhy; mjpfsT ghjpf;fg;gLk; khtl;lq;fs;

• aho;g;ghzk;
• fpspnehr;rp
• Ky;iyj;jPT
• tTdpah
• kd;dhu;
• jpUNfhzkiy
• mDuhjGuk;
• Gj;jsk;
• nghydWit
• FUzhfy;
• nkhduhfiy
• mk;ghe;Njhl;il

• tul;rp epiyik jPtpukila NtW gy fhuzpfSk; nryt; hf;F nrYj;Jfpd;wd. mitahtd
- Kiwaw;w ePu; EfuT; > eiP u kpifahfhg; gad;gLj;Jjy; ( kpif Efu;T – over consumption of

water) mjhtJ eiP u tPz; tpuakhf;Fjy;.

- Kiwaw;w kz; KfhikjJ; tk; - kzi; z rupahd Kiwapy; gad;gLj;jhikahy; kzz; py;
Njff; p itf;fg;gLk; ePupd; msT FiwtilAk; > kzz; pypUeJ; ePu; Mtpahjy; mjpfupgg; jdhy;
kz; cyue; ;J fhww; pdhy; kzz; upg;G Vw;gLk;. NkYk; euP ;epiyfspd; kll; k; tpiuthf Fiwtile;J
euP ;epiyfs; tw;wp jiughsqf; shf ntbf;Fk; .

- fhLfisaspjj; y>; jhtu %Lgilfis mfw;Wjy; vd;gdf; fhuzkhf ePut; l;lk; NeubahfNfh
kiwKfkhfNth ghjpg;gilfpdw; J. ,jdhy; kiotoP r; r; pAk; ghjpgg; ilfpdw; J.

- euP ; ntg;gkhtjd; fhuzkhf kiotPo;rr; pf; Nfhyjj; py; khww; k; Vw;gLfpdw; J. kdpjDila
gyN; tW nraw;ghLfspd; fhuzkhf epyk; ntgg; kilAk; epiy Vwg; Lfpd;wJ.

- gyN; tW Kiwfspdhy; fl;ll epuk; hzq;fspy; epyj;jpDs; ePu; tbeJ; nry;tJ
jLff; gg; Lfpd;wJ; . ,jdhy; kzz; py; Njf;fpitff; g;gLk; euP pd; msT Fiwtilfpdw; J.

tul;rp Vw;gLtjw;fhd xU fhuzkhf mikAk; vy-; epNdh
Njhw;wg;ghL

• tulr; p Vwg; Ltjw;fhd gpujhd ,aw;if fhuzpahf vy-; epNdh Njhww; gg; hLk;
mikfpwJ vd thdpiy Muha;rr; pahsu;fs; fUJfpdw; du.; cyfpd; gy;NtW
ehLfspy; Vwg; Lfpdw; tulr; pf;F fhuzkhf mikej; vy-; epNdh Njhw;wg;ghL
,yq;ifapYk; tul;rp Vw;gLtjw;F fhuzkhf mike;Js;sJ.

tul;rpapdhy; Vw;gLk; ghjpg;Gfs; my;yJ tpisTfs;

• tul;rp capuN; fhsj;jpwF; k; ghjpg;ig Vwg; LjJ; fpd;wJ. tul;rpapd; jhf;fk;
Mukg; j;jpy; Rw;whliy ghjpf;Fk.; mrR; ww; hly; gpur;rpidia ikakhf;nfhzL;
r%fg; nghUshjhu gpurr; pidfs; Njhd;Wfpd;wd. tul;rpapd; jhf;fji; j gpd;tUk;
vzz; f;fU glk; %yk; tptupf;fyhk.;

tul;rpapd; ghjpg;G

euP ; tsk; tptrhak; kz; fhL rf;jpAk; Rfhjhuk;
tYTk;

epy euP ; epyj;jb
euP ;

ePu; tsk;

• tul;rpapdhy; epy Nkwg; ugG; euP ; ( thtp> Fsk;> MW> ePNuhil) epyj;jb euP ; vdg; d
tw;wpg;Nghfpd;wd. ,jdhy; FbePuj; ; jl;Lg;ghL kw;Wk; Vida ehshej;
NjitfSf;fhd ePu;jj; l;Lgg; hL vd;gd Vwg; LtJld; tptrha eltbfi; ffSk;
ghjpf;fgg; lL; czT cw;gjj; pAk; Fiwfpd;wJ.

tuz;l ePu; epiy

tptrhak;

• tptrha ehlhd ,yqi; f tulr; papd; fhuzkhf mjpf ghjpg;Gfis vjpu;NehfF; fpdw; J.
ney; Nghdw; jhdpaq;fs;> kuf;fwptiffs;> mtiu ,dq;fs; Nghd;w czTg;
gapun; ra;iffs; kio euP ;> tbfhy; euP ;gg; hrd Kiw vd;gd %yNk eilngWfpd;wd.

• tulr; p fhuzkhf kzz; pd; <uypg;Gj; jd;ik FiwtilAk; NghJ gapu; tpisrr; Yk;
Fiwtilfpd;wJ. Tul;rpapd; jhff; k; fhuzkhf Njapiy> ,wg;gu;> njd;id Nghdw;
gyy; hzL; j; jhtug; gapun; ra;iffF; k; ghjpgG; Vw;gLfpd;wJ. ehl;by; czTj; jlL; g;ghL
Vw;gLtJld; VwW; kjp tUkhdKk; Fiwtiltjhy; nghUshjhuj;jpYk; ghjpgG;
Vw;gLfpd;wJ.

rf;jptY cw;gj;jp

• ,yqi; fapy; rf;jp Njititg; G+u;j;jp nraa; mdyk; pd; rfj; pAk; ePu;kpd; rf;jpAk;
gadg; Lfpd;wd.

• ,yq;ifapd; rf;jp Njitapy; ngUk; gFjp> mdy;kpd; rf;jp %yNk ngwgg; Lfpd;wJ.
euP ; epiyfspy; euP ; kl;lk; Fiwtiljy; euP ;kpd; cw;gj;jpapy; Neubahd jhf;fji; j
Vw;gLjJ; fpd;wJ. ,yq;ifapy; NghjpasT euP t; sk; cs;sjhy; mjpypUeJ;
cr;rg;gaidg; ngWk; tifapy; euP k; pd; rf;jpia cwg; jj; p nra;tjd; %yk; mdy;kpd;
rfj; p cw;gj;jpf;fhd nryitf; fl;lg;gLj;jyhk.;

kz;

• tul;rpapdhy; kz;tsk; Fiwtilfpd;wJ. kzz; pd; <uypgG; j; jdi; k
Fiwtiltjdhy; Ez;zq;fpfspd; nrawg; hL Fiwtile;J Nrjd Nru;itfs;
gpupej; spahJ vQR; fpd;wd. kz; Nghriz kl;lk; ghjpgg; ile;J kzz; pd; kzz; pd;
cg;Gr; nrwpT mjpfupfF; k.; ,Wjpapy; kz; tskw;Wg; NghFk.;

fhLfSk; capu;gy;tifikAk;

kzz; Pu; Fiwtiltjhy; GyG; +zL; fs; khjj; pukpdw; p gy;yhz;Lj;jhtukhd ngupa
kuq;fSk; ghjpg;GfG; s;shfpd;wd. NkYk; fhl;Ljj; P Vw;glk; mghaKk; Vw;gLk.;
,jdhy; #oy; rkepiy ghjpgG; fF; ss; htJld; Rww; hlypd; moFk; ghjpf;fgg; LfpwJ

Rfhjhuk;

• FbeuP ; jlL; g;ghL> euP ; tsk; khriljy;> Rjj; k; nra;Ak;NghJ Vw;gLk; gpur;rpid>
czTjj; lL; g;ghL Nghd;w fhuzpfshy; kf;fspd; Rfhjhu epiyik
ghjpg;Gf;Fs;shfpwJ. Foei; jfspy; ke;jNghriz epiyAk; Vw;glyhk;. ,jdhy;
mur tUkhdk; cztspj;jy;> Neha; epthuzk;
vd;gtw;Wff; hf nrytpl NeupLk; NghJ ehl;by;
nghUshjhug; gpur;rpidfSk; Njhd;Wfpd;wd.

tul;rp mdu;j;j Kfhikj;Jtk;

• tulr; papdhy; Vwg; Lfpd;w tpisTfisf; Fiwff; vLff; f;$ba eltbfi; ffNs
tulr; p mduj; ;j Kfhikj;JtkhFk.; ,it 3 epiyfisf;nfhz;Lss; d.
1.Kd; mdu;j;j Kfhikj;Jtk;
2.mdu;jj; k; epfOk; NghJ eilngWk;
KfhikjJ; tk;
3.gpd; mduj; j; Kfhikj;Jtk;



mdu;j;jj;jpd; gpd;duhd Kfhikj;Jtk;

• vjpu;fhyj;jpy; Vwg; ltpUfF; k; tulr; piaj; jLjj; Yk; mtw;wpdhy; Vw;gLk;
ghjpgG; fis FiwjJ; fn; fhs;sYk; mdu;j;jj;jpd; gpd;duhd Kfhikj;Jtj;jpd;
Nehff; khFk.; mduj; ;j epthuzj;jpdK; f;fpa epiy ,JthFk.; ,jw;nfd
Fwfpafhy > ezP l; fhy jpl;lq;fs; mtrpakhFk.;

* euP ; khriljiyAk; tPz; tpuakhtij jLg;gjwf; hd topKiwfs; . ,J
rkg; e;jkhf kff; is mwpT+l;ly;> euP ; khriljy; > tPz; tpuakhjy; njhlu;ghf
rl;lj;jpl;lqf; is cUthff; y.;

∗ tptrha eltbf;iffspy; ePu; tPzhtij jLg;gjw;fhd topKiwfisf;
ifahSjy; .

- tptrha eltbf;iffspy; mjpf ePiu gadg; Lj;jhky; nrhlL; euP g; ;ghrd
Kiwfis gad;gLj;jy.; kio eiP u Nrfupj;jy.;

- tul;rpf;F rfpg;Gjj; di; k fhl;Lk; jhtuq;fis tsuj; j; y.;

- euP j; ;Njit Fiwe;j FWfpa fhyg; gapun; rai; fapy; <Lgly.;

- epyj;jpypUeJ; euP ; Mtpahjiy Fiwg;gjwF; epyji; j %Ljy;> %Lgapu;fis
tsu;j;jy>; cyu; tptrhaji; j (dry farming ) Nkwn; fhs;Sjy; Nghd;w cj;jpfis
gadg; Lj;jy.;

* rf;jpiag;ngw euP ;kpd;rhuj;Jld; NtW rf;jp %yfq;fis gad;gLj;jy;.
cjhuzk;… capuR; tl;L vupnghUs; > fhwW; rf;jp > #upa rf;jp .

* kio eiP u Nrkpj;J itj;Jf;nfhs;tjw;F Kd;Ndww; khd topKiwfisf;
iff;nfhs;sy.; ,jw;fika Fsqf; is Gduikj;J mtwi; w cupa Kiwapy;
guhkupj;jy.; euP ;j;Njf;fqf; spy; euP p;d; nfhs;ssit mjpfupf;fr; nra;jy;. kio eiP u
tPLfspy; Nrfupf;Fk; nrawg; hLfisj; jpl;lkply.;

* kPsf;fhLfis cUthf;Fjy; myy; J kPs; fhlikjj; y.; tpNrlkhf Fsq;fs; >
thtpfs; > nrawi; f ePu; epiyfs; vd;gtwi; w Ngz mtwi; w #o fhLfis kPs
cUthff; y.;

,yq;ifia ghjpf;Fk; tul;rp

• ,yqi; fahdJ mazkz;ly gpuNjrj;jpy; mikeJ; s;sikahNyNa mbf;fb
tulr; pia vjpu;Nehf;Ffpd;wJ. mkg; he;Njhli; l> Gj;jsk>; kd;dhu; Nghdw;
gpuNjrq;fis tulr; papdhy; mjpf ghjpg;gilAk; gpuNjrqf; shFk.; Mdhy;
mk;gheN; jhl;ilapy; epyjj; b eUP k; ,y;yhikahy; tul;rpapd; NghJ mJ ngupJk;
ghjpg;gilfpwJ.

• tlfPo; gUtg;ngaur; r; p fhwW; fhy jhkjkiltjhy;

my;yJ Nghjpa msT fpilf;fhky; tpLtjhy;

,yq;ifapd; cyu; tyak; tul;rpf;F cs;shFk;.

,jdhy; tptrhak; ghjpgg; ilAk;. Tulr; papd; NghJ

mq;Fs;s 10 000w;F Nkw;gll; Fsqf; s; tuzL; tpLk.;

2001-2002 Mk; tUlq;fspy; ,g;gFjpfspy; fpilf;f

Ntz;ba kiotPor; ;rpapy; 34% wF; k; Fiwthd

kiotPo;rr; pNa fpiljj; J.

Rdhkp

• flypdbapy; fliy mzk; pj;jjhf Nkd; ikaj;ij nfhzl; ghupa G+kpajpur; ;rp> vupkiy ntbgG; >
eUP f;F mbapyhd kz;rupT > thd;nghUsf; s; flypy; tpOjy>; vdg; dtww; pd; tpisthf
rKjj; pujj; pd; mbj;jsk; epiyf;Fj;jhf ,lkn; gau;tjd; fhuzkhf rKj;jpu euP py; Vw;gLfpdw;
ghupa fly; miy Rdhkp vdf; pwhuf; s.;

• md;W 2004> brkg; u; khjk; 26k; jpfjp ej;jhu; jpdj;jpw;F mLjj; ehs; > QhapwW; f; fpoik >
Nghah jpdKk; $l ,J ,yqi; fapy; ngUk;ghNyhUfF; tpLKiwahf ,Uej; J. mdW;
,eN; jhNdrpahtpd; Rkhj;jpuh jPTfSfF; mz;ikapy; ,e;J rKjj; puj;jpd; mbapy; G+kpajpur; ;rp
xdW; Vw;gll; J. mjdhy; flypd; mbjj; sk; caue; ;J > mjpf rf;jpAld; $ba fly; miyj;
njhlu; Vwg; ll; J. ,J eLf;f flyiy myy; J Rdhkp Nguiy vdgg; Lk; . ,e;j miyj; njhlu;
,eJ; rKjj; puk; KOtJk; gutprn; rdw; J.

• Rdhkp fhuzkhf ,yq;ifap;y; Vw;gll; kdpj capupog;Gfs; 40 000 MFk;.,ijtpl tPLfs;>

fl;llq;fs>; nghUshjhu Kff; paj;Jtk; thae; ;j ,lq;fs; >cilikfs; vdg; tw;wpw;Fk;

kpfgn; gupastpy; Nrjk; Vw;gll; J.

• (fp.K.426y; fpNuff; tuyhw;whrpupau; jprpill]; ; vdg; tu; Rdhkp Vw;gLtjwf; hd fhuzq;fis

‘gpNyhgN; ghNdrpag; Nghu; tuyhW’ vdw; Gjj; fjj; py; Fwpgg; pll; hu;.)

Rdhkp Vw;gLtjd; fhuzk;

• GtpNahL ntspgG; w nkd; %b Mfpatw;whyhf; fw;Nfhsk; gy Gtpjj; lL; fshf
gpupff; g;gl;ls;sJ. fw;Nfhsk; mjd; fPOs;s nkd;%bapd; kPJ kpje;jthW cs;sJ.
,jdhy; Gtpjj; l;LfSk; xdW; fn; fhdW; rhu;ghf mire;jthW fhzgg; Lfpd;wd.



• kzpfF; 800km I tpl $ba Ntfjj; py; Mukg; pjJ; vyy; hj; jpirfspYk; gueJ; nrdw;
miyfs; gbgg; ilahf Ntfk; Fiwtile;J jiuia milej; NghJ kpf cau;e;Jk;
nfhej; spjJ; k; nrd;W jiuiaj; jhff; pd.

• Rdhkp miyfspd; tPrr; k; Mokhd flyp;y; Fiwthf fhzg;gLk; . mNj Ntis > fiuia
mzk; pf;Fk; NghJ miyfspd; tPr;rk; kpfTk; mjpfupfF; k;.

• 2004 Rdhkp Vw;gl;l NghJ ,yq;ifapd; gpuNjrqf; is tej; ile;j Neuq;fs; tUkhW

aho;g;ghzk; - K.g 9.10

mkg; he;Njhl;il - K.g 9.20

jqf; fhiy - K.g 9.45
rdP pfk(guypa) – K.g 10.10
• mkg; yhq;nfhilfF; mzi; kapy; guypa vDkpljj; py; Gifapujnkhd;W Rdhkp miyfs;
fhuzkhf jlk; Guz;ljhy; Vwjj; ho 2000 Ngu; tiu kuzkile;jdu.;

• fpof;Fj; jpirapypUeJ; jhd; Rdhkp miyfs; ,yqi; fia mz;kpjj; d. vdpDk; ,ej; miyfs;
epyji; j njhl;lJk; jpiria khww; pajd; %yk; jPitr; Rw;wp nrdW; ss; d. Mjdhy; mk;ghe;Njhli; l>
jq;ffhiy> `pf;fLit> nfhOkG; > kl;lf;fsgG; Nghdw; ,lqf; spYk; fly; ngUfn; fLjj; J.
,yqi; fapd; ePs; tll; tbtk; fhukhf ,ee; pfo;tpdhy; Vw;gl;l ghjpgG; f; Fiwthf ,Ue;jJ vdg; J
tpQQ; hdpfspd; fUjj; hFk;. ,yqi; f tl;l tbtkhd jPthf ,Uej; pUe;jhy; Rdhkpahy; Vwg; ll; ghjpg;G
kpfTk; ghuJ}ukhf ,Uej; pUf;fyhk; vd tpQ;Qhdpfs; fUJfpd;wdu.;

Rdhkp miy cUtg;glk;

Rdhkp mdu;j;j Kfhikj;Jtk;

• gRgpf; rkj;jpujj; pwF; mUfhikapNyNa Rdhkp mjpfkhf Vw;fLfpd;wJ. ,eJ;
rKj;jpuj;jpy; Vwg; l;l RdhkpfSs; 2004 k; MzL; Vw;gll; Rdhkp ,Jtiu
gjjjpT nraa; g;gl;Lss; RdhkpfSs; kpfTk; nfh^ukhd ngua RdhkpahFk; .
NkYk; ,e;J rKj;jpuj;jpy; ,jw;F KdG; Vw;gl;l ngupa Rdhkp 1883 y; [hth
jTP fSf;F mz;ikapy; fn; ufNlhth vupkiy ntbj;jjhy; Vwg; l;lJ. mjdhy;
36000 w;F Nkwg; l;Nlhu; ,we;jdu.;

• kPzL; k; Rdhkp vgN; ghJ Vw;gLk; vdg; J njhlu;ghf $w KbahjpUgg; jhy; vg;NghJk;
mJ njhlu;ghf tpopg;Gzu;Tld; ,Uj;jy; mtrpak; . vdpDk; Rdhkp mupjhf
epfOk; Xu; mdu;j;jkhFk.;

• ,yq;ifia mzk; pj;j flw;gug;gpy; G+kpajpur; ;rp Vwg; l;Ls;sJ vdj; njupa te;jhy;

> Rdhkp mdu;j;jk; Vwg; Lkh vd;gij tspkz;lytpay; jpizff; sjj; pypUe;J

myy; J Gtpr;rupjtpay>; msitaPl;L Ruqf; gzpafj;jpypUeJ;

cWjpgg; Lj;jpgg; Lj;jpf; nfhss; NtzL; k.;

• tspkz;lytpay; jpizff; sj;jpd; mgha Kd;ndr;rupf;if kj;jpa epiyak; >
njhiyNgrp ,y :- 011 2686686

• Gtpr;rupjtpay; msitaPl;L Ruqf; g; gzpafk; njhiyNgrp ,y :- 011 2739307 my;yJ
011 2739308.

• Rdhkp njhlug; hd jfty;fis ngw;Wf;nfhs;sf;$ba ,izaj;js Kftup :-
www.adbc.noaa.gov.dart.html .

Rdhkpapd; Kd; mwpFwpfs; vit?

• G+kpajpur; ;rp Vwg; l;l gpdd; u; Rdhkp Vw;gl tha;gG; czL; .
• fly; euP ; fliy Nehf;fp cs;thq;fgg; Ltjhy; fiuapy; kzw; gug;G mjpfkhFk.;

flypypUej; glFfs; kzy; Nkwg; ug;gpy; jq;fpapUg;gij fhzyhk.;
• Tpyq;Ffspd; fhzg;gLk; ,awi; ffF; khwhd elji; j Nfhyq;fs; .
• ,uT NtisapYk; Rdhkp Vw;glyhk;. flypd; ,aw;ifahd ,iurr; Yf;Fgjpyhf Mfha

tpkhdk; gazk; nrat; J NghdW; fLikahd Xir Nflg; jwF; ,lKzL; .
• Rdhkp miyfs; fWg;ghf myy; J NrwW; epwjj; py; fhzgg; lyhk.;

• mduj; ;j KfhikjJ; t mikr;rpD}lhf fiuNahu gpuNjrq;fspy; #whtsp> Rdhkp
Nghdw; ,aw;if mopTfs; njhlu;ghd mwpTWj;jyf; is ntspapLtjw;fhd 50
,w;Fk; mjpfkhd vz;zpf;ifapy; njhlug; hlw; NfhGuq;fs; (communication towers)
mikgg; jw;fhd eltbfi; ffs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;glL; s;sd.

RdhkpapypUe;J vt;thW jg;gpf;nfhs;tJ?

• Rdhkp Vw;gLk; NghJ flw;fiu > MWfs; flNyhL fyf;Fk; ,lq;fs; vdg; tw;Wf;F
mz;ikapy; ,Ugg; Pu;fshdhy; mtww; pypUe;J J}u tpyfp ,ad;wsT caukhd
,lji; j Nehff; p tpiuthf nry;Yqf; s.;

• 10-45 epkpl Neu ,ilntspapy; Rdhkp miyfs; kPz;Lk; kPz;Lk; Njhd;wyhk.; ,ej;
epiy 2 kzp Neuj;jpw;F njhlue; ;jpUf;fyhk; vdg; ij epidtpy; itj;Jf;nfhs;s
Ntz;Lk.;

• cqf; Sf;F mUNf caue; ;j epyg;gFjp fz;Zfn; fl;Lk; tiu fhzg;glhtpl;lhy;>
flypypUeJ; ,ad;wsT J}uk; tpyfprn; ryY; q;fs.; Rdhkp miyfs; cq;fis tpl
Ntfkhdit vd;gij kdjpy; nfhsS; q;fs.;

• Mgj;jhd epiy ePq;fptpll; J vdj; njhlug; hly; Clfq;fspypUeJ; mwptpj;jy;
fpilf;Fk; tiu ghJfhgg; hd ,lq;fis tpl;L kPz;Lk; cqf; sJ ,lq;fSfF;
nryy; Ntzl; hk;. ( mtN; tisapy; cq;fsplk; rpwpa thndhyp xd;W my;yJ
ifalf;fj; njhiyNgrp xdW; ,Ug;gJ gaDs;sjhf mikAk.;

• mdu;j;j KfhikjJ; t mikrr; pd; Clhf njhiyj;njhlu;G guptuj; id epiyaq;fspd;
cjtpAld; njhiyNgrpfSf;F ,awi; f mdu;j;jk; njhlu;ghd FWQ;nraj; p Nrit
(sms) %yk; nraj; p mDg;Gtjw;fhd KiwnahdW; Mf;fgg; lL; s;sJ. ,uT Ntisapy;
Japy; vOg;Gk; miogG; (wake up call) jpl;lKk; gupNrhjpff; g;glL; tUfpd;wJ.

• NkYk; Rdhkp Vw;gLk; re;ju;gg; j;jpy; flypd; eLtpy; glfpy; nrdW; fn; fhz;bUe;jhy;
fiufF; tu vj;jdpff; Ntz;lhk.; Mokhd flypy; Rdhkp miyfspd; cauk; kpfTk;
FiwthdjhFk.; ,jdhy; Mgj;J Vwg; lhJ.

Rdhkp mdu;j;jjj; pd; gpd; vdd; nraa; NtzL; k?;

Rdhkp miyfs; jiuiaj;jhfF; k; NghJ fiuNahug; gpuNjrq;fspy; cs;s fpzw;W
ePu; khriltJld; cg;G eUP k; mjDld; fyf;Fk; ,jdhy; gpuNjr kf;fSfF; Kjypy;
FbeuP ; tpepNahfk; nraa; gg; l Ntzb; apUf;Fk.;

Rdhkp Vw;gll; gpd; midjJ; f; fpzWfSk; ,iwff; g;glL; Rj;jkhf;fg;gLtJ
mtrpakhFk.; mjd; gpd;dUk; me;j euP ; gupNrhjpf;fgg; l;L Fbgg; jw;F cfe;jjh
vd;gij cWjpnra;Jfn; fhs;s Ntz;Lk.;

Rdhkpapdhy; Nrjkile;j tPLfSf;F gjpyhf Gjpa tPLfisf; fl;Lk; tiu kff; s;
trpgg; jw;fhf jwf; hypfkhf ,Ugg; pl trjpfis Vwg; lj;jp;f; nfhLf;f NtzL; k.; ,jd;
NghJ Nehaf; s; guthjpug;gjw;fhd eltbf;iffisAk; Nkwn; fhs;s Ntz;Lk.;

RdhkpAld; jiuia milej; fly; euP ; jiuapdhy; cwpQ;rgg; l;L eP&w;Wf;fis
miltjhy; ezP ;l fhyj;Jf;F fpzw;Wf;F fpzw;W ePu; khrileJ; ,Uf;Fk;. ,J
njhlu;ghf Ma;T nraJ; fhz NtzL; k.;

fly; euP ; jiuf;F ngUfn; fLgg; jhy; kz;zpYs;s cgg; pd; msT NtWgl;L>
mg;gpuNjrj;jpy; tsUk; jhtuq;fs; kzz; pDs;s cgg; pd; msT NtWgl;Lg; gupfhuk;
fhzg;gl NtzL; k.;

jiuia mile;j fly; euP ; > ed;dPu; epiyfis miltjhy; mtww; pd; cgG; r; nrwpT
mjpfupf;Fk; mjdhy; mqF; thOk; kPdf; Sk; euP ;j;jhtuq;fSk; mope;J Nghfyhk.;
,jw;Fk; gupfhuk; Njly; mtrpakhFk.;

fliy mz;ba gpuNjrq;fspy; tsUk; fz;ly; jhtu rhfpak;> flwf; iuj; jhtuqf; s;

Rdhkpapd; ghjpgi; g XusTf;NfDk; Fiwg;gjw;Ff; fhuzkhf ,Ue;Js;sJ. vdNt

,t;thwhd jhtuq;fisg; ghJfhg;gJk; flNyhujj; py; ,tt; hwhd jhtuqf; is Gjpjhf

tsug; g; Jk; nghUjj; khdjhFk.;

epyr;rupT

• caukhd kiyr;rupnthd;wpy; cs;s kz; > fy;> jhtuq;fs; Nghd;wit ruptpd; topNa
jpBnudW; foP ; Nehff; p efu;jy; epyr;rupT vd mioff; g;gLk.;

• ,yq;ifapd; kj;jp kiyehlL; gFjpfspy; ,t;tdu;j;jk; mjpfkhf epfo;tjidf;
fhzyhk.;

epyr;rupT mduj; ;jk; Vwg; Ltjpy; nry;thfF; nrYj;Jk; fhuzpfs;

epyr;rupTfis Vwg; Lj;Jtjpy; ,aw;iff; fhuzpfisg;NghyNt khdpl nraw;ghLfSk; >
nry;thfF; nrYj;Jfpdw; d.
,awi; ff; fhuzpfs;

-Gtp eLff; k; Vwg; ly.;

-,iltplhJ njhlu;e;J ngaA; k; fLk; kio.

-kiyr; rupTfspy; jtP pu mKf;fk.;

-ghiwfspd; mikg;Gk; ghiwg; gilfs; cff; Yk.;

-gytPdkhd euP ; tbfhy; mikg;G.

-jhtug; Nghui; tf; Fiwtiljy.;

 khdpl; r; nrawg; hLfs/;

- Kiwaw;w rha;Tepyg; gad;ghL
- rha;T epyq;fspy; fhlopg;G
- ,aw;if euP ; topfis kiwjj; y;
- kiyehl;L gpuNjrq;fspy; Ruq;fk; mfo;jy.;
- kz; NkLfis ntl;Ljy; .
- fy;Yilj;jYk; ntbf;fr; nra;jYk.;
- kiyr; rha;Tfspy; Kiwaw;w epuk; hzq;fs.;

epyr;rupnthd;wpid Kd$; l;bNa mwpe;Jf;nfhs;Sk; mwpFwpfs;

• epyrr; upT Vwg; l Kd; ngUk;ghyhd #oy;fspy; Muk;g mwpFwpfisf; fhzyhk;.
Mtw;iw rupahf ,dq;fhz;gjD}lhf ,lupd; Nrjqf; is ,optsthf;fpf;
nfhss; yhk.; mtt; hwhd rpy mwpFwpfs; tUkhW.

- tPLfspYk; > fl;llqf; spYk; ntbgG; fs; Vwg; ly.;
- Fwpg;gpl;l ,ljj; py; my;yJ epyj;jpy; ntbgG; fNsh > fPopwff; qf; Nsh Vwg; ly; .
- mg;gpuNjrq;fspYs;s kuq;fs; > kpd; fk;gq;fs; > njhiyNgrp J}z;fs; Mfpad

rupjy.;
- rhaT; epyq;fspy; ngUksT jhtuq;fs; jpBnud ,wjj; y;> thLjy.;
- rha;T epyq;fspd; fPo;g;gFjpfspy; euP ; %yfq;fs>; Cw;Wff; s; khww; kiljy.;
- rfy tpyqf; pdqf; spd; elji; jf; Nfhyq;fs; khww; kiljy.;
-

epyr;rupT ,lupid ,optsthf;Ftjw;fhd eltbf;iffs;

• rhaT; epyq;fspYs;s jhtugN; ghu;itiag; ghJfhj;jy.;
• ,awi; f euP ; topfis kwpff; hjpUjj; y.;
• rhaT; epyq;fisg; gad;gLjJ; k; NghJ> tpQ;Qhd Kiwfisf; filgg; pbjj; y.;
• cau; epyqf; spy; euP j; ;Njf;fqf; is mikff; hjpUjj; y.;
• Fjj; hd rupTss; epyqf; spy; tPLfs; > flb; lq;fis mikff; hjpUjj; y.;
• rha;T epyq;fspy; mtw;wpd; mikg;gpid ghJfhf;ff$; ba tifapy; eltbfi; ffis

Nkwn; fhs;sy.;
cjhuzk; : fyN; typfs;> thaf; f; hyf; s>; thL tsu;g;G Nghdw; d.

• kf;fis tpopg;Gzu;T+ll; y.;

• ,yq;ifapy; epyr;rupT mghaKs;s khtl;lq;fs;

- khjj; is
- fz;b
- Etnuypah
- ,ujj; pdGup
- fhyp
- fSj;Jiw
- gJis
- khjj; iw
- Nffhiy

nts;sg;ngUf;F

• ,yq;ifapy; mjpfsT ,lk;ngWk; ,aw;if ,luhf nts;sg;ngUf;fpid milahsk;
fhzyhk;. mjpfsT kiotoP ;r;rp ngwg;gLk; gpuNjrq;fspYk>; fsdp fq;if > fS
fq;if > [pd; fq;if > epyt; s fq;if> kfhtyp fq;if Nghdw; ngupa ejpfs; ghAk;
gpuNjrq;fspYk; nts;sg;ngUf;F ngUkstpy; epfo;fpd;wJ.

• ejpfspy; euP ; kl;lk; cau;e;J ejpfspd; ,U Gwq;fspYk; css; gpuNjrq;fspy;
ngUf;nfLj;J euP ; topfs; jilg;gLtjhYk; jw;fhypf nts;sg;ngUf;Ffs;
Vw;gLfpd;wd. Fwp;f;fhf jho; epyq;fspy; fhzg;gLk; efug; gpuNjrq;fspy;
,t;tduj; j; j;ij ngUksT mtjhdpf;f KbAk;.

• fLk; kio tPor; ;rpnahdw; pd; gpd;du; topeN; jhlf$; ba gpuNjrq;fisj; jil nra;Ak;
khdpl nrawg; hLfs; ,g; gpur;rpid jtP pukile;Js;sJ.


Click to View FlipBook Version
Previous Book
แบบ
Next Book
คู่มืองานการเงินการเบิกจ่ายเงิน