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இலங்கையின் இயற்கையனர்த்தங்களும் அவற்றில் செல்வாக்கு செலுத்தும் காரணிகளும்

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Published by anbu.19970223, 2022-07-11 04:34:36

இலங்கையின் இயற்கையனர்த்தங்களும் அவற்றில் செல்வாக்கு செலுத்தும் காரணிகளும்

இலங்கையின் இயற்கையனர்த்தங்களும் அவற்றில் செல்வாக்கு செலுத்தும் காரணிகளும்

nts;sg; ngUf;fpdhy; mjpfsT ghjpf;fg;gLk; gpuNjrq;fs;

• ejpfspd; jho; gs;sj;jhfF; fSk; nghq;FKfg; gFjpfSk.;
• ejpfis mz;bAs;s efug;gpuNjrq;fs;. cjhuzk; - nfhOk;G> fSj;Jiw khjj; iw >

,ujj; pdGup.
• Fsq;fs;> euP ;j;Njf;fq;fs; vd;gtw;wpd; fPo;g;gFjpfs.;

nts;sg;ngUf;F Vw;gl nry;thf;F nrYj;Jk; fhuzpfs;

nts;sg;ngUf;F Vw;gl ,aw;if fhuzpfs; nry;thf;FnrYj;Jfpd;wd. ,aw;if
fhuzp;fisg; NghyNt khdplf; fhuzpfSk; nry;thf;F nrYj;Jfpd;wd.
 ,aw;if fhuzpfs;

- mjpf kiotPo;rr; p
- ejpfs; > euP ;j;Njf;fq;fs; > Fsq;fs; Mfpad ngUf;nfLj;jy.;
- jhtug; Nghu;itapd; ,ay;G > fopT eNP uhl;lj; j; pd; msTk; NtfKk.;

khdplr; nraw;ghLfs;

- ePu; topfs; jilg;gly;
- Mw;W Kfq;fs; jilg;gly;
- <uepyq;fSk; > jho;epyq;fSk; epug;gg;gly;
- cau; gpuNjrq;fspy; jhtug; Nghu;it mfw;wg;gly;
- jho; epyq;fspy; FbapUg;Gfs; mikf;fg;gly.;

- NkYk; jw;fhyjj; py; nts;sg;ngUf;F Vw;gLtjpy; ,aw;iff; fhuzpfis tpl khdpl
nraw;ghLfNs ngUksT nry;thf;F nrYj;Jfpd;wd.

- (ePu; tbfhd;fis rupahf Ngzhik – jfty; - tpu\; hypdp)

nts;sg;ngUf;F mdu;j;jjpd; ,optsthf;Ftjw;fhd topKiwfs;

- eNP ueJ; g; gpuNjrq;fspy; fhLfis mopf;fhjpUj;jy; .
- ejpfspd; nghq;FKf gFjpfis jilg;glhJ

itj;jpUj;jy; .
- jho;epyq;fisAk; > <uepyq;fisAk; ghJghj;jy.;
- ejpfspypypUe;J kzy; mfo;tij tiuaWj;jy.;
- nts;sg;ngUf;fpidj; jhf;Fg;gpbf;ff; $ba

fl;llq;fis mikjj; y.;
- nts;sg;ngUf;fpw;Fl;gLk; gpuNjrq;fspy; khdpl

nraw;ghLfis Fiwjj; y.;
- ghJfhg;G eltbf;iffis Nkw;nfhss; Yk; > kf;fis tpopg;Gzu;T+l;LjYk.;

#whtsp

• tq;fhs tpupFlh gFjpfspy; tpUjj; pahFk; Gay; ikaq;fs; tq;fhs tpupFlh gFjpjpfspy;
gbg;gbahf ,yqi; fia Nehff; pNah my;yJ ,e;jpahit Nehf;fpNah #whtspahf efu;eJ;
nryY; k; . Fwpgg; hf xf;Nlhgu; njhlf;fk; brk;gu; tiuapyhd fhyg;gFjpfspy; ,yqi; fapd;
fpof;Fg; gFjpfspy; #whtsp jhff; k; fhzg;gLk;.

• #whtspfs; mbf;fb epfohtpbDk; > 1978 k; MzL; etk;gu; khjk; tPrpa #whtspapdhy;
ngUksT kdpj capuf; s; ,off; g;gl;lNjhL > ngUksT cilikr; Nrjqf; Sk; Vwgl;ld .

• rhjhuz kf;fshy; ,t;tduj; j; k; vjpu;T $w KbahtpbDk>; thdpiy Muha;rr; pahsu;fshy;
nrak; jpfspd; cjtpAld; ,tt; duj; j; j;jpid Kd;$lb; Na mwpeJ; nfhss; yhk;.

• vdNt ,tt; du;jj; jj; pypUe;J XusNtDk; ghJfhgG; ngw thdpiy vjpu;T $wyf; s; ngupJk;
gaDss; itahf ,Uf;Fk;.

#whtspapdhy; Vw;gLk; ghjpg;Gfs;

• fLk; kio
• cilik Nrjq;fs;
• kpd;rhuk; Nghf;Ftuj;J Nghd;w cl;fl;likg;G trjpfs; ruP F; iyjy.;

jfty; - nry;tp

,yq;ifapy; #whtspapdhy; ghjpf;fg;gLk; rpy khtl;lq;fs;

- tTdpah
- ahog; ;ghzk;
- mDuhjGuk;
- nghydWit
- kl;lf;fsg;G
- mk;ghiw
- jpUNfhzkiy

#whtsp mdu;j;jj;jpidf; Fiwj;Jf; nfhs;s Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;ba
eltbf;iffs.;

- #whtsp epfo;Tfs; Vw;glf$; ba fhyg;gFjpfspy; thdpiyj; jfty;fs; njhlu;ghf
tpopg;GzuT; ld; ,Uj;jy; .

- tPLfSf;F mz;ikapYs;s Mgjj; hd kuq;fis mfw;Wjy; .
- tPLfsp;d; $iufis cWjpahf mikj;jy.;
- typikahd fhw;Wj;jilfis mikjj; y;.
- #whtspfs; tPRk;NghJ ghJfhg;ghd ,lq;fSf;F nry;Yjy.;

kpd;dy; jhf;fk;

• ,aw;if epfo;Tfspy; xd;whd kpd;dy; jhf;fk; ,yqi; fapy; ngUk;ghYk; ,lk;ngwf;$ba Xu;
mduj; ;jkhf milahsk; fhzg;gl;Ls;sJ. Fwpg;ghf Nkwf; hTifr; nrad;Kiw ,lk;ngWfpd;w
gUtf; fhw;Wf;fSf;F ,ilg;gl;l fhyg; gFjpfspy; ehL G+uhfTk; kpd;dy; jhf;fj;jpid ehk;
fhzyhk;.

• ,ilg;gUtf; fhw;Wf; fhyg;gFjpapy; cau; ntg;gKk; > mKf;fKk; epyTk; tspkzl; y
epiyikfspd; fPo; tsu;rr; pailAk; cau;jpwd; Kfpy;fs; kpd;dy; Njhd;Wtjpy; nryt; hf;F
nrYjJ; fpd;wd. jpuz; Kfpy;fspy; fhzg;gLk; NeNuw;wq;fSf;Fk; > kiwNaw;wq;fSf;Fk;
,ilapyhd kpd; ftu;rr; p tpir “kpd;dy;” vd miof;fg;gLk;.

kpd;dypd; %d;W tiffs;

1. Kfpy; kpd;dy; ( Kfpy;fSf;fpilNa kpd; ftu;rr; p tpir epfOk;)
2. thA kpd;dy; ( Kfpy;fSf;Fk; tpz; ntspf;Fk; ,ilapy; kpd;ftu;rr; p tpir epfOk;)
3. Gtp kpd;dy; ( Kfpy;fSf;Fk; G+kpf;FkpilNa kpd;ftu;rr; p tpir epfOk;)

,tw;Ws; Nkfq;fSfF; k; GtpNkw;gug;GfF; k; ,ilapy; epfOk; Gtp kpd;dy; fhuzkhf kf;fSfF;
ngUksT ghjpgG; ff; s; Vwg; Lfpd;wd. ,gG; tp kpd;dy; ,yqi; fapd; vg;gFjpapYk; cUthfyhk;. vdpDk;
,ilgg; Utff; hwW; kio mjpfstpy; fpilff; pdw; gpuNjrqf; spy; ,tt; plu; mjpfstpy; fpilf;fpdw;
gpuNjrqf; spy; ,t;tplu; mjpfstpy; epfot; jhf milahsk; fhzg;gl;Ls;sJ.

kpd;dy; jhf;fk; fhuzkhf ,yq;ifapy; mjpfsT capu; cilik Nrjq;fs; Vw;gLfpd;wd.

• ,yq;ifapy; tUlj;Jf;F Vwf;Fiwa Ik;gJ capu;fs; kpd;dy; jhf;fj;jpdhy;
,of;fg;gLtjhf mdu;j;j KfhikjJ; t epWtd mwpf;iffs; Fwpg;gpLfpdw; d. ,J jtpu>
caukhd fl;llq;fisg; NghyNt kpd; cgfuzq;fSk; kpd;dy; jhf;fk; fhuzkhf
Nrjkilfpd;wd.

kpd;dy; jhf;fj;jpid Fiwj;Jf;nfhs;tjw;F Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;ba eltbf;iffs;

- tPLfs; fl;llq;fs; vd;gdtw;wpy; tPl;L kpd; Rww; pid Gtpjn; jhLg;G nra;jy; .
- caukhd fl;llq;fSf;F kpd;dy; jhq;fpfis nghUj;Jjy;.
- tPl;L kpd; Rww; py; fl;lhakhf jil Mopfis nghUj;Jjy.;
- kpd;Dgfuzq;fisAk; > ,yjj; puzpay; cgfuzq;fisAk; kpd;dy; Vw;gLk; NghJ epWj;jp

itj;jy.;
- jpwe;j ntspfspy; jdpj;j kuq;fspd; fPo; epwf; hjpUj;jy.;

- kpd;dy; Vwg; Lk; NghJ cNyhf cgfuzqf; is ifahshjpUj;jy;.

- kpd;dy; Vwg; Lk; fhyq;fspy; Kd;NahridNahL ele;Jf; nfhss; y; kww; tuf; is
mwpTWj;jy;.

jfty; - fkypdp

tPl;bwF; mUfhikapYs;s kuqf; Sf;Fkpilapy; kpd;rhuk; ghaf; $ba tauf; s;
nghUj;jg;gl;bUe;jhy; > ,izf;fg;glbUej; hy; mj;njhlu;Gfis Jz;bf;f NtzL; k;.

jfty; - NahfuQ;rdp – Fdpe;jpUg;gjd; %yk; my;yJ gLg;gjd; %yk; clk;gpd;

cauj;ijf; Fiwf;f NtzL; k;.

mdu;j;jqf; s; Vw;gLtjdhy; ,yq;if vjpu;Nehf;Fk; rthy;fs;

• ,yq;ifapd; midjJ; khtll; q;fspYk; VNjDk; xU mdu;jj; khtJ epfo;fpdw; J.

,jdhy; tPLfSk; cilikfSk; ghjpf;fgg; Lfpdw; d. Nghf;Ftuj;J

ghjpgg; ilfpdw; J. kff; s; ,Ug;gplq;fis tplL; ghlrhiyfspYk;

topghlL; j;jsqf; spYk>; cwtpdu; tPLfspYk; jw;fhypfkhf jq;f itff; g; gLtu; .

• mtu;fSf;fhd epthuzqf; s; murpdhy; vt;tpj ghuglr; Kk; ,d;wp; toq;fgg; l
Ntz;Lk.; mduj; ;jq;fSfF; g; gpd;du; njhw;W Neha;fSk; Vwg; l thag; ;Gs;sJ.
mjdhy; kUj;Jt nryTfSk; mjpfupff; f; $Lk.;

• kf;fs; nrhj;Jf;fisAk; cwTfisAk; ,og;gu.; mjdhy; r%ff; fll; ikg;GfSk;
thot; hjhuqf; Sk; ghjpgG; fF; ss; hFk.;

• NkYk; ,yq;if nghUshjhuj;jpYk; nryT mjpfupf;Fk;. Fwpg;ghf 2017k; MzL;
mdu;jj; q;fspd; gpd;du; ,og;Gfspd; ngWkjp ,yq;if &gha;fspy; 70 gpy;ypaidj;
jhz;btpl;ljhf kjPg;gplfs; Fswpg;gpLfpd;wd.

• mjdhy; mdu;jj; MgjJ; czuj; pwDs;s mgptpUjj; p mZFKiwfs; >
mdu;jj; q;fis vjpu;nfhsS; k; r%f tYjpwd; kw;Wk; epiyahd mgptpUjj; p
nraw;ghLfis cs;Su; Njrpa kl;lq;fspy; nfhs;if tFg;ghsu;fSk; mur> mur
rhu;gw;wepWtdq;fSk; Kd;dpWj;jp nrawg; l Ntz;Lk;.

• ,jdhy; mdu;jj; Kfhikj;Jt mikr;rpd; fz;fhzpg;gpy; “:ghJfhg;ghd ,yq;if
vDk; njhdpg;nghUspy; ,yq;iff;fhd mdu;jj; Kfhikj;Jt jpl;lk; 2013-2018
Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;bUe;jJ.

,yq;ifapy; mdu;j;j Kfhikj;Jt Ntiyj;jpl;lk;

,yq;ifapd; mdu;j;j Kfhikj;Jt Ntiyj;jpl;lk; capu;gG; s;s xU
Ntiyj;jpll; khf khw;wk; ngw;wJ 2004 k; Mz;L Vw;gl;l Rdhkp mduj; ;jjj; pd;
gpd;dNu MFk.; Fwpg;ghf 2005k; Mz;L mdu;jj; KfhikjJ; tk; njhlug; hd Gjpa
fl;lis rl;lqf; s; > tpjpKiwfs; vd;gtww; pD; }lhf Kiwahd xU epWtd mikg;G
epWtgg; ll; J.

• (tu;j;jkhdp mwptpg;Gf;fpzq;f mdu;j;j Kfhikj;Jt epiyaj;jhy;
eilKiwg;gLjj; g;gLk; mdu;j;j Kfhikj;Jt eltbf;ifs; tUkhW

1. mdu;jj; jzpg;G> vjpu;tpid kw;Wk; Njw;WjYf;fhd ntspehl;L cjtpj;jpl;lq;fis
Muk;gpj;jYk; xUq;fpizj;jYk.;

2. mg; nghWg;ig Neuj;jpw;F epiwNtw;Wtij cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;fhf mikr;Rfs; > mur
mjpfhupfs;> kw;Wk; Kftu;fs; > jdpahu; Jiw
Kftu;fs; > mur rhu;gw;w epWtdq;fs; kw;Wk; ru;tNjr mur rhu;gw;w epWtdq;fs; kw;Wk;
midj;J nghUj;jkhd Kftu;fSld; ,ize;J nraw;gly.;

,aw;if kw;Wk; kdpjdhy; Vw;gLj;jg;gLk; mdu;jj; qf; Sld; njhlu;ghd epthuz nraw;ghLfis
xUq;fpizj;jYk; > Kfhik nra;jYk.; .)

jfty-; jpNd\;

mdu;j;j Kfhikj;Jtk; njhlu;ghd epWtd mikg;G

• mduj; ;j Kfhikj;Jtk; njhlu;ghd mikr;R jhgpf;fgg; ly.;
• murpay; jiyikjJ; tj;jpD}lhf Njrpa mdu;jj; KfhikjJ; t kj;jpa

epiyankhd;W epWtgg; ly.; ( NDMC ) .
• gzpgg; hsu; ehafk; xUtupd; jiyikapy; mdu;jj; Kfhikj;Jt kj;jpa

epiyankhdW; jhgpf;fg;gly.; ( DMC ) .
• khtll; kll; jj; pYk; > gpuNjr nrayhsu; gpupT kll; j;jpYk; mduj; ;j KfhikjJ; t

kjj; pa epiyaqf; s; mikff; gg; ly.;
• ghlrhiyfspy; mduj; ;jg; ghJfhg;G Ntiyjj; pl;lk; eilKiwg;gLjj; gg; ly.;

,tt; hwhd epWtd mikg;G %yk; ,yqi; fapd; ve;jnthU ,lj;jpYk; epfo;fpdw;
mdu;j;j epiyiknahd;wpd; NghJ r%f Nritfs; gy ,lkn; gWk; . Fwpgg; hf
mdu;j;j;jpy; ,Ue;jhd ghJfhgG; > mdu;j;jj;jpd; ghjpg;gpid ,optsthf;Fjy>;
mdu;j;jpid vjpu;nfhs;sy; > epthuz eltbf;iffs; > kPs;flL; khd Nritfs;
Nghdw; d KfhikjJ; t epfor; ;rp jpl;lqf; spy; cs;slq;Fk.; ,yqi; fapy; mduj; ;j
KfhikjjJ; tk; njhlug; hf mur Jiw > mur rhu;gww; mikgG; fSk; rd r%f
ikaq;fSk; capug; g; hf nrawg; Lfpdw; d.

mdu;j;j Kfhikj;Jt tl;lk;

• ,Jgw;wp Vw;fdNt ehk; Rdhkp mdu;j;jj;jpy; ghu;j;jpUe;Njhk;. Fwpgg; hf
mdu;j;jnkhdW; Vw;gLtjw;F Kd;gpUeJ; mduj; ;jj;jpd; gpd;duhd epiyik
tiuapyhd nraw;ghlL; KfhikjJ; t Ntiyj;jpl;lnkhd;W ,jd; %yk;
fhl;lg;gLfpdw; J.

Kd;dhaj;jk;

• mdu;jj; pd; Muk;g gz;Gfis milahsq;fhz Kawr; p nra;jy; .
• mduj; ;jk; njhlug; hf vjpu;T $wy; .
• mdu;j;jj;jpwF; Kfq;nfhLgg; jw;fhd Mukg; Maj;jk.;

mdu;j;jj;jpid vjpu;nfhs;Sk; fl;lk;

xtn; thU tifahd mduj; ;jj;jpw;Fk; Kfqn; fhLf;Fk; tpjk; NtWgl;lhYk;
fl;lhakhf VNjDk; Xu; mdu;j;jj;jpw;F Kfq;nfhLff; Ntzb; a Njit
fl;lhakhFk.;

• mduj; ;jj;jhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;Ls;s kf;fspd; ghJfhgg; pid Kbej; tiu cWjpnraj; y.;
• kUjJ; t cjtpfis toq;fy.;
• ngsjpf cilikfis KbAkhdtiu ghJfhjj; y; .
• jw;fhypf $lhuq;fis > ,Ug;gplqf; is toqF; jy.;
• czT > FbePu; toqF; jy.;

gioa epiyf;F kPsf;nfhzL; tUjy;

,qF; mdu;j;jj;jpw;F Kfq;nfhLj;j kf;fisAk; #oiyAk; kPzL; k; Kd;ida
epiyf;F nfhzL; tUtJk>; kPs; flL; khd cjtpfis toq;fYk; Nehf;fkhfpdw; J.
mjwF; Ntzb; FWq;fhy > ePz;l fhy nraw;wpl;lqf; is jpl;lkply;> kf;fis
mwpTWjj; y; Mfpait kpfTk; Kff; pakhFk; .

cly; cs uPjpahf ghjpf;fgg; l;l kff; is eilKiw tho;f;iff;F
nghUj;jkhdtuf; shf khw;Wjy.;

mdu;j;jj;ij Fiwj;Jf; nfhs;tjw;fhd re;ju;g;gq;fs;

• mdu;jj; j;ijf; Fiwj;Jf; nfhs;tjwf; hd eltbf;iffs; ngUk;ghYk; Kd;dhaj;j
nrawg; hLfis xj;jJ. vt;thwhapDk; > Fiwj;Jf;nfhst; jw;fhd Mw;wy;
fpilfF; k; . mjwf; hf

- mgha vr;rupf;if njhFjpia epWTjy.;
- kf;fis mwpTWj;jYk; gq;Nfw;f nra;jYk;.
- mdu;jj; j;jpidf; Fiwg;gjwf; hd fUtpfis mwpKfkk; nra;jy; .
- mdu;jj; Kfhikj;Jt epWtdq;fisg; gyg;gLjj; y.;

jfty-; =tjdp nrayhsu;
mduj; ;j Kfhikj;Jt fl;likg;G

fzf;fhsu; Nkyjpf Nkyjpf Gzpg;ghsu;
nrayhsu; nrayhsu;
fl;Lg;ghL nfhsi; f
kw;Wk; epjp mgptpUj;jp

fl;Lg;ghL Gpujhd
cutjp fzf;fhsu;

nrayhsu;

jfty;- =tjdp

jfty-; aNrhdh

,aw;ifj; Njhw;wg;ghL Nrjk; Vw;gl;l Nrjj;Jf;F cs;shd ngsjpf khdpl Nrjq;fs;
fhuzkhf Vw;gl;l fhyg;gFjp gpuNjrq;fs; Nrjq;fs;
Nrjq;fs; ,Utu; fhzhky;
NghAss; du;
nts;sg;ngUf;F 2007 December fSj;Jiw tPLfs;> tay;fs;> 17 Ngu; capupog;G
Njhl;lq;fs; 253517 Ngu; ghjpg;G
nts;sk;> kz;rupT 2008 June fSj;Jiw> fk;g]h> tPLfs;> tay;fs;>
Nffhiy > nfhOk;G > Njhl;lq;fs; Mapuf;fzf;fhd
mil kio 2008 march Gj;jsk; capupog;G
Rdhkp 2004 December mk;ghiw tay;fs; ghjpg;G 900 Ngu; capupog;G
fiuNahu khtl;lq;fs; fl;lq;fs;> Njhl;lq;fs;
#whtsp 1978 November kw;Wk; cilikfs; 60 Ngu; gyp
#whtsp 2008 may kl;lf;fsg;G cilikfs; 235 Ngu; gyp
#whtsp 2008 April gjpaj;jyht tPLfs; capupog;G
ntypfk> kpup]]; Ghlrhiyfs;> gapu;fs;
kpd;dy; 2007
nts;sk; 2003 kpd;Ndup>,uj;jpdGup tPLfs;
kz;rupT cilikfs;
khj;jiw> Etnuypah> cilikfs;

Nffhiy> gJis fz;b>
,uj;jpdGup

jfty;- kpJu;\h

• 2005 y; [Piyapy; mduj; ;j Kfhikj;Jt epiyakhdJ mduj; ;j Kfhikj;Jtj;Jf;fhd
Njrpa kd;wj;jpd; fPo; mjpAj;jk [dhjpgjpapd; fPo; nrawg; Ltjw;fhf jhgpf;fg;gl;lJ.

jfty; - a\pfh

• mikr;Rfs; > mur jpizf;fsq;fs; my;yJ nghJf; $l;Lj;jhgdqf; shy; jahupf;fg;gLk;
gy;NtW mduj; ;jKfhikjJ; tj; jpl;lqf; s; Njrpa mduj; ;j Kfhikj;Jt jpl;lj;Jld;
xj;jpirtij cWjpg;gLj;jy NtzL; k;.

jfty; - AfNd\;tup

Njrpa mduj; ;j Kfhikj;Jtj; jpl;lj;ijAk; Njrpa eltbf;iffisAk;> jpl;lqf; isAk;
mtrpaNkw;gLk; Neuj;jpy; mtw;iw Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;fhd Kd;nkhopTfis jahupg;gjw;Fk;
NguitfF; cjtp Gupjy; KfhikjJ; t epiyajj; pd; nrawg; hLfspy; xd;whFk.;

jfty; - c\he;jpdp

#oiyg; ghJfhg;gjd; %yNk mgptpUj;jpia rhjfkhfTk; epiyNgwhf itj;jpUf;f KbAk; .
,J mgptpUj;jp #oy; kwW; k; mduj; ;j Kfhikj;Jtk; vd;gd xd;Wlndhd;W neUf;fkhf

,izf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;gijAk; typAWj;Jfpd;wJ.

rhuhk;rk;

• ,yq;ifapy; tq;fhs tpupFlhtpy; Vw;gLk; jlg; ntg;g khWjy;fshNyNa
mt;tg;NghJ mdu;jj; q;fs; Vw;gLfpd;wd. mjhtJ mq;F Vw;gLfpd;w jhoKf;fj;jpdhy;
fhyepiyapy; rPuw;wj; jd;ik Vw;gl;L mdu;jj; q;fs; cUthfpd;wd. tpopg;Gzu;tw;w
khdpl nrawg; hLfs; mdu;jj; k; Vw;gl mjpfkhf VJthfpd;wd. vdNt
,aw;ifadu;jq;fis jLj;J epWj;j Kbahtpll; hYk; mtw;wpdhy; Vw;gLfpd;w
ghjpg;Gfis Fiwj;Jf; nfhs;s tpopg;Gzu;Tld; ,Uj;jy; mtrpakhfpdw; J.
,t;thwhd rej; u;g;gq;fshy; mur jiyaPlb; id mjpfkhff; p
tpopg;Gzu;Tjj; pl;lq;fis Nkw;nfhst; jd; %yk; ,og;gPLfisj; jtpu;j;Jf;nfhss;
KbAk;. rpej; pg;Nghk; nray;gLNthk;.

crhj;Jiz E}y;fs;

• ,izak;
Wikipedia
ta,vikaspedia.in/energy/b9abc
www.bbc.com.cdn.ampproject.org
vidivelli.lk

• ,ytrg;ghlE}y;
juk;-8
juk-; 11
juk-; 9

tpdhj; njhFg;G

mdu;jj; k; vd;why; vd;d?

Nguhgj;Jk; ,ayhikAk; Nrue; ;J cUthFtJk; ,lu;> Mgj;J
vd;gtw;why; Vw;gLk; xU tpisT my;yJ epuf; ;fjpahd mty

epiyjhd; mdu;j;jkhFk.;

,aw;ifadu;j;jk; vd;why; vd;d?

,aw;ifadu;j;jk; vdg;gLtJ ngsjPf #oypy; ,aw;if
epajpfshy; kdpjDf;F NfL tpistpfF; k; tifapyhd epfo;Tfs;
,lk;ngWtjhFk.;

,aw;ifadu;j;jj;jpw;F VJthd
fhuzpfs; vit?

• fhyepiy khww; k;
• Gtpapay; mikg;G Nfhyq;fs;

• khdpl nrawg; hLfs;

fhyepiy khw;wk; vd;why; vd;d?

• Fwpj;j xU fhygg; Fjpapy; mjhtJ 10 tUlk; my;yJ
mjw;Fk; mjpfkhf Gs;sptpgutpayu; Pjpapy; fhyepiy
%yf$; Wfspd; mstPLfspy; Vw;gLk; khww; q;fs; fhyepiy
khw;wqf; s; vdg;gLk;. fhyepiy %yfq;fshd gbT tPo;r;rp >
ntg;gepiy> fhw;W Kjypaw;wpy; cyf uPjpahfNth my;yJ
gpuNjr uPjpahfNth toikf;F khwhf Vw;gLfpd;w khw;wk;
fhyepiy khww; k; vdg;gLfpwJ.

tul;rp vd;why; vd;d?

• ePz;l Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpw;F kiotPo;r;rp fpilf;fhikahy;
Vw;gLk; epiyikNa tul;rp vd mjid vspikahf
tiutpyf;fzg;gLj;jyhk;. tul;rpapd; tiutpyf;fzk; ehl;Lf;F
ehL > gpuNjrj;jpw;F gpuNjrk; > fhyj;jpw;F fhyk; khWgLk;.
cjhuzkhf ypgpah ehl;by; tUlhe;j kiotPo;r;rp 180mm I
tpl FiwAk;NghNj mJ tul;rpahff; fUjg;gLk;. mjidg;Nghy
If;fpa mnkupff; htpy; ,uz;L jpdq;fSf;Fs; 2.5mm ,w;F
Fiwej; kiotPo;r;rp fpilf;fg;ngwpd; tul;rp Vw;gl;Ls;sjhff;
fUjg;gLfpwJ.

,yq;ifapy; tul;rp Vw;gl;Ls;s
khtl;lq;fs; vit?

• aho;g;ghzk;
• fpspnehr;rp
• Ky;iyjj; TP
• tTdpah
• kd;dhu;
• jpUNfhzkiy
• mDuhjGuk;
• Gjj; sk;
• nghydWit
• FUzhfy;
• nkhduhfiy
• mk;ghe;Njhl;il

tul;rpapd; ghjpg;Gfisf; Fwpg;gpLf.

• tulr; p capu;Nfhsjj; pwF; k; ghjpg;ig Vwg; LjJ; fpdw; J. tulr; papd;
jhf;fk; Muk;gjj; py; Rw;whliy ghjpfF; k.; mrR; w;whly;
gpurr; pidia ikakhf;nfhz;L r%fg; nghUshjhu gpurr; pidfs;
NjhdW; fpd;wd.

tul;rp Kfhikj;Jtk; vd;why; vd;d?

• tulr; papdhy; Vw;gLfpdw; tpisTfisf; Fiwf;f vLf;ff$; ba
eltbf;iffNs tulr; p mdu;j;j KfhikjJ; tkhFk.;

tul;rp Kfhikj;Jtj;jpd; epiyfs;
vj;jid ? mit vit?

3 epiyfisf;nfhz;Lss; d.
1. Kd; mduj; j; KfhikjJ; tk;
2. mduj; ;jk; epfOk; NghJ eilngWk; KfhikjJ; tk;
3. gpd; mdu;jj; Kfhikj;Jtk;

Rdhkp vd;why; vd;d?

• flypdbapy; fliy mz;kpj;jjhf Nkd; ikaj;ij nfhz;l
ghupa G+kpajpu;r;rp> vupkiy ntbg;G> ePUf;F mbapyhd kz;rupT >
thdn; ghUs;fs; flypy; tpOjy;> vd;gdtww; pd; tpisthf
rKj;jpuj;jpd; mbj;jsk; epiyf;Fj;jhf ,lk;ngau;tjd;
fhuzkhf rKj;jpu ePupy; Vw;gLfpd;w ghupa fly; miy Rdhkp
vdg;gLk;

Rdhkpapd; Kd; mwpFwpfs; vit?

• G+kpajpur; ;rp Vwg; ll; gpd;du; Rdhkp Vw;gl tha;gG; czL; .
• fly; euP ; fliy Nehf;fp cs;thq;fg;gLtjhy; fiuapy; kzw; gug;G mjpfkhFk;.

flypypUe;j glFfs; kzy; Nkwg; ugg; py; jq;fpapUgg; ij fhzyhk.;
• Tpyq;Ffspd; fhzgg; Lk; ,awi; ff;F khwhd elji; j Nfhyq;fs; .
• ,uT NtisapYk; Rdhkp Vwg; lyhk.; flypd; ,aw;ifahd ,iurr; Yf;Fgjpyhf

Mfha tpkhdk; gazk; nrat; J NghdW; fLikahd Xir Nfl;gjwF; ,lKz;L.
• Rdhkp miyfs; fWgg; hf myy; J NrwW; epwjj; py; fhzg;glyhk.;

RdhkpapypUe;J vt;thW jg;gpf;nfhs;tJ?

• Rdhkp Vw;gLk; NghJ flwf; iu > MWfs; flNyhL fyfF; k; ,lq;fs; vdg; twW; f;F
mz;ikapy; ,Ugg; Pu;fshdhy; mtw;wpypUe;J J}u tpyfp ,ad;wsT caukhd ,lj;ij
Nehff; p tpiuthf nry;Yqf; s;.

• 10-45 epkpl Neu ,ilntspapy; Rdhkp miyfs; kzP L; k; kPz;Lk; Njhdw; yhk;. ,ej;
epiy 2 kzp Neujj; pwF; njhlu;ej; pUf;fyhk; vdg; ij epidtpy; itj;Jfn; fhss;
Ntz;Lk.;

• cqf; Sf;F mUNf cau;e;j epygg; Fjp fz;Zfn; flL; k; tiu fhzgg; lhtpll; hy>;
flypypUe;J ,adw; sT J}uk; tpyfprn; ry;Yq;fs;. Rdhkp miyfs; cq;fis tpl
Ntfkhdit vdg; ij kdjpy; nfhs;Sqf; s;.

• Mgjj; hd epiy ePq;fptpl;lJ vdj; njhlu;ghly; Clfq;fspypUe;J mwptpj;jy; fpilfF; k;
tiu ghJfhg;ghd ,lq;fis tplL; kzP ;Lk; cq;fsJ ,lq;fSfF; nry;y Ntz;lhk;.

nts;sg;ngUf;F Vw;gLk; fhuznkhd;iwf;
Fwpg;gpLf

• ejpfspy; ePu; kl;lk; cau;e;J ejpfspd; ,U Gwq;fspYk; css;
gpuNjrq;fspy; ngUf;nfLj;J ePu; topfs; jilg;gLtjhYk;
jw;fhypf nts;sg;ngUf;Ffs; Vw;gLfpd;wd.

,yq;ifapy; epyr;rupT mghaKs;s khtl;lq;fspid
,yq;if GwTUtg;glj;jpy; Fwpj;J fhl;Lf

epyr;rupT Vw;gLtjw;fhd ,aw;if
fhuzpfis Fwpg;gpLf

1. -Gtp eLff; k; Vwg; ly.;
2. -,iltplhJ njhlu;eJ; ngaA; k; fLk; kio.
3. -kiyr; rupTfspy; jPtpu mKf;fk.;
4. -ghiwfspd; mikg;Gk; ghiwg; gilfs; cff; Yk.;
5. -gytPdkhd ePu; tbfhy; mikgG; .
6. -jhtug; Nghu;itf; Fiwtiljy.;

epyr;rupT Vw;gLtjw;fhd khdpl
nraw;ghLfisf; Fwpg;gpLf

- Kiwaw;w rha;Tepyg; gad;ghL
- rha;T epyqf; spy; fhlopg;G
- ,aw;if ePu; topfis kiwj;jy;
- kiyehl;L gpuNjrq;fspy; Ruq;fk; mfo;jy.;
- kz; NkLfis ntl;Ljy; .
- fyY; ilj;jYk; ntbf;fr; nra;jYk.;
- kiyr; rha;Tfspy; Kiwaw;w epu;khzq;fs.;

epyr;rupT Vw;gLtjw;fhd mwpFwpfs; vit

- tPLfspYk; > fl;llq;fspYk; ntbg;Gfs; Vwg; ly;.
- Fwpg;gpll; ,lj;jpy; myy; J epyj;jpy; ntbgG; fNsh > fPopwf;fqf; Nsh

Vw;gly; .
- mg;gpuNjrq;fspYs;s kuq;fs; > kpd; fkg; q;fs; > njhiyNgrp

J}zf; s; Mfpad rupjy;.
- rha;T epyqf; spy; ngUksT jhtuq;fs; jpBnud ,wj;jy>; thLjy;.
- rha;T epyqf; spd; fPog; g; Fjpfspy; ePu; %yfq;fs;> Cw;Wff; s;

khw;wkiljy;.
- rfy tpyq;fpdq;fspd; elji; jf; Nfhyq;fs; khww; kiljy;.

nts;sk; Vw;glf$; ba ,lq;fisf; Fwpg;gpLf

• ejpfspd; jho; gs;sj;jhf;FfSk; nghq;FKfg; gFjpfSk.;
• ejpfis mz;bAs;s efug;gpuNjrqf; s;. cjhuzk; - nfhOk;G>

fSj;Jiw khj;jiw > ,uj;jpdGup.
• Fsq;fs;> ePu;j;Njf;fq;fs; vd;gtw;wpd; fPo;g;gFjpfs.;

,yq;ifapy; #whtspapdhy; ghjpf;fg;gLk;
khtl;lq;fisf; Fwpg;gpLf

- tTdpah
- aho;g;ghzk;
- mDuhjGuk;
- nghydWit
- kl;lff; sg;G
- mk;ghiw
- jpUNfhzkiy

,yq;ifapy; #whtspapdhy; ghjpf;fg;gLk; khtl;lq;fis
,yq;ifg; GwTUtg;glj;jpy; Fwpj;Jf; fhl;Lf

#whtspapdhy; Vw;gLk; mdu;j;jj;ij Fiwf;f vLf;ff; $ba
eltbf;iffspidf; Fwpg;gpLf

- #whtsp epfo;Tfs; Vw;glf$; ba fhygg; Fjpfspy; thdpiyj;
jfty;fs; njhlu;ghf tpopg;GzuT; ld; ,Uj;jy; .

- tPLfSf;F mz;ikapYss; Mgj;jhd kuq;fis mfw;Wjy; .
- tPLfsp;d; $iufis cWjpahf mikj;jy.;
- typikahd fhw;Wj;jilfis mikj;jy;.
- #whtspfs; tPRk;NghJ ghJfhgg; hd ,lq;fSf;F nry;Yjy.;

nts;sg;ngUf;F mdu;j;jj;ij Fiwf;f vLf;ff; $ba
eltbf;iffspidf; Fwpg;gpLf

- ePNue;Jg; gpuNjrq;fspy; fhLfis mopf;fhjpUj;jy; .
- ejpfspd; nghq;FKf gFjpfis jilg;glhJ

itj;jpUjj; y; .
- jho;epyq;fisAk; > <uepyq;fisAk; ghJghj;jy;.
- ejpfspypypUeJ; kzy; mfo;tij tiuaWj;jy;.
- nts;sg;ngUf;fpidj; jhf;Fg;gpbf;ff; $ba

fl;llq;fis mikj;jy;.
- nts;sg;ngUf;fpw;Fl;gLk; gpuNjrq;fspy; khdpl

nraw;ghLfis Fiwj;jy;.
- ghJfhg;G eltbf;iffis Nkw;nfhs;sYk; > kf;fis

tpopg;Gzu;T+l;LjYk.;


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