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Published by Julianne Giordano (Class of 2023), 2019-06-04 14:08:35

Final Portfolio

Final Portfolio

Science Portfolio 

By Julianne Giordano 




Scientific Method Experiment 


Scientific Method Practice 


Scientific Method Quiz 

Problem Statement
Will fish become smarter if they eat microwaved foods?

If the amount of time it takes for the fish to finish the maze decreases, it shows that the
microwaved food made them smarter.

Independent Variable

The types of food the
fish ate.

Dependent Variable
How fast they finish the maze. (seconds)

Constants​ (Pick 2) Same amount of food (30g)
Same maze

The fish who didn’t eat any microwaved food.

Basic Procedures​:
(List 5-8 steps)

1. Have the control fish go through the maze and time it.
2. Give the fish who are eating the mozzarella sticks 30g of food and have them go

through the maze and time it.
3. Give the fish who are eating the pizza rolls 30g of food and have them go through the

maze and time it.
4. Give the fish who are eating the chicken nuggets 30g of food and have them go

through the maze and time it.
5. Compare all of the times.

Data Table:​ (Place data table here and use only 2 columns: A and B) Include ​ALL​ Titles!

Type of food # of seconds
No food
Mozzarella 78
Pizza rolls


Graph:​ (Place graph here)

Purpose, Hypothesis, Description, Data or evidence, Improvements, Conclusion

The purpose of this experiment is to see if the fishes intelligence is affected by the food
they eat. My hypothesis was correct, the fish who ate the microwaved food finished the maze
faster than the ones who didn’t. The fish who didn’t eat any microwaved food got through the
maze in 90 seconds. The fish who ate the mozzarella sticks got through the maze in 85
seconds. The fish who ate the pizza rolls got through the maze in 78 seconds. The fish who ate
the chicken nuggets got through the maze in 72 seconds. The fish who ate the food got through

Metric System Calculations

Measurement Unit #1 Unit #2 Unit #3 Scientific Notation
Length of Titanic
Paris to Moscow 269 m .269 km 26900 cm 2.69*104​ ​ cm
Mass of an African Elephant
Mass of a house fly 2486 km 2486000 m 248600000 cm 2.486*10​8c​ m
Volume of Olympic Swimming Pool
7000 kg 7 metric tons 7,000,000 g 7*10​6 g​
Distance Sun to Jupiter
20 mg .02 g 20000 micro g 2*104​ m​ icro g
Volume of Can of Soda
2,500,000 liters 2,500,000,000 2500 cubic 2.5*10​9 c​ ubic meters
Wingspan of 747 Jet ml meters
Height of Freedom Tower (meters)
Mass of a paper clip 778,500,000 778500000000 7785000000000 7.785*101​ 2​dm
km m dm

354.882 ml .354882 liters .000354882 3.54882*102​ m​ l
cubic meters

59.7408 meters .0597408 km 5974.08 cm 5.97408103​ ​cm

.5462 km 546.2 m 54620 cm 5.462*104​ ​cm

1g 1000 mg .001 kg 1*103​ ​ mg

Density Word Problems

Directions:​ Solve each of the problems below. Show your work including the formula, calling
out each variable and plugging the numbers into the formula. Your answer should include units
of measure. Reference densities and formulas listed below may be helpful in

1. What is the density of an object with a mass of 120g and a volume of 7ml?
D= M/V
D= 120g/7ml
D= 17.14 g/ml
2. What is the volume of 220g of an object with a density of 55g/cm3?
V= M/D
V= 220g/55g/cm³
V= 4 cm³
3. We have an object with a density of 620g/cm3 and a volume of 75 cm3. What is the mass of
this object?
M= D*V
M= 620g/cm³ * 75 cm³
M= 46,500.0 g = 4.65*10⁴ g
4. What would be the mass of #3 in kilograms?
46.5 kg
5. A block of wood has a mass of 180 grams. It is 10.0 cm long, 6.0cm wide, and 4.0cm thick.
What is its volume and density?
D= M/V
D= 180g/240 cm³
D= .75 g/cm³
6. A 500 gram piece of metal has a volume of 2.75 cm3. What is its density?
D= M/V
D= 500g/2.75 cm³D= 181.81 g/cm³
7. Find the volume of 20.0g of benzene.​Look at chart below.
V= M/D
V= 20g/.88 g/ml
V= 22.72 ml
8. Find the mass of Ether which can be put into a beaker holding 130 mL. ​ Look at chart at
bottom of document.
M= D*
M= .71g/ml/130ml
M= 5.46g
9. Find the volume of 10g of gasoline. L​ ook at chart at bottom of document.
V= M/D

V= 10g/.7g/ml
V= 14.28 ml
10. A cube measures 3.0 cm on each side and has a mass of 25g. What is the density
of the cube?
D= M/V
D= 25g/27 cm^3
D= .92 g/cm^3

Density Lab Report

I. Investigation Design
A. Problem Statement:

Which metal has the highest density?

B. Hypothesis:

If there are three types of aluminum being tested then they should have drastically different

C. Independent Variable: x
Levels of IV

Aluminum Copper Zinc Aluminum Tin
Lead Aluminum

D. Dependent Variable:y
Density of the metals

E. Constants: Same amount of water, same unit of measurement.
F. Control: The volume of water without metal.
G. Materials: (List with numbers)

1. Graduated Cylinder
2. Triple beam balance
3. Beaker
4. Eyedropper
5. The different types of metals
6. Water
7. Ruler

H. Procedures: (List with numbers and details)
1. Pour water in beaker
2. Pour 50 ml of water into graduated cylinder (use eyedropper to be exact)
3. Find the mass of the metal being texted on the triple beam scale
4. Find the new volume of the water in the beaker
5. Subtract 50 from the new volume
6. Divide the mass of the metal by the answer you got in the last step

7. That is your density.
8. Pour water out of cylinder
9. Put metal back in tray.

II. Data Collection
A. Qualitative Observations:

Descriptions of metals ( 2 or 3)

Copper- The copper had a metallic orange color and felt heavy in my hand.
Lead- The lead was shaped like a ball and had a greyish color. It was very heavy in my hand.

B. Quantitative Observations: (Key data)
1. Data Table

Type of Metal Density
Aluminum 3
Zinc 11
Aluminum 7.425
Lead 2.75
Aluminum 7.325


2. Graph

3. Calculations

Show 3 Math Examples


D = m/v

D= 27 g
3 cm3

D = 9 g/cm​3

D= m/v
D= 29.3g/4cm​³
D= 7.325cm³
D= m/v
D= 3cm³
D= m/v
D= 29.7g/4cm³
D= 7.425cm³

III. Data Analysis/Conclusion

The purpose of this experiment was to see which metal was the most dense. My hypothesis was
not correct. I predicted that the three types of aluminum being tested were going to have
drastically different densities, however they did not. The first aluminum has a density of 3 cm3​ ,​
the second aluminum had a density of 2.75 cm​3,​ the third aluminum had a density of 3.17 cm3​ ​.
In this experiment we measured 50ml of water into a graduated cylinder, then we weighed the
metal being tested to find the mass of it on the triple beam scale. Next, we slid the metal into the
cylinder and found the new volume of the water. We then took the difference between the new
volume and and the original volume and divided the mass of the metal by that number. That is
how we found the density of each metal. Here are the densities that we got for the following
metals, aluminums density was 3 cm3​ ​, copper’s density was 10 cm​3​, zinc’s density was 7.425

cm​3,​ aluminums density was 2.75 cm​3,​ tins density was 7.325 cm3​ ​, leads density was 11 cm​3,​
and aluminums density was 3.17 cm3​ .​ Some of the densities for our unknowns and our known
metals didn’t match up. However, we can identify metal B as copper and and metal C as
aluminum. We found out that the densest metal was the lead and the least dense metal was
the second aluminum.

IV. Research (Scientific Phenomena)
5 6-8 sentences about your topic

How does density relate to the Titanic?
Density relates to the Titanic because the ship sank when it became more dense than

the water. The Titanic is made of steel which has a density 8 times that of water. This would
make it sink right away but the ship is made mostly of air. Air has a density one thousandth that
of water which made the Titanic less dense than the water. However, when the ship hit the
iceberg, it filled up with water and became more dense than the water it was floating on and
V. References and Citations

● 2 or 3 web links

Phase Change Reflection
Hero’s Engine

Directions:​ Write a reflection about the Hero’s Engine observed in class today. How does it
relate to phase changes and the role of heat energy? How does it relate to energy resources?

● Heat Energy
● Conversion of Energy
● Boiling Point
● Newton’s Laws
● Kinetic Energy
● Mechanical Energy
● Potential Energy
● Molecules Moving
● Solid-Liquid-Gas
● Evaporation

Hero’s Engine Relates to phase changes and the role of heat energy because the water
changed from a solid to a gas when heat was added. When the fire was put underneath the
glass, the water started to heat up. One the water hit it’s boiling point, it started to turn into water
vapor. When the water vapor went through the tubes, the kinetic energy made the glass started
spinning. According to Newton’s third law, for every action there is an equal and opposite
reaction, this is why the glass spinned when the water vapor shot out of the tubes. As the water
vapor rose up towards the tubed, some molecules collected on the side of the glass. They
turned back into water because of condensation.

3. Activity: Phase Change of Water

● Melt the ice water and record the temperatures every 30 seconds until you reach the
boiling point of water.
● Record the temperatures on the following data table:
​ ​Construct a graph of your results. *U​ se Link on Classroom
● Respond to the Critical Thinking Questions

Time (min) Temperature (°C)
Start -1
0.5 1
1 2
1.5 4
2 6
2.5 9
3 11
3.5 12
4 14
4.5 16
5 17
5.5 18
6 20
6.5 23
7 26
7.5 29
8 32
8.5 36
9 40

9.5 44

10 47

10.5 51

11 53

11.5 57 - little steam

12 59

12.5 62

13 65 - more steam

13.5 66

14 68

14.5 70

15 72

15.5 73

16 74

16.5 76

17 78

17.5 79

18 80

18.5 80

19 81

19.5 82

20 82

20.5 82

21 82

21.5 83

22 82

22.5 83

23 84

23.5 84

24 83

24.5 83

25 84

25.5 85

26 85

26.5 88 = little bubbles at bottom

27 89

27.5 89

28 90 = lots of steam

28.5 91

29 92

29.5 93

30 93

30.5 93

31 93

31.5 97 - few bubbles rising

32 97 - sizzling a bit


Critical Thinking Questions:

1. When did the temperatures stay the same on the graph? Why did the
temperatures stay the same at 2 points during the lab?
The temperatures stayed the same on the graph during the phase changes.
The temperatures stayed the same during two points during the lab
because there were two phase changes. The ice changed from a solid to a
liquid and then again from a liquid to a gas.

2. How would the graph be different if we tried this experiment with Gold?
The graph would be different if we tried this experiment with gold because
gold’s melting point is 1,064℃, water’s melting point is 0℃. Gold’s boiling
point is 2,700℃, water’s boiling point is 100℃.

3. What is the role of energy during the phase changes?
The role of energy during phase changes is to break the bonds that hold the
molecules together. This allows them to change from a solid to a liquid or
from a liquid to a gas.

4. Describe the motion of the molecules throughout the experiment. Find
diagrams that show the motion.
The motion of the molecules during the experiment changed every time a

phase change happened. When the ice turned into a liquid the molecules started
moving faster. When the water turned into a gas the molecules moved even

5. How does the Average Kinetic Energy change throughout the experiment?
(Be specific)
The average kinetic energy increases as the water gets hotter.

6. Suppose you had 200 mL of ice in one beaker and 400 mL of ice in another
beaker. Compare and explain the following in the beakers after they have
reached the boiling point:

A. Heat Energy
The 400 ml of water will have more heat energy because it has a higher

B. Temperature
The 200 ml of water will have a higher temperature because it has a lower

C. Average Kinetic Energy
The 200 ml of water will have a higher average kinetic energy because its
mass is lower.

D. Specific Heat
They will have the same specific heat because they’re both water.

E. Latent Heat (Define it)

Latent heat is the heat required to turn a solid into a liquid or to turn a liquid
into a vapor without a change in temperature.
7. Why do we put water in a car’s engine? Explain:
We put water in a car’s engine because it is used to cool the radiator so it
doesn’t overheat. The water is usually mixed with a coolant to help the
radiator cool down even more.

Classification of Matter

Textbook: Chapter 15 (448-473)

1. Vocabulary
Directions: ​Write the definition and master the words on Quizlet. Include a
screenshot on this document showing your mastery of the words. Include a
picture that represents each word.

Substance Heterogeneous Solubility Solvent
Element Atom Saturated
Compound Mixture Solute Unsaturated
Mixture Suspension Supersaturated


2. Classification of Matter
*Provide Examples of each form of matter. Include a picture.

Heterogeneous Homogeneous Element Compound

Mixture Mixture

Pack of M&Ms Smoothie Mercury Water

Chex mix Milkshake Iron Carbon Dioxide

Sand and water Saltwater Phosphorus Sodium Chloride

Fruit salad Puree Silver Methane

Apple Jacks Chocolate Magnesium Sulfate

Critical Thinking:
● How are the examples for Heterogeneous and Homogeneous
MIxtures different?
A Heterogeneous mixture is a mixture where all of the different

substances can be distinguished and be physically separated. A

Homogeneous mixture is a mixture where all of the different substances
are blended evenly.

● How are Elements and Compounds similar and different?
In an element, all of the atoms have the same identity. A

compound is made up of two or more elements combined in a fixed
proportion. They are similar because they are both made up of an element
but they are different because one is a single element and one is two or
more elements.

Activity: Candy Mixture 

Directions: ​You will create a candy and snack mixture and determine the Mass% of each
component found within your mixture. Your mixture must have at least 4 different components.
Your group must sort and classify the mixture and find the mass of each component and then
create a pie chart.

Table: (Use this table to record your results)

Candy Percentage Individual Mass
Red M&M’s 11.5% 13.5 g
Orange M&M’s 19.3% 22.7 g
Yellow M&M’s 10.2% 12 g
Green M&M’s 10.2% 12 g
Blue M&M’s 13.1% 15.4 g
Brown M&M’s 6.6% 7.8 g
Milkyway 1 14.5% 17 g
Milkyway 2 14.6% 17.2 g

Total Mass: 117.6 g

Math Example:

Red M&M’s
Percentage= Individual Mass/Total Mass*100
Percentage= 13.5g/117.6g*100
Percentage= 11.5%

Our Graph:   
Avery’s Graph:   
Leah’s Graph:   


Conclusion:​ How is your sample an example of a Heterogeneous mixture? Explain how it is
different from the mixtures other groups. (Use data) How is this different from a compound?
Use an example from the past assignment or research some compounds.

It is an example of a heterogeneous mixture because you can separate the components
of the mixture physically. We compared our mixture to Leah’s mixture and to Avery’s mixture.
Our mixtures are all heterogeneous mixtures because they can all be separated by physical
means. We all used M&M’s in our mixtures, however, our mixture and Leah’s mixture had some
other candies besides M&M’s. Our mixture also had two Milkyway’s in it and Leah’s mixture had
Skittles, Swedish Fish, and Twix in it. We all had different amounts of the candy in our mixtures.
For example, red M&M’s made up 11.5% of our mixture, they made up 6.1% of Leah’s mixture
and 9.9% of Avery’s. These mixtures are different from compounds because these are a bunch
of M&M’s mixed together, they are not a bunch of elements combined. For example, sodium
chloride is a compound. Sodium chloride is actually table salt. It is made up of one sodium and
one chloride. Sodium chloride’s total mass is 58 amu, sodium’s individual mass is 23 amu and
chloride’s individual mass is 35 amu. Sodium takes up 39.7% of the total mass and chloride
takes up 60.3% of the total mass. This is different from the M&M’s mixture because the sodium
and the chloride are chemically combined to create a compound, the M&M mixture is a
heterogeneous mixture and can be separated physically. The M&M’s are not chemically

Sodium Chloride ​NaCl
Sodium (1) 23 = 23
Chloride (1) 35= 35


Total Mass:58 amu

Sodium’s mass percentage as part of a whole:

Chloride’s mass percentage as part of a whole:


Rock Mixture Lab

Directions: Analyze the data tables below and use the data to answer the questions about the
rock samples. You will do a similar lab tomorrow in class.

Table 1: Rock Mixture A Mass % of Sample
Component 35 g 35/76*100= 46.1%
12 g 12/76*100= 15.8%
Large Rocks 7g 7/76*100= 9.2%
Small Rocks 3g 3/76*100= 3.9%
Fine Grained Sand 17 g 17/76*100= 22.4%
Coarse Grained Sand 2g 2/76*100= 2.6%
Compound (Your choice) 76 g 100%
Sodium Chloride

Table 2: Rock Mixture B Mass % of Sample
Component 154 g 154/235*100= 65.5%
41 g 41/235*100= 17.4%
Large Rocks 18 g 18/235*100= 7.7%
Small Rocks 12g 12/235*100= 5.1%
Fine Grained Sand 7/235*100= 3%
Coarse Grained Sand 7g 3/235*100= 1.3%
Elements 3g
Compound (Your choice) 100%
Sodium Sulfate 235 g

1. How are the mixtures different?

The mixtures are different because there are different amounts of each rock in
each mixture. This either makes one of the mixtures weigh more or less than the other.
For example, the second mixture had a mass of 235 g and the first mixture had a mass
of 76 g. The second mixture has a higher mass than the first mixture for a couple of
reasons. The first reason is that the large rocks in the second mixture have a mass of
154 g and they only have a mass of 35 g in the first mixture. The second reason is that
each component of the second mixture had a higher mass than the first mixture’s
components. This made the second mixture’s mass higher than the first mixture’s.
2. Which group had a greater % of Fine Grained Sand?

The first mixture had a greater % of Fine Grained Sand. Even though the mass of
the Fine Grained Sand in the first mixture was lower than the second mixture, the Fine
Grained sand made up more of the first mixture which is why it has a higher percent in
the first mixture.
3. Why are these examples of Heterogeneous Mixture?

These are examples of a Heterogeneous Mixture because all of the components
in this mixture can be separated by physical means. The components of this mixture are not
chemically combined.

4. Which compound did you choose? What is the Mass% of each element in the
First Mixture:
I chose sodium chloride for the first compound. Sodium made up 39.7% of the
compound and chloride made up the remaining 60.3%.

Second Mixture:
I chose sodium sulfate for the second mixture. Sodium makes up 32.4% of this

compound, sulfur makes up 22.5%, and oxygen makes up 45.1%.







QUIZ: Classifying Matter 

I. Directions: I​ dentify the following as either a Heterogeneous Mixture, Homogeneous Mixture,

Element or Compound. Write the following letters in Column B for your choices:

A. Heterogeneous

B. Homogeneous

C. Element

D. Compound

Column A Column B

Salad A

Copper C

Lemonade B

Rocks, sand, gravel A

Salt Water B

Gold C

Sodium Chloride ​(NaCl) D

Air (Oxygen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide…) D

K2​ S​ O4​ D
Twix, snickers, pretzels, popcorn in a bag A

II. Directions:​ Determine the Mass % of each mixture and construct the appropriate graphs.

Mixture A Mass (g) %

Large Rocks 125 51.9

Small Rocks 75 31.1

Coarse Sand 32 13.3

Iron 9 3.7

Mixture B Mass (g) %
Large Rocks 205 52.7%
Small Rocks 58 14.9%
Coarse Sand 97 24.9%

Iron 29 7.5%

Calculation Examples (​ Provide 2 Examples showing how you determined the Mass %)
MIxture A

Mixture B

Mixture A

Mixture B

Part III.​ Determine the Mass % of Elements in each Compound:

K​2S​ O4​ ​ - Potassium Sulfate
(Show Math Here)
K - 39 amu
S - 32 amu
O - 16 amu
39*2 = 78
32*1 = 32
16*4 = 64
Total Mass= 174
78/174*100= 44.8%
32/174*100= 18.4%
64/174*100= 36.8%

Na3​ P​ O4​ ​ - Sodium Phosphate
(Show Math Here)
Na - 23 amu
P - 31 amu
O - 16 amu
23*3 = 69
31*1 = 31
16*4 = 64
Total mass: 164
69/164*100= 42.1%
31/164*100= 18.9%
64/164*100 = 39%

A. Mixture

B. Compound (pick one)

IV. Conclusion:

1. Explain the difference between Mixtures and Compounds ​using data.​ Compare the pie
The difference between mixtures and compounds is that a mixture is a bunch of things

physically combined and a compound is two or more elements chemically combined. There are
two types of mixtures, a heterogeneous mixture, and a homogeneous mixture. In a
heterogeneous mixture, you can separate all of the components in the mixture physically. For
example, in mixture B, all of the components in the mixture were able to be separated physically
because they’re not blended together. In a homogeneous mixture, all of the components of the
mixture are blended evenly throughout so you cannot separate the components of the mixture
physically. For example, in a smoothie, all of the components are blended evenly throughout the
mixture. You cannot separate the yogurt from the smoothie once it is already blended. In a
compound, two or more elements are chemically combined. One or more elements with positive
charges and one or more elements with negative charges combine to create a compound. One
example of a compound is sodium chloride. This compound is made up of one sodium (Na​+1)​
and one chloride (Ca​-1)​ . Sodium has a positive charge and Chloride has a negative charge so
they combine to create sodium chloride (NaCl). Another example of a compound is potassium
sulfate. Potassium sulfate is made up of 2 potassium, one sulfur, and 4 oxygens. All of these
elements are chemically combined because of their positive and negative charges.



Solubility/Compound Quiz 

I. Write the formula for the following compounds:

1. Sodium phosphate Na​3​PO4​

2. Magnesium carbonate MgCO3​
3. Ammonium carbonate (NH​4​)​2C​ O3​

4. Lithium sulfate Li2​ S​ O4​

5. Aluminum hydroxide AlOH3​

II. ​Write the name of the following compounds:

6. CaCO​3 Calcium carbonate

7. Ag​3P​ O4​ Silver Phosphate
8. K​2​S Potassium Sulfide
9. Mg(ClO3​ ​)​2 Magnesium Chlorate

10. ZnF​2 Zince Flouride

Question: ​Explain how you used your Periodic Table to find the charges of 2 of the elements:

III. Solubility -​ Read the questions and analyze the solubility graphs. Explain the appearance
of the beaker with the following solutions:

1. Suppose you have 160 g of Potassium nitrate at 55 C.
160 grams of potassium nitrate at 55 C is super-saturated. The water is not hot enough

to dissolve it. To dissolve 160 grams of potassium nitrate, the water needs to be 76 C. Because
the water is not hot enough to dissolve all of the potassium nitrate, there is some of the
compound left in the bottom of the beaker. At the bottom of the beaker, there are 62 grams of
undissolved potassium nitrate.
2. Suppose you have 200 g of Potassium Iodide at 60 C.

IV. Mass %​ You are exploring the Mississippi River and collect water samples. You find the
following ions in the water:


Your company needs you to compare the Oxygen content in 2 of the compounds. Choose 2
compounds and report the compound with the greatest and least % of oxygen. Construct Pie
Charts of both compounds.

I chose to make the compounds sodium phosphate and magnesium sulfate. The
percentage of oxygen in sodium phosphate is 39% and the percentage of oxygen in magnesium
sulfate is 49%. Magnesium sulfate has 10% more oxygen mass than sodium phosphate.

Sodium Phosphate

Na+​ 1 ​PO​4-​ 3
Na​3P​ O​4
Sodium’s mass (3) = 23*3 = 69
Phoshphorus’s mass (1) = 31
Oxygen’s mass (4) = 16*4 = 64
69+31+64 = 164 amu
69/164*100 = 42%
31/164*100 = 19%
64/164*100 = 39%

Magnesium Sulfate

Mg​+2​ SO4​ ​-3
Mg3​ (​ SO​4​)2​
Magnesium’s Mass (3) = 24*3 = 72

Sulfide’s Mass (2) = 32*2 = 64

Oxygen’s Mass (8) = 16*8 = 128

72+64+128 = 264

72/264*100 = 27%

64/264*100 = 24%

128/264*100 = 49%



River Compound Project 

B​ alancing Chemical Equations 


pHet Atomic Structure Simulation 

Atomic Structure Project

Due: Friday 1/25/19

Directions:​ Complete the requirements below that relate to atomic structure and the periodic
Vocabulary - Define and make a Quizlet

Atom Neutron Atomic Mass Atomic Radius
The smallest particle a neutral particle in The average mass of size of an atom
of an element the nucleus of an all the isotopes of an
atom element

Nucleus Electron Isotope Family
positively charged particles surrounding Atoms of the same A vertical column in
center of an atom the center of an atom element that have the periodic table
that has a charge of different numbers of
-1 neutrons

Proton Atomic number Periodic Table Period
Positively charged the number of A chart of the A horizontal row of
particle protons in the elements showing the elements in the
nucleus of an atom repeating pattern of periodic table
their properties

Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Halogens Noble Gases
group 2 also very Group 17 Contains group 18 unreactive
Group 1 very reactive nonmetals Very
reactive, soft, silver, reactive
shiny, low density

Oxidation numbers
Shows how many
electrons can be
shared, lost or gained
to become stable;
you cancel out the
valence numbers to
make the compound

Reading​: h​ ttps://
*Use this site for notes

1. Cover Page:​ Atomic Structure and Periodic Table
● Basic units of matter
● The defining structure of elements
● Protons, neutrons, and electrons make up an atom but are composed of quarks

● Atoms were created 13.7 million years ago during after the Big Bang
● Quarks came together to form protons and neutrons in the cooler universe
● Protons and neutrons make up the nuclei
● The universe was still to warm for the nuclei to capture the electrons so it took

380,000 years for it to be cool enough
● Hydrogen and Helium are the most common atoms and were the first ones

● Protons and neutron are heavier than electrons
● The radius of the electron cloud is 10,00 times larger than the radius of the

● 1,800 electrons are equal to the mass of one proton
● The protons and neutrons are always the same in an atom
● When you add a proton to an atom it makes a new element and when you add a

neutron to an atom it makes an isotope
● An isotope is a heavier version of an atom
● In 1911, Rutherford discovered the nucleus and in 1920 he proposed the name

proton for positively charges particles in the nucleus
● James Chadwick confirmed Rutherford’s theory that there was a neutral particle

in the nucleus too
● Most of the mass of the atom is in the nucleus
● The Proton has a slightly lighter mass than the neutron
● There are four basic forces but the “strong force” holds the nucleus together
● The number of protons decides what element it is
● The number of protons is the atomic number
● 3 quarks make up a proton, 2 have a + charge while one has a - charge and

these quarks are held together by weightless gluons
● Electrons surround the nucleus in pathways called orbitals
● The inner orbitals are spherical but the outer ones are more complicated
● Chemists can predict atoms boiling point, stability, and conductivity using its

electron configuration
● The outer shell is the most important one
● Neutrons have no charge but like protons, they are made up of 3 quarks, one +

quark and 2 - quarks
2. History of the Atom
Link: h​ ttps://
● About 2,500 years ago Democritus and Leucippus came up with an idea that you will

eventually come up with something uncuttable and named it atomos.
● Believed all matter was made of these things
● Believed each atom had a different shame like iron atoms had hooks because they are

so strong
● Another scientist named Aristotle thought that matter was made up of a combo of ether

fire air and water
● People thought their idea was a lucky guess

● In 1808, John Dalton thought the matter was made up of atoms that looks like balls and
were indivisible.

● In the late 1800s J.J. Thompson discovered the electron and pictured an atom like a
blueberry muffin and the electrons were the blueberries.

● Thought electrons were stuck in a positive “dough”
● Thought the atom was neutral
● Rutherford discovered the nucleus in 1911 and all the positive stuff was concentrated in

the center
● In 1913 Niels Bohr thought that the electrons orbited the nucleus
● In the 1920’s Erwin Schrodinger thought that they were hyperactive
● Thought they made a sphere
● In 1919 Rutherford discovered protons and in 1932 Chadwick discovered neutrons

What were the contributions of each of these scientists to the discovery of the atom?

a. Dalton
1808. Dalton proved that matter was made up of atoms. He believed that they
were shaped like tiny spheres and that they could be put in different
combinations to form compounds.

b. Thomson - ​Video
Discovered that atoms were made up of even smaller particles and they had a
negative charge called the electron. Thought of electrons like blueberries in a
muffin. Believed that the atom was neutral.

c. Rutherford
Discovered that atoms had empty space. After doing an experiment, he
discovered the mass of the gold foil wasn't evenly spread out but concentrated in
clumps. Also, he discovered that there was space between the nucleus and the
electrons. Figured out that protons were + charged and heavier than electrons.

d. Bohr
Discovered that the electrons orbit the nucleus. Thought that they circled the

nucleus in a ring or orbit.

3. Structure of the Atom

a. Nucleus, protons, neutrons, electrons
Electrons orbit the nucleus in a shell, orbital, or energy levels. Always two

electrons int he first orbital. The second and third orbitals can hold 8 electrons. Called the Octet

Protons are the positively charged particle in the nucleus. They determine what element
the atom is.

Neutrons are a neutral particle in the nucleus. They help balance the atom with their

The nucleus is in the center of the atom and it contains all of the protons and neutrons.

b. Atomic Mass
The atomic mass of an element is the atom’s mass. The protons and neutrons
usually make up most of the atom’s mass as electrons have a mass that is
1/1836 of a proton's mass.

c. Charge
The charge of an atom depends on the number of protons and electrons it
contains. Protons have a positive charge while electrons have a negative charge.
If there are more protons than electrons there will be a positive charge and if
there are more electrons and protons there will be a negative charge.

d. Valence Electrons
The electrons in the outermost shell of an atom.

***Use models to explain the difference between:
Sodium Chloride​ and ​Magnesium Chloride ​or ​Sodium sulfide​ and C​ alcium Sulfide or
Calcium phosphide and lithium phosphide

4. Isotopes
Link: ​

a. Provide Examples (screenshots from simulation)

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