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Scientific Investigative Report of Commercialized Examples(continuous updating summary): on conventional low cost energy cleantech, as well as uniquely high efficiency less known technologies with various debatable & difficult to replicate claims. The analysis includes questionable purported ideas that various technological lobby or special interest groups can influence scientific integrity on peer review system or generate public opinion on reality of energy tech effectiveness.

LENR-Cold Fusion technology's effect itself is in virtual acceptance by Mainstream Western Science and the next step is when the various available commercialized "free energy" generators, if such devices work, would become officially endorsed by mainstream outlets.
In this scenario, a string of other related technologies would also be reviewed by mainstream full scientific protocol for the first time for the accelerated improvement of human life across the board, while alleged past tech discrediting by some influential groups, if existed, would likely to be increasingly known to the public whether accepted as valid or not.

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Published by newnatureparadigm, 2017-11-07 18:54:30

Cold fusion, Tesla, Scalar wave, Torsion field, "Free energy", Zeropoint Energy Extraction..= Really All Pseudo Science? Analysis Of Controversial Energy Related Claims Including Questionable Accusations Against Technology Lobbies.

Scientific Investigative Report of Commercialized Examples(continuous updating summary): on conventional low cost energy cleantech, as well as uniquely high efficiency less known technologies with various debatable & difficult to replicate claims. The analysis includes questionable purported ideas that various technological lobby or special interest groups can influence scientific integrity on peer review system or generate public opinion on reality of energy tech effectiveness.

LENR-Cold Fusion technology's effect itself is in virtual acceptance by Mainstream Western Science and the next step is when the various available commercialized "free energy" generators, if such devices work, would become officially endorsed by mainstream outlets.
In this scenario, a string of other related technologies would also be reviewed by mainstream full scientific protocol for the first time for the accelerated improvement of human life across the board, while alleged past tech discrediting by some influential groups, if existed, would likely to be increasingly known to the public whether accepted as valid or not.

Keywords: engine,motor, wind,solar,nuclear,mining, aluminum,smelter,clean water,coal, tesla, schauberger,investment return, disruptive, revolutionary, validation, future science, improvement, new products,freight, fracking, high voltage,power,petrochemical, transmission,refinery,automobile,business,GMO,banking,science, economy,monetary,finance,analysis,healthcare,hemp,cannabis

COLD FUSION, TESLA, TORSION FIELD,
SCALAR "WAVE", “FREE ENERGY”, HARVESTING
ZPE... = REALLY ALL PSEUDOSCIENCE?

ANALYSIS OF NEW ENERGY PARADIGM: INCLUDING
CONTROVERSIAL & QUESTIONABLE CLAIMS OF TECH
EFFICIENCY, NON-ENERGY APPLICATIONS, LOBBY GROUPS...

BEN RUSUISIAK
NEW NATURE PARADIGM TECH ANALYSIS

VANCOUVER, BC, CANADA, Updated Dec10, 2016
www.linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm

ABSTRACT: LENR-Cold Fusion effect itself has been virtually accepted by mainstream science: Energy produced with
basically free “fuel” + equipment & operation cost. Although unadmitted by creative interpretations, thermodynamic
over-unity or Persistent Current/motion is officially observed in quantum level nano circuit, beyond Shockley-Queisser
limit efficiency solar cell, non-linear optic/laser/spintronics, time crystal, & magnetocaloric effects. Academic taboo
with extracting photon or electron fluctuation in vacuum, Maxwell's demon, affirming quantum ratchet, Casimir force
harvesting micro electronic device, & violation of 2nd law are finally discussed at mainstream journals. No publicly
endorsed LENR device exists, but 1MW electricity generator "Ecat" has been claimed to be sold with pre-conditions.
Low cost resonance/magnet based major emission reducers with 10%+ extra efficiency, solid state thermo Electric/
thermo PhotoVoltaics heat-to-energy systems, & highly efficient Waste-To-Fuel/Energy systems with Catalytic,
SuperCritical water, Cold or Steam Plasma mechanics are starting to make inroads quietly. Above changes might
foreshadow first full science review of recurring inventors' hyper energy efficiency claims & small commercialized
installations: e.g. 1-Extracting nano oscillation/radiant energy as industrial electricity, 2-Harvesting DC reverse voltage
power instead of using force to cancel it(Back EMF), 3-Resonance catalyzed HHO/Oxy-hydrogen gas, also as mileage
booster, 4-Electromagnetic or cold plasma standing wave creation of light/water/inert gas in cavity, 5-Compressed air
& COP>1 heat exchanger converted to mechanical power, 6-Catalyzed emulsion fuel with far beyond 50% H2O,
7-Hydrocarbon increased by std photocatalyzed O2 Nanobubble water & fuel emulsion, when infused with CO2 in
room temp/pressure. +variations, 8-Combining underwater air floating force & down gravity, 9-Propellantless drive,
10-Hydrodynamic cavitation heater, 11-Betz limit excess hydro/wind turbine, 12-Pyromagnetic self running heat
producing trash decomposer, etc. They often seem to run on mechanics & accompanied by common side effects
current official physics cannot explain(explained by Torsion physics or pre-Heaviside Maxwell equations), low cost, &
are convertible to superior new techs that can replace majority of propulsion, weather, medical, nuclear remediation,
time dilation, psychology, algorithm, & key mining-industrial-farming processes -IF fully peer reviewed in science.
Recent paradigm shift might warrant disruptive official investigations on questionable but increasing documents/
testimonial claims on above alternative physics based “open-end pseudo science” R&Ds by groups working across
Gov’t/Aerospace/Military/Intel agencies & private contractors, hidden under secrecy law, to which above organizations’
executives often have no access i.e "unacknowledged" projects. They seem to be totally freed from “dead-end public
consumption science" & education that are restricted by “science law”: e.g. At one nation, according to official data,
1000+ inventions in Enviro-Energy-Propulsion-Medical field, including patented, are classified by "national security"
label, & applied to its allies. But as indicated at beginning, there are collectively clear signs that a majority of
establishment is attempting to gradually release unlimited “Open System” technologies & to reduce tech debunking.
Overall, mainstream commercialization of unlimited energy production is inevitable & it risks social disruption, hence
public discussion on how all related tech/geopolitical info to be officially released & endorsed can be valuable.

CONTENTS

• p06 Science accepted high efficiency generators & free energy harvesters

• p64 Solar, Wind, & Hydro power efficiency beyond official science limit 、
. p83 Still under-utilized vast Biomass, Waste-to-Energy, & Hydrocarbons

• p122 Ten categories of inventors' seeming “over-unity” claims

• p152 Commercialization attempts

• p161 Law of Thermodynamics interpretations, “Dissident” scientists

• p164 Scalar “wave”, Standing wave resonance, Torsion field..

• p198 Terahertz & Far Infrared waves, “No light” Photo Catalysis, ORMUS..

• p224 LENR/Cold Fusion update, Losers & Gainers by its success

• p239 Reduced suppressions, energy paradigm smooth transition models

• p249 Radical ramifications if inventor tech becomes mainstream

• p302 ZPE related outrageous claims & controversial tech lobby accusations

• p370 Debatable Free Energy Summary & Recommendations .._...、 .. ....
.. That Are Still Considered as Far-Fetched
3
linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak: Specialty Cleantech Analysis, Vancouver, Canada

QUALIFICATION OF INFORMATION

• This presentation primarily focuses on less known but latest science consensus forming
technologies on strict effect basis, while a bulk of highest efficiency low cost techs & a
majority of "outrageous" or controversial claims category contradict predominant view,
especially of Wikipedia & Western media/NGOs. Hence attendants/readers are recommended
to re-assess the data individually.

• Regarding Controversial But Future Critical Technologies Discussed:
■ Term “Free energy” or “Over-unity” in this presentation is defined as seeming as if:
-1 Drawing of more energy than exerted to generate
-2 Continuous motion without energy input
-3 Using free material generally not considered as fuel、
■ Inventors-scientists-witnesses: their claims might involve higher likelihood of:
-4 Fabrication, reliability exaggeration, or statistical error chance of observed effect
-5 Significant quality gap between inventions, yet -
-6 At least above collective majority seems to consistently produces claimed effects

• Currently more detailed reference list is being produced & will be published separately:
The research is updated based on reviewing academic papers & journals, books, speeches,
presentations, patents, lab/commercialized product testimonies/complaints, publications &
public records of NGOs/media/research institutes/think tanks/military/space & gov't agencies/
industry associations. Most effects quoted have accumulative-consistent evidence from
unrelated era & source, but mechanics listed are hypothetical. Commercialized company/
products are shown in Boldface Navy. Due to space constraints, referenced individual
names are given with max 3 letters of first name with entire last name(except some non-
Western names), & company names are listed in a way that is findable by internet search.

4

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BLANK SLIDE
PROCEED TO NEXT PAGE

5

QUEST FOR “FREE ENERGY”: 1
CLAIMS STARTED WELL BEFORE 1800S

• Main academia/media in mid-late 1800s forecasted commercialized free energy
by early 1900s(Anthony+), 1- Free Ground Earth Battery regularly
demonstrated self charging or inducing electricity capacity in low moisture,
also power generation efficiently of two-points-voltage gap depends on
location(Snow, Lockwood, Wilkins, Dieckmann, Strong, Bain, Edard, Haworth,
Bear, Mellon,Hicks, Cerpaux, Garratt, Lamont +); invention rush for telegraph use,
Along with strong claims of pre-dated telephony & wireless(Meucci, Stubblefield,
Tesla+), 2- Very low cost Vaccumized Air/Compressed Air engine/residential-
industrial system, Trompe/Water Pumps also widely used in France etc(Rix,
Mekarski, Hardie, Hoadley, C Hodges+)

• Non earth battery free energy claims mixed: General lack of information to tell
degree of actual physical effects from fabrication, some can be valid, Involved
mainstream scientists till early 1900s, yet no widely known commercialization

• Science legal 1&2 disappeared from schooling/research while other types of
free energy & repeated side effects in combination didn’t fit with “science
package” then & now; gradually became irrelevant/pseudo science, which
matched major business-financial lobby interest then

6

QUEST FOR “FREE ENERGY”: 2
TOWARDS MODERN ERA

• Same mechanics & side effects were repeated by unrelated inventors, but linear progress
was often limited to recent Western academia(LENR, Cavitation), Also Russia-Soviet had
some development(Cavitation, Torsion, Ion heater, Ultrasonic, EM pulse) at official level.

• Boiled down to 10 or so base mechanics(p122-150) with similar tendency:
a➢ Often energy is ”triggered in” by rapid change in pressure-voltage-spin, pulse, plasma-
magnetic field, cavitation, transmutation, anomalous electron movement causing/caused by
standing wave resonance, or antioxidant prone "field effect", link to quantum coherence
b➢ Manifest as anomalous cooling/heat, water hammer, vibration coupling, electrical
breakdown, spike, surge, implosion, spontaneous corona discharge, ball lightning, vortex,
harmonics, similar to Electron Avalanche, Field Emission effect etc, treated as short circuit etc
c➢ Seemingly influenced by cosmo-geophysical factors, avoided by extra energy use
d➢ "Static Electricity" is more like high voltage, can flow, & useable for industrial electricity
e➢ Mainstream insistence on defending clear flaws in Electromagnetic Induction law

• i.e. not closed system?; some "free energy"(p122-150) efficiency fluctuates, by time-
location, altitude, orientation etc; similar to ground-earth battery, In rare cases emotion
seems to affect(O Carr, J Keely, Ra Ring, Th Ludwig, Dan Davidson,Vogel, Seelhofer, R
Schild+)

• Occasional rift:1- Mainstream Western scientist vs 2- Inventor, sidelined & Non-Western 7
scientist(Russia, China+), Some mainstream scholars in West as exception(Austria, Italy+)

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “FREE ENERGY”
MICROCURRENT HARVESTING

• FREE ENERGY TYPES; increasingly actively commercialized (indicated
by navy color letters),
■ MICRO CURRENT ENERGY HARVESTERS(technically dated turbine
based smart water meter water flow harvester[also gas meter], or across
the board full mainstream use wind & solar type micro current generator
is not covered in this presentation(eg indoor use calculator).

• Generally negligible as industrial power. Most of them are
commercialized after yr 2000. Used for switches, sensors,
meters(structural integrity, industrial, logistics, transportation,
equipment), IoT(Internet of Things), remote monitoring segment use etc:
Perpetually Powered Systems. Often auto Wireless Transmission function
is built in as one of key benefits.

• This is currently one of most rapid progress energy generation efficiency
& use in commercialization along with industrial use solid state electrical
generator from heat, electronics manufacturing, solar power, & energy
saving waste water/desalination process.

8

linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak: Specialty Cleantech Analysis, Vancouver, Canada

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “FREE ENERGY”
2 MICROCURRENT HARVESTING II

• -->>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; increasing actively commercialized
exceptions, ■ Micro Current Energy Harvesters: 、Focus in this
application is to have sufficient power generation for the device and
not necessarily high efficiency. Devices only produce very small power
but there are relevancies & relations to other much larger macro scale
"energy harvesting" mechanics covered in presentation. Some mechanics
with relatively easy industrial electrical generation potential in this
segment are marked as #

• Often use of metamaterials(engineered structure to increase wave-
vibration resonance amplifying for harvesting etc), even
MEMS(MicroElectroMechanical System) now works in very low freq. of
under 30hz with S shaped cantilever etc(Huicong Liu +), or increase wide
band reception compared to resonance devices with only small
number of limited frequencies are harvested.

• Often ROI comes at first time replacement of battery or fizzled wire for
sensors especially in remote or difficult to reach locations. -->>continued: 9

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SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “FREE ENERGY”
3 LOW TEMP MICRO THERMOELECTRIC

• -->>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; increasing actively commercialized
exceptions, ■ Micro Current Energy Harvesters:

• Often ROI comes at first time replacement of battery or fizzled wire for sensors
especially in remote or difficult to reach locations. Many devices combine multiple
mechanics to maintain required electrical supply level. Free energy harvesting micro
devices are generally not frequently reported in newspapers or energy saving
publications due to micro electrical nature, but products are available for very wide
range of sensoring/actuating applications. Some cases there is no differentiator to
long lasting battery system(eg self charging tire sensor for non-commercial vehicle).
Many companies sell "Evaluation Kit" to test out. Following 1-14 main methods are
listed as general representative energy scavenging methods.

• ■1# Low temperature dif.(1-20°C) Thermoelectric device(industrial type generator
version at p50-53): easily made as garage project with high performance Seebeck
effect parts(A Makosinski+) & commercialized for consumer market prior to current
industrial use micropower in 1990s and withdrawn(Citizen Eco-Drive Thermo, Seiko
Thermic), more recent consumable types(Fujitsu, Yamaha had test products,
Vodaphone: PowerPocket+), Latest consumer watch market debut (Matrix
Industries+). Can be woven into fabric(KAIST South Korea+)(Gr Moriarty+), mass
produceable by easy printing(AIST Japan+).

10

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “FREE ENERGY”
4 THERMOELECTRIC, PIEZOELECTRIC

• —>>cont: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Microcurrent Harvesters: ■1 ThermoElectric:、
Relatively significant penetration for mainstream industrial monitoring use last
several yrs(Micropelt, EnOcean, Laired Technologies, Marlow Industries, Perpetua
Power Source+), fair number of bio sensor focus companies(MC10 inc+), thin micro
device for wearables(Thermogen Technologies+), but super high density harvester
by combo with solar in wristwatch format is shelved?(EnergyBionics Carbon:
Ebersold+). Low cost printed super thin material that is capable of micro current to
industrial size electricity conversion from heat(Otego GmbH+). Overall this sector is
filled with many players existing in West.

• ■2# Piezoelectricity(material directly produces electricity when deformed, most
widely commercialized in microcurrent generator types), Often use Barium Titanate
(BaTiO3) or Zinc Oxide (ZnO), PZT: Lead zirconate titanate. Following elements are
often relevant to majority of microcurrent generation by ambient scavenging(other
than piezo methods)

• ●Usually takes cantilever of bimorph or unimorph(one electricity producing piezo
layer) generator with magnetic tip to interact with fixed two magnets of above &
below. To maximize resonance tuning of wide range or many frequencies(to amplify
energy harvesting), multimorph/multilayer or cantilever array located side by side
row is arranged.
11
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SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “FREE ENERGY”
5 PIEZOELECTRIC II MICRO & MACRO

• —>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Microcurrent Energy
Harvesters: ■2 Piezoelectricity:
●But for non-linear frequency harvesting(non-repetitive vibration)
focus, resonance might be avoided: Stochastic Bi-stable or Multi
stable, cantilever with magnetic tip to interact with one magnet at
fixed position that is same "height" as extension of cantilever. Also
might use buckled beam with with both ends clamped with middle.

• Parametric resonance(not set to narrow frequency resonance
emphasis but incorporating non-linear movements: non periodic
one time only unique arbitrary motion is ok) type non linear
inductance-capacitance of piezo vibration: eg Velocity Damped
Resonant Generator(VDRG) by EM damping, Coulomb Damped
Resonant Generators(CDRGs) by electrostatic damping. Can be
combined with other methods such as electromagnetic
induction.

12

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “FREE ENERGY”
6 PIEZOELECTRIC III COMMERCIAL E.G.

• —>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Microcurrent Energy Harvesters:
■2 Piezoelectricity:

• ◆ Generally wide range of vibration is harvested as energy(ReVibe Energy,
Mide Volture, Arveni fr+),
◆Battery combo emphasis (Linear Technology+), ◆Switch focus(Algra
Group+), ◆ Automobile distance warning(Ceratec Engineering
Corporation+), ◆Automatic parking space broadcaster (ParkHere GmbH),
◆High power density(MicroGen Systems MSM, AdaptivEnergy RLP,
8power+), ◆Footsteps use for surveillance device (Pavegen+), ◆AAA battery
self charging battery or 10sec shaking 3mins lighting LED flashlight was taken
out of market quickly(ブラザー⼯工業)

• ◆Large industrial power is possible: 200kw+/km production at busy hwy 13
became possible with multi-stacked structure(Edery-Azulay/Innowattech),
Polyvinylidene Fluoride(PVDF) based flexible Piezoelectric -
FerroElectric(electrically polarized material) polymer woven fabric +
photovoltaic coating(El Siores /FibrLec). ◆Others: Wearables(Flexous BV -
Kinergizer+), Tire sensor for transport or mining trucks (Transense,
SilentSensors+), Spray paint on surface to make it a generator
(www.munekata.jp/eh/),

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “FREE ENERGY”
7 PIEZOELECTRIC IV VARIATIONS

• —>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Microcurrent Energy Harvesters:
■2 Piezoelectricity:
Others: Wearables(Flexous BV - Kinergizer+), Tire sensor for transport or mining
trucks (Transense, SilentSensors+), Spray paint on surface to make it a generator
(www.munekata.jp/eh/), PVDF based /pyroelectric/thermoelectric & Piezoelectric
functioning soft thin polymer film (Kureha Kagaku), Self charging by human motion
Small flashlight(株式会社スライブ– 圧電素⼦子+)

• Pacemaker sensor from heartbeat(KAIST, smart-MEMPHIS Silex [enhanced harvesting
by MEMS PZT: Lead zirconate titanate]+), People movement surveillance by step-in
mattress tracking(東リ イーテリア),

• SOME OF OTHER PIEZO, PIEZO LIKE MECHANICS, or SYNERGIZED COMBO:
i -ElectroStrictive Polymer(change shape or lengthen under electric field or vice
versa, significant degree of actuation occurs by electricity applied & used for artificial
muscle) for much increased efficiency(Mcknight & Mcginnis+) even if electric field
needs to be generated for power harvesting, likely already in military use for much
higher macro level power generation. 、

• ii-Simiar to above "i" but very soft super stretchable Dielectric Elastomer is low cost
material and useable for wave/hydro energy(Softgen Univ Auckland+): 1w per
human step range. 0.1mm thick elastic rubber paper like "power generating rubber"
with 2 to 10 times higher than conventional piezo material(Ricoh), 、
14

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “FREE ENERGY”
8 PIEZOELECTRIC V, EM INDUCTION

• —>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Microcurrent Energy Harvesters:
■2 Piezoelectricity: OTHER PIEZO, PIEZO LIKE MECHANICS or combo: 、
iii-Radio Frequency harvesting by piezo system with cantilever
system(Mahmoud Al Ahmad+), iv-Far more minute level vibration sensitive
Nanostructure or NanoWire/NEMS (NanoElectroMechanical Systems) can be
much more efficient than conventional piezoelectric (KAIST: Keon Jae Lee+),
v-Other mechanical combination are explored and deemed to have advantages:
Shape Memory Alloy(SMA, by temperature change)(p62,63), Magnetic Shape
Memory Alloy(MSMA)(AdaptaMat Oy: MSMA without piezo combo),

• ■3 ElectroMagnetic Induction from vibration or motion: magnet oscillates on
cantilever/spring with coil wrapping it around to generate electricity from
ambient sound or vibration(Perpetuum, Adamant jp, Star Micronics,
MicroStrain +), using oscillating move/EM field of outside of device using
rotating or vertical motion(Joulefusion+), Focus on low end 5hz frequency
recovery for spotting personnel & harvesting energy in office/factory(Mono-
wireless+): eg walking sound on carpet. Random directional motion into
rotational energy to drive generator, similar to gyro mechanics(Witt Energy+):
this company aims for industrial size generator. Human motion based battery
charger for phones(AMPY Live Charged), 、

15

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “FREE ENERGY”
9 RF RECTENNA
• —>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Microcurrent Energy Harvesters: 、
■4# Ambient & purpose-broadcasted RF wave frequency Harvester & Rectenna:
Harvests electromagntic wave usually Radio Frequency range & convert to DC
electricity(This section deals up to 10Ghz. As for 10-30,000Ghz range
Rectenna[Terahertz & Far InfraRed], see p58 •i for industrial sized electricity
generation). Some can only Harvest from purpose intended directed broadcaster-
receiver set, as well as inadvertent 10m range 3rd party strong signal(Cymbet
EnerChip, ZF Switches & Sensors, Nowi Energy+). 、

• But actually far away ambient radio wave(from WiFi, wireless phone, power
line, lightning or RF range electric motor noise etc) harvester did exist from
yr2000s(RCA Airpower, withdrawn twice after media debunking, probably
consumer directed marketing exaggerated their reaction as happens often for
disruptive energy tech), and now available again(Drayson Freevolt, PowerCast
Corp, Nikola Labs+), Much more robust battery charger for dual mode low frequency
EM field & high frequency WiFi wave(DennisSiegel.de). 、

• Resonance based amplified industrial level electricity harvesting is approved by
Philippine' gov't(Ism Aviso) but western media level pseudoscience. Multiple
invention "free energy" engineers often includes this method(Moray, Tesla+). Note
higher freq Thz/FIR level industrial power harvesting is officially science
approved(p50).
16

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “FREE ENERGY”
10 AMBIENT EM WAVE HARVESTING

• —>>cont: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Microcurrent Harvesters: ■4 RF wave Harvester:
There are wide range of RF scavenging methods available but technology is really simple
especially for non micro sized system(eg see below Crystal radio): Generally lab
recovery efficiency to electricity as of 2016 is at least 70%+ and some are reaching unity
level: "Full absorption" idea or 90+% recovery already at single Ghz range frequency and
continues up to Thz/FIR(Almoneef & Ramahi, Emr Karakaya, Fur Dincer+),(but media
level pseudoscientization of this claim occurs). Crystal radio set up(one popular type is
antenna coil and inductive tuning coil[no antenna is also possible], speaker is usable
without outside power) has wide band harvesting capability & many home made large
device can have much higher than micro device harvesting capability.

• Some focus to increase power by Ultra-broadband EM induction or Piezo-
Electromagnetic or multiple vibration mode EM induction, etc(EnerBee+)

• HIGH VOLTAGE POWER LINE scavenging: Near field high power line's EM field flux
directly or, Additionally generating vibration with interaction of device magnet with EM
field to harvest extra energy from piezoelectric effect(Hosseinimehr & Tabesh+) etc, for
self powered electric current transmission monitoring purpose: mostly Wireless
Powerline Sensor(Sentient Energy IBOLT, USi Power Donut+), low power 3amp
working(Aclara Tollgrade LightHouse), or advanced monitoring(INCON GridSense
Line IQ, Lindsey Transmission Line Monitor+): This application is full mainstream use in
some regions/industry power monitoring segments while almost none in others. -->cont:

17

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “FREE ENERGY”
11 HIGH VOLTAGE LINE, EARTH MAG F.

• —>>cont: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Microcurrent Harvesters: ■4 RF wave
Harvester: HIGH VOLTAGE POWER LINE scavenging:、

• Underwater submerged power line harvesting(Dyden Corporation+): this
company also makes usually minute current limited ElectroStatic Induction
harvester boosting with resonance use for 6-12V max 6W workable constant
harvesting(from 500kv, 6.5m away AC line). House level voltage line
monitoring(Panoramic Power+). Harvesting from high power line is also easiest
method as capacitive coupling as well as RF crystal radio reception method,
some seem to illegally "steal or burrow power" from semi far field(10-50m) away
with home made device. Same induction can be made from near radio station
transmitter,、

• Also this induction of fluxing/changing magnetic field enables Power Factor
Correction device can reduce not only Apparent Power billed industrial
electricity, but even Actual Power billed residential electricity cost(p182), but
latter effect is still pseudoscience in Western mainstream. YET, basically same
mechanics based super high efficiency induction power harvester from
Florescent light inverter, to operate surveillance camera & video transmission
both is quietly commercialized in Japan for last 10yrs(Nippon Denki - NEC), --
>>cont:
18

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “FREE ENERGY”
12 EARTH MAG FIELD, LARGE PWR

• —>>cont: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Microcurrent Harvesters: ■4 RF wave
Harvester: Geo Magnetic Field:

• EARTH MAGNETIC FIELD(Geo Magnetic field:GMF) or RELATED AMBIENT
LOW FREQUENCY RESONANCE(7-50hz) use as base mechanics: can be very
large dimension(1-1000m long) Electrodynamic Tether can generate
significant industrial electricity by fast moving conductive long wire against
earth magnetic field(Tether Unlimited+), But this mainstream explanation
might not be main reason for its workability: less to do with GMF but generally
more to do with voltage gradient in troposphere, & solar wind-cosmic ray is
fluctuating GMF & existence of highly charged air particles with extreme
temperatures at thermosphere(where tether is mostly used)?

• Tire equipped coil generates micropower as car is driven & tire
rotates(Infineon Technologies AG). One manufacturer commercialized self
charging LED flashlight claiming by GMF interaction but seemingly over
promising fast chargeability to cause low ratio customer satisfaction(ADGEX
ELFE): harvesting method is not explained clearly, and static GMF advertising
might be more of a gimmick, and bulk might come from tapping RF waves or
even ambient vibration. -->>cont:
19

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “FREE ENERGY”
13 EARTH MAG FIELD, MICRO PWR

• —>>cont: FREE ENERGY; ■ Micro Harvesters: ■4 RF wave Rectenna: Geo Mag
Field(GMF):
GMF energy harvester type of products are well within easy commercialization
by using mainstream science approved or tacitly non-debunked GMF energy
harvesting mechanics in multiplication. Some such examples are given in
following a-f:

• a-Medical sensor energy harvester(Ferro Solutions Inc: Jiankang Huang,
O'Handley et al), b-Amplification of general ambient electric field time
variance harvesting: Alternating conductive and dielectric layer film coupled
by capacitor of resonance RLC circuit (Resistor-Inductor-Capacitor)(Tao &
Owhadi): similar mechanics as "Orgone energy" layering(p283,284)、

• c-Even conservative mainstream science group admits solely GMF based static
electrical generation is possible by use of electro-conducting cylindrical shell of
manganese zinc ferite(Chyba & Hand+), d- Schumann freq level resonance
focus amplifying, using Casimir oscillation amplification type capability:
Quantum Oscillator(see next page "f"), e-Actually most of self charging
Flashlight type device energy scavenging can come from non earth resonance:
high power line(50-60hz etc), or radio wave(0.5-30mhz)/wifi(2-4ghz) induction
etc, or completely different harvesting methods can be combined. -->>cont: 20

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “FREE ENERGY”
14 CASIMIR FORCE & NANO OSCILLAT.

• —>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Microcurrent Energy Harvesters:
■4 RF wave Harvester: EARTH MAGNETIC FIELD/GeoMagnetic field(GMF):

• f-1 This might be deemed as side information but minute oscillations like
even Casimir force(vacuum fluctuation, Zeropoint energy relation) is
measurerable by microcantilever(Mohideen+),、
Successful Casimir force driven device since 2001 is completely
ignored even by scientific media(Fed Capasso: Lucent Technologies/
Bell Lab+): basically Casimir force is consistently harvestable as energy by
MEMS/NEMS(NanoElectroMechanical Systems)(Dum Caruntu+), While
Casimir and van der Waals forces are agreed to be main reason for
stiction failure of MEMS cantilever(Mic Serry+),

• Needs proper consideration for its major role in nano-generator
design(Raf Ardito+): e.g. when membranes work in vacuum without
capillary forces (Jian-Ning Ding+). But Casimir force itself is reversible
by using NEMS(D Lopez[ANL]+) etc(neg refractive index material), &
even can cause nano levitation(Ulf Leonhardt, Fed Capasso+). -->>cont:

21

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “FREE ENERGY”
15 CASIMIR FORCE & PWR HARVESTING

• —>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Microcurrent Energy
Harvesters: ■4 RF wave Harvester: GeoMagnetic field(GMF):、

• f-2 Progressive end of mainstream academics get patent on MEMS or
nano polymer used Casimir force extraction KWh level electrical
generator with some mainstream funding(Jovion Corp: Moddel &
Haisch). Similarly, Casimir cavity's energy gap bet inside & outside
should be able to be used for energy extraction as well as gravity
control?(Calloni & Di Fiore et al+)、

• f-3 "Nano" Oscillation based Brownian Ratchet or Ambient Thermal
noise harvesting are all workable: Minority conservative end of
mainstream academic stance or media level science asserts still such
nano level oscillation is impossible to harvest as ratchet rotation even
if oscillation exists(R Feynman+), but it is actually extracted as energy
by rectification(Astumian+). Now experimental results on various
quantum fluctuation is finally accepted in academic papers as
'true"(p251)

22

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “FREE ENERGY”
16 MAGNETOSTRICTIVE/ELECTROSTATIC

• —>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Microcurrent Energy Harvesters:
■5# MagnetoStrictive Material(MsM) creates magnetic field when changes its shape,
hence causes time varied magnetic field with vibration, & this is picked up as
electricity by coil around it(Ferro Solutions Inc, Moritex Corporation, Shonan-
metaltec), Epoxy covered high impact useable generator(Tohoku Steel+),
Batteryless wireless mouse by thermoelectric harvesting combo(Seiko Instruments+)

• Galfenol based(alloy of iron and gallium) or Terfenol's latest version is order of
magnitude more efficient vibration energy harvester(20-30% range as a result) than
conventional piezoelectric material & material lasts much longer due to no
degradation or becoming brittle due to piezo vibration(Tos Ueno+).

• Similar Ferrofluid based energy harvester is also deemed highly effective: while
effectively absorbing vibration,

• ■6 Electrostatic Induction from vibration: Generally power is produced by conversion
of oscillation to changed positioning or distance between electrodes: varying
capacitance. Some involve electret(dielectric material with semi permanent electron
polarization state). Can be very low cost with no magnets or piezo material(Omron -
THHINK Wireless Technologies - Konishiyasu+), Walking motion sensor by unique
rotating generator by use of electret(Hokuriku Electric Industry) -->>cont:
23
linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak: Specialty Cleantech Analysis, Vancouver, Canada

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED“FREE ENERGY”
17 TRIBOELECTRIC TENG - INTRO

• —>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Microcurrent Energy Harvesters:
■7# TriboElectric NanoGenerator (TENG): TriboElectricity/Contact
Electrification is utilized as newly announced tech in 2011(Zhong Lin
Wang). Harvest energy effectively in wide bandwidth from both minute
contact electrification & electrostatic induction, Invention increased usable
efficiencies from less than 1% to max 50-60+% in few yrs from both regular
& irregular motions, with near future industrial power application:

• Unique mechanics: for example, leading devices often have multiple
power generation modes:
• i-two different material based electrodes surface-touching &
detaching, ii-sliding, iii-direct skin contact, rain drop or air flow etc on
device surface(single electrode mode), iv- "Free standing layer": Pair
of symmetric electrodes is located below a dielectric layer, and the
size of the electrodes and the gap distance between them are of
same order as size of the moving layer, & when this layer approaches
or distances electricity flows between electrodes. -->>cont:

24

linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak: Specialty Cleantech Analysis, Vancouver, Canada

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “FREE ENERGY”
18 TRIBO TENG II COMMERCIALIZATION

• —>>cont: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Micro Harvesters: ■7 TriboElectric (TENG):
Initially there was a major technical challenge: power could not be used as is for
micro device since power is generated as AC(alternative current) and intermittent,
hence required a battery/capacitor. But due to TENG's high voltage with low amp(i.e.
high impedance), there was problem to connect effectively with capacitor(low
impedance, hence lose most of power without storing).

• This impedance mismatch problem was solved by two capacitor system to run micro
device from non linear motions like intermittent human tapping, also deployed with
other tribo mechanics: Hybridizing with EM induction or piezo polymer etc(纳⽶米新能
源有限公司+), 30x30cm walk-on people traffic pad that costs $20, generates up to
10W by each step(Touchlight Innovations: Swa Pujari), Shifting business focus into
tribo from piezo type product line(北北京微能⾼高芯科技有限公司 +),

• Wide range of tribo mechanics & functions has been successful at least
experimentally: Water inside pencil size TENG for human motion type non-linear
stimulation(Dong Sung Kim et al), Enclosed vibration harvester functionable under
water or in snow, Cylindrical rotating types, Transparent version to generate power
from rain drops to complement solar cell to maintain electricity generatin during rain
day & night(Li Zheng et al). Some organizations focus on trying out new applications
in commercialized environment including low maintenance air filter(Beijing Institute
of Nanoenergy & Nanosystems: Zhong Lin Wang - 王中林林). -->>cont:
25

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “FREE ENERGY”
19 TRIBO TENG III VARIED MECHANICS

• —>>cont: FREE ENERGY; ■ Micro Harvesters: ■7 TriboElectric (TENG):
• Triboelectric–Pyroelectric–Piezoelectric hybrid cell nano generator(Yunlong

Zi+), TENG is low cost & also suitable to harvests air-water flow/
wave(Yuanjie Su+), Wind recovery Flutter-Driven Triboelectric
Generator(Jihyun Bae[SAIT:Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology]+).
Preventing metal corrosion while generate energy at water-metal contact
area(Xiaoyi Li+)(see p28-30 on how ionic movement within still water
within device generates power instead of kinetic motion) or as human
clothing (Sang-Woo Kim+) etc
• LIGHTNING POWER HARVESTING(though this is macro scale and TENG
unrelated): Not only thunderstorm but snow/sand storm should be also
linked to triboelectricity effect(RJ Latham, EY Tkachenko+): Triple layered
structure to increase recovery of lightning power to 20+% and with battery
to work as a energy system from lab test(Jeong Min Baik: UNIST), Inventor's
small lab test results(Ste Leroy+), Field tested small scale device(Mohd Farriz
Basar[UTeM]+) etc, this is western media debunked. Also there seems to be
some similar element to Orgone effect: p283-6. -->>cont:

26

linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak: Specialty Cleantech Analysis, Vancouver, Canada

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “FREE ENERGY”
20 TRIBO TENG IV FUTURE POTENTIAL

• —>>cont: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Micro Harvesters: ■7 TriboElectric (TENG):
TriboElectric electricity generation is done in more flexible way in higher efficiency
than most other methods with easy scalability to mega size - even to the extent to
become significant enough world wide electrical source along with
conventional ElectroMagnetic Induction Generator(EMIG), also will be suitable
for Self powered desalination, Self hydrogen production etc(Zhong Lin Wang,
Guang Zhu+)、
1m2 of Electrical Double Layer(EDL: two parallel layers of electrons formulate
between water and solid matter) mechanics can sustainably produce 0.46kw/ of
power(Jinsung Chun et al), Modulation of EDL to generate power(Jong Kyun Moon,
YoungJun Yang+) or 1m2 of best single layer material can produce up to 1.2kw.

• Unique Western mainstream treatment on TENG is that this tech hasn't been
debunked from day 1 by media despite other similar degree of economically
paradigm shifting performances are usually discredited or ignored(most disruptive
element of TENG industrial power generation is deemphasized) hence poses more
growth potential than other high efficiency mechanics such as Magnetothermal, EM
wave heat harvesting(FIR/THZ), or ReverseElectroWetting generator in this micro
generator segment. Significant backing of Chinese State and a university in
US(Georgia Tech) -->>cont:

27

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “FREE ENERGY”
21 THERMAL IONIC MOVEMENT

• —>>cont: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Micro Harvesters:
■8# Small water flow or even Thermal Ionic fluctuation ONLY in still
water can be harvested as electricity by Graphene/CarbonNanotube
etc(or TriboElectricity-II, cross over with Triboelectric TENG but with
mechanics more focused on Ionic movement(also see p32 ■10 Ambient
thermionic movement). Not commercialized and less cohesive
development. This effect has been discussed amongst academics since
2001

• Various experimental devices with Ionic Liquid or deionized water used
generators both with basically same results: Most common type of

• 8a-Pure water movement on graphene etc generates power by charge
separation: when water droplet moves on flat surface/micro channels
droplet is positively charged and matter surface is negatively charged
causes electron to flow(Siowling Soh, Soon-Hyung Kwon, VI Petrik+),
Single wall graphene has much higher power than double/triple etc(Sha
Ghosh+), Water-ethanol mix in graphene form(Wenbin Huang et al+).
-->cont:
28

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “FREE ENERGY”
22 THERMAL IONIC MOVE, IONIC LIQD

• —>>cont: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Micro Harvesters:
■8 Thermal Ionic fluctuation ONLY in STILL WATER:

• 8b-Salt/Ionic liquid(conductive) on graphene etc mechanics is
only slightly different from deionized water; friction is generated
between water flow and ions(Nik Koratkar+), ionic liquid is
conductive but graphene conducts electricity faster than
electrolyte(ionic liquid) so electricity still flows through prepared
circuit with asymmetric electrodes etc.(Sta Skafidas, Weijie
Kong+), Can also work as varying capacitance based electrostatic
generator,

• Water evaporation driven ElectroScavenging effect generator
by charge separation & power harvesting(Rub Borno+): this
also relates to advanced non cloud seeding weather
modification(for more details go to this link [four levels of..]and
search "ElectroScavenging"), -->cont:

29

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “FREE ENERGY”
23 THERMAL IONIC II, R-ELECTROWET.

• —>>cont: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Harvesters: ■8# Thermal Ionic move harvested:

• Thermal Ionic movement only, no kinetic or vibration power used: 50-80°C
"hair electrodes" cause proton hopping(Bri Tulachan+), or Electricity at room
temperature by thermal motion of ions in STILL LIQUID instead of by FLOWS of
the solutions by Monolayer Graphene(Graphene Battery):
• Electron is emitted by interaction of graphene & cation, then it flows along
graphene to electrode(Zihan Xu, Guoan Tai+). This particular theme,
participated by state backed Chinese TENG research groups is practically free
energy tech, & was not debunked in West but quietly discontinued on official
level. This room temperature Thermal Ionic movement energy harvesting/
generation is not taken up by inventor type groups.

• *Also Note TriboElectric related effects has mainstream disputes amongst what
causes/how electron transfer occurs.

• ■9# Reverse Electrowetting power harvester: Reverse ElectroWetting On
Dielectric(REWOD), Related to ElectroWetting process which can transport
liquid with electricity by modifying the surface tension of liquid especially on
hydrophobic surface(film, dielectric etc), This differs from similar looking effect
causeable by ElectroMigration which gives force to move water.

30

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “FREE ENERGY”
24 REVERSE ELECTROWETTING II
• —>>cont: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Micro Harvesters: ■9# Reverse Electrowetting harvester:
This effect is listed in micro power segment here to indicate common elements with
TriboElectricity process, but REWOD research is currently more focused for high density
power production with large input(e.g. human kinetic power) for more of flashlight or
higher power use level(e.g. 10w produced with battery set per shoe for human walking).
Far more efficient than conventional piezoelectricity, Most efficient energy harvesting
method at this time for human steps or car traffic type power generation(along with
tribo effect TENG device).

• New mechanics are invented with recent mainstream backing: Use of Atomic Layer
Deposition(ALD), Capillary Microfluidic device achieves 65% electric generation
efficiency(Jak Kedzierski et al), Bubbler type(Instep Nanopower: Krupenkin & Taylor et
al), Coating surface film with Al2O3 to increase capacitance etc.

• PERPETUAL MICROSEISM/MICROBAROM HARVESTING: in very high density(Tsung-
Hsing Hsu+). Another "science legal free energy" capability, but this harvests sub 1hz
level super slow oscillation as energy(takes more than 1 second per cycle: earth hum,
weather or ocean wave triggered "perpetual tremor"). Tribo TENG has similar
capability. Much lower density(efficiency) harvesting is possible with piezo etc. Naturally
not officially pursued given high economical disruptiveness along with industrial
electricity harvester from 1-Casimir force, 2-Room temp thermal ionic movement only, 3-
Earth Magnetic Field - Schumann resonance, or 4-Tall antenna based voltage gradient
tether. But now 5-FIR/THZ frequency thermal radiation is in process of
commercialization by mainstream embracement! (p58)
31

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “FREE ENERGY”
25 AMBIENT THERMIONIC, SPIN CURRENT
• —>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Micro Harvesters:
■10# Ambient temperature & magnetic field driven Thermionic device:(GN Hatsopolous,
Xinyong Fu & Zi Tao Fu[“magnetic demon”]+): use of 90° cross wise laid magnetic field to
cause Hull Cut Off type threshold to control electron movement from one electrode
to the other in one direction to generate cooling effect in a vacuum tube to cause
thermionic emission, hence indirect use of ambient temperature with originally magnet
triggered energy supply to generate minute electricity.

• Despite still majority's mainstream academic denial, this maxwell's demon type effect
should be valid based on various science valid combo effects(Cyr Smith+):
(Nottingham cooling effect related), Also this is possible in known system like
Aquaporin(Liangsuo Shu, Yingjie Li+), Linked to ■8 Thermal Ionic movement
electricity harvesting: both seem to be too disruptive complete "free energy" type to
get official research going.

• ■11# Carrying electrical current by Spin current related methods, or by fractionally
charged quasi-particle in quantum hall effect regime(as opposed to conventional charge
current), seem to strongly imply overunity(Cyr Smith+): 1-Spin rectification at Larmor
precession freq to control spin to produce DC current(YS Gui+), 2-Spin Battery: EMF
(Electromotive force) of spin origin generated by static magnetic field in magnetic tunnel
junction(S Maekawa+), 3-Spin current related Reverse Seebeck effect is much higher
thermoelectric harvesting from heat than conventional solid state generators. Also see
"Orgone"/"Orgonite" p283-6. 4-Spin wave tech relation to Torsion field application(GJ
Bugh+), & gravity tech(Frolov+)
32

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “FREE ENERGY”
26 AIR VOLTAGE GRADIENT, KINETIC +

• —>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Micro Harvesters:
■12# Properly grounded electricity conductive kite or rod extracts atmospheric
electricity(Beccaria, G Richmann, Dalibard, De Romas+), Use of "static electricity":
actual flowing of unbalanced electric charge. Effect itself is easily replicated by
amateurs, can easily lead to macro power generator, almost entirely ignored by recent
mainstream for commercialization or research(IonPowerGroup.com+), 、

• ■#13 Kinetic Power Harvester: Mostly by human or car/train traffic. Human
motion(nPower PEG+), Military focus(Bionic Power+): to charge battery etc., 1hr
walking range to charge phone by hydraulics(Walking Charger - Energy Harvesters
LLC+),1minute hand crank generates 11-23mins of useable LED light(Envirofit
Empower Duo+). Automobile slow down zone power harvested by magnetic
induction(Underground Power SRL+), or by scalable Hydraulic liquid, piston, &
pressure accumulator units fed to electric generator for power production to beyond
100kw+ range(KinergyPower+), Also piezo effects are used but as of 2016 cost is
higher than conventional methods for industrial power.

• ■14 Ground/Tree/plant Electricity harvester(Barbosa, Bryan, Karavas: Voltree, Helder:
Plant-e+), WiFi/Wireless system to transmit plant info to computer is workable only for
short distance currently(Seiko Instruments, Ritsumeikan Univ Electronic & Computer
Engineering dpt+). Photosynthesis based pot plant smartphone charger & WiFi
system(Bioo - Arkyne Technologies+)
33

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “FREE ENERGY”
27 NON-HARVESTING SELF GENERATORS

• —>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES:
■SELF GENERATING(non harvesting) MICROCURRENT DEVICES
■i Permanent Tourmaline electrode electrolysis(Kubo effect), or
■ii Self generating micro-current minerals: Acos Terahertz Face Roller(Kun Sasaki+). 、
■iii Persistent Current(perpetual current) in Nano Ring: Mesoscopic quantum phenomena,
Mainstream quietly approved but energy generator development research avoided.
Observed in nano ring structure metals in still state is up to 1-2 orders of magnitude
larger(over-unity, in addition to perpetual current itself!)(KB Efetov+) than any wishful
mainstream theory allows to be(Pri Mohanty+) & it demonstrates unknown time dependent
fluctuations, deemed phase coupling/phase coherence to be critical factor(Mar Büttiker+).
Instantly commercializable Macroscopic Persistent Current is almost entirely ignored but
virtually science approved(C van der Wal, Hir Koizumi+), Violation of 2nd law?(Čápek, Da
Sheehan+)

• ■iv also Zamboni Pile/Duluc Dry Pile(Battery) of certain set up(eg Oxford Electric Bell)
or what is called Orgone also self-generates ElectroMotive Force or "self-flows"
unlimited microcurrent when layers of different electric potential matters are pressed
together wedged by dielectric material(electrically neutral/blocks electron flow, but
allows electrostatic/polarize to develop dipole moment) in addition to chemical type
reaction(limited), but perpetual current effect of "iv" is often pseudoscientized even
above i - iii effects are mainstream approved as "science legal", also similar
"erroneous" over-unity claims were made by top physicists back when battery was
invented(Volta+), -->>cont:
34

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “FREE ENERGY”
28 SOLAR POND, CHIMNEY, EMULSION

• —>>cont: FREE ENERGY TYPES;
■ Solar Chimney: Initial high cost, mainstream selectively quoting high LCOE(Levelized Cost
Of Electricity), less electricity produced at night, many side benefits: Hyperion Energy,
Enviromission+, Claims of more efficient, far less land use versions from pilot tests,
■ Salinity Gradient Solar Pond: Ormat+, suitable only with low cost land near salt water, tech
& maintenance unstandardized,

• ■ WATER MIXTURE TYPES: ■ a Water-Oil emulsion fuel: Massive gap in fuel saving ability,
also depends on type of boiler/engine used for: 1-25%(beyond this % is "science illegal":see
p142-144), Cuts emission(PM 10-80%, NOx/SOx 10-50%), There is significance as one of
few official mainstream instantly large scale useable "partial free energy tech" &
commercialization exist world wide but remains low key in most nations: rarely referred even
by cleantech media, minimum public funding for research in West. 、
Groups of Western Mainstream (WM) business establishment promoted Emulsion Fuel under
"excuse" of emission decrease(with no reference to fuel saving) in 2001-2003. Some are still
offered(Lubrizol PuriNOx, Pirelli Gecam, Total Aquazole +), while others withdrew(Shell,
BP, Chevron). At mainstream exposure discussion, hygroscopic fuel's(diesel, biofuel) water
mix problem solution is offered by water dispersant/water emulsifying additives(Rolling Big
Power RBP-80001, Hot Shot’s Secret, FPPF, Central Illinois Manufacturing - HydroBurn,
XDP Diesel Power Plus+) that include increased fuel efficiency of 3-10% range, but they are
lobbied against by united mainstream groups(car & engine manufacturers) as bad for engine
etc, while existence of larger magnitude of full emulsion fuel cost saving remains
entirely avoided topic. -->>continues as fuel saving purpose emulsion next page:
35

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “FREE ENERGY”
29 EMULSION FUEL II

• —>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Water mixture: ■ a Water-Oil emulsion fuel:
A few companies serving world wide mainly for diesel but some also gasoline market:
◆Europe(Eco Energy Holding AS, IncBio, E•Fuel SA, Toeps innovation+),
◆North America(Nonox, Fierce Fuel Systems, Next Alternative Inc+),
◆Japan(AIT Emulsion, NanoFuel co+),

• ◆Operations in Russia openly serve mainstream(Теплоэнергоремонт-Москва,
Vodmazut Раптех, «Энергосберегающие технологии» «ЭСТ» - est-m.ru, МЕССКА -
messka.ru+), ◆Middle East(4C Technologies+), ◆India(Creatnet Technology Pvt +),
◆South Korea is unique amongst Western allies to openly focus at government
level(CoxOil kr, Green Hitech kr, Sampower kr+), ◆Other Asia(Solar Emulsi PT
Pertamina, Singapore Emulsion Fuel+), ◆China is mainly served by own state company
inhouse & Taiwanese companies(Comaxima Eco-Green Technology, Shine Bond
夏邦科技股份有限公司 +),
Sector Base: Finally mainstream maritime industry open debut by European back up:
Quadrise MSAR, in Asia: Monohakobi. Tech Variations: ● Biofuel Emulsion(Gruppo
Forini+), ● Works down to -30°C storage(SulNOx Fuel Fusions),

• Equipment can be expensive & actual cost saving is often on par or less than far lower
cost best performing magnetic flowing fuel treatment device, or Far InfraRed or Torsion
Wave emitting mineral/matter/fluid wrapped around fuel line with 5-15% saving
range(this is pseudoscientized at media level & superficial science level),(p126) -->>cont:

36

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “FREE ENERGY”
30 COAL-WATER SLURRY, HISTORY

• —>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Water Mixture Types:
■ b Coal-Water Slurry(CWS): 30-50% H2O(also note regular coal itself may contain high water
content), Historically competed against oil seriously then "lost" along with plant alcohol
fuels(US Prohibition), electric cars/hydrogen cars(all 1880s-1930s)/, Has most significant short
term potential as partial "free energy" tech. At boiler/gasification, thermal efficiency is
coal+20% while fuel vol itself increases, storage & transferability made easier as liquid fuel,
Lower emission(CO2, NOx, SOx) than Diesel fuel boiler, Can utilize unrecovered fine coal, or
coal sludge/tailing, to turn environmental hazard into revenue fuel product.、
With its mainstream approved status, this almost forgotten low tech can exert enormous
influence on shorter term energy market, climate change carbon reduction targeting & geo-
econo-political situation: largely dormant massive coal reserve evenly distributed world wide
can made into diesel equivalent with 1/2-1/4 of cost to destroy “fossil fuel” supply shortage,
liquid fuel market price, & existing crude oil refining/sorting system. Potential to replace
entire diesel/heavy oil supply if modified special engine type(no nozzle wearing etc) is
introduced(eg Micronised Refined Carbons(MRC) consuming DICE: Direct Injection Carbon
Engine: US gov't backed program(also GE, GM etc participation) bet 1970s-2000s, recently
Australia [CSIRO & many Australian coal companies])

• US: Unsuccessful gov't participated movement to promote CWS to replace majority of higher
priced imported oil in 1980s. Also clean coal burning IGCC(Integrated Gasification
Combined Cycle) power plants in US are using coal water slurry for boiler feeding (wet feed
gasification to produce extra H2)(CB&I E-Gas, Texaco-GE) though almost never publicly
reported. Regular fuel use US CWS system installer:(ecoTECH Energy, AuraSource Inc+)

37

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “FREE ENERGY”
31 COAL-WATER SLURRYII, CHINA

• —>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ b Coal-Water Slurry(CWS):
• China: is tech leader & CWS is high profile tech nationwide led by state

companies: (中国煤炭科⼯工集团有限公司 - China Coal Technology &
Engineering Group Corp, ⼭山东能源集团 Shangdong Energy Group, 兖矿集团
Yuankuang Group - ⽔水煤浆⽓气化及煤化⼯工国家⼯工程研究中⼼心 Slurry Gasification
and Coal Chemical Engineering Research, 浙江先创新能源技术开发有限公司 -
Zjxianchuang, 北北京国承瑞泰科技股份有限公司 GCPMC, jf NAIC+), Low grade
coal focus: High moisture content lignite slurry (榆林林市科达煤炭化学研究院有限
公司 - 榆林林⻄西部煤炭技术研究中⼼心: Yulin Western Coal Technology Research
Centre+), Low grade fine ground coal mix for emission reduction focus(中煤科⼯工
清洁能源股份有限公司 cctegce+), Taiwan (Neofuel tw). Also China leads to
Hydrothermal combustion of coal(SuperCritical water).
• Russia & ex-soviet: Relatively active use(Амальтеа-Сервис vodougol, КОТЭС
Cotes-Group+): Rather surprising US controlled Ukraine gov't has declared
CWS as national energy priority with Chinese financial back up(Ukrheat+).、

38

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “FREE ENERGY”
32 COAL-WATER SLURRYIII, BACTERIA

• -->>cont: Coal Water Slurry:、
Rest of world: CWS is overall even lower profile commercialization than
emulsion fuel with very small # of players considering its science legal
status(EET CWS, JGC, Kawasaki Heavy, Cynergi Holding SA+), Often
small one-man show type operation or main business is other
engineering(Advanced Coal Water Slurry Technologies, LeMar LLC, KEM-
jp.com+).、
Its very disruptive nature of abundant energy, scientifically approved status
can be one of the reasons why CWS and Emulsion fuel are both not
highlighted by major Western environmental NGOs & mainstream entities.

• ■ Atmos clock+(C Drebbel+), use of self oscillating Torsion pendulum -
Electro-mechanical transducer, ambience change, can combine with Foucalt
pendulum element, ■ Bacteria generator; Self-Charge Electrochemical Bio-
capacitor (Pankratov+), Microbial Fuel Cell(MFC)(Cambrian Innovation,
Emefcy EBR +) or its “overunity” electrolysis (Microbial Electrolysis Cell -
MEC), 1-2$ range material based DIY self producing no running water
"moist soil based" MFC for 3rd world villages(Aiden Lab), Magnetotactic
Bacteria based types etc., ■ ”Levitron”type, or ”Drinking Bird” generator,、 39

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “FREE ENERGY”
33 HYDRODYNAMIC, BLUE ENERGY

• ■ Hydrodynamic heater(TEKMASH, CT Systems+), (also see p135-138: G Ivanenko,
Bespalko+), inconsistent “Self running” ability but happens often, valid mainstream
science until it becomes overunity,
■ Temperature based volume changing ultra sensitive Phase Change Material (PCM)
driven Hydraulic Motor: SOLO-TREC(J Jones & Y Chao),
■ Atomic/Nanogenerators, 24hr Infrared Solar(Hong Liu+), Particulates(Da Yurth+),
Atomic Hydrogen Welding(Langmuir), Negative electrical resistance carbon fibre(De
Chung+),

• ■ Blue Energy ■ Some “free energy tech” usually costs more than existing system such
as Blue Energy: Reversed electrodialysis, Pressure Retarded Osmosis(PRO)/Osmotic
power, Hydrocratic ocean energy. Exception eg: Combined low pressure high flow
desalination with additionally electricity generated by removing ions from
seawater with Molybdenum Disulfide(MoS2) nanofilter(Nar Aluru+):30-50+%
electricity cost saving.

• But further efficient if osmotic pressure is used(Moh Heiranian+) : can become
efficient free energy generator while making drinking water from ocean(not
officially demonstrated). Also pure power generation-wise, Capacitive (mix) energy
extraction by Double Layer Expansion(CDLE)(Br Logan+), or by Donnan
Potential(CDP), and Two stage PRO(Wei He+) might become super low cost in future 40

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “LOWEST COST” TECH1
(PAST GRID PARITY): EFFICIENT ENGINE

• SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER COST TYPES: i.e. beyond grid parity if commercialized as
electricity generation, often same treatment as inventors' ”free energy”(p122-150);
many stopped researches, stay microscale, suddenly retracted without explanation,
some suspected internal only corporate use, Selective, under-exaggerated, outdated
data for efficiency & cost performance in mainstream reporting contradicts
manufacturer or academic/field-lab data(particularly in fast advancing tech like Wind/
Ocean energy or semiconductor related Solar cell & solid state devices as well as
MEMS, etc, But again now emerging commercialized exceptions,
■ Non UV H2 Photolysis from water by Sn3O4(H Abe+), many other “artificial
photosynthesis”s,

• ■ 50-200%+ increased efficiency engines(Myers, Ogle,Covey, Pogue, Castellini,
Brandt, La Force, Hatton, Caggiano, Belland, Purushottam Pipaliya, Holland, Ch Brown,
Fish+) by cam timing, spark plug, carburetor+), Specific angled screen in carburetor
“accidentally” improved 50% mileage in 1960s(Ford), but model was soon “recalled to
correct it back” to factory spec(Pantone+). Pneumatic engine(“science illegal” version,
p135-138): Peugeot 208 Hybrid Air(40km/litre, 94mpg), Tata & MDI-lu(Negre), both
being shelved, Some non electric Japanese cars mostly sold only in Japan(35km+/l),
Volkswagen XL1(100km/l, 250 test units only) & discontinued Lupo(35km/l). In1920s
mainstream predicted 80mpg norm with test cars performing 100mpg+(Byr Wine, Al
Wallace, Bru McBurney+), Now available 95% efficient Shinsei Electrostatic Motor,

41

linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak: Specialty Cleantech Analysis, Vancouver, Canada

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “LOWEST COST”
TECH 2: PHASE CHANGE, TETHER ETC

• —>> cont: SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER COST TYPES(& Grid Parity):
■ Regenerative Shock Absorber normally brings negligible 5% range car mileage
efficiency(eg ClearMotion, hydraulic motor runs to generate power) but in certain specific
electrical energy needs application it could bring substantial saving.

• ■ ElectroDynamic Tether: mainstream approved idea as only limited use in space
environment as lowest cost tech(long conducting wire[mainly 500m plus for large power
but works from 1m] moves along earth magnetic field etc to generate electricity), Can be
used to replace fuel with free electricity for low orbit satellites and even ultra high
elevation flight if air craft propulsion re-configuration is made(plasma, ion thrust etc) with
high elevation cruising(BE Gilchrist, Jam McCanney+)/(Boeing - Tether Unlimited). But
actually generates full time "free energy" on earth surface: by likely triggering imbalanced
static electricity to flow, Works at on-ground still-earth vertical environment with graphene/
nanocarbon use(IonPowerGroup.com+)

• ■ Super efficient Phase Change Material(PCM) for housing: to release or absorb heat at
preset temperature: BioPCM, DuPont Energain, PCM injected wood: Enertia Home,
Combine PCM with Vacuum Insulation Panels(VIP) to provide certain packages/boxes
perpetual free cooling or heating depends on outside temperature transition: va-Q-tec
AG+ ■ Micro-Nano Porous antibacterial, anticorrosion high adhesion Paint with
significant heat insulating water based paint can induce game changing overall cost saving
(Nansulate - Industrial Nanotech - INI World Wide+): but some of this company type is
apparently holding back from adding further disruptive thermoelectric paint capability? 42

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “LOWEST COST”
TECH 3: AMMONIA, SOME BIOFUEL

• —>> cont: SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER COST TYPES:
■ Portable ammonia maker from H2O+air by compression cycle etc for engines(J
Fleming), ■Super high concentration (H2O2)Hydrogen Peroxide: low cost sustainable
clean fuel for commercial planes, can be made/separated/accumulated by water
electrolysis/plasma discharge/photocatalysis etc from natural water and air, but had met
massive selective distorted danger info & storage impossibility exaggeration from
mainstream groups(General Kinetics+), ■(N2H4)Hydrazine Fuel Cell: small, no precious
metal, easy high power fuel(Daihatsu co), ■ Aluminium Air Battery:1700km+ run range
100kg weight for electric cars(Phinergy), ■ Galvanic Reaction Salt Water Cell: (Hydra
Light+)Very slow reaction design, Currently for small phone charge type power level,
about 1/30-50th cost of regular 2A battery, with conistent voltage and current,
■ Thorium:US in 70s, Uranium took over, nuclear plant use, far less radiation, re-starting
(India, Russia, China, US, Norway, Israel+), portable(Dratch+),

• ■ Biofuel(Ethanol) from cellulose only(inedible plant, grass straw, tree branches, broken
trees etc), Some produce with <1/2 cost of retail petrol of high fuel price nation(Kawasaki
Heavy - within 2weeks of intending commercialization, key board members + CEO fired,
and project shelved), others also announced tech success without commercialization
intention since 2006(Taisei Kensetsu & Sapporo Beer, Honda+), as often happens in Japan,
small sector limited domestic only or 3rd world use intention seems allowed?(Kita-Akita
city forestry coop, Sumitomo Forestry, Mitsui Zosen+): But stagnant commercialization
situation started to change world wide since around 2014(see Biomass: p89, 91)

43

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “LOWEST COST”
TECH 4: CLEAN COAL PROCESS ETC

• —>> continued SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER COST TYPES:
■ Coal based Gas/Oil/Direct power: Natural gas like CENfuel(Lloyd & Turner ) & Low
Temp Coal Carbonization: LTC, Rexco(Karrick), Improved Bergius method, Micro active at
Sasol+, Similar Lurgi process active in China(70+ plants), EM wave/Ultrasonic use(M
Kawabata+), Low fume DCFC (Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, DEHPL+) mechanics avail since
1890s(W Jacques+), A few of IGCC (Integrated coal Gasification Combined Cycle, usually
said to be more expensive than regular coal combustion, but high efficiency low cost data
can be hidden by high startup cost etc): more on gasification, ■ Super high density
Enzymatic fuel cell(YH Percival Zhang)、

• ■ Certain customized Geothermal heating: Heat Pump, Gradient Energy Harvesting etc:
e.g. Discarded oil well-mine EGS(Sologen), Downhole heat exchanger use, 300m deep
closed loop in high heat area useable even without heat pump cost etc, Also much lower
cost Hydrothermal Spallation drilling soon "went out of business"(Potter Drilling):
■ Cooling use OTEC(Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) near some water areas(Sea Water
Air Conditioning)(Makai, Bluerise nl+), In some super high cost power small island OTEC
becomes lowest energy cost by improved Kalina Cycle(Xenesys), PCM used OTEC engine,

• ■ Betavoltaics types: Tritium Light or Battery(P Brown+), Zinc sulfide or Radium Paint +
Solar Cell, Optoelectric Nuclear Battery(Kurcharov Inst+), Radioisotope
Generator(NASA+): mininuclear heat converted to electricity by thermoelectric device.
■ Hydrothermal vent power extraction: large scale indicated by test success,
■ Orimulsion: Water(30%) emulsified bitumen by Venezuelan state corp: broke "taboo" of
not making bitumen emulsion for road pavement/sealant use
44

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “LOWEST COST”
TECH 5: PERPETUAL HYDROGEN ETC

• —>> continued SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER COST TYPES:
■ Exotic configurations: Limited to pilot success; • Advanced Compressed air
energy storage by additional full recovery of both Heat compressed & Cold air
released, • Pneumatic engine(Negre+, “illegal” version: p135-138),
• Magnetic Energy Recovery Switch (Shimada+): “legal back EMF(electromotive
force)”, • Water-carbon rod low powered electric arc gas: AquaFuel(H Eldridge, W
Richardson, Rug Santilli),

• ■ Aluminium based Hydrogen Production methods :Aluminium based metal
alloy & water “Hydrogen fuel cell” lab results as all similar mechanics but mostly
uncommercialized. Physics wise undeniable natural effects- eg:、    
i Slow oxidizing low cost focused alloy pellets(B Froats),
ii Rapid shock cooling-heating as catalyst to “crack” oxidized film of nano
aluminium particles to reactivate(Dynamix-Muroran univ: Mas Watanabe+)+, 、
iii Use of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) as catalyst(not consumed) to prevent/delay
aluminium oxidation (Hy-Energy: Erl Andersen)+,
iv Undisclosed catalyst accelerates pitting of aluminum powder surface to
prevent/delay passivation(AlumiFuel: Jas Anand+), v Chloride ion use pitting to
dissolve oxidized film(Hydergy India: AVK Reddy+),

45

linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak: Specialty Cleantech Analysis, Vancouver, Canada

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “LOWEST COST”
TECH 6: PERPETUAL HYDROGEN II

• —>> continued SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER COST TYPES:
■ Aluminium based Hydrogen Production methods • Aluminium based metal alloy & water
“Hydrogen fuel cell” eg:、

• vi Aluminium alloy with gallium/lithium etc which prevents/slows oxidized layer from fully
covering aluminum(HydroAlumina: Ge Woodall, Chemalloy: Freedman+),
vii CatalyticCarbon and aluminum in 80°C hot water + DC pulse(not electrolysis) to prevent
almost all aluminium oxidation, this on-board generator makes 110L/minute of H2, low
quality-dirty-sea water ok(Phillips Company 4T: Haw Phillips)、

• ■ Non aluminium based Hydrogen: i Cavitation(Cavitation Energy Systems),
ii Electrohydraulic effect(H2 Energy Renaissance): electrohydraulics/shockwave/cavitation
methods are rarely looked by academic level but effect is undeniable(Sop Burjanadze, Tak
Sato & Mas Oizumi+), iii Nanoparticle coated H2O electrolysis (Dopp+), iv Ultrasonic H2
generation from water with non-oxidizing nanocrystal: ZnO fibers + BaTiO3 dendrites
(Xiaochun Li), v Various metal catalyst: eg i-Molecular Molybdenum Persulfide catalyst H2
dissociation from water(JR long+), vi PhotoCatalytic Dav Milstein+), vii 84% efficiency pure
water Electrolysis by Cathode 35Mpa high pressure Solid Polymer Electrolyte use,
fluctuating power input workable like wind(Honda R&D),

• ■ HEAT RECOVERY: unless otherwise stated generally 100-1000°C temp difference is used - often
which power generation is proportional to. Also leads to emission reduction: part of mainstream
focus in many, particularly Western nations, while almost ignored in some others:
46
linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak: Specialty Cleantech Analysis, Vancouver, Canada

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “LOWEST COST”
TECH 7: HEAT RECOVERY(H.R.) HRSG

• —>> con SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER COST:

• ■■ 1. Kinetic Power Generators based Industrial HEAT RECOVERY as Electricity: Often
as industrial CHP(Combined Heat & Power), or Combined Cycle at power generator:
common installation in at least as new system in Chemical, Pulp & Paper, Wood, Petroleum
Refining, Metal, Gas turbine/Nuclear power generation industries, use of Regular •a-d

• •a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG)(Nooter/Eriksen, Alstom, GE +) most large
mainstream industrial conglomerate types offer as first round of heat recovery as
Combined Cycle with 10-20% range additional electrical recovery(of original electrical
conversion % ratio). Once Through Steam Generator: OTSG obviates drum to increase
efficiency & control(Innovative Steam Technologies+)

• Also low grade heat primary or secondary recovery process of HRSG "left over" heat by
conventional Organic Rankine Cycle(ORC- use of low boiling temp stronger turbine power
organic compound medium instead of water) generally used from 80°C+ (INTEK GMK
GmbH, Turboden, Triogen BV+), but there are significant differentiation in suitability and
performance gap for this mature tech. With (further) 2-10%+ electrical gain, or 70-95C
previously discarded water or hot spring water can produce power by 20-70kw potential
module(Ishikawajima Harima, Electratherm+): optimization focus(Granite Power
Granex+), on board ocean freight power generator from diesel engine heat(Opcon
Energy System+), -->>cont: 、

47

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “LOWEST COST”
TECH 8: H.R. II MORE THAN ORC

• —>> con SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER COST: ■■1. Kinetic Power Generators based
HEAT RECOVERY as Electricity : •a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG):

• But some specialists(2G Energy AG+) might improve/replace ORC/steam RC
process with less often used Radial Flow Organic Rankine(Exergy SpA,
Cryostar SAS +), Axial & radial mix turbine(Aqylon+). 、
Often, not always, substantial yield improvement is made by following: Kalina
Cycle(ammonia & water mix medium)(Kalina Power - Enhanced Systems
Technologies - Global Geothermal), or more specialized use customizable its
2nd generation(Kalex Systems), or similar OTEC purpose Uehara
Cycle(Xenesys - 佐賀⼤大学海海洋エネルギー研究センター),

• Others: ORC with Rotary Heat Engine works from 25 vs 40°C temp
difference(Davinci-mode jp), Trilateral Flash Cycle(TFC)(Ian Smith+), CO2
SuperCritical Brayton(no phase change)(Net Power LLC, Sandia NL+) or CO2
SuperCritical Rankine Cycle(phase change at 31°C)(Echogen Power
Systems+) etc. Possible to generate DC electricity when closed CO2 flow is
placed near certain dielectric(?) material from triboelectric effect(Infinity
Turbine): similar to already known but not commercialized ORC + Liquid Metal
MHD effect. -->>cont: 、
48

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “LOWEST COST”
TECH 9: HEAT RECOVERY III STIRLING ETC

• —>> cont: ■■1. Kinetic Power Generators based HEAT RECOVERY as
Electricity:
•b Stirling Engine(Qnergy - Ricor Cryogenic, Microgen Engine+)
heat recovery efficiency significantly differs depends on company from
10-30%(Free Piston type is higher), remote equipment
operation(Stirling Technology Inc RemoteGen+), also efficient
cooling(Twinbird jp, Sunpower Inc+). Can be offered as residential
fuel cell type set up by feeding gas/oil: Micro CHP,
•c Deluge Engine(Hageman) runs from 30°C diff, •d Others: thermo-
responsive material and Osmotic power use Osmoblue(E
Dahan+)works from 30°C temp difference,、

• ■■2. Mainly Solid State Harvesting device: & similar Industrial HEAT
RECOVERY as Electricity, lower cost than gas turbine/combustion
engines or steam generators(J Fairbanks+) in certain situations, device
efficiency indicated in following "•a-l" is deemed highest possible
figure unless otherwise stated. In some cases general operating rate
can be much lower: -->>cont:、

49

SCIENCE-ACCEPTED “LOWEST COST”
TECH 10: H.R. IV THERMO-ELECTRIC

• —>> cont: ■■2. Mainly Solid State Harvesting device: based Industrial HEAT
RECOVERY as Electricity:、
•a Thermoelectric/Seebeck-Pelletier effect: Thermoelectric heat pump using n
& p type semi conductors, it uses temperature gap between one end to the
other to generate power. Used in Soviets since 1940s, in West for military/
space after '60s, western mainstream use of conventional models. Actually
5kw range generator was claimed with operating efficiency of 10% for
commercialization before yr2000 but retracted(Jade Mountain), Often on
lower temperature range 50-600°C, some are max 300°C level use.

• But much higher performance seems to exist by use of carbon nanotube or
nano structure etc though unclear if those super efficient models are openly
marketed: Evident Thermo, [acquired GMZ tech which claimed max 43%
efficiency], Komatsu/KELK’s 40% rating, Japanese peers Likely slightly
lower(Yamaha, Toshiba+), max 20% possible at 300°C range(AEInnova+),
suspected similar level(O-flexx+). Alkali-Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter
(AMTEC)by C-TEC Nano Conversion at least 20% range, 15% range(Je
Snyder+), Reverse Spin Hall - Spin Seebeck Effect use: wrappable plastic
like spin current generator at least 10times conventional efficiency with
much lower production cost(Nippon Denki+), -->>cont:、
50


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