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temple entry history Kerala

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Published by Kerala Info, 2018-12-16 07:04:29

temple entry

temple entry history Kerala

Xatkm am
tPymXn¿K-ab

Ccp-´n¬ \n∂v shfn-®-Øn-te°v

1

No^v FUn‰- ¿ D≈- S°w, Kthj- Ww
Sn.h- n.k- p`- mjv sFFF- kv s{]m-^. hn.Im¿Øn-tI-b≥ \mb¿
tUm. sI.F≥. KtWjv
AUo.N- o^v FUn‰- ¿ tUm. \Sph´w tKm]meIrjvW≥
]n.-F-kv.-cm-P-ti-J-c≥

U]yq´n No^v FUn‰- ¿
sI.-]n.-k-cnX

FUn‰- ¿
\m^nlv Fw

AknÃ- ‚v FUn‰- ¿
CμptiJ¿ sI.Fkv
sa¿en≥ sP.F- ≥

hc
hn.-F-kv. ]{]Iiv

Ih¿˛teHu´v
Zo]Iv auØm´- n¬

k¿°pt- ej- ≥ Hm^ok- ¿
kp\n¬ lk≥

2018 \hw_- ¿
A®Sn: sk‚vtPmk- ^vkv {]kv,
Xncph- \- ¥- ]- pcw
tIm∏n-Iƒ: 10,000
hne: 10 cq]

2

ktμiw

t£{X {]th-i\ hnfw-_-c-Øns‚ 82˛mw hm¿jnIw BN-
cn-°p∂ L´-amWn-Xv. Xncp-hnXmwIqdnse cmPm-hm-bn-cp∂ {io.
NnØnc\ncp-\mƒ _me-cm-a-h¿Ω-bmWv Cu hnfw-_cw ]pd-
s∏-Sp-hn-®-Xv. cmPy-amsI {i≤n® Xncp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dnse `c-W-]-
cn-jvIm-c-ß-fn-sem-∂m-bn-cp∂p CXv. tIcf kaq-l-Øn¬ cq]-
s∏-´p-h∂ \thm-∞m\ Bi-b-߃ apt∂m-´p-h-® ka-c-ß-fpsS
`mK-am-bn-°q-Sn-bmWv CØ-c-samcp hnfw-_cw D≠m-bXv.

{io\mcm-bW Kpcp-hn-s\-t∏m-ep≈ At\Iw \thm-∞m\
\mb-I-cpsS ka¿∏nX PohnXw P\m-[n-]-Xy-]c-amb kz]v\-
߃°v tIc-f-Øn¬ XpS°wIpdn-®p. tZiob {]ÿm\w i‡n-
{]m-]n-®-tXmsS km{am-Py-Xz-Øns\Xn-cmb ka-c-Øn-t\m-sSm∏w
\thm-∞m-\-]-c-amb ap{Zm-hm-Iy-߃ Gs‰-Sp-Øp-sIm-≠p≈
{]t£m-`-߃ Db¿∂p-h∂p. ssh°w, Kpcp-hm-bq¿ t]mep≈
kXym-{K-l kac-ß-fn-te°v AXv hf¿∂p. A\m-N-c-߃s°-
Xn-cm-bp≈ henb apt∂-‰-ambn CXv amdn. `c-W-kw-hn-[m-\-
߃°v CXns‚ Bi-b-߃ Dƒs°m≠v \nb-a-\n¿ΩmWw
\S-tØ≠ ÿnXnbpw D≠m-bn. t£{X {]th-i\ hnfw-_cw
Dƒs∏-sS-bp≈h cq]-s∏-´p-h-cp-∂Xv Cu ]›m-Ø-e-Øn-em-Wv.

PmXo-b-amb Ah-i-X-Iƒs°-Xn-cm-bp≈ ka-c-ß-fn¬
\n∂m-cw-`n®v P\-Po-hn-XsØbmsI am‰n-a-dn-°p∂ H∂mbn
\thm-∞m\w amdn. D∂-X-sc∂v hnti-jn-°-s∏-Sp∂ hn`m-K-ß-
fpsS Pohn-X-sØbpw CXv P\m-[n-]-Xy-h-Xv°-cn-®p. hnhmlw,
Zmb-{I-aw, BNm-c-߃ XpS-ßnbhbnepƒs∏sS am‰-߃ hcp-
Øp-Ibpw sNbvXp. ASn-®-a¿Ø-s∏-Sp-Ibpw AI-Ø-f-ß-fn¬
HXp-ßn-°q-Sp-Ibpw sNbvX kv{XoIsf s]mXp-[m-c-bn-te°v

3

sIm≠ph- c- p∂ H∂mbpw CXv amdn. kmlnX- yØ- nepw kwkvIm-
c-Ønepw ]pXnb Ah-t_m-[-Øn\v CXv ASn-ÿm-\-an-´p.
Cßs\ tIc-f-Ønse F√m hn`mKw P\-X-bp-sSbpw Pohn-
XsØ P\m-[n]- X- yh- -XvI-cn® apt∂-‰-amb- n-cp∂p \thm-∞m\w.

sXmgne- mf- n˛- I- ¿jI {]ÿm\- ß- ƒ i‡n{- ]m]- n®- t- XmsS
\thm-∞m-\-]-c-hpw-km-{am-Py-hn-cp-≤-hp-amb ap{Zm-hm-Iy-߃
]pXnb Xe-ß-fn-te°v hnI-kn-®p. -P-∑nXzØn\pw˛\mSp-hm-
gnØØn\pw FXn-cmb apt∂-‰-ßfmbn AXv hf¿∂p. tIc-
f-Øns‚ `q˛_-‘-ß-fn¬ am‰-߃ hcp-Øp-∂- `q]-cn-jvI-c-
W-Øn-te°v CXv FØn-t®¿∂p. P∑n-XzsØ XI¿Øv P\m-
[n-]-Xy-]c-amb C∂sØ tIcfw Aßs\bmWv cq]-s∏-´Xv.

\thm-∞m-\-]-c-amb apt∂-‰-߃s°-Xnsc bmYm-ÿn-
XnI hn`m-K-߃ A∂pw Iem-]-s°m-Sn-bp-b¿Øn-bn-cp-∂p.
AØcw {ia-߃°v h¿Kob \ne-]m-Sp-I- ƒ kzoI-cn-°p-∂-h-
cpsS ]n¥pW D≠m-bn-cp-∂p-sh-¶nepw AXn-s\-sb√mw hI-
™p-am-‰n- tIcfw apt∂m-´p-\oßn. tIc-f-Øns‚ Cu hnIm-
ksØ a\- n-em-°m≥ DX-Ip-∂-XmWv "Xa-tkm am
tPymXn¿K-ab' F∂ t]cn¬ {]kn-≤o-I-cn-°p∂ Cu ]pkvX-
Iw. tIc-f-sØ-°p-dn®v ]Tn-°p∂ B¿°pw CXv Hcp ssI]p-
kvX-I-ambn amdp-sa-∂mWv {]Xo-£n-°p-∂-Xv.

]nW-dm-bn- hn-P-b≥
apJy-a{¥n

4

BapJw

hnkv-ar-Xam-b `q-X-Im-e-Øn-s‚ t]c√, N-cn-{Xw. km-aq-
ln-I ap-t∂-‰-Øn-\v I-cpØpw Imºpw ]-I-cp-∂ k-Po-ham-b
h-gn-Im-´n-bm-Wv A-Xv. F{Xtbm h-gn-Øm-c-Iƒ ]n-∂n-´m-Wv
B-[p\n-I tIc-fw C∂-sØ {]-_p-≤-tI-c-f-am-bn am-dn-bXv.
ap-t∂m-´p-≈ {]-bm-W-Øn-s‚ Zo-]-in-J-bm-bn N-cn{X-t_m-[w
\-ap-s°m-∏-ap-≠m-I-Ww.

\-thm∞m-\ tI-c-f N-cn-{X-Øn-se G-‰hpw B-th-i-I-cam-
b H-tc-Sm-Wv t£-{X-{]-th-i-\ hn-fw-_-cw. D-®-\o-N-Xz-ß-fp-sS
A-Sn-Ø-d X-I¿-Ø ]-S-l-[z-\n-bm-bn-cp-∂p A-Xv. a-\p-jym-h-
Im-i t]m-cm-´-ß-tfmSpw -]u-c-t_m-[-tØm-Sp-ap-≈ \-Ωp-sS A-
S-ßm-Ø {]-Xn_-≤-X hn-fn-t®m-Xn-s°m-≠v B hn-fw_-cw
F°mehpw ap-g-ßn-s°m-≠n-cn-°pw. t£-{X-{]-th-i-\ hn-fw-
_-c-Øn-s‚ 82˛mw hm¿-jn-Im-N-c-W-tØm-S-\p-_-‘n-®v B k-
a-c-N-cn{Xw Hm¿-a-s∏-Sp-Øn-s°m-≠p-≈ e-Lp-]p-kvX-Iw G-sd
k-t¥m-j-tØm-sS hm-b-\-°m-bn k-a¿-∏n-°s´.

Sn.hn. kp-`mjv
U-b-dŒ¿,

C≥-^¿-taj≥˛
]-ªn-Iv dn-te-j≥-kv h-Ip∏v

5

6

tIc-f-Øns‚ kmaq-ln-I-Po-hn-X-Øn¬ \n¿Wm-b-I-

amb hgn-Øn-cn-hp-I-fm-bn-´p≈ Nne Ncn-{X-k-μ¿`-ß-fp-≠v.
A°q-´-Øn-¬ kp{]-[m-\-amb H∂mWv 1936-˛-\-hw-_¿ 12-˛\v
XncphnXmw-Iq¿ k¿°m¿ {]Jym-]n-®- t£-{X-{]-th-i\ hnfw-
_-cw. \q‰m-≠p-I-fmbn \ne-\n∂n-cp-∂Xpw bm-Ym-ÿn-Xn-I¿
k\m-X-\-sa∂p hniz-kn-®n-cp-∂-Xp-amb Hcp hne°mbn-cp∂p
AtXmSp-IqSn XI¿∂-Sn-™-Xv. lnμp-k-aq-l-Ønse Pm-Xn,-
h¿W- hn-th-N-\-Øn\v - hnt[-b-cm-bn-cp∂ P\-tIm-Sn-I-fpsS
Zo¿L-Im-e-am-bp≈ Bh-iy-Øns‚ AwKo-Im-c-am-bn-cp∂p -
hnfw_cw. t{iWo-_-≤-amb PmXn-hyh-ÿ-bpsS hnhn-[ -X-
´p-I-fn¬ _‘n-X-cmbncp∂ lnμp-P-\-hn-`mKw Bcm-[-\m-Im-
cy-Øn¬ XpeyX ssIh-cn® kμ¿`-am-bn-cp∂p AXv.

F¨]-Øn-c-≠p h¿j-߃°p apºv Xncp-hn-Xmw-Iq¿
k¿°m¿ hnfw-_cw sNbvX t£{X-{]-th-i-\-\n-baw tIc-f-
Ønse CXc {]tZ-i-ß-fnepw `mc-X-sam-´msIbpw {]Io¿Øn-
°-s∏´p. ]ucm-h-Im-ihpw kaXzhpw t\Sn-sb-Sp-°m-\p≈
kpZo¿L-amb t]mcm-´ambn´mWv a\p-jym-h-Im-i-{]-t£m-`-
Icpw hntam-N-\-t∏m-cm-fnIfpw CXns\ hne-bn-cp-Øn-b-Xv.
AXns‚ hm¿jn-Im-N-cWw Bcm-[\m kzmX-{¥y-apƒs∏-sS-
bp≈ a\p-jym-h-Im-i-߃ ]uc-∑m¿°v A\p-`-h-th-Zy-am-t°-
≠Xns‚ Hm¿as∏-Sp-Ø- em-Wv. ]ucm-h-Im-i-߃°v `wKw-h-
cmsX t\m°m-\p≈ kμ¿`w IqSn-bm-W-Xv.

`cW- L- S- \- mZ- Ø- a- mb AhI- mi- ß- ƒ

c≠p-\q-‰m-≠n-tesd°mew \o≠p-\n∂ tImf-\n-hmgv®
Ah-km-\n-∏n®v C¥y kzmX{¥yw t\Sn-bXv Ncn-{X-]c-amb
t]mcm-´-Øns‚ ^e-am-bn-´m-Wv. kmaq-ln-Ihpw kmº-Øn-I-
hp-amb \oXn, kzmX-{¥yw, ka-Xzw, kmtlm-Zcyw F∂n-h-

7

`cWLS\mh-ImißfmWv. hy‡-nbpsS A¥ pw cm-Py-
Øns‚ AJ-fi-Xbpw \ne-\n-¿Øn-s°m-≠p≈ Ah-Im-i-ß-
fmWv `c-W-LS-\ hn`m-h\w sNøp-∂-Xv. ]ucs‚ A¥ v
BNm-c-ß-fp-sStbm A\p-jvTm-\-ß-fp-sStbm t]cn¬ ewLn-
°-s∏-Sm≥ ]mSn-√.

`mcXw Hcp ]cam-[n-Im-c P-\m-[n]Xy aX-\n-c-t]£
tkmjy-enÃv dn∏-ªnIv BsW∂v `cWLS\ Bap-J-Øn¬
{]Jym-]n-®n-´p-≠v. ]uc-∑m¿°v CjvS-ap≈
aX-Øn¬ hniz-kn-°m\pw Bcm-[\ \S-
Øm\pw {]N-cn-∏n-°m\pw Ah-Im-i-ap-≠v.
hnizm-k-an-√m-Ø-h¿°v AX\p-k-cn®v
Pohn-°m\pw `c-W-L-S\ A\p-hmZw
\¬Ip∂p.

aq∂m-a-[ym-b-Ønse 25-˛mw A\p-tO-
Z-Øn-emWv aX-hn-izm-k-Øn\pw Bcm-[-\-
bv°pa- p≈ AhI- miw Dƒs∏S- pØ- nb- n´- p≈- -
Xv. ]Xn-∂memw A\p-tO-Z-Øn¬ ]d-bp∂
Xpey-X-sb∂ Ah-Im-i-Øns‚ shfn-®-
Øn¬ thWw Bcm-[\m kzmX-{¥ysØ
hne-bn-cp-tØ-≠-Xv. PmXo-btam enwK-]-ctam Bb
bmsXmcphn[ hnth-N-\-ßfpw auen-Im-h-Im-i-߃ \S-∏m-°p-
∂-Xn¬ ]mSn-√m-sb∂v `c-W-L-S\ A\p-im-kn-°p-∂p. auen-
Imh- I- mi- ß- f- psS Imhe- mƒ \oXn\ymbt- °mSX- nI- f- mW- v. Ah
\S-∏m-°m-\p≈ _m[yX k¿°m-cp-Iƒ°p-am-Wv.

Ccpf- ne- m≠ C∂s- eI- ƒ

t{iWo-_-≤-amb PmXn-hy-h-ÿbpw BNm-c-ßfpw \nb-
{¥n-®n-cp∂ kaq-l-am-bn-cp∂p tIc-f-Øn¬ \ne-\n-∂n-cp-∂-Xv.
P∑n-Øhpw \mSp-hm-gn-Ø-sa∂ A[nImc-L-S-\bpw lnμp-[¿a-
im-kv{X-ß-fp-am-bn-cp∂p kaq-lsØ \nb{¥n-®n-cp-∂-Xv. tZh-
t‚-bpw(-tZ-h-kzw) ]qPm-cn-bp-sSbpw ({_-“-kzw) A[n-Im-cn-bp-
sSbpw (]-≠m-c-h-I tNcn-°¬) DS-a-ÿ-X-bn¬ `qansb hoXw

8

Cug- h- h- n`- mK- Ø- ne- pƒs- ∏s- Sb- p≈- kv{- XoI- ƒ°- v kz¿W- m`- cW- w
[-cn-°p-∂-Xn-\v A-\p-hm-Zw \¬-In-s°m-≠p-≈ \o-´v˛1818

9

h®n-cp-∂p. A[n-Imcw Iøm-fn-bn-cp∂ \mSp-hmgn ]utcmln-
Xy-Øn-\p- hn-t[-b-am-bn-´m-bn-cp∂p kaqlw ]pe¿∂n-cp-∂-Xv.

Hmtcm PmXn-bnepw {]tXy-I-amb BNm-c-ß-fp-≠m-bn-cp-
∂p. PmXn-Iƒ XΩn-ep≈ A¥cw \n¿W-bn-°p-∂-Xn\pw
BNm-c-ß-fp-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. kmaq-ln-I-Po-hn-X-Ønepw tZhm-cm-
[-\-bnepw `c-W-\n¿h-l-W-Ønepw BNm-c-ß-fm-bn-cp∂p \nb-
a-hy-h-ÿ-bmbn {]h¿Øn-®n-cp-∂-Xv. AXn\m¬ BNm-c-ew-L-
\-ßsf \nb-a-ew-L-\-ß-fmbn hymJym-\n®v ISp-Ø -in-£-
Iƒ \¬In-bn-cp-∂p.

Nm-Xp¿-h¿-Wy-Øn-s‚ A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ cq-]o-I-cn-°-
s∏-´ Pm-Xn-t{i-Wn-bn-se hn-hn-[ hn-`m-K-߃ X-Ωn¬ \n-e-\n-
∂ A-kv-]r-iy-X AY-hm A-bn-Ø-am-bn-cp-∂p G-‰hpw hen-b
A-\m-Nm-c-ßfn-sem∂v. F√m- Pm-Xn-t{i-Wn-bnepw s]´h¿ aq-
∂p-X-c-Øn-ep-≈ km-aqln-I Xn-∑-Iƒ˛Xo-≠n-°q-Sm-bv-a, A-Sp-
Øp-Iq-Sm-bv-a, Im-Wp-∂-Xn¬ t]m-ep-ap-≈ hn-e-°v˛ ]p-e¿-Øn-
bn-cp∂p. ln-μp-k-aq-l-Øn-se Pm-Xn-Iƒ X-Ωn-ep-≈ _-‘-ß-
fn¬ am-{X-a√ H-tc Pm-Xn-bn¬-s]-´ D-]-Pm-Xn-Iƒ X-Ωn-ep-≈
_-‘-ß-fn-epw, F-¥n-t\sd, ln-μp-°fpw A-ln-μp-°fpw X-
Ωn-epw CØcw Akv]r-iyX {]-tbm-K-Øn¬ h-∂n-cp-∂p. {_m-
“-W¿, \mb¿, Cug-h¿ -XpSßn hnhn[ PmXnt{iWnbn¬
s∏´-h¿ X-Ωn¬ 16 A-Sn-ap-X¬ 128 A-Snh-sc AI-ew ]m-en-
t°-≠ Pm-Xn-I-fp-≠m-bn-cp∂p. \ºq-Xn-cn-am¿°v \mb¿kv{XoI-
f-nep-≠m-Ip∂ Ip-´n-Iƒ kz-¥w A—-s\ sXm-´m¬ Aip-≤n-
bmWv. ]n∂o-S-Xn\v ]cn-lm-c-{In-b-Iƒ sNøWw! C-Ø-cw A-
kw-_-‘-ßfm-b B-Nm-c-߃ ]-eXpw tI-c-f-Øn¬ \n-e-\n-
∂n-cp-∂p. A-Sn-a-°-®-hSw, tZ-h-Zm-kn k-{º-Zmbw, ap-´n-\p Xm-
sgbpw A-c-bv-°p apI-fnepw h-kv{Xw [-cn-°m≥ Xm-gv-∂ Pm-
Xn-Ifn¬s]-´-h¿-°v hn-e-°v, Xm-W-Pm-Xn-bn¬-s∏-´
kv{XoIƒ°v am-dp-a-d-bv°m-\p-≈ A-h-Im-i-an√m-bv-a, s]m-Xp-
\n-c-Øp-I-fnepw A-º-e-ß-fnepw A-[x-ÿn-X Pm-Xn-bn¬-s∏-´-
h¿-°v k©-cn-°p-∂Xn\v hn-e-°v, s]m-Xp-In-W-dp-I-fpw Ip-f-
ßfpw D-]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂-Xn-\p-≈ hn-e°v, A-[xÿn-X Pm-Xn-

10

bn¬-s∏-´-h¿-°v kv-Iq-fp-I-fn¬ t]m-Im-\p-≈ hn-e°v, kz¿-
Wm-`-c-W-߃ A-Wn-bp-∂-Xn-\p-≈ hn-e°v, F-¥n-\v Ip-S-]n-Sn-
°p-∂-Xn-\p t]m-epw cm-Pm-h-nt\m \m-Sp-hm-gnt°m ]-Xn-h-\p-k-
cn-®p-≈ ]-Ww sh-®v A-\p-hm-Zw hm-߬ XpS-ßn F{Xtbm
A-\m-Nm-c߃ ChnsS \ne-\n-∂n-cp-∂p.

Xnf-® F-Æ-bn¬ ssI-bnf-°n "Ip-‰w sX-fn-bn-°¬,"
Nn-{X-h-[-°q-´n¬ Po-h-t\m-sS I-gp-I\-pw ]-cp-¥n\pw sI-m-Øn-
h-en-°m≥ hn-´psIm-SpØv h[-in£ \S-∏m-°¬, {]m-b-]q¿-
Øn-bm-Im-Ø s]¨-Ip-´n-bpsS "Xm-en-sI-´v" IeymWw , _m-
e-hn-hmlw, hn[-hm hn-hmlw A-\p-h-Zn-°m-Xn-cn°¬ XpS-ßn
\q-dp-I-W-°n-\v Zp-cm-Nm-c-߃ hnhn-[ {]-tZ-i-ß-fn¬ G-‰-°p-
d-®n-ep-I-tfm-sS \n-e-\n-∂n-cp-∂p. Zpcm-Nm-c-ß-fpsS Ccpƒ aqSnb
Cu k-aql-sØ t\m-°n-bm-Wv kzm-an hn-th-Im-\-μ≥ {`m-¥me-
bw F-∂v hn-fn-®Xv.

Cc- pf- n¬ \n∂- v shf- n®- Ø- nt- e°- v

CØc-Øn¬ ]utcm-lnXy i‡n-Iƒ \nb-{¥n-®n-
cp∂, B-Nm-c-\n-_-≤am-b km-aq-ln-I-{I-a-Øn-\m-Wv \-thm-∞m-
\-{]-{In-b-bn-eq-sS henb tXm-Xn¬ am-‰w h-∂Xv. kzm-X-{¥yw,
k-aXzw, km-tlm-Zcyw F-∂o aq-ey-߃-s°-Xn-cm-bn \n-∂-h¿-
s°-Xn-sc ]pXn-b Xn-cn-®-dnhpIƒ k-aq-lØn¬ hym-]n°m≥
Xp-Sßn. hnhn-[ Pm-Xn-I-fnepw k-aq-l-ß-fnepw s]m-Xp-sh \n-
e-\n-∂ncp-∂ Zp-cm-Nm-c-߃°pw a-\p-jym-hIm-i \n-tj-[-߃-
°p-sa-Xn-sc {]-Xn-tcm[-߃ D-b¿∂p. C-h-bpsS A-Sn-kv-Ym-\-
Øn-ep-≈ ]u-cm-hIm-i ]-cn-jv-Imc-߃ k-aq-lØn¬ hym-
]n°m≥ Xp-Sßn. F√m Pm-Xn-I-fnepw k-aq-Zm-b-ß-fnepw \n-e-
\n-∂n-cp-∂ A-\m-Nm-c-ßfpw Pm-Xn-Iƒ X-Ωn¬ \n-e-\n-∂n-cp-∂
A¥-cw kr-„n-® a-\p-jym-hIm-i ew-L-\-ßfpw ]-Xp-s° ]-
Xp-s° tNmZyw sN-ø-s∏´p. AX-Xp Pm-Xn-I-fn¬ \n∂pX-s∂
D-Xv-]Xn-jv-Wp-°ƒ D-b¿-∂p h-∂p. km-tlm-Z-cyw, k-a-Xzw, kzm-
X-{¥yw Xp-Sßn-b am-\hn-Iaq-ey-߃, tem-I-Øm-sI ho-in-
b-Sn-® \-thm∞m-\{i-a-߃, AØ-cw am-\-hn-I-aq-ey-߃-°m-
bn s]m-Xp-hn¬ D-b¿-∂p h-∂ \-thm∞m-\ \m-b-I-cpw A-h-cp-

11

≠m°n-b {]ÿm-\-ßfpw, sXmgn-emfn I¿jI {]ÿm-\-߃,
tZio-b kzmX-{¥yk-a-c {]-ÿm-\w XpS-ßn-b-h-sbms° \S-
Ønb {ia-ß-fn-eqsSbpw ]e A\m-Nm-c-ß-sfbpw IS-]p-
g°nsb-dn-™p.

B-[p\n-I hn-Zym-`ym-k k-{º-Zm-b߃, an-j-W-dn-am-
cp-sS {]-h¿-Ø-\߃, {K-Ÿim-e kw-L-߃ t]m-ep-≈ {]-
ÿm-\-߃ XpSßn ]-e [m-c-Ifpw Cu {]-{In-b-bv-°v B-°w

amd- pa- d- b- v°- p∂- X- n\- p hne- °- v˛˛Hc- p tcJ- mN- n{Xw

12

Iq´n. B[p\- nI kaql- Ø- n\p tNcmØ Zpc- mN- mc- ß- ƒ ]e- Xpw
\o-°w sN-ø-s∏-Sp-Ibpw Ah-sb \n-b-a-hn-cp-≤-am-°n ]pXn-b
]pXn-b ]ptcm-K-a\ \n-b-a-߃ h-cnIbpw sN-bvXp. B-Nm-c-
߃°pw hn-izm-k-߃°pw Im-tem-Nn-Xam-b am-‰w kw-`-hn-
°p-Ibpw B am-‰-ß-ƒ- Dƒs°m-≠psIm-≠v a-\p-jy-s‚ A-
¥ pw Xp-ey-Xbpw kw-c-£n-°p-∂ ]pXn-b AhIm-i\n-b-a-
߃ I-S-∂p-h-cn-Ibpw sN-bv-Xp-sh-∂¿Yw.

AX- ns- \X- ns- c bmY- mÿ- nX- nI- h- n`mKhpw Ah- c- ps- S t{]-
c-W-bn¬ Ip-Spßn-bhcpw hen-b F-Xn¿-∏p-I-fp-b¿-Øn-sb-
∂Xpw N-cn-{X-k-Xy-amWv. \m-b¿ hn-`m-K-Øn¬-s∏-´-h¿-°v A-
º-e-Øn¬ a-Wn-b-Sn-°m-\p-≈ A-h-Im-iw e-`n-°m-\m-bn {]-
t£m-`w \-S-∂ th-f-bn¬ A-º-e-Øn¬ Ib-dn a-Wn-b-Sn-®
]n.Ir-jv-W-]n≈-sb A-tX hn-`m-K-Øn-ep-≈-h¿X-s∂ X√n-b
kw-`-h-ap-≠m-bn-´p-≠v. F-∂m¬ CØ-cw F-Xn¿-∏p-Iƒ k-aq-
l-Øn-s‚ ]p-tcmK-a-\ ap-t∂-‰-Øn¬ ]-Xp-s° A-en-™-en-
™n√m-Xm-hp-Ibpw ]-e A-\m-Nm-c-ßfpw XpS-®p \o-°-s∏-Sp-
Ibpw sN-bv-Xp-sh-∂Xpw \m-Sn-s‚ N-cn-{Xw.

Cu-sbm-cp km-aq-ln-I-ap-t∂-‰-Øn¬ G-‰hpw {i-t≤-
b-am-bn A-S-bm-f-s∏-Sp-tØ-≠ H-∂m-Wv t£-{X{]-th-i-\ hn-
fw-_cw.

t£{X{- ]t- hi- \- hnfw_- c- hpw
tIcf- Ø- nse t£{X{- ]t- hi- \- ß- f- pw

a[y-Im-eØv tIc-f-Ønse {][m-\-s∏´ ssih-˛-ssh-jvWh
t£{X-ß-sf√mw kt¶-X-ß-fm-bmWv Adn-b-s∏-´n-cp-∂-Xv.
{_m“-W¿°pw t£{X-]-cn-I¿an-Iƒ°pw \mSp-hm-gnI
ƒ°psamgnsI a‰m¿°pw t£{XØn\IØv
{]thi\ap≠mbncp∂n√. a‰p≈ tZhXIsf Bcm[n®Xv
ImhpIfnembncp∂p. ImhpIfn¬ AXXp ImhpIƒ
\SØp∂ kapZmb߃°v AhImiap≠mbncp∂p.

19˛mw \q‰m≠ns‚ BZyØn¬ tPm¨ a¨tdm
Znhm\mbncp∂t∏mƒ F√m t£{Xßsfbpw tZhkzßfm°n

13

Kpc- ph- mb- q¿ kX- y{KlØ- ns- ‚ `mK- a- mb- n ]n.Irj- vW- ]- n≈-
Aº- e- Ø- n¬- Ibd- n aW- nb- S- n°- p∂- p

am‰pIbpw tZhkzw `qanIƒ ]≠mchIbmbnØocpIbpw
sNbvXp. sIm®nbnepw Cu am‰w h∂p. ImhpIfpw
]ctZhXmt£{Xßfpw ]gbXpt]mse \ne\n∂p.

{_n´ojvImeL´ØnemWv {ItaW t£{X߃

14

F√mh¿°pw Xpd∂psImSp°Wsa∂ hmZw i‡amIp∂Xv.
XncphnXmwIqdn¬ AømsshIpWvT¿ XpSßnbh¿ Cu
{]ÿm\Øn\v ap≥ssIsbSpØp.

t£{X{]thi\Øn\v BZyw ap≥-ssIsbSpØXv
Bdm´p]pg thembp[∏Wn°cmbncp∂p. Xs‚ {]tZisØ
inht£{XØn¬ {]thi\w \ntj[n®Xn¬ {]Xntj[n®v
1855 ¬ kz¥amsbmcp t£{Xw ]WnXp. sNß∂q¿
t£{XØn¬ BZysØ t£{X{]thi\Øn\p ap≥-
ssIsbSpØXv At±lambncp∂p.

t£{X {]thi\Øn\p≈ {]ÿm\w i‡ns∏´Xv
{io\mcmbW Kpcphns‚ ImeØmbncp∂p. s\øm‰n≥Ic
almtZht£{XØn¬ {]thi\w \ntj[n°s∏´
Acphn∏pdw \nhmknIfpsS A`y¿Y\am\n®v 1888 ¬
\mcmbWKpcp Acphn∏pdØv inh{]XnjvT\SØn. ]n∂oSv
Ah¿W kapZmbmwK߃ a‰p \nch[n {]tZißfn¬
{]XnjvT \SØm≥ Kpcphns\ £Wn®p. ]me°ms´ bm°c,
tImgnt°ms´ {ioI-WvtTizcw, Xet»cn PK∂mYt£{Xw,
IÆq¿ kpμtcizct£{Xw XpSßnbh CXn¬s]Sp∂p.

]n∂oSv Kpcp hn{Kl{]XnjvT Dt]£n°pIbpw
hnf°v, IÆmSn ap-Xemb {]XnjvTIfnte°v \oßpIbpw
sNbvXp.

Db¿∂sX∂v Icp-X-s∏´ PmXn-bn¬s∏-´-h-cpsS
FXn¿∏v Kpcphns‚ t£{X \n¿amWØns‚
{]mtbmKnIXsb°pdn®v kwib߃ D≠m°n.
AXpsIm≠mWv \mw {]XnjvTn®Xv \ΩpsS inhs\bmWv
F∂p Kpcp {]kvXmhn®Xv.

XncphnXmwIq¿, sIm®n `c-WIqSßfpsSbpw
sImtfmWnb¬ A[nImcØns‚bpw s]mXpkao]\w
C°meØpw bmYm-ÿn-XnI at\m-`m-h-Øn\v
A\pIqeambncp∂p. Ah¿WcpsS t£{X{]thi\w
am{Xa√, t£{X߃°SpØp≈ s]mXphgnIfpw

15

Ipfßfpsa√mw D]tbmKn°p∂Xpt]mepw XSbs∏´p.

XncphnXmwIqdn¬ A[-kvYnXcpsS t\XrXzØn¬
t£{X{]thi\Øn\pth≠n XpS¿-®bmb {ia߃ \S∂p.
Aø¶mfnbpsS A\pbmbn Bbncp∂ Idpº≥ ssZhØm≥
sNß∂q¿ ˛ B-d≥apf {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ \SØnb {ia߃
{][m\amWv.

AbnØØns‚ \ntcm[\Øn\pw k©mc-
kzmX{¥yØn\pw th≠nbp≈ I¿akanXn Sn.sI. am[hs‚
t\XrXzØn¬ cq]oIcn®p. Cu I¿a-k-an-Xn-bmWv ssh°w
t£{XØn\SpØp≈ hgnbneqsS Xmgv\ PmXn°m¿
k©cn°p∂ kacØn\v Xocpam\n®Xv. 1924 se ssh°w
kXy{Klw AXns‚ ^e-am-bp-≠m-b-Xm-Wv.

CXns\ØpS¿∂v k©mckzmX{¥yØn\pw
t£{X{]thi\Øn\pw th≠n ]ebnSßfnepw
apt∂‰ap≠mbn. 1926 se Xncphm¿∏v kXy{Klw
{][m\ambncp∂p.

1931˛32 se Kpcphmbq¿ kXy{KlØn\v t\XrXzw

\evIn-bXv sI. tIf-∏≥, a∂Øp ]Zva-\m-`≥, F.-sI. tKm]m-

e≥, F≥.-hn. Zmtam-Z-c≥ \ºym¿, ]n. IrjvW-]n≈ XpS-ßn-

b-h-cm-bn-cp-∂p. Kpcphmbq¿ t£{XØn¬ kmaqXncnbpsS

Bin pItfmsS B[n]Xyw ÿm]n® k\mX\nIƒ

Kpcphmbqcnse t£{X {]thi\sØ AXni‡ambn

FXn¿Øp. AXns\Xncmbn \m´pImcpsS

]n¥pWtbmsSbmWv kXy{Klw kwLSn∏n®Xv.

kXy-{Klw XpS-ßnbtijhpw t£{XIhmSw
Xpd°mXncp∂t∏mƒ ]n.IrjvW]n≈ AIØp Ibdn
aWnbSn®Xv k\mX\nIsf {]tIm]n∏n®p. F.sI.
tKm]mes‚ t\XrXzØnep≈ thmf≠nb¿amcpw kPo-h-
ambn cwK-Øp-≠m-bn-cp∂p. 1932 ¬ Pq¨ 21 apX¬ 28 hsc
\SbS®n´p. k¿°mcns‚ CSs]Sen\ptijamWv \S
Xpd∂Xv.

16

t£{X{]thi\Øn\pw k©mckzmX{¥yØn\pw
th≠nbpw PmXn hnthN\Øns\Xn-cmbpw \S∂ kacw 1930
Ifn¬ cmjv{Sobcq]w sIm≠p. Fkv.F≥.Un.]nbpw ap-kvenw,
{InkvXy≥ hn`mKßfpw tN¿∂v Bcw`n® \nh¿Ø\ {]-
ÿm-\Øn-s‚ ap-{Zm-hm-Iy-a-\p-k-cn-®v PmXob-ambn ASn-®-
a¿Ø-s∏´ hn`m-K-߃ sX-c-s™-Sp-∏v _-ln-jv-I-cn®p. A-Xn-
s\Øp-S¿-∂v Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iqdn¬ \n-b-a-\n¿am-Wk-`-bn¬ kw-
hc-Ww A-\p-h-Zn-t°-≠n h-∂p.

A-h¿-W-cp-sS h¿-[n-® kzm-[o-\hpw \n-h¿-Ø-\ {]-
kv-Ym-\-Øn-s‚ hn-P-bhpw Xn-cp-hn-XmwIq¿ `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-I-fp-
sS IÆ- v Xpd- ∏- n®p. hf- ¿∂- phc- p∂- {]k- vY- m\- ß- ƒ°- mh- i- yamb
hn´phogvN sNbvX√msX \ne\n¬-∏n-s√∂v Ah¿
a\ nem°n. 1936 se t£{X{]thi\ hnfw_cw CXn‚
A\-¥-c-^-e-ambncp∂p.

t£{X{- ]t- hi- \ hnfw_- c- w

ka-Xz-Øn-\p-th-≠n-bp≈ ka-c-ß-fmWv tIc-f-Øn-ep-S-
\ofw C°m-eØv \S-∂-Xv. hgn \S-°m\pw hnZym-e-b-{]-th-i-
\-Øn\pw th≠n Aø-¶mfn \S-Ønb ka-c-ßfpw t£{X-]-
cn-k-c-Øp-IqSn k©-cn-°p-∂-Xn-\p-th≠n ssh°Øp \S∂
ka-chpw Bcm-[-\m-kzm-X-{¥y-Øn\p th≠n Kpcp-hm-bq-cn¬
\S∂ ka-chpw ka-Xz-sa∂ Bhiyw AwKo-I-cn-®p-In-´p-∂-
Xn-\p-th-≠n-bp-≈-Xm-bn-cp-∂p. BNm-c-ß-fpsS t]cn¬ a\p-jym-
h-Im-i-ßsf \ntj-[n-°p-∂-Xn-s\-XnscbmWv Xfn-t£-{X-k-
a-chpw ssh°w, Kpcp-hm-bq¿ kXy-{K-lßfpw \S-∂-Xv.

tImgn-t°m-´p-\-K-c-Øn-ep≈ Xfn-t£-{X-Øns‚ ]cn-k-
c-Øp-IqSn Ah¿W¿°v k©m-c-kzm-X{¥yw \ntj-[n-®p-sIm-
≠p≈ Xo≠¬∏-eI ÿm]n-®n-cp∂p. k©m-c-kzm-X-{¥y-
Øn\p th≠n 1917-˛¬ "anX-hmZn' ]{Xm-[n-]¿ kn.-Ir-jvW-
s‚bpw at©-cn -cm-a-ø-cp-sSbpw t\Xr-Xz-Øn¬ kacw XpS-
ßn. Xo≠¬∏-eI Ah¿ FSp-Øp-I-f-™p. t£{Xm-[n-Im-cn-
Iƒ AXn-s\-Xnsc If-IvS¿°v ]cmXn \¬In-b-t∏mƒ hnth-

17

N-\-Øns‚ {]Xy£ sXfn-hmb Xo≠¬∏-
eI ÿm]n-°m≥ Bc-\p-hmZw X∂p-sh∂
adp-tNmZyw tNmZn-°p-Ibpw AXp \o°w
sNbvX-hsc A\p-tam-Zn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp.
ssh°w kXy{- Kl- Ø- n¬ almfl- mK- m‘n CS-
s]-Sp-Ibpw AXv _lp-P-\-k-a-c-ambn amdp-
Ibpw sNbvXp. ssh°w kXy{Klw hnP-bn-
∏n-°p-∂-Xn-\mbn PmXn-a-X-t`-Z-at\y tIc-fo-
b¿ am{X-a√ adp-\m-´p-Imcpw FØn-t®¿∂p.

a∂-Øp-]-Zva-\m-`≥

a∂-Øp-]-Zva-\m-`≥ kXy-{K-l-Øn\v A\p-Iq-
e-ambn kh¿W-PmY \bn®p. AIm-en-Iƒ ]©m-_n¬ \n∂pw
{ZmhnU {]ÿm-\-°m¿ Xan-gv\m-´n¬ \n∂pw
ka-c-Øn\v sFIy-Zm¿Vyw {]Jym-]n-®p-
sIm≠v FØn-t®¿∂p. t£{Xw X{¥nbpw
cmP`-c-Whpw BNm-c-Øn¬ apdpsI∏nSn®p
\n∂p.

t£{Xw X{¥n-bmb C≠w-Xp-cpØn
\ºq-Xn-cn-bpsS a\-bn¬ ka-hm-b-N¿®bv-s°-
Ønb Km‘n-Pnsb ho´n¬ Ib-‰msX hcm-
¥-bn¬ Ccp-Øn-sb-∂p-am-{X-a√, At±lw
t]mb-tijw Ccp∂ ÿew NmW-I-sh≈w anX-hmZn kn.-Ir-jvW≥
Xfn®v ip≤-am-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. kXy-{K-l-
k-a-c-Øn¬ ]s¶-SpØ Xncp-hn-Xmw-Iq¿Im-cmb Ggp-t]-scbpw
a‰p kwÿm-\-°m-cmb ]{¥-≠p-t]-scbpw in£n®v Pbn-en-
e-S-®p. k©m-c-kzm-X{¥yw ]ucm-h-Im-i-am-sW∂ Xncn-®-dnhv
sshIn-bn-´m-sW-¶nepw `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-Iƒ°p-≠m-bn.

Kpcp-hm-bq¿ kXy-{K-lhpw Bcm-[-\m-kzm-X-{¥y-Øn\pw
ka-Xz-Øn\pw th≠n-bp≈ ka-c-am-bn-cp-∂p. PmXn-t`Zw ad-
∂p-sIm-≠p≈ ka-c-am-bn-cp∂p AXv.

]ucm-h-Im-i-am-b-Xp-sIm-≠mWv C¥y≥ \mj-W¬
tIm¨{K- n-s\-t∏m-ep≈ cmjv{Sob I£n-Iƒ AXns\
]n¥m-ßn-b-Xv. Ah-Im-i-߃ \ntj-[n-°-s∏´ Ah¿WcpsS,

18

Km‘n-Pn ssh-°w k-Xy-{Kl th-f-bn¬

{InkvXp-a-Xw, Ckvemw-a-Xw, kn°p-a-Xw, _p≤-aXw F∂n-h-
I-fn-te°p≈ ]cn-h¿Ø\mi-bhpw kPo-h-ambn \ne-\n-∂n-
cp-∂p. Cu ]›m-Ø-e-Øn-emWv Xncp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn¬ t£{X-
{]-th-i-\-sØ-∏‰n ]Tn-°p-∂-Xn-\p≈ Hcp kanXnsb k¿°m¿

19

\ntbm-Kn-®-Xv. hn.-Fkv kp{_-“-Wy- A-ø¿ A[y-£\pw Nß-
\m-t»cn ]c-ta-iz-c≥ ]n≈, D≈q¿ Fkv. ]c-ta-iz-c- A-ø¿,
Sn.-sI.-th-ep-∏n-≈, alm-tZh Aø¿, Fw.-hn. tKmhn-μ≥, ]p∂-
t»cn \ºn \oe-I-WvT-i¿Ω F∂n-h¿ AwK-ß-fm-bp-ap≈
kan-Xn-bmWv \nb-an-X-am-b-Xv. hn]p-e-amb sXfn-sh-Sp∏p
\SØn kanXn dnt∏m¿´p ka¿∏n-®p.

kh¿W¿°p am{Xw {]th-i-\-ap-

≠m-bn-cp∂ t£{X-ß-fn¬

Ah¿W¿°pw {]th-i\w \¬I-W-sa∂

ip]m¿i \¬Inb alm-Ihn D≈q¿ Fkv.

]c-ta-izc Aø¿°v {_m“-W-k` {`jvSv

I¬∏n-®p. A{X-am{Xw i‡-am-bn-cp∂p

bmYm-ÿn-Xn-I-cpsS \ne-]m-Sv.

DØ-c-hm-Z-`-cW {]t£m`w i‡n-

s∏-Sp-Ibpw Ah¿W-P-\-hn-`m-K-ß-fmWv

`qcn-]-£-sa-∂Xpw Ah-cpsS A[zm-\-

tijn D]-tbm-K-s∏-Sp-ØmsX kº- D≈q¿ Fkv.
ØpXv]mZ\w \S°- n√- ms- b∂- Xpw A[nI- m- ]c-ta-iz-c-A-ø¿

cn-h¿KsØ \bwam‰-Øn\p t{]cn-∏n®

LS-I-ß-fm-bn-cp-∂p. \nh¿Ø\ {]t£m`w hnP-bn-®Xpw 1935-

˛¬ Xncp-hn-Xmw-Iq¿ ]ªnIv k¿hokv IΩn-j≥ \ne-hn¬

h∂Xpw DtZym-Kÿ \nb-a-\-Øn¬ 35% kwh-cWw G¿s∏-

Sp-Øn-bXpw t£{Xmcm-[-\bv°v A\p-Iq-e-amb A¥-co-£-

ap-≠m-°n. CtXØpS¿∂mWv 1936 \hw-_¿ 12-˛\v (1112 Xpemw

27) Xncp-hn-Xmw-Iq¿ k¿°m¿ t£{X-{]-th-i-\-hn-fw-_cw

{]kn-≤-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xv. F√m k¿°m¿ t£{X-ß-fn-epw PmXn-

t`-Z-at\y lnμp-hn-`m-K-Øn¬s∏´ F√m P\-߃°pw {]th-

i\w A\p-h-Zn-°p-∂-Xm-sW-∂mWv hnfw-_-cw. as‰mcp DØ-

c-hn-eqsS CXn-\m-h-iy-amb N´-ßfpw {]kn-≤o-I-cn-®p.

\q‰m≠pIƒ \ne-\n∂ hne-°mWv AtXmsS XI¿∂phoW-

Xv. Bcm-[\m kzmX-{¥y-sa∂ ]ucm-h-Imiw AwKo-I-cn-°-

s∏-´p-sh-∂-XmWv AXns‚ km¿h-Im-enI {]k‡n.

20

A‘-hn-izm-k-ßfpw A\m-Nm-c-ßfpw \ne-\n∂ Ime-L-
´-Øn¬ bp‡n-Nn-¥bpw imkv{Xo-b-a-t\m-`m-h-hp-amWv
am\-h-ap-t∂-‰-Øn\v Bh-iy-sa∂v DZvt_m-[n-∏n-®p-sIm≠v
ktlm-Z-c≥ Aø-∏≥ cNn® kb≥kv ZiIw \thm-∞m-
\-ap-t∂-‰-Ønse hen-sbmcp DZvt_m-[-\-am-Wv.

kb≥kv ZiIw

tImSn-kq-cy-\p-Zn-®m-ep˛ Irjn ssIsØm-gn¬ It®m-S˛
samgn-bm-sØmcp Iqcn-cpƒ cmPy-`mc aXm-Znsb
Xpc∂p kXyw ImWn°pw ]ng-bv°msX \bn-°p∂
kb≥kn∂p sXmgp∂p Rm≥. kb≥kn∂p sXmgp∂p Rm≥.

shfn®w an∂¬ NqsSm-®˛ _p°p-Iƒ°pw ]q¿Δn-I¿°pw
bnh-bv°p-≈n¬ ad-™nSpw a¿Øysc±mk-cm-°nSpw
A¤p-X-߃ shfn-°m°pw k{º-Zmbw XI¿°p∂
kb≥kn∂p sXmgp∂p Rm≥. kb≥kn∂p sXmgp∂p Rm≥.

Ccp-´p-sIm≠p It®mSw
\S-Øp∂ ]ptcm-ln-X¿
sISp-Øo´pw sISm-Xmfpw
kb≥kn∂p sXmgp∂p Rm≥.

Iog-S°n {]Ir-Xnsb
am\p-j∂p]I¿Xv{Xnbmbv
sImSp-∏m≥ ssh`hw t]m∂
kb≥kn∂p sXmgp∂p Rm≥.

21

k¿°m¿ A[o-\-X-bn¬ {]h¿Øn-°p∂ t£{X-ß-
fn¬ F√m sslμ-h¿°pw {]th-in-°m\pw Bcm-[\ \S-Øm-
\p-ap≈ kzmX-{¥y-amWv hnfw-_cw aqtJ\ A\p-h-Zn-®-Xv.
hnfw-_cw D≠m-Ip-∂-Xn\p apºp-Xs∂ F√m-h¿°pw {]th-
i\w A\p-h-Zn-®n-cp∂ t£{X-k-t¶-X-߃ tIc-f-Øn¬ D≠m-
bn-cp-∂p. Hm®n-d- ]-S-\n-ew, iqc-\m´p ]S-\n-ew, i_-cn-a-e,
t]mcp-hgn F∂o k∂n-[n-I-fn¬ \q‰m-≠p-Iƒ°p apºp-Xs∂
F√m aX-ÿ¿°pw {]th-i-\-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. {iotIm-hn¬,
apJ-a-fi-]w, \me-ºew XpS-ßnb hmkvXp-X-{¥m-Sn-ÿm-\-
Øn¬ \n¿an-°-s∏´ t£{X-ß-fn-emWv PmXo-b-ambn
]n∂m°w \nev°p∂ P\-hn`m-K-߃°v {]th-i-\-Øn\v hne-
°p-≠m-bn-cp-∂-Xv. AXv 1936 hsc Xncp-hn-Xmw-Iqdn¬ \ne-
\n-∂p. sIm®n-bnepw ae-_m-dnepw ÿnXn hyXykvXam-bn-cp-
∂n-√. 1936˛se hnfw-_-c-Øn-eqsS sslμ-h¿s°√mw PmXn,
enwK ]cn-K-W-\-Iƒ IqSmsX t£{Xß-fn¬ {]th-in-°m-
\p≈ Ah-Im-i-amWv ssIh-∂-Xv. F∂m¬ BNm-c-ß-tfm,
Z¿i-\-kw-_-‘n-bm-bp≈ Iogva-cym-Z-Itfm ewLn-°m-\p≈
kzmX{¥yw t£{X-{]-th-i-\-hn-fw-_cw \evIn-bn-cp-∂n-√.

t£{X{]thi\ hnfw_csØ Bthi]q¿hamWv
F√m hn`mKØn¬s∏´ P\ßfpw kzoIcn®Xv.
XncphnXmwIqdnse t£{X {]thi\hnfw_cØn\p tijw
kam\amb Ahiy߃°pth≠nbp≈ kac߃
sIm®nbnepw ae_mdnepw Bcw`n®p.

Xncp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dnepw sIm®n-bnepw \S-∂Xpt]mep≈ ]cn-jvI-
cW kwcw-`-߃ ae-_m-dn-ep-≠m-bn-√. AXn-\p≈ {][m-\-
Im-cWw ae-_m¿ {_n´o-jv `-c-W-Øn≥ Iogn-em-bn-cp-∂p-sh-
∂p≈- Xpw tImf\- nh- nc- p≤ kac- Ø- ns‚ `mKa- mb- n´- mWv AhnsS
]ucm-h-Imi{]t£m-`-߃ \S-∂n-cp-∂Xv F∂-Xp-am-Wv.
AhnsS sXmgnemfn, I¿jI {]ÿm-\-ßfpw ]ptcm-K-a\
{]ÿm-\-ß-fp-sam-s°-bm-bn-cp∂p Cu ]cn-jvI-c-W-߃°v
s]mXpth t\XrXzw \evIn-b-Xv. Xncp-s°m®n kwÿm-\-ß-
fn¬ `c-WsØ \nb-{¥n-®n-cp∂ ]utcmln-Xy-sØ-t∏mse ae-

22

_m-dn¬ ]utcm-ln-XyØn\v `c-W-Øn¬ kzm[o\w sNep-
Øm≥ Ign-™n-cp-∂n-√. F∂n-cp-∂mepw kmaq-ln-I-amb hnth-
N-\-߃s°-Xnsc i_vZ-ap-b¿Øn-b-h-cm-bn-cp∂p hmKv`-Sm-\-
μ\pw {_“m-\-μ-in-h-tbm-Kn-sb-bpw kzman B\-μ-Xo¿Y-
s\bpw -t]m-ep≈ ]cn-jvI¿Øm-°ƒ.
1938 ¬ ae_mdnse t£{X߃ F√mh¿°pw Xpd∂p
sImSp°m≥ a{Zmkv k¿°m¿ DØchn´p. kmaqXncnbpsS

23

t\XrXzØn¬ k\mX\nIƒ t£{X kwc£W kanXnIƒ
D≠m°n {]Xntcm[w krjvSn®p. AXpsIm≠v {]kvXpX
DØchv A∂v \S∏nembn√.

{]mtZinIXeØn¬ t£{X{]thi\Øn\v
th≠nbp≈ kac߃ hym]n®p. XncphnXmwIqdnepw
sIm®nbnepw \thm-≤m\ {]ÿm\-ßfpw kPo-h-ambn CS-
s]´p.

sN¿∏pft»cn `mKØv C.]n. tKm]me\pw
]n.Ip™pÆn\mbcpw \SØnb kac߃, BeØq¿
`mKØv B¿.IrjvW\pw I≠≥]qim-cnbpw t\XrXzw
\¬Inb kac߃, ]me°mSv ]pXpt°ms´
t£{X{]thi\ kacw XpS-ßnbh DZmlcWßfm-Wv.

1949˛50 ¬ k©mckzmX{¥yØn\pw t£{X-
{]thi\Øn\pw th≠n sIm®nbn¬ ]ebnSØp \S∂
kacw sXmgn-emfn˛ I¿jI {]ÿm-\-ß-fp-sSbpw tZiob
{]ÿm-\-Øn-s‚bpw t\Xr-Xz-Øn-em-bn-cp-∂p. Sn.B¿.
cmLh≥ bmYmkvYnXnIcpsS IØn°ncbmbn. t]meokv
shSnshbv∏n¬ F.Pn.them-bp[≥ sIm√s∏´p.
Ccnßme°pS IqS¬amWnIy t£{X ]cnkchpw
kam\amb kacØn\pw kwL¿j߃°pw km£yw
hln®p. sXm´SpØp≈ tdmUneqsS \S°m≥ {ian® Ah¿W
hn`mKØn¬s∏´ I¿j-I˛ sXmgn-emfn {]h¿ØI¿s°Xnsc
a¿Z\w D≠mbn.

1947 ¬ a{Zmkv Kh¨sa‚ v
ae_mdnse t£{Xßfpw F√mh¿°pw
Xpd∂p sImSp°m\p≈ \nba\n¿amWw
\SØm≥ Xocpam\n®p. tabv amk-Øn¬
Bcw`n® \nba\n¿amW {]{Inb DØchmbXv
Pq¨ c≠n\mWv.

1947 sabv 31\v sI. tIf∏s‚
t\XrXzØn¬ t£{X{]hi\ kzmKX
kwLw cq]oIcn®p. Pq¨ c≠n\v Kpcphmbp¿

sI. tI-f∏≥

24

t£{X]cnkcØv s]mXp-tbm-KØn¬ ]s¶SpØh¿
sI.tIf∏≥, bp. tKm]me-tat\m≥, hn.sP. cma≥
apXembhcpsS t\XrXzØn¬ t£{XØn¬ {]thin®p.

hSIc temI\m¿°mhn¬ ISØ\m´p Xºpcm≥
F√mh¿°pw {]thi\w A\phZn®p. AXns\Xnsc \SbS®p
t]mb ]cnI¿anIƒ°p ]Icw thsd BfpIsf h®v
\SXpd°pIbpw t£{Xw F√mh¿°pambn Xpd∂p
sImSp°pIbpw sNbvXp.

1949 ¬ sIm®nbnse F√m t£{Xßfnepw \nba{]Imcw
F√m hn`mKw P\߃°pw Xpd∂psImSpØp. cmPmhns‚
FXn¿∏n-s\ adnIS∂v A∂sØ a{¥nk`bmWv CXv
sNbvXXv.

XncphnXmwIqdpw sIm®nbpw kwtbmPn®t∏mƒ
D≠m°nb Icm¿ A\pkcn®v XncphnXmwIqdnse
t£{X߃ XncphnXmwIq¿ tZhkzw t_m¿Uns‚bpw
sIm®nbnse t£{X߃ sIm®n≥ tZhkzw t_m¿Uns‚bpw
t\XrXzØn¬ h∂p. t£{X߃ kzX{¥
`cWkanXnIfpsS Iogn¬ \n∂Xv ae_mdnemWv. GXm\pw
h¿j߃°papºv Ahbpw tZhkzw t_m¿Uns‚
Iognembn.

t£{Xßfnse X{¥namcpw im¥n°mcpw a‰v
]cnI¿anIfpw AtXmsS tZhkzßfpsS Iogn¬ {]-h¿-
Øn°p∂ DtZymKÿcmbn. BNmc{]Imcw Fs¥¶nepw
ÿm\w Ah¿°p≠mbncps∂¶n¬ Ah \jvSs∏´p.

Ah¿WcpsSbpw ZfnXcpsSbpw t£{X{]thi\w
At∏mgpw kpKaambncp∂n√. Kpcphmbq¿ t£{XØn¬
t]mepw 1950\p tijw am{XamWv F√mh¿°pw {]thi\w
e`n®Xv. At∏mgpw {iotImhnen\SptØ°v {]thi\w
\ntj[n°s∏´p. a‰p≈ t£{Xßfnepw CXpt]mse ]e
coXnIfnepw {]thi\w \nb{¥n°m≥ {ian®p.

25

{]thi\w ]q¿Wambn XS™ Nne t£{Xßfn¬
ho≠pw kac߃ \S∂p. Ieq¿ D≈ ]mh°pfw t£{Xw
1946 ¬ F√mh¿°pw Xpd∂p sImSpØp. XpS¿∂v 1947¬
\nch[n t£-{Xßfn¬ {]thin°m\p≈ {ia߃ P\Iob
apt∂‰ßfmbn \S∂p. ]ebnSßfnepw t£{Xkwc£W

26

kanXnIƒ {]thi\sØ \nb{¥n°m≥ Bcw`n®p.

kv{XoIfpsS t£{X {]thi\Øn\v s]mXpth
hne°pIƒ D≠mbn√. A]q¿hw Nne t£{Xßfn¬ Nne
{]tXyI kabßfn¬ kv{XoIƒ {]thin°p∂Xn\v
hne°pIƒ \ne\n∂p. as‰√m t£{Xßfnepw
kv{XoIfmbncp∂p {][m\ambpw `‡cmbncp∂Xv. Nne
t£{Xßfn¬ kv{XoIƒ tZhXIfpsS apºn¬
amdpadbv°m≥ ]mSn√ apXemb BNmc߃ D≠mbncp∂p.
(DZm: FdWmIpfØ∏≥). A∂p ªukv C´v t]mbn sXmgpXv
AºmSn Im¿Øymb\n AΩ Fs∂mcp h\nX {]tIm]\w
krjvSn®p. ]q¿W{Xboi t£{XØn¬ ªukv C´v sXmgm≥
]mSn√ F∂ \nbaw tImhneIsØ Xºpcm´nam¿
Xs∂bmWv ªukv C´v AIØv Ibdn XncpØnbXv.
kv{XoIfpsS hkv{X[mcWsØ kw_‘n® X¿°ßƒ
Ct∏mgpw NnebnSßfn¬ \ne\n¬°p∂p.

XnI®pw bmYm-ÿn-Xn-I-amb BNmcßfm¬ \n-
b{¥nXamb t£{X]cnkcßfn¬ Imem-\pkrXamb
am‰ßƒ h∂p. P\m[n]Xy kaqlØns‚ B{Kl߃°pw
]pXp-Xmbn h∂ \nbahyh-ÿ-Iƒ°pw A\pkcn®v
t£{XmNmcßfn¬ am‰w h∂p. t£{X߃ `‡cpsS Hcp
s]mXphnSambn amdn.

F√m t£{Xßfnepw Ahtijn® hne°pIfpw
amtd≠Xv ImeL´Øns‚ BhiyamWv. `‡nbpw
hnizmkhpw kwc£n°s∏tS≠Xp≠v. s]mXpkaqlØns‚
P\m[n]Xy LS\bv°p≈nepw cmPysØ `c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS
ASn-ÿm-\-Øn-epamWv Ah kwc£n°s∏Sp∂Xv F∂
Xncn®dnhv Gh¿°pw BhiyamWv.

kzmX-{¥y-e-_v[n-sb-Øp-S¿∂v \m´p-cm-Py-߃ C¥y≥
bqWn-b-\n¬ ebn-°p-Ibpw Nne \m´p-cm-Py-ßsf kwtbm-Pn-
∏n®v sFIy-kw-ÿm-\-߃ cq]o-I-cn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. Xncp-
s°m®n sFIy-kw-ÿm\w 1949 Pqembv H∂n\v \ne-hn¬

27

h∂p. Xncp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn-sebpw sIm®n-bn-sebpw cmPm-°-∑m¿
XΩn-ep≈ Icm-dm-W-Xv. Ih-\‚ v F∂m-W-Xns‚ t]cv. c≠p
kwÿm-\-ß-fn-ep-≠m-bn-cp∂ k¿°m¿ t£{X-ßsf Hmtcm
tZhkzw t_m¿Uns‚ Iogn-em-°n. Xncp-h-\-¥-]p-csØ ]Zva-

28

\m-`-kzm-an-t£-{X-sØbpw Xr∏q-Wn-Øp-d-bnse ]q¿W-{X-bo-
i-t£-{X-sØbpw Hmtcm FIvkn-Iyq-´ohv IΩn-‰n-bpsS \nb-
{¥-W-Øn-em°n {]tXyI ]Zhn \¬In \ne-\n-¿Øn.
k¿°m¿ JP-\m-hn¬ \n∂pw ]Ww \¬Im\pw hyhÿ
sNbvXp.

C¥y-bpsS `c-W-L-S\ 1950-˛¬ \ne-hn¬ h∂-t∏mƒ
AXns‚ aq∂m-a-[ym-b-Øn¬ {]Xn-]m-Zn-°p∂ auen-Im-h-Im-
i-ß-fpsS Iq´-Øn¬ 25-˛mw A\p-tO-Z-Øn¬ Bcm-[\m
kzmX{¥yw Dd-∏m-°p-∂p. ]Xn-∂memw A\p-tO-Z-Øn¬ ]d-
bp-∂ -Xp-ey-X-bv°p≈ Ah-Im-ihpw Bcm-[-\m-kzm-X-{¥yhpw
]c-kv]-c-]q-c-I-ß-fm-bn-´mWv \ne-sIm-≈p-∂-Xv. Bcm-[\m
kzmX{¥yw auen-Im-h-Im-i-am-b-Xn-\m¬ k¿°m-cp-Iƒ°v
X∂n-jvS-{]-Imcw AXn¬ am‰-߃ hcp-Øm-\-[n-Im-c-an-√. AXv
\S-∏n-em-°p-∂-Xn-\p≈ _m[y-X-bm-Wp-≈-Xv.

BNmc- ß- ƒ \nba- ß- f- mb- nc- p∂- I- mew t]mbv adb- pI- bpw
\nb-a-\n¿amW k`-Iƒ \n¿an-°p∂ \nb-a-߃ \ne-hn¬ hcn-
Ibpw sNbvXt- ∏mƒ AXv ]men°- p∂- X- ns- \b- mWv \nba- h- mgvN-
sb∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv. BNm-c-߃ A\m-Nm-c-ß-fm-bn-Øo¿∂p.
BNm-c-ß-fpsS t]cn¬ a\p-jym-h-Im-i-ßsf \ntj-[n-®n-cp∂
A‘-Im-c-Øn¬ \n∂pw \nb-a-hm-gvN-bpsS kqcy-sh-fn-®-Øn-
te-°p≈ apt∂-‰-Øn-\p-th≠n Poh-Xym-Khpw ]oU-\-ßfpw
kln® ]q¿hn-I-cpsS I¿a-^-e-amWv Ct∏mƒ \ne-\n¬°p∂
]ucmh- I- mi- ß- ƒ. ab°- Ø- n¬ \n∂pw DW¿®b- nt- e°pw Ccp-
fn¬ \n∂pw shfn-®-Øn-te°pw \thm-∞m-\-\m-b-I¿ \bn®
]Ÿm-hn-eqsS tIc-f-P-\X k©-cn-®-Xp-sIm-≠mWv hnth-N-
\-ß-fn-√m-ØXpw kzX-{¥-hp-amb Hcp ]uc-k-aqlw C∂p \ne-
\n¬°p-∂-Xv. shfn-®sØ X√n-s°-SpØn Ccp-´ns\ ]p\x-ÿm-
]n-°m≥ {ian-°p∂ ]utcm-ln-Xy-sØbpw Ah¿ apdpsI∏nSn-
°p∂ A\m-Nm-c-ß-sfbpw D®m-S\w sNbvXp-sIm≠p am{Xta
\h-tI-cf krjvSn km[y-am-Iq. GI-kz-c-Øn¬ \ap-°p-d-s°-
∏-dbmw: ""Xatkm am tPymXn¿ Kab''.

29

]ucm-h-Imi {]t£m-`-߃

tIc-f-Ønse kmaq-ln-I-]-cn-jvI-c-W-kw-cw-`-ß-sf√mw
Xs∂ ]ucm-h-Im-i-߃ AwKo-I-cn®p In´p-∂-Xn-\p-th-≠n-bp-
≈-Xm-bn-cp-∂p. -am\-hnIX, ka-Xzw, kmtlm-Z-cyw, aX-\n-c-
t]£ {]_p-≤X F∂o aqey-߃ AwKo-I-cn-°-s∏-´p. Ch-
bmWv \thm-∞m-\-aq-ey-߃ F∂p hnti-jn-∏n-°-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv.

kmaq-lnI ]-cn-jv-I-c-W-ß-fpsS BZy-cwKw hkv{X-[m-c-
Wm-h-Im-i-Øn\pth≠n Nm∂m¿ kv{XoIƒ \S-Ønb Iem-
]-am-bn-cp-∂p. kv{XoIƒ ta¬apt≠m Ip∏m-btam [cn-°p-∂Xv
BNm-c-\n-jn-≤-am-bn-cp-∂p. F∂m¬ Nm∂m¿ kv{XoIƒ AXp
[cn-°m≥ XpS-ßn-b-tXmsS BNm-c-kw-c-£-I-cmb kh¿W¿
Ahsc D]-{Z-hn-°m≥ XpS-ßn. hkv{Xm-t£]w sNbvXpw
tZtlm-]-{Z-h-ta¬∏n®pw hoSp-Iƒ B{I-an®pw Ah¿ BNmcw
\ne-\n-dp-Øm≥ {ian-®p. CXn-s\-Xn-sc-bp≈ -sN-dp-Øp-
\n¬∏mWv Nm∂m¿ elf F∂ t]cn¬ Adn-b-s∏-´-Xv.

ipNo{μw apX¬ s\øm-‰n≥I-c- h-sc-bp≈ {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬
Iem]w hym]n-®p. k-ac-Øn¬ k¿°m¿ CS-s]-Sp-Ibpw 1829,
1859, 1865 F∂o h¿j-ß-fnse cmP-Iob hnfw_c-{]-Imcw
XpS-°-Øn¬ {InkvXpaX-Øn¬ tN¿∂ Nm∂m¿
kv{XoIƒ°pw ]n∂oSv F√m-hn`mKw Nm∂m¿ kv{XoIƒ°pw
XpS¿∂v Ah¿W-k-ap-Zm-b-Øn¬s∏´ kv{XoIƒ°pw am\y-
amb hkv{Xw [cn-°p-∂-Xn-\p≈ Ah-Imiw e`n-®p.

I√pam-e kacw

A[:ÿnX hn`mKßfn¬s∏Sp∂ kv{XoIƒ AhcpsS
PmXn ASnaØØns‚ ASbmfsa∂ coXnbn¬ I√v,
Ip∏n®n√v XpSßnb h-kvXp°ƒ B`cWambn [cn°Wsa∂
\n¿_‘w Hcp ImeØv tIcfØnep≠mbncp∂p. Aø≥Imfn
t\XrXzw sImSpØ I√pame _lnjvIcW kacw Cu
BNmcØns\Xnscbp≈ t]mcm´ambncp∂p. HcSn°v ]Icw
c≠Snsb∂ Aø≥ImfnbpsS hnπh ap{ZmhmIyw ka-c-Øn\v

30

Bt-hiw ]I¿∂p. s]cn\mSv Iem]sØØpS¿∂v I√pame
_lnjvIcW kacw c‡cqjnXambns°m≠ncns°, 1915
¬ sIm√w ]oc¶nssaXm\nbn¬ Xet»cn°mcn cX-\v- m`mbn-
bpsS DSaÿXbn¬ \S∂psIm≠ncp∂ k¿°kv
IqSmcØn¬ h®v Aø≥ImfnbpsS t\XrXzØn¬
hn]peamb ktΩf\w \S∂p. bmYm-ÿn-XnIcpsS
A{IasØ XpS¿∂v hoSpt]£n®pt]mbhcS°w
Bbnc°W°n-\v kv{Xo-Iƒ Dƒ-s∏-sS-bp≈h¿
ktΩf\Øn¬ HØp tN¿∂p. PmXobXbpsS ASbmfamb

31

I√pame AdpsØdnbphm≥ A-ø≥-Imfn Blzm\w sNbvXp.
ktΩf\Øns\Ønb kv{XoIƒ XßfpsS IgpØnse
I√pameIƒ s]m´ns®dn™p. h-S-t°-a-e-_mdn¬ Pm-Xn-hy-
h-kv-Y-bv-s°-Xn-sc aSnss° A-∏p Im-c-W-h¿ I√pam-e k-a-c-
Øn-\v t\-XrXzw \¬In.

IΩ- m≥I- pfw

I√pam-e k-ac-sØ Xp-S¿-∂v \S∂ HØpXo¿∏v tIkn¬
]n-∂m-°-°m¿°p th≠n hmZn®Xv AUz.Sn.Fw.h¿Kokv
Bbncp∂p. At±lØn\v h°o¬ ^okv sImSp°m≥
kmºØnI tijnbn√mXn-cp-∂-Xn\m¬ {]Xn^eambn
At±lØns‚ hoSn\p hS°p hiØv Ipgn®p \¬Inb Ipf-
am-Wv I-Ωm≥-Ipfw. Ct∏mƒ sIm√w Pn√m ]©mbØv
sI´nSØns‚ ap≥-h-i-ØmWv IΩm≥ Ip-fw.

kvIqƒ {]t- hi- \- Ø- n\- v Hc- p t]mc- m´w

s]m-Xp-\n-c-Øp-I-fn-eq-sS k-©-cn-°m\pw kv-Iq-fp-
Ifn¬ {]-thi-\w e-`n-°m-\p-am-bn-cp∂-p A-ø≥-Im-fn-bpsS B-
ZyIm-e t]m-cm-´ßƒ.

A-t±-lw Xn-cp-hn-XmwIq¿ k¿-°m-cn-\v \¬In-b sa-tΩm-
dm-≠-Øn-eq-sS F√m hn-`m-K-°m¿°pw k-vIqƒ {]-thi-\w A-
\p-h-Zn-®v D-Ø-c-hm-sb-¶nepw Db¿-∂ Pm-Xn-°m-cp-sS i-Iv-Xamb
F-Xn¿-∏n-s\ Xp-S¿-∂v A-Xv \-S-∏m-bn√. Du-cp-´º-ew kv-Iqfn¬
]Tn-°m-s\Øn-b ]´n-I-PmXn hn-`m-K-Øn-se ]©-an Ccp-∂
Iv-fm-kv ap-dn kh¿-W hn-`m-Kw I-Øn-°p-I-bp-≠m-bn. C-Xn-
s‚ Hm¿-a-bv-°m-bn ]©-an Ccp-∂ s_-©v kv-Iq-fn¬ {]-tXy-
I-ambn kv-Ym-]n-®n-´p-≠v. Xß-fpsS hn`m-K-°msc ]Tn-∏n-°m≥
Xøm-d-s√-¶n¬ \nß-fpsS ]mSØv sImøm\pw Xøm-d-s√∂v
Aø-¶mfn {]Jym-]n-®p. 1907 ¬ I¿j-I- kacw D≠mbn. ]mS-
߃ P∑n-am¿°v Xcn-in-tS≠nh∂p. KXy-¥-c-an-√msX
Ah¿W¿°pw kvIqƒ {]th-i\w A\p-h-Zn-°m≥ FXn¿Ø-
h¿ \n¿_-‘n-X-cm-bn.

32

]m-en-bw k-a-cw

]m-en-bw Ip-Spw-_-w, t£-{X-߃ F-∂n-h-bv-°p ap-∂n-
eq-sS A-ln-μp-°ƒ-°v \-S°m≥ A-h-Im-iw D-≠m-bn-cp-s∂-
¶nepw Xmgv∂sX∂v hnfn-°-s∏´ PmXn-°m¿-°v bm-{X \n-tj-
[n-®n-cp∂p. C-Xn-s\-Xn-sc H-cp I¿-a k-an-Xn cq-]o-I-cn-®v {]-
t£m`- w Bc- w`- n®p. ]n. KwK- m[c- ≥ Bb- nc- p∂- p t\X- mh- v. Bcym
]-≈-Øn-s‚ t\-Xr-XzØn¬ A-¥¿P\-߃ k-a-c-k-∂-≤-cm-
bn cwK-Øp h∂p. ]n. {]n-bZØ, sF. kn. {]n-bZ-Ø, tZ-h-
tk-\, F-gp-amhn¬ k-c-kz-Xn F-∂n-h¿ k-a-c-Øn-s‚ ap≥-\n-
cbn¬ FØn. t]m-eo-kv Ah-sc X√n-®-X®p. sIm-Sp-ß√q¿
tIm-hn-eI-sØ an-Sp-°≥ X-ºp-cm≥, X-ºp-cm-´n-amcm-b c-a, C-
μn-c F-∂n-h¿ k-a-c-cw-K-Øp-≠m-bn-cp∂p. sIm-®n cm-P-Ip-Spw-
_-Øn-se cm-ah¿-a Ip´-∏≥ X-ºp-cm≥, tI-c-f h¿-a X-ºp-
cm≥ F-∂n-h¿ k-a-cØn¬ ]-s¶-SpØp. A-h¿°pw t]m-eo-kv
a¿±-\w G‰p. ]n-∂o-Sv Chsc Xr-∏q-Wn-Øp-dbn¬ ho-´pX-S-
¶en¬ B°n.

1948 am¿®v 12\v A-h¿-W¿-s°m-∏w t£-{XØn¬ {]-
th-in-°p-sa-∂v F. sI. Pn {]-Jym-]n®p. Xp-S¿-∂v am¿-®v B-dn-
\v tIm-gn-t°m-Sp h-®v A-t±l-sØ A-d-kv-‰v sN-bvXp. k-a-c-kv-
Ye-Øv F.sI. Pn {]-th-in-°p∂-Xv \n-tcm-[n®p. sF. Pn th-
em-bp-[≥ k-a-c-Øn-s‚ c-Iv-X-km-£n-bmbn. ka-c-sØ-Øp-
S¿∂v F√m-h-cp-sSbpw Ah-Imiw hI-sh®p \¬I-s∏-´p.

Ip´- wI- pf- w ka- c- w

C-cn-ßm-e°p-S Iq-S¬-am-WnIyw t£-{X-Øn-s‚ In-g-°p-
h-i-Øp-≈ tdm-Uv -Xmgv∂sX∂v hnfn-°-s∏´ PmXn°m¿-°v
Xpd-∂p In-´p-∂-Xn-\m-bn-cp-∂p k-acw. 1946¬ ]p-e-b-a-lm-k-`
k-tΩ-f-\-Øn-\v ]-Ww ]n-cn-°m-\n-dßn-b c-≠p kv-{Xo-I-fp-sS
i-co-cØn¬ Nn-e¿ ap-dp-°n-Øp∏n. C-Xn-s\-Xn-sc I-Ωyq-Wn-
kv-‰v ]m¿-´n Pm-Y \-SØn. Fkv. F≥. Un. ]n AwK-߃ Ip-
´w-Ip-fw tdmUn¬ {]-th-in-®v A-d-kv-‰v h-cn®p. Ip-´w-Ip-fw
tdmUn¬ I-bdm≥ ]n-∂o-Sv \-S-∂ Pm-Y t]m-eo-kv X-S-bp-Ibpw
k-a-c-°m-sc X√n-®-X-bv-°p-Ibpw sN-bv-Xp.

33

X-fn ka-cw

tIm-gn-t°m-Sv X-fn t£-{X-Øn-s‚ tdmUn¬ A-h¿-W¿
{]-th-in-°-cp-sX∂v 1917¬ km-aq-Xn-cn I¬-]-\ ]p-d-s∏-Sp-hn-®-
Xn-s\ Xp-S¿-∂p-≠m-b k-acw. A-°me-Øv tdm-Uv ap-\n-kn-∏m-
en-‰n-bp-sS Io-gn-em-bn-cp∂p. A-Xn\m¬ k-aq-Xn-cn-bp-sS I¬-
]\ ap-\n-kn-∏¬ sN-b¿am≥ B-bncp-∂ kn. hn. \m-cm-b-W
A-ø¿ \n-tj-[n®p. a-e_m¿ I-f-Iv-S-dm-bn ]I-cw h-∂ tXm-
d≥, km-aq-Xn-cn-bp-sS B-{K-lw A-\p-k-cn-®v 1917 \hw-_¿
H∂n\v X-fn tdm-Un¬ Xo-≠¬ t_m¿-Uv kv-Ym-]n®p. A-∂p

34

X-s∂ kn. Ir-jvW≥, a-t©-cn cma-ø¿ F-∂n-h¿ Ip-Xn-c-h-
≠nbn¬ tdmUn¬ {]-th-in-°p-Ibpw Ir-jv-W≥ t_m¿Un¬
Sm¿ A-Sn-°p-Ibpw sN-bvXp. Iq-Sm-sX t_m¿-Uv Cf-°n t£-
{X-Øn-te-°v F-dn-bp-I-bp-ap-≠mbn. H-cmgv-N I-gn-™v A-Xph-
gn tLm-j-bm-{X \-S-Øp-Ibpw X-fn-bn-se Ip-fØn¬ Ip-fn-
°p-Ibpw sN-bv-Xp.

Zf- h- m°- pf- w

1806-¬ ssh°w almtZh-t£{XØn¬
kwLSnXambn Bcm[\bv°p-th≠n {]-th-in-°m≥ {i-an®
Hcp kwLw Ah¿Wsc \m-b¿ ]-Sbm-fn-Iƒ sImes∏-Sp-Øn.
AhcpsS ihicoc߃ ssh°w t£{XØns‚
hS°p˛Ing°v `mKØp-≠mbncp∂ henb IpfØnen´v aqSn.
Cu Ipfw ]n∂oSv Zfhm-°pfw F∂ t]cnemWv Adnbs∏-´-
Xv. ssh-°w a-lmtZ-h t£-{X-Øn-s‚ In-g-t° \-S-bn-em-bn-cp-
∂p Z-f-hm-°pfw. C-t∏m-g-sØ kzIm-cy _-kv kv-‰m≥-Uv \n¬-
°p∂-Xv Cu kv-Y-e-ØmWv.

ssh°- w kX- y{- Kl- w

ssh-°w k-Xy-{K-l-Øn-\v ]n-¥p-W-bp-am-bn a∂-Øp
]-Zv-a-\m`-s‚ t\-Xr-XzØn¬ ssh°-Øv \n-∂v Xn-cp-h-\-¥-]p-
c-tØ-°v Pm-Y \-SØn. A-tX-ka-bw X-s∂ ip-No-{μ-Øv \n-
∂v s]-cpamƒ \m-bn-Up-hn-s‚ t\-Xr-XzØn¬ a-s‰m-cp Pm-Ybpw
bm-{X B-cw-`n-®p. 1924 \-hw_¿ 13\v H-cp {]-Xn-\n-[n kw-Lw
do-P‚n-\v sa-tΩm-dm-≠w k-a¿-∏n®p. Cu-tdm-Uv \n-∂v cm-a-kzm-
an \m-bv-°¿ ssh°w k-Xy-{K-l-Øn-\v ]n¥p-W A-dn-bn-®v
F-Øn. k-Xy-{K-lnI-sf A-`n-kw-t_m-[-\ sN-bv-Xv kw-km-cn-
°p-Ibpw sN-bvXp. A-t±l-sØ t]m-eo-kv A-d-kv-‰v sN-øp-I-
bp-≠m-bn. `m-cy \m-K-Ω-tbm-sSm-∏-am-Wv A-t±-lw F-Øn-bXv.

ssh-°w k-Xy-{K-lw \-S°p-∂ th-fbn¬ ]-©m-_n-¬
\n-∂v A-Im-en-I-sfØn. A-h¿ k-Xy-{K-ln-Iƒ-°m-bn kuP-
\y t`m-P-\me-bw Xp-d-∂p. em¬-knw-Kn-s‚ t\-Xr-Xz-Øn-em-

35

36

Wv A-h¿ F-Øn-bXv. A-Im-en Kp-cp-Zzm¿ {]-_-\v-[n-s‚ k-
lm-bw e-`y-am-°nb-Xv k¿Zm¿ ]-Wn-°-cmWv. em¬-knw-Kn-
s\m∏w 15 t]¿ h∂p. F-∂m¬ ]n-∂oSv Km-\v-[n-Pn-bp-sS \n¿-
tZim-\p-kc-Ww C-h¿ a-S-ßn. 1924se sh-≈s∏m° Im-
eØpw ssh°w k-Xy-{K-lw Xp-S¿-∂-Xm-bn N-cn-{X tcJ-Iƒ
hy-Iv-X-am-°p∂p. sh-≈Øn¬ \n-∂m-bn-cp-∂p k-Xy-{Klw. t]m-
eo-kv h-©nbn¬ Im-h¬ \n-∂p. k-Xy{K-l ]-¥en¬ \q¬-
\q¬]pw ln-μn ]T-\hpw \-S-∂n-cp-∂p.

hn√ph- ≠- n kac- w

cm-P-]m-Xbn¬ k-©-cn°m-\p≈ A-hIm-iw \n-b-a-]-c-
am-bn kv-Ym-]n-®p In-´m-\m-bn-cp-∂p A-ø≥-Im-fn-bp-sS hn√ph-
≠n bm{X. A-°me-Øv hn√p-h-® Im-fh-≠n D-]-tbm-Kn°m≥
D-∂-X Pm-Xn-°m¿-°p am-{X-ta A-h-Im-i-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂p≈q. A-
ø≥-Im-fn \m-K¿-tIm-hnen¬ \n-∂v hn√ph-≠n hn-e-bv-°p hm-
ßn sh-ßm-\qcn¬ \n-∂v B-dm-epw-aq-Sv N-¥-bn-te°pw Xn-cn-
®pw bm-{X-sN-bvXp. C-Xn-s‚ Xp-S¿-®-bm-bn cm-P-]m-X-bn-eq-sS
sh-ßm-\q-¿ \n-∂v B-dm-epw-aq-´n-te-°v ]-Z-bm-{Xbpw \-SØn.
]-Z-bm-{X-bv-°p t\-tc Nm-en-b-sØ-cphn¬ B-{I-a-W-ap-≠mbn.

37

tNmdpw sag- p°- p]- pc- ´- nb- pw Iq´- n an{- it- `mP\- w

1917 tabv 29\v k-
tlm-Z-c≥ A-ø∏-s‚ ho-Sn-\-Sp-
Øp-≈ ]-dºn¬ an-{i-t`mP-
\w \S- Øm≥ \ni- vN- b- n®p. am-
Wn-th-en¬ Ip-©p F-
s∂mcmƒ an-{i-t`m-P-\-Øn-\v
X-øm-dm-bn h-∂p. 24 t]¿ sam-
Øw ]-s¶-SpØp. A-ø≥ F-
∂ ]p-e-b\pw a-I≥ ]-Øv h-
b-kp-Imc≥ I-Æ\pw B-bn-
cp-∂p A-Xn-Yn-Iƒ. tNmdpw N-
°-°p-cphpw I-S-ebpw tN¿-
Øp-≠m°n-b sa-gp-°p-]p-c-´n-
bpw Bb- nc- p∂- p hn`- h- ߃. C-
Xn¬ ]s- ¶S- pØ- hs- c sNd- mb- n-
bn-se hn-Pv-Rm-\-h¿-≤n-\n k-
` ]p-d-Øm-°n. tI-c-fØn¬
an-{i-t`m-P-\Øn¬ ]-s¶-Sp°p-
∂ B-Zy {_m-lv-a-W kv{Xo Sn. B¿. Ir-jv-W-kzm-an A-ø-cp-
sS `m-cy-bmWv. A-h¿W-sc kz-Kr-lØn¬ hn-fn-®n-cp-Øn H-cp-
an-®v `£-Ww I-gn-®-Xn-\v a-lmI-hn D-≈q-cn\pw k-ap-Zm-b-Øn-
s‚ F-Xn¿-∏v t\-cn-tS-≠n h-∂p.

Kpc- ph- mbq¿ kX- y{- Kl- w

1931 \-hw-_¿ H-∂n-\v cm-hnse HºXn\v Kp-cp-hmbq¿ t£-
{X-Øn-s‚ In-g°v, ]-Sn-™mdv, sX-°v \-S-Ifn¬ k-Xy-{K-lw
B-cw-`n®p. Hm-tcm \-S-bnepw c-≠p ho-Xw t]¿ aq-∂p a-Wn°q¿
ho-X-w k-Xy-{K-lw \-S-Øp-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p coXn. F. sI tKm-
]m-e-\m-bn-cp-∂p k-Xy-{K-lIym-]v‰≥. A-t±-l-tØm-sSm-∏w ]n.
Ir-jv-W-]n-≈bpw D-≠m-bn-cp∂p. k-Xy-{K-lw Xp-Sßn-b ti-
jw a-∂w ]-W-ti-J-c-W-Øn-\m-bn Xn-cp-hn-XmwIq¿ `m-K-ß-fn-
te-°v t]mbn. F. sI. Pn-bp-sS t\-Xr-XzØn¬ k-a-c-{]-Nm-c-

38

W Pm-Y \-S∂p. A-ssZz-Xm-{i-aØn¬ \-S-∂ k-tΩf-\-Øn¬
a-∂w A-[y-£-X h-ln®p. Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iqdn¬ Pm-Y-bv-°v th-
≠ k-lmb-߃ sN-bvX-Xv F≥. Fkv. F-kv BWv. Kp-cp-
hmbq¿ G-ImZ-in Znh-kw F. sI. Pn t£-{X-\-Sbn¬ D-]-h-
kn®p. 1931\v km-aq-Xn-cn t£{Xw A-S-®n´p. {]-t£m-` Ime-
Øv Ipdq¿ \-ºq-Xn-cn-∏m-Sv A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ h-I ]m-h-°p-fw
t£{Xw A-h¿-W¿-°v Xp-d-∂p-\¬In. 1932 sk-]v-‰w_¿ 21\v
sI. tIf-∏≥ A-\n-iv-Nn-XIm-e \n-cm-lm-c k-Xy-{K-lw B-cw-
`n®p. Km-\v-[n-Pn {]-iv-\Øn¬ C-S-s]-´v sI. tI-f-∏-t\m-Sv \n-cm-
lm-cw A-h-km-\n-∏n°m≥ B-h-iy-s∏´p. t£-{X-{]-th-i-\w
\nb-aw B-b tijw 1947 Pq¨ c-≠n-\v sI. tIf-∏≥ ]´n-I-
hn-`mK߃-s°m-∏w Kp-cp-hm-bq¿ t£-{X-Z¿i-\w \-S-Øn.

\º- qX- nc- n ka- pZ- mb- Øn¬ hn[h- m hnh- ml- w

hn. Sn. `-´-Xn-cn-∏m-Sn-s‚ Im¿-an-I-XzØn¬ 1934 sk-]v-
Xw_¿ 13\v A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ hoSm-b c-kn-I-k-Z-\-Øn¬ h-®v
\-ºq-Xn-cn k-ap-Zm-b-Øn-se B-Zy-sØ hn[-hm hn-hm-lw \-
S∂p. hn. Sn-bp-sS `mcymk-tlm-Z-cnbpw hn-[-hbpw B-b D-am-
tZ-hn A-¥¿-P\-sØ Fw. B¿._n F∂p t]-scSp-Ø F-gp-
Øp-Im-c\m-b ap√-aw-Ke-Øv cm-a≥ `-´-Xn-cn hn-hm-lw sN-bvXp.
Fw. kn. tPm-k^v, a∂w, am-cm¿, A-ø-∏≥, C.
Fw. Fkv, sNm-Δ-c ]-c-ta-iz-c≥, sI. F. Zm-
tam-Z-c ta-t\m≥ XpS-ßn \n-ch-[n {]-ap-J¿ k-
∂n-ln-X-cm-bn-cp-∂p.

39

\thm-∞m\ \mb-I¿

A\m-Nm-c-ßfpw ASn-®-a¿Ø-ep-I-fp-sams° C√m-Xm-°p-
∂-Xn-\p≈ {]t£m`]c-º-c-Iƒ°v \thm-∞m\ \mb-I≥am¿
henb ]¶mWv hln-®-Xv. {io\m-cm-bWKpcp, N´-ºn-kzm-an-Iƒ,
Aø-¶m-fn, sshIpWvT kzman-Iƒ, Bdm-´p-]pg them-bp-[-∏-
Wn-°¿, {_“m-\μ inh-tbm-Kn, hmKv`-Sm-\-μ≥, kzman B\-
μ-Xo¿Y≥, s]mbvI-bn¬ Ipam-c-Kp-c-ptZ-h≥, hn.-Sn. `´-Xn-cn-∏mSv
XpSßn \nc-h[n kmaq-lnI ]cn-jvI¿Øm-°fpw Bflo-bm-
Nm-cy≥amcpw henb ]¶p-h-ln-®p.

kmaq-ln-I-]-cn-jvI-c-W-{]-ÿm\w \thm-∞m-\-aq-ey-߃
DXv]m-Zn-∏n®p XpS-ßn-bXv tZiob {]ÿm\w i‡-am-b-tXm-
Sp-Iq-Sn-bm-Wv. AXns‚ A\p-c-W-\-ß-fmWv Ccp-]-Xmw-\q‰m-
≠ns‚ Bcw`w apX¬ tIc-f-Øn¬ D≠m-b-Xv. sI.-tI-f-
∏≥, Sn.-sI.-am-[-h≥, anX-hmZn kn.-Ir-jvW≥, tUm.-]-ev]p.
kn. tIi-h≥, ktlm-Z-c≥ Aø-∏≥, hn.-Sn. `´-Xn-cn-∏m-Sv, C.-
Fw.-Fkv \ºq-Xn-cn-∏m-Sv, Fw.-B¿.-_n., XpS-ßn-b-h¿ {]_p-
≤-X-bp-≠m-°p-∂-Xn¬ \nkvXq-e-amb ]¶mWv hln-®Xv.

sshIpW- vTk- zma- nI- ƒ

sslμh kaq-l-Ønse sXm´p-Iq-Sm-bva, Xo≠n-°q-Sm-
bva, ta¬ap≠v [cn-°¬ \ntcm-[-\w, t£{X{]th-i\ \ntcm-
[-\w XpS-ßnb A\m-Nm-c-߃s°-Xnsc {]h¿Øn-°p-hm≥
Xs‚ PohnXw Dgn™psh®p. sshIp-WvT-kzm-an-Iƒ hnhn[
hn`mKw P\-ßsf AWn-\n-cØn t£{X-{]-th-i-\-Øn-\p-th-
≠n {]t£m`w kwL-Sn-∏n-®Xv kh¿W{]am-Wn-amsc {]tIm-
]n-®p. kzman-Iƒ kz¥w Nn{X-sa-SpØv {]Z¿in-∏n-°p-hm\pw
Bcm-[\m_nw_am°m\pw A\p-h-Zn-®n-√. kh¿W-{]-am-Wn-
am-cpsS HuZm-cy-sØbpw Ahsc klm-bn-®n-cp∂ cmPm-[n-Im-
c-sØbpw At±lw sh√p-hn-fn-®p. F√m-Pm-Xn-bn¬ s]´-h-

40

scbpw Xs‚ injy≥am-cmbn At±lw AwKo-I-cn-®n-cp-∂p.
ta¬ap≠v [cn-°p-I-sb-∂Xv F√m-h-cp-sSbpw P∑-hm-Im-i-am-
sW∂v {]kvXm-hn-®p-sIm≠v AXv hne-°p∂ cmPm-hn-s\-Xn-
cmbn {]t£m`w kwL-Sn-∏n-°p-Ibpw AXn-\p-th≠n Icw
sImSp-°p-∂-hsc i‡n-bmbn A]-e-]n-°p-I-bp-amWv At±lw
sNbvX-Xv.

Bdm´- p]- pg themb- p[- ∏- W- n°- ¿

Bdm-´p-]pg them-bp-[-∏-Wn-°¿ (1825-˛1872) \ne-hn-en-
cp∂ BNm-csØ ewLn-°p-∂-Xn\v a[y-Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn¬
t\XrXzw \¬In. Xs‚ IpSpw-_-t£-{X-
amb awK-eØv IÆmSn {]XnjvT \SØn.
kh¿W-Pm-Xn-kv{Xo-Iƒ am{Xw [cn-®n-cp∂
"A®n-∏p-Sh' F∂ hnti-jm¬ hkv{Xw
Hcog-h-kv{Xosbs°m≠p [cn-∏n®v ]Øn-
bq¿ Gem-bn-eqsS ]c-ky-ambn \S-Øn-®p.
Imbn-Im-`ym-kn-bmb them-bp-[-∏-Wn-°sc
t\cn-Sm≥ ss[cy-an-√m-Xn-cp∂ {]am-Wn-am¿
cm{Xn-bn¬ Dd-ßn-°n-S∂ At±-lsØ
IpØn-s°m-∂p. kmaq-ln-I-]-cn-jvI-c-W-kw-
cw-`-Ønse BZysØ c‡-km-£n-bmbn
At±-lw.

{_“- m\- μ- inh- t- bmKn (1852˛1929)

\n-c-¥-cam-b ]T-\w, K-th-j-Ww,
[ym-\w ap-X-em-b-h-bn-eq-sS kz-¥am-b
kn-≤m-¥-hpw Po-hn-X-N-cybpw B-hn-jv-
I-cn-®p. B kn-≤m-¥w B-\-μaTw F-
∂-dn-b-s∏-´p. 1918 ¬ B-\-μ-a-lm-k`-
ÿm-]n-°-s∏´p. Pm-Xn-bp-sS t]-cn¬
kw-L-S-\-I-fp-≠m-°n hn{K-l{]-Xn-
jvTbpw Cu-iz-cm-cm-[-\bpw \S-Øn ]-

41

c-kv]-cw a-’-cn®v, A-‘-hn-izm-k-߃°pw A-\m-Nm-c-
߃°pw h-iw-h-Z-cmbn, A-t\-Iw Im-b-t¢-i-I¿-am-Zn-Iƒ sN-
bv-Xp Zpx-Jn®p-sIm-≠v I-gn-™n-cp-∂ Im-e-L-´-Øn¬ A-\m-
Nm-c-ß-sfbpw A-k-a-Xz-ß-sfbpw i-‡n-bp-‡w J-fin-®v,
sF-Iy-Øn-s‚bpw B-\-μ-Øn-s‚bpw Zn-hy-k-tμ-iw I-\ym-Ip-
am-cn ap-X¬ tKm-I¿-Ww h-sc-bp-≈ Zn-°p-I-fn¬ {]-N-cn-∏n-°p-
∂-Xn-\p-th-≠nbmWv At±lw B-\-μ-a-lm-k-` ÿm]n-®-Xv.

N´º- nk- zma- nI- ƒ

N´-ºn-kzm-an-Iƒ lnμp°-fpsSbnS-

bn¬, hnti-jn®pw \mb¿k-ap-Zm-bmw-K-ß-

fpsS CS-bn¬ \ne-\n∂ \n-c-h[n A\m-

Nm-c-߃ XpS-®p-\o-°p-∂-Xn-epƒs∏sS

\n¿Wm-bI ]¶mWv hln-®-Xv. hn{K-l-{]-

Xn-jvTbpw thZ-]-T-\hpw t£{Xm-cm-[-

\bpw {_m“-W-cpsS am{Xw Ah-Im-i-

sa∂ BNm-c-sØ -ew-Ln-®-h-cm-bn-cp∂p

N´-ºn-kzm-anbpw {io\m-cm-b-W-Kpcphpw.

"{]mNo-\-a-e-bmfw' F∂ IrXn-bn-eqsS

tIc-tfm¬∏-Øn-bnse ]c-ip-cm-a-I-Y- (1853˛1924)

sbbpw "thZm-[n-Im-c-\ncq]W'ØneqsS

thZ-]-T-\-Øn\v {_m“-W¿°p≈ IpØ-I-sbbpw N´-ºn-

kzman tNmZyw sNbvXp.

{io\mc- mb- W Kpcp

A-dn-hn-s‚ a-lm-{]-Im-i-Øn-te-°v H-cp P-\X-sb \-bn-
® {io-\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp 1856 B-K-Ãv 26\v am-S-\m-im-s‚bpw Ip-
´n-b-Ω-bp-sSbpw ]p-{X-\mbn Xn-cp-h-\-¥-]p-c-Øp-≈ sN-º-g-¥n-
bn¬ P-\n-®p. PmXnhn-thN-\w sIm-Sn-Ip-Øn hm-W Im-e-Øv
Xo≠¬, sXm-So¬ F-∂o t]-cp-I-fn¬ A-dn-b-s∏-´ A-bn-Øm-
Nm-c-߃ k-apZm-b i-co-c-Øn-\v G-‰ alm-tcm-K-am-sW∂v {io
\m-cm-b-WKp-cp a-\- n-em°n. A-Xn-\p-≈ {]-Xn-hn-[nbpw A-t±-
l-Øn-s‚ a-\- n¬ sX-fn-™p. 1888 ¬ H-cp in-emJ-fiw F-

42

(1856˛1928)

43

Sp-Øv, ]oT-Øn¬ {]-Xn-jvTn-®v ine-sb A-`n-tj-Iw sN-bvXp.
Ah-Im-i-an-√Ø hy‡n \-S-Øp∂- B-Zy-sØ t£-{X {]-
XnjvT \q-‰m-≠p-I-fm-bn C-hn-sS tX¿-hm-gv-N \-S-Øn-t∏m-∂
Pm-Xn-hy-h-ÿ-bp-sS \-s´-s√m-Sn-°p∂- {]-hr-Øn-bm-bn-cp∂p.
\-Zo-Xo-c-Øp-≈ H-cp ]md-sb ]oTam-bn k-¶-ev-]n-®p. B-‰n¬-
\n-s∂m-cp in-em-J-fi-sa-Sp-Øvp 1888˛se in-h-cm-{Xn-Zn-h-k-am-
Wv Kp-cp {]-Xn-jvT \-S-Øn-b-Xv. \mw {]-Xn-jvTn-®-Xv \-Ωp-sS
in-h-s\-bm-sW∂v {]-Jym-]n®p-sIm-≠v Pm-Xn-hy-h-ÿ-sb
sh√p-hn-fn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p A-t±lw.

Hmtcm t£-{Xhpw P-\-ß-fp-sS kmw-kv-Imcn-I {]-h¿-
Ø-\-ß-fp-sS tI-{μ-am-bn-cn-°-W-sa∂pw {]-[m-\-tZ-hme-bw hn-
Zym-e-bw X-s∂-bmI-Ws∂pw Kpcp-tZ-h≥ ]-d-™p. At±lw
ÿ-m-]n-® t£-{X-ß-tfm-Sp _-‘-s∏-´v hn-Zym-e-b-ß-ƒ, ]-Wn-
∏p-cIƒ, hy-h-km-bw, Ir-jn ap-X-em-b-h-bv-°p ku-I-cy-sam-
cp°n. tI-c-f-Øn-se B-Zy-sØ hy-h-km-b-{]-Z¿i-\w A-t±-
l-Øn-s‚ B-`n-ap-Jy-Øn-em-Wv \-S-Øn-b-sX-∂Xv Iu-Xp-I-
I-c-amWv.

Aø- ¶- mfn

A[-ÿnX hn`m-K-ßsf s]m-Xp-\n-c-Øn-eq-sS bm-{X
sN-øm≥ A-\p-h-Zn-°m-Ø D-b¿-∂ Pm-Xn-°m-cp-sS \-S-]-Sn-sb
A-ø-¶m-fn sh√p-hn-fn-®p. 1893 ¬ s]m-Xp-h-gn-bn-eq-sS H-cp
hn√ph-≠n IS-∂p h∂p. A-ø-¶m-fn-bm-bn-cp-∂p h-≠n-°p-
≈n¬. k-h¿-W¿ C-f-Ip-Ibpw h-≠n X-S-bp-
Ibpw sN-bvXp. B-bp-[-[m-cnbm-b A-ø-¶m-
fn-sbI-≠v X-S-bm≥ h-∂h¿ Hm-Sn c-£-s∏´p.
Aß-s\ k-©m-c-kzm-X-¥y-Øn-\v Xp-S-°-
ambn.

Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn-se Xm-gv-∂sX∂v
hnfn-°-s∏´ Pm-Xn-°m¿ I¿-j-I-sØm-gn-em-
fn-I-fm-bn-cp∂p. Ch-sc s]m-Xp-\n-c-Øp-I-fn¬
bm-{X sN-øm≥ A-\p-h-Zn-°p-Ibpw Ip-´nI-sf

(1863˛1941)

44

kv-Iq-fn¬ t]m-Im≥ A-\p-h-Zn-°p-Ibpw Iq-en h¿-[n-∏n-®v ÿ-
ncwIq-en A-\p-h-Zn-°p-Ibpw sN-øp∂-Xp h-sc b-P-am\-s‚ `q-
an-bn¬ tPm-en sN-øp-∂-Xs√-∂v A-ø-¶m-fn-bp-sS t\-Xr-Xz-
Øn¬ I¿-j-I-sØm-gn-em-fn-Iƒ {]-Jym-]n®p. A-h-km-\w Zn-
hm≥ a-[y-ÿ-s\ sh-®v H-Øp-Xo¿-∏n-s\-Øn˛k-©m-c-kzm-X-
¥yw, kv-Iq-fn¬ {]-th-i\w, Iq-en Iq-SpX¬. Cu \-S-]-Sn-Iƒ
Aø-¶m-fn-bp-sS t]cpw s]-cp-abpw D-b¿-Øn. A-Sn-a-ØØn-s‚
{]-Xo-I-ß-fm-bn I-W-°m-°-s∏-´n-cp-∂ C-cp-ºp sIm-≠pw •m-
kp-sIm≠pw \n¿-an-® B-`-c-W-߃ h-en-s®-dn-bm≥ A-ø-¶m-
fn kv-{Xo-I-tfmSv A-`y¿-Yn®tXmS-bmWv I√pam-e {]-t£m`-
Øn-\v XpS-°am-bXv. 1907 ¬ At±lw km[pP\
]cn]me\kwLw cq]oIcn®p.

h°w auehn (1873˛1932)
(1878˛1970)
tIc-f-Ønse apkvenw hn`m-K-߃°n-S-bn¬
kmaq-ln-I-\-thm-∞m-\-Øn\pth≠n bmYm-
ÿn-Xn-I-X-bvs°-Xnsc t]cm-Snb al-Zvhy-
‡n-Xz-am-bn-cp∂p h°w aue-hn. cmP-hm-gvN-
bpsS Zpjv{]-hr-Øn-Iƒ P\-߃°n-S-bn¬
Xpd-∂p-Im-´p-∂-Xn-\mbn 1905-˛¬ At±lw
ÿm]n® ]{X-amWv kztZ-im-`n-am-\n.

a∂-Øv ]-fl-\m`≥

- kaql- Ø- n¬ hntij- n®pw \mb- ¿ k-
ap-Zm-b-Øn¬ \n-e-\n-∂ ]e A-\m-Nm-c-ßfpw
C√m-Xm-°p-∂-Xn-\mbpw A-[xÿn-X hn-`m-K-
߃-°v t£-{X-{]-thi\w e-`n-°p-∂-Xn-\v
Dƒ-s∏-sS-bp-≈ km-aqln-I ap-t∂-‰-ß-ƒ-
°mbpw {]-h¿-Øn-® ]-cn-jv-I¿-Øm-hm-bn-cp-
∂p a∂-Øp ]-fl-\m`≥. A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ B-
ZyIm-e {]-h¿-Ø-\-߃ CØ-cw \-thm∞m-
\ ap-t∂-‰-ß-fn-eq-∂n-bm-bn-cp∂p. ssh-°w

45

kXy-{K-l-Øn-\v ]n¥p-W \¬-In k-h¿-WPm-Y \-SØn. 1955¬
tbm-K-t£a-k-` k-tΩ-f-\-Øn¬ sNbv-X {]-kw-K-Øn-¬ A-
t±-lw Cß-s\ ]-d-™p˛"k-I-e-Im-cy-߃-°pw {]-Xn-_-‘-
am-bn \n¬-°p∂-Xv bm-Ym-ÿn-Xn-I-≥amcmWv. bm-Ym-ÿn-Xn-I-
X F-∂ ]-Z-Øn-\v \n-L≠p-hn¬ F-¥¿-Y-am-bn-cp-∂mepw Po-
h-\n√m-bv-a F-∂m-Wv Rm≥ A¿-Yw I¬-]n-°p∂Xv'. ]p-cp-j-
∑m¿-s°m-∏w kv-{Xo-Ifpw km-aq-ln-I-cwK-Øv C-d-ß-W-sa-∂v
A-t±-lw DZv-t_m-[n-∏n®p.

s]mbvIb- n¬ {io Ipamc- K- pc- pt- Zh- ≥

Zfn-X-cpsS B-{i-b-ambpw c£-I-\mbpw {]h¿Øn® {io-
Ip-amc Kpcp-tZ-h≥ \thm-∞m\ Ncn-{X-Ønse Hcp {][m\
IÆn-bm-Wv. {InkvXob skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ IogvPm-Xn-°m-cpsS
arXtZlw kwkvI-cn-°m≥ A\p-h-Zn-°m-
ØXpw A[ÿnX kh¿W {InkvXym-\n-
Iƒ XΩn¬ hnhmlw A\p-h-Zn-°m-ØXpw
At±-lsØ Ae´n. ]e-h´w FXn-cm-fn-I-fp-
ambn At±-l-Øn\v G‰p-ap-t´≠n h∂n-´p-≠v.

hmK- `-v Sm\- μ- ≥

a-e-_m-dn-se Xo-b-cp-sS km-aqln-I ]- (1878˛1938)
cn-h¿-Ø-\-Øn-\v \n¿-Wm-b-I ]-¶p-h-ln-® hm-

Kv-`-Sm-\μ-\v th-Zm-¥Z¿-i-\-Ønepw kw-kv-Ir-X-Ønepw A-Km-

[]m-fin-Xy-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. Pm-Xn-k-{º-Zm-bw

ln-μp-a-X-Øn-s‚ A-Snÿm-\ {]-am-W-߃-°v

hn-cp-≤-am-sW-∂v {]-Jym-]n®psIm-≠p A-Xn-

s\ A-t±lw \-J-in-Jm¥w F-Xn¿Øp. H-cp

As- sZzX- m\- pb- mb- nb- ps- S {]mY- anI- NpaX- e- Pm-

Xnk- {- ºZ- mb- ß- ƒ°pw A\- mN- mc- ß- ƒ°pw A-

¥-hn-izm-k-߃-°p-sa-Xn-sc t]m-cm-Sp-I-bm-

sW-∂v A-t±-lw D-Zv-tLm-jn-®p.

(1885˛1939)

46

]fi- n‰- v Id- p∏≥

]-fin-‰v I-dp∏-s‚ Pm-Xn-°pΩn, D-Zym-
\-hn-cp∂v, _m-em-I-te-iw F-∂o Ir-Xn-Iƒ
Pm-Xo-bam-b D-®-\oN-Xz-߃-s°-Xn-sc P-\-
hnI- mc- w hf- ¿Ø- p∂- X- n¬ hnP- b- n®- nc- p∂- p. 1907
¬ k-apZm-b Aw-K-ß-fp-sS A-h-Im-i-߃
kw-c-£n-°p-hm≥ th-≠n A-c-b-k-am-Pw ÿm-
]n®- p. Ac- b- k- wL- S- \- I- ƒ ka- pZ- mb- Ø- n¬ \n-
e-\n-∂n-cp-∂ Zp-cm-Nm-c-߃°pw B¿-`m-S-߃-
°p-sa-Xn-sc t]m-cmSn.

k-tlm-Z-c≥ -A-ø-∏≥

tI-c-f-k-aqlØnse A-\m-Nm-c-߃-

s°-Xn-sc A-ø-∏≥ B-cw`n-® {]-ÿm-\-am-Wv

k-tlm-Z-c{]-ÿm\w. Pm-Xn-hy-h-ÿ-bp-sS

Im¿-°-iy-߃-s°-Xn-sc t]m-cm-Sm≥ A-ø-

∏≥ \S-∏n-em°n-b ]pXn-b co-Xn-bm-bn-cp-∂p

an{i-t`m-P\w. hy-Xykv-X Pm-Xn-°m¿ H-cp-an-

®n-cp∂v `£-Ww I-gn-°p-∂ Cu ]-cn-]m-Sn (1889˛1968)
1917 ¬ sN-dm-bnbn¬ A-t±-lw hn-P-b-I-c-am-

bn ]-co-£n-®p. a-Xw H-cp hy-‡n-bp-sS kz-Im-

cy-kz-Øm-sW-∂v I-cp-Xn-bn-cp-∂ A-ø-∏≥ Pm-Xn-k-{º-Zmb-sØ

A-Xn-i-‡-am-bn F-Xn¿-Øp. PmXn-th≠, aXw-th-≠,

ssZhhpwth≠ F∂ At±-l-Øns‚ {]t_m-[\w A°m-

Øv henb tImfn-f-°-ap-≠m-°n. 1917 ¬ Pm-Xn-\-io-Ic-Ww

F-∂ e£yw ap≥-\n¿-Øn k-tlm-Z-c kw-Lw B-cw-`n-®

At±lw an-{i-hn-hm-l-hpw t{]m-’m-ln-∏n-®n-cp-∂p.

hn.Sn.`´- X- nc- n∏- mSv

tIc-f-Ønse \thm-∞m-\-{]-ÿm\w Xmgv∂ PmXnhn-
`m-K-ßsf tI{μo-I-cn-®m-Wv Bcw-`n-®sX¶nepw \ºq-Xn-cn-,
\mb¿ XpS-ßnb hn`m-K-߃°n-S-bnepw Ne-\-߃ krjvSn-
®p. tbmK-t£-a-k-`-bn¬ DXv]-XnjvWp hn`m-K-Øns‚ t\Xm-

47

hm-bn-cp∂p hn.-Sn. hnPmXob _‘_ln-

jvI-cWw, IpSpa apdn-°¬, A¥¿P-\-ß-

fpsS thj-]-cn-jvI-c-Ww, an{i-t`m-P\w XpS-

ßnb kap-Zmb ]cn-jvI-cW ]cn-]m-Sn-

Iƒ°v t\XrXzw \¬In. ASp-°-f-bn¬

\n∂v kv{XoIƒ Ac-ß-tØ°v XpS-ßnb

Bi-b-߃ Db¿∂p-h-∂p. _lp-`m-cy-

mXzsØ \ntcm-[n-°p-I, hr≤-hn-hmlw XS-

bp-I, hn[-hm-hn-hmlw \S-∏n-em-°p-I, Hcp (1896˛1982)

IpSpw-_-Ønse aqØ-a-I≥ am{Xw kzPm-

Xn-bn¬ \n∂v hnhmlw Ign-°¬ F∂ A\m-Nm-c-Øn-s\-Xnsc

Iem]w Db¿ØpI XpS-ßn-bh tbmK-t£a k`-bpsS

{][m\ ap{Zm-hm-Iy-ß-fm-bn-cp-∂p. 1929 ¬ hn.-Sn-bpsS ASp-

°-f-bn¬ \n∂v Ac-ß-tØ°v F∂ \mSIw ]pdØp h∂p.

]pcp-js‚ t\Xr-Xz-Øn¬ kv{Xn hntam-N\ {]ÿm\w P\-

{i≤ BI¿jn-®p. Fw.-B¿.-_n., t{]w Pn, apØn-cn-tßm-Sv,

XpS-ßn-b-hcpw Cu {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fn¬ ]¶m-fn-I-fm-bn.

B\μ- X- o¿∞≥

1933 ¬ cq]w sImSpØ PmXn-\m-in-\n-

k-`-bn-eqsS B\-μ-Xo¿∞≥ an{i-hn-hm-

lhpw an{i-t`m-P-\hpw t{]m’m-ln-∏n-®p.

Xr°-cn-∏q¿, cma-hn-eyw Ig-I-Øn¬ lcn-P-

\-߃°v {]th-i\w \¬I-W-sa∂v Bh-

iy-s∏´p sIm≠p≈ kacw (1948), Xa-gv\m-

´n¬ lcn-P\ tamN\ {]ÿm\w (1952-˛1958), (1905˛1987)
Xe-t»cn PK-∂m-Y-t£-{X-Øn¬ Aln-μp-

°ƒ°pw {]th-i\w A\p-h-Zn-°-W-sa∂v Bh-iy-s∏-´p-sIm-

≠p≈ kXy-{K-lw (1978), Kpcp-hm-bq¿ t£{X-Ønse Du´p-

]p-c-bn¬ A{_m-“-W¿°pw Blmcw \¬I-W-sa∂v Bh-

iy-s∏´v kXy-{Klw (1982) XpS-ßn-bh At±-l-Øns‚ Pohn-

X-Ønse \mgn-I-I-√m-bn-cp-∂p. {_m“-W-\m-bn-cp∂n´pw ]e-

XhW At±lw PmXn-{]-am-Wn-am-cpsS a¿Z-\-Øn\nc-bmbn.

48

Nne \m-gn-I-°√pIƒ

49

50


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