STPM/S(E)960

MAJLIS PEPERIKSAAN MALAYSIA

(MALAYSIAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL)

PEPERIKSAAN

SIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA

(MALAYSIA HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION)

PHYSICS

Syllabus and Specimen Papers

This syllabus applies for the 2012/2013 session and thereafter until further notice.

NATIONAL EDUCATION PHILOSOPHY

“Education in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards further

developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and

integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are

intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically

balanced and harmonious, based on a belief in and devotion

to God. Such effort is designed to produce Malaysian

citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess

high moral standards, and who are responsible and capable

of achieving a high level of personal well-being as well as

being able to contribute to the betterment of the family, the

society and the nation at large.”

FOREWORD

This revised Physics syllabus is designed to replace the existing syllabus which has been in use since

the 2001 STPM examination. This new syllabus will be enforced in 2012 and the first examination

will also be held the same year. The revision of the syllabus takes into account the changes made by

the Malaysian Examinations Council (MEC) to the existing STPM examination. Through the new

system, the form sixth study will be divided into three terms, and candidates will sit for an

examination at the end of each term. The new syllabus fulfils the requirements of this new system.

The main objective of introducing the new examination system is to enhance the teaching and

learning orientation of form six so as to be in line with the orientation of teaching and learning in

colleges and universities.

The revision of the Physics syllabus incorporates current developments in physics studies and syllabus

design in Malaysia. The syllabus will give candidates exposure to pre-university level of Physics that

includes mechanics and thermodynamics, electricity and magnetism, oscillations and waves, optics,

and modern physics.

The syllabus contains topics, teaching periods, learning outcomes, examination format, grade

description and specimen papers.

The design of this syllabus was undertaken by a committee chaired by Professor Dato’ Dr. Mohd.

Zambri bin Zainuddin from Universiti Malaya. Other committee members consist of university

lecturers, representatives from the Curriculum Development Division, Ministry of Education

Malaysia, and experienced teachers who are teaching Physics. On behalf of MEC, I would like to

thank the committee for their commitment and invaluable contribution. It is hoped that this syllabus

will be a guide for teachers and candidates in the teaching and learning process.

Chief Executive

Malaysian Examinations Council

CONTENTS Page

Syllabus 960 Physics 1

1

Aims

Objectives 2–9

Content 10 – 15

16 – 22

First Term: Mechanics and Thermodynamics 23 – 24

Second Term: Electricity and Magnetism

Third Term: Oscillations and Waves, Optics, and Modern Physics 24

Practical Syllabus (School-based Assessment of Practical) 25 – 26

Written Practical Test

Scheme of Assessment 27

Performance Descriptions 28 – 30

Summary of Key Quantities and Units

Values of constants 31

Reference Books 32

Specimen Paper 1 33 – 54

Specimen Paper 2 55 – 78

Specimen Paper 3 79 – 100

Specimen Experiment Paper 4 101 – 103

Specimen Paper 5 105 – 131

SYLLABUS

960 PHYSICS

Aims

This syllabus aims to enhance candidates’ knowledge and understanding of physics to enable them to

either further their studies at institutions of higher learning or assist them to embark on a related

career and also to promote awareness among them of the role of physics in the universe.

Objectives

The objectives of this syllabus are to enable candidates to:

(a) use models, concepts, principles, theories, and laws of physics;

(b) interpret and use scientific information presented in various forms;

(c) solve problems in various situations;

(d) analyse, synthesise, and evaluate information and ideas logically and critically;

(e) use techniques of operation and safety aspects of scientific equipment;

(f) plan and carry out experiments scientifically and make conclusions;

(g) develop proper attitudes, ethics, and values in the study and practice of physics.

1

FIRST TERM: MECHANICS AND THERMODYNAMICS

Topic Teaching Learning Outcome

Period

1 Physical Quantities and 6 Candidates should be able to:

Units

1.1 Base quantities and 1 (a) list base quantities and their SI units:

SI units mass (kg), length (m), time (s), current (A),

temperature (K) and quantity of matter (mol);

1.2 Dimensions of

physical quantities (b) deduce units for derived quantities;

1.3 Scalars and vectors 1 (c) use dimensional analysis to determine the

dimensions of derived quantities;

1.4 Uncertainties in

measurements (d) check the homogeneity of equations using

dimensional analysis;

2 Kinematics

2.1 Linear motion (e) construct empirical equations using

dimensional analysis;

2.2 Projectiles

2 (f) determine the sum, the scalar product and

vector product of coplanar vectors;

(g) resolve a vector to two perpendicular

components;

2 (h) calculate the uncertainty in a derived quantity

(a rigorous statistical treatment is not

required);

(i) write a derived quantity to an appropriate

number of significant figures.

6 Candidates should be able to:

2 (a) derive and use equations of motion with

constant acceleration;

(b) sketch and use the graphs of displacement-

time, velocity-time and acceleration-time for

the motion of a body with constant

acceleration;

4 (c) solve problems on projectile motion without

air resistance;

(d) explain the effects of air resistance on the

motion of bodies in air.

2

Topic Teaching Learning Outcome

Period

3 Dynamics 12 Candidates should be able to:

3.1 Newton’s laws of

motion 4 (a) state Newton’s laws of motion;

3.2 Linear momentum and (b) use the formula F dv v dm for constant

its conservation m

dt dt

3.3 Elastic and inelastic

collisions m or constant v only;

3.4 Centre of mass 3 (c) state the principle of conservation of

momentum, and verify the principle using

3.5 Frictional forces Newton’s laws of motion;

4 Work, Energy and Power (d) apply the principle of conservation of

4.1 Work momentum;

4.2 Potential energy and (e) define impulse as F dt ;

kinetic energy

(f) solve problems involving impulse;

2 (g) distinguish between elastic collisions and

inelastic collisions (knowledge of coefficient

of restitution is not required);

(h) solve problems involving collisions between

particles in one dimension;

1 (i) define centre of mass for a system of particles

in a plane;

(j) predict the path of the centre of mass of a two-

particle system;

2 (k) explain the variation of frictional force with

sliding force;

(l) define and use coefficient of static function

and coefficient of kinetic friction.

5 Candidates should be able to:

2 (a) define the work done by a force dW F ds ;

(b) calculate the work done using a force-

displacement graph;

(c) calculate the work done in certain situations,

including the work done in a spring;

2 (d) derive and use the formula: potential energy

change = mgh near the surface of the Earth;

(e) derive and use the formula: kinetic energy

1 mv 2 ;

2

3

Topic Teaching Learning Outcome

Period

(f) state and use the work-energy theorem;

(g) apply the principle of conservation of energy

in situations involving kinetic energy and

potential energy;

4.3 Power 1 (h) derive and use the formula P Fv ;

5 Circular Motion

(i) use the concept of efficiency to solve

5.1 Angular displacement problems.

and angular velocity

8 Candidates should be able to:

5.2 Centripetal

acceleration 1 (a) express angular displacement in radians;

(b) define angular velocity and period;

5.3 Centripetal force (c) derive and use the formula v r ;

6 Gravitation 2 (d) explain that uniform circular motion has an

6.1 Newton’s law of acceleration due to the change in direction of

universal gravitation velocity;

6.2 Gravitational field

(e) derive and use the formulae for centripetal

acceleration a = v2 and a = r 2 ;

r

5 (f) explain that uniform circular motion is due to

the action of a resultant force that is always

directed to the centre of the circle;

(g) use the formulae for centripetal force

F mv2 mr 2 ;

and F

r

(h) solve problems involving uniform horizontal

circular motion for a point mass;

(i) solve problems involving vertical circular

motions for a point mass (knowledge of

tangential acceleration is not required).

10 Candidates should be able to:

1 (a) state Newton’s law of universal gravitation and

use the formula F GMm ;

r2

2 (b) explain the meaning of gravitational field;

(c) define gravitational field strength as force of

gravity per unit mass;

4

Topic Teaching Learning Outcome

Period

(d) use the equation g GM for a gravitational

r2

field;

6.3 Gravitational potential 3 (e) define the potential at a point in a gravitational

field;

6.4 Satellite motion in a

circular orbit (f) derive and use the formula V GM ;

r

6.5 Escape velocity

7 Statics (g) use the formula for potential energy

U GMm ;

7.1 Centre of gravity r

7.2 Equilibrium of

(h) show that U mg r mgh is a special case

particles

7.3 Equilibrium of rigid of U GMm for situations near to the

r

bodies

surface of the Earth;

(i) use the relationship g dV ;

dr

(j) explain, with graphical illustrations, the

variations of gravitational field strength and

gravitational potential with distance from the

surface of the Earth;

3 (k) solve problems involving satellites moving in

a circular orbit in a gravitational field;

(l) explain the concept of weightlessness;

1 (m) derive and use the equation for escape

velocity ve 2GM and ve 2 gR .

R

6 Candidates should be able to:

1 (a) define centre of gravity;

(b) state the condition in which the centre of mass

is the centre of gravity;

1 (c) state the condition for the equilibrium of a

particle;

(d) solve problems involving forces in equilibrium

at a point;

4 (e) define torque as r F;

(f) state the conditions for the equilibrium of a

rigid body;

5

Topic Teaching Learning Outcome

Period

8 Deformation of Solids (g) sketch and label the forces which act on a

8.1 Stress and strain particle and a rigid body;

8.2 Force-extension graph

and stress-strain graph (h) use the triangle of forces to represent forces in

equilibrium;

8.3 Strain energy

9 Kinetic Theory of Gases (i) solve problems involving forces in

equilibrium.

9.1 Ideal gas equation

5 Candidates should be able to:

1 (a) define stress and strain for a stretched wire or

elastic string;

2 (b) sketch force-extension graph and stress-strain

graph for a ductile material;

(c) identify and explain proportional limit, elastic

limit, yield point and tensile strength;

(d) define the Young’s modulus;

(e) solve problems involving Young’s modulus;

(f) distinguish between elastic deformation and

plastic deformation;

(g) distinguish the shapes of force-extension

graphs for ductile, brittle and polymeric

materials;

2 (h) derive and use the formula for strain energy;

(i) calculate strain energy from force-extension

graphs or stress-strain graphs.

14 Candidates should be able to:

2 (a) use the ideal gas equation pV nRT ;

9.2 Pressure of a gas 2 (b) state the assumptions of the kinetic theory of

an ideal gas;

9.3 Molecular kinetic

energy (c) derive and use the equation for the pressure

exerted by an ideal gas p 1 c2 ;

3

2 (d) state and use the relationship between the

Boltzmann constant and molar gas constant

k R

;

NA

6

Topic Teaching Learning Outcome

Period

(e) derive and use the expression for the mean

translational kinetic energy of a molecule,

1 mc2 3 kT ;

22

9.4 The r.m.s. speed of 2 (f) calculate the r.m.s. speed of gas molecules;

molecules

(g) sketch the molecular speed distribution graph

and explain the shape of the graph (description

of the experiment is not required);

(h) predict the variation of molecular speed

distribution with temperature;

9.5 Degrees of freedom 3 (i) define the degrees of freedom of a gas

and law of molecule;

equipartition of energy (j) identify the number of degrees of freedom of a

monatomic, diatomic or polyatomic molecule

at room temperature;

(k) explain the variation in the number of degrees

of freedom of a diatomic molecule ranging

from very low to very high temperatures;

(l) state and apply the law of equipartition of

energy;

9.6 Internal energy of an 3 (m) distinguish between an ideal gas and a real gas;

ideal gas

(n) explain the concept of internal energy of an

ideal gas;

(o) derive and use the relationship between the

internal energy and the number of degrees of

freedom.

10 Thermodynamics of Gases 14 Candidates should be able to:

10.1 Heat capacities 2 (a) define heat capacity, specific heat capacity and

molar heat capacity;

(b) use the equations: nCV,mΔ and

Q CΔ , Q mcΔ , Q

Q nCp,mΔ ;

10.2 Work done by a gas 1 (c) derive and use the equation for work done by

a gas W p dV ;

7

Topic Teaching Learning Outcome

10.3 First law of Period

thermodynamics 5 (d) state and apply the first law of

thermodynamics Q U W ;

10.4 Isothermal and

adiabatic changes (e) deduce the relationship U nCV,m T from

the first law of thermodynamics;

11 Heat Transfer

11.1 Conduction (f) derive and use the equation Cp,m CV,m R;

11.2 Convection (g) relate CV,m and Cp,m to the degrees of

freedom;

(h) use the relationship Cp,m to identify the

types of molecules; CV,m

6 (i) describe the isothermal process of a gas;

(j) use the equation pV constant for isothermal

changes;

(k) describe the adiabatic process of a gas;

(l) use the equations pV γ constant and

TV γ 1 constant for adiabatic changes;

(m) illustrate thermodynamic processes with p-V

graphs;

(n) derive and use the expression for work done in

the thermodynamic processes.

10 Candidates should be able to:

5 (a) explain the mechanism of heat conduction

through solids, and hence, distinguish between

conduction through metals and non-metals;

(b) define thermal conductivity;

(c) use the equation dQ kA d for heat

dt dx

conduction in one dimension;

(d) describe and calculate heat conduction through

a cross-sectional area of layers of different

materials;

(e) compare heat conduction through insulated

and non-insulated rods;

1 (f) describe heat transfer by convection;

(g) distinguish between natural and forced

convection;

8

Topic Teaching Learning Outcome

11.3 Radiation Period

11.4 Global warming 3 (h) describe heat transfer by radiation;

(i) use Stefan-Boltzmann equation dQ e AT 4 ;

dt

(j) define a black body;

1 (k) explain the greenhouse effect and thermal

pollution;

(l) suggest ways to reduce global warming.

9

SECOND TERM: ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM

Topic Teaching Learning Outcome

Period

12 Electrostatics 12 Candidates should be able to:

12.1 Coulomb’s law

12.2 Electric field 2 (a) state Coulomb’s law, and use the formula

Qq

12.3 Gauss’s law

12.4 Electric potential F 4 0r2 ;

13 Capacitors 3 (b) explain the meaning of electric field, and

13.1 Capacitance sketch the field pattern for an isolated point

13.2 Parallel plate charge, an electric dipole and a uniformly

capacitors charged surface;

(c) define the electric field strength, and use the

F

formula E ;

q

(d) describe the motion of a point charge in a

uniform electric field;

4 (e) state Gauss’s law, and apply it to derive the

electric field strength for an isolated point

charge, an isolated charged conducting sphere

and a uniformly charged plate;

3 (f) define electric potential;

(g) use the formula V Q ;

4 0r

(h) explain the meaning of equipotential surfaces;

(i) use the relationship E dV

;

dr

(j) use the formula U = qV.

12 Candidates should be able to:

1 (a) define capacitance;

2 (b) describe the mechanism of charging a parallel

plate capacitor;

Q 0A for

(c) use the formula C to derive C d

V

the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor;

10

Topic Teaching Learning Outcome

13.3 Dielectrics Period

13.4 Capacitors in series 2 (d) define relative permittivity r (dielectric

and in parallel constant);

13.5 Energy stored in a (e) describe the effect of a dielectric in a parallel

charged capacitor plate capacitor;

13.6 Charging and (f) use the formula C r 0 A ;

discharging of a

capacitor d

14 Electric Current 2 (g) derive and use the formulae for effective

14.1 Conduction of capacitance of capacitors in series and in

electricity parallel;

1 (h) use the formulae

U 1 1 Q2 1 CV 2

andU

QV , U 2C

2 2

(derivations are not required);

4 (i) describe the charging and discharging process

of a capacitor through a resistor;

(j) define the time constant, and use the formula

RC ;

(k) derive and use the formulae and

tt

Q Q0 1 e , V V0 1 e

t

I I0e for charging a capacitor through a

resistor;

t

(l) derive and use the formulae Q Q0e ,

tt

V V0e and I I0e for discharging a

capacitor through a resistor;

(m) solve problems involving charging and

discharging of a capacitor through a resistor.

10 Candidates should be able to:

2 (a) define electric current, and use the equation

I dQ ;

dt

(b) explain the mechanism of conduction of

electricity in metals;

11

Topic Teaching Learning Outcome

14.2 Drift velocity Period

14.3 Current density

2 (c) explain the concept of drift velocity;

14.4 Electric conductivity (d) derive and use the equation I Anev;

and resistivity

2 (e) define electric current density and

15 Direct Current Circuits conductivity;

15.1 Internal resistance

15.2 Kirchhoff’s laws (f) use the relationship J E;

15.3 Potential divider

15.4 Potentiometer and (g) derive and use the equation ne2t

Wheatstone bridge ;

4 m

(h) define resistivity, and use the formula RA ;

l

(i) show the equivalence between Ohm’s law and

the relationship J E;

(j) explain the dependence of resistivity on

temperature for metals and semiconductors by

using the equation ne2t ;

m

(k) discuss the effects of temperature change on

the resistivity of conductors, semiconductors

and superconductors.

14 Candidates should be able to:

1 (a) explain the effects of internal resistance on the

terminal potential difference of a battery in a

circuit;

4 (b) state and apply Kirchhoff’s laws;

2 (c) explain a potential divider as a source of

variable voltage;

(d) explain the uses of shunts and multipliers;

7 (e) explain the working principles of a

potentiometer, and its uses;

(f) explain the working principles of a Wheatstone

bridge, and its uses;

(g) solve problems involving potentiometer and

Wheatstone bridge.

12

Topic Teaching Learning Outcome

Period

16 Magnetic Fields 18 Candidates should be able to:

16.1 Concept of a magnetic 1 (a) explain magnetic field as a field of force

field produced by current-carrying conductors or by

permanent magnets;

16.2 Force on a moving

charge 3 (b) use the formula for the force on a moving

charge F qv B;

(c) use the equation F qvB sin to define

magnetic flux density B;

(d) describe the motion of a charged particle

parallel and perpendicular to a uniform

magnetic field;

16.3 Force on a current- 3 (e) explain the existence of magnetic force on a

carrying conductor straight current-carrying conductor placed in a

uniform magnetic field;

16.4 Magnetic fields due to

currents (f) derive and use the equation F IlBsin

4 (g) state Ampere’s law, and use it to derive the

magnetic field of a straight wire B 0I ;

2πr

(h) use the formulae B 0 NI for a circular coil

2r

and B 0nI for a solenoid;

16.5 Force between two 3 (i) derive and use the formula F μ0 I1I 2l for the

current-carrying 2πd

conductors

force between two parallel current-carrying

conductors;

16.6 Determination of the 2 (j) describe the motion of a charged particle in the

presence of both magnetic and electric fields

ratio e (for v, B and E perpendicular to each other);

m

(k) explain the principles of the determination of

the ratio e for electrons in Thomson’s

m

experiment (quantitative treatment is required);

16.7 Hall effect 2 (l) explain Hall effect, and derive an expression

for Hall voltage VH ;

(m) state the applications of Hall effect.

13

Topic Teaching Learning Outcome

Period

17 Electromagnetic Induction 18 Candidates should be able to:

17.1 Magnetic flux

17.2 Faraday’s law and 1 (a) define magnetic flux as Φ B A;

Lenz’s law

8 (b) state and use Faraday’s law and Lenz’s law;

17.3 Self induction (c) derive and use the equation for induced e.m.f.

in linear conductors and plane coils in uniform

17.4 Energy stored in an magnetic fields;

inductor

5 (d) explain the phenomenon of self-induction, and

define self-inductance;

(e) use the formulae E L dI and LI NΦ;

dt

(f) derive and use the equation for the self-

inductance of a solenoid L 0 N 2 A ;

l

2 (g) use the formula for the energy stored in an

inductor U 1 LI 2 ;

2

17.5 Mutual induction 2 (h) explain the phenomenon of mutual induction,

and define mutual inductance;

18 Alternating Current

Circuits (i) derive an expression for the mutual inductance

18.1 Alternating current

through a resistor between two coaxial solenoids of the same

cross-sectional area M 0NpNs A .

lp

12 Candidates should be able to:

3 (a) explain the concept of the r.m.s. value of an

alternating current, and calculate its value for

the sinusoidal case only;

(b) derive an expression for the current from

V V0 sin t ;

(c) explain the phase difference between the

current and voltage for a pure resistor;

(d) derive and use the formula for the power in an

alternating current circuit which consists only

of a pure resistor;

14

Topic Teaching Learning Outcome

Period

18.2 Alternating current 3 (e) derive an expression for the current from

through an inductor V V0 sin t ;

(f) explain the phase difference between the

current and voltage for a pure inductor;

(g) define the reactance of a pure inductor;

(h) use the formula XL L;

(i) derive and use the formula for the power in an

alternating current circuit which consists only

of a pure inductor;

18.3 Alternating current 3 (j) derive an expression for the current from

through a capacitor V V0 sin t ;

(k) explain the phase difference between the

current and voltage for a pure capacitor;

(l) define the reactance of a pure capacitor;

(m) use the formula XC 1

;

C

(n) derive and use the formula for the power in an

alternating current circuit which consists only

of a pure capacitor;

18.4 R-C and R-L circuits in 3 (o) define impedance;

series (p) use the formula Z R2 ( X L X C )2 ;

(q) sketch the phasor diagrams of R-C and R-L

circuits.

15

THIRD TERM: OSCILLATIONS AND WAVES, OPTICS, AND MODERN PHYSICS

Topic Teaching Learning Outcome

Period

19 Oscillations 12 Candidates should be able to:

19.1 Characteristics of 1 (a) define simple harmonic motion;

simple harmonic

motion

19.2 Kinematics of simple 4 (b) show that x Asin t is a solution of

harmonic motion a 2x;

(c) derive and use the formula v A2 x2 ;

(d) describe, with graphical illustrations, the

variation in displacement, velocity and

acceleration with time;

(e) describe, with graphical illustrations, the

variation in velocity and acceleration with

displacement;

19.3 Energy in simple 2 (f) derive and use the expressions for kinetic

harmonic motion energy and potential energy;

(g) describe, with graphical illustrations, the

variation in kinetic energy and potential energy

with time and displacement;

19.4 Systems in simple 3 (h) derive and use expressions for the periods of

harmonic motion oscillations for spring-mass and simple

pendulum systems;

19.5 Damped oscillations 1 (i) describe the changes in amplitude and energy

for a damped oscillating system;

(j) distinguish between under damping, critical

damping and over damping;

19.6 Forced oscillations and 1 (k) distinguish between free oscillations and

resonance forced oscillations;

(l) state the conditions for resonance to occur.

20 Wave Motion 12 Candidates should be able to:

20.1 Progressive waves 3 (a) interpret and use the progressive wave

equation y = A sin ( t kx) or

y = A cos ( t kx);

(b) sketch and interpret the displacement-time

graph and the displacement-distance graph;

16

Topic Teaching Learning Outcome

Period

(c) use the formula 2 λ x ;

(d) derive and use the relationship v f ;

20.2 Wave intensity 2 (e) define intensity and use the relationship

I A2 ;

(f) describe the variation of intensity with distance

of a point source in space;

20.3 Principle of 1 (g) state the principle of superposition;

superposition

20.4 Standing waves 4 (h) use the principle of superposition to explain

the formation of standing waves;

(i) derive and interpret the standing wave

equation;

(j) distinguish between progressive and standing

waves;

20.5 Electromagnetic waves 2 (k) state that electromagnetic waves are made up

of electrical vibrations E = E0 sin ( t kx)

and magnetic vibrations B = B0 sin ( t kx);

(l) state the characteristics of electromagnetic

waves;

(m) compare electromagnetic waves with

mechanical waves;

(n) state the formula c 1 , and explain its

significance;

00

(o) state the orders of the magnitude of

wavelengths and frequencies for different

types of electromagnetic waves.

21 Sound Waves 14 Candidates should be able to:

21.1 Propagation of sound 2 (a) explain the propagation of sound waves in air

waves in terms of pressure variation and

displacement;

(b) interpret the equations for displacement

y y0 sin ( t kx) and pressure

p = p0 sin t kx ;

2

17

Topic Teaching Learning Outcome

Period

(c) use the standing wave equation to determine

the positions of nodes and antinodes of a

standing wave along a stretched string;

21.2 Sources of sound 4 T

to determine the

21.3 Intensity level of (d) use the formula v

sound

frequencies of the sound produced by different

21.4 Beat modes of vibration of the standing waves

along a stretched string;

21.5 Doppler effect

22 Geometrical Optics (e) describe, with appropriate diagrams, the

different modes of vibration of standing waves

22.1 Spherical mirrors in air columns, and calculate the frequencies of

sound produced, including the determination

22.2 Refraction at spherical of end correction;

surfaces

2 (f) define and calculate the intensity level of

sound;

2 (g) use the principle of superposition to explain

the formation of beats;

(h) use the formula for beat frequency

f f1 f2;

4 (i) describe the Doppler effect for sound, and use

the derived formulae (for source and/or

observer moving along the same line).

8 Candidates should be able to:

3 (a) use the relationship f r for spherical

2

mirrors;

(b) draw ray diagrams to show the formation of

images by concave mirrors and convex

mirrors;

(c) use the formula 11 1 for spherical

uv f

mirrors;

2 (d) use the formula n1 n2 n2 n1 for

uv r

refraction at spherical surfaces;

18

Topic Teaching Learning Outcome

Period

22.3 Thin lenses 3 (e) use the formula n1 n2 n2 n1 to derive

uv r

23 Wave Optics

23.1 Huygens’s principle the thin lens formula 1 1 1 and

23.2 Interference uv f

23.3 Two-slit interference lensmaker’s equation 1 nl 1 1 1;

pattern fm nm r1 r2

23.4 Interference in a thin (f) use the thin lens formula and lensmaker’s

film equation.

23.5 Diffraction by a single 16 Candidates should be able to:

slit

1 (a) state the Huygens’s principle;

(b) use the Huygens’s principle to explain

interference and diffraction phenomena;

2 (c) explain the concept of coherence;

(d) explain the concept of optical path difference,

and solve related problems;

(e) state the conditions for constructive and

destructive interferences;

2 (f) explain Young’s two-slit interference pattern;

(g) derive and use the formula x λD for the

a

fringe separation in Young’s interference

pattern;

2 (h) explain the phenomenon of thin film

interference for normal incident light, and

solve related problems;

2 (i) explain the diffraction pattern for a single slit;

(j) use the formula sin θ λ for the first

a

minimum in the diffraction pattern for a single

slit;

(k) use the formula sin = as the resolving

a

power of an aperture;

19

Topic Teaching Learning Outcome

23.6 Diffraction gratings Period

23.7 Polarisation 3 (l) explain the diffraction pattern for a diffraction

grating;

23.8 Optical waveguides

24 Quantum Physics (m) use the formula d sinθ mλ for a diffraction

grating;

24.1 Photons

(n) describe the use of a diffraction grating to form

the spectrum of white light, and to determine

the wavelength of monochromatic light;

2 (o) state that polarisation is a property of

transverse waves;

(p) explain the polarisation of light obtained by

reflection or using a polariser;

(q) use the Brewster’s law tan B n;

(r) use the Malus’s law I = I0 cos2 ;

2 (s) explain the basic principles of fibre optics and

waveguides;

(t) state the applications of fibre optics and

waveguides.

20 Students should be able to:

8 (a) describe the important observations in

photoelectric experiments;

(b) recognise the features of the photoelectric

effect that cannot be explained by wave theory,

and explain these features using the concept of

quantisation of light;

(c) use the equation E hf for a photon;

(d) explain the meaning of work function and

threshold frequency;

(e) use Einstein’s equation for the photoelectric

effect hf W 1 mvm2 ax ;

2

(f) explain the meaning of stopping potential, and

use eVs 1 mvm2 ax ;

2

20

Topic Teaching Learning Outcome

24.2 Wave-particle duality Period

24.3 Atomic structure 2 (g) state de Broglie’s hypothesis;

24.4 X-rays (h) use the relation h to calculate de Broglie

wavelength; p

(i) interpret the electron diffraction pattern as an

evidence of the wave nature of electrons;

(j) explain the advantages of an electron

microscope as compared to an optical

microscope;

4 (k) state Bohr’s postulates for a hydrogen atom;

(l) derive an expression for the radii of the orbits

in Bohr’s model;

(m) derive the formula En Z 2e4m

Bohr’s model; for

8 02h2n2

(n) explain the production of emission line spectra

with reference to the transitions between

energy levels;

(o) explain the concepts of excitation energy and

ionisation energy;

5 (p) interpret X-ray spectra obtained from X-ray

tubes;

(q) explain the characteristic line spectrum and

continuous spectrum including min in X-rays;

(r) derive and use the equation min hc ;

eV

(s) describe X-ray diffraction by two parallel

adjacent atomic planes;

(t) derive and use Bragg’s law 2d sin = m ;

24.5 Nanoscience 1 (u) explain the basic concept of nanoscience;

(v) state the applications of nanoscience in

electronics devices.

21

Topic Teaching Learning Outcome

25 Nuclear Physics Period

25.1 Nucleus 14 Candidates should be able to:

25.2 Radioactivity 4 (a) describe the discovery of protons and neutrons

(experimental details are not required);

25.3 Nuclear reactions

(b) explain mass defect and binding energy;

(c) use the formula for mass-energy equivalence

E = mc2;

(d) relate and use the units u and eV;

(e) sketch and interpret a graph of binding energy

per nucleon against nucleon number;

6 (f) explain radioactive decay as a spontaneous and

random process;

(g) define radioactive activity;

(h) state and use the exponential law dN N

dt

for radioactive decay;

(i) define decay constant;

(j) derive and use the formula N N0e t ;

(k) define half-life, and derive the relation

ln 2

;

t1

2

(l) solve problems involving the applications of

radioisotopes as tracers in medical physics;

4 (m) state and apply the conservation of nucleon

number and charge in nuclear reactions;

(n) apply the principle of mass-energy

conservation to calculate the energy released

(Q – value) in a nuclear reaction;

(o) relate the occurrence of fission and fusion

to the graph of binding energy per nucleon

against nucleon number;

(p) explain the conditions for a chain reaction to

occur;

(q) describe a controlled fission process in a

reactor;

(r) describe a nuclear fusion process which occurs

in the Sun.

22

The Practical Syllabus

School-based Assessment of Practical

School-based assessment of practical work is carried out throughout the form six school terms for

candidates from government schools and private schools which have been approved by MEC to carry

out the school-based assessment.

MEC will determine 13 compulsory experiments and one project to be carried out by the

candidates and to be assessed by the subject teachers in the respective terms. The project will be

carried out during the third term in groups of two or three candidates. Details of the title, topic,

objective, theory, apparatus and procedure of each of the experiments and project will be specified in

the Teacher’s and Student’s Manual for Practical Physics which can be downloaded from MEC’s

Portal (http://www.mpm.edu.my) by the subject teachers during the first term of form six.

Candidates should be supplied with a work scheme before the day of the compulsory experiment

so as to enable them to plan their practical work. Each experiment is expected to last one school

double period. Assessment of the practical work is done by the subject teachers during the practical

sessions and also based on the practical reports. The assessment should comply with the assessment

guidelines prepared by MEC.

A repeating candidate may use the total mark obtained in the coursework for the subsequent

STPM examination. Requests to carry forward the moderated coursework mark should be made

during the registration of the examination.

The Physics practical course for STPM should achieve its objective to improve the quality of

candidates in the aspects as listed below.

(a) The ability to follow a set or sequence of instructions.

(b) The ability to plan and carry out experiments using appropriate methods.

(c) The ability to choose suitable equipment and use them correctly and carefully.

(d) The ability to determine the best range of readings for more detailed and careful

measurements.

(e) The ability to make observations, to take measurements and to record data with attention

given to precision, accuracy and units.

(f) The awareness of the importance of check readings and repeat readings.

(g) The awareness of the limits of accuracy of observations and measurements.

(h) The ability to present data and information clearly in appropriate forms.

(i) The ability to interpret, analyse and evaluate observations, experimental data, perform error

analysis and make deductions.

(j) The ability to make conclusions.

(k) The awareness of the safety measures which need to be taken.

23

The objective of the project work is to enable candidates to acquire knowledge and integrate

practical skills in Physics with the aid of information and communications technology as well as to

develop soft skills as follows:

(a) communications,

(b) teamwork,

(c) critical thinking and problem solving,

(d) flexibility/adaptability,

(e) leadership,

(f) organising,

(g) information communications and technology,

(h) moral and ethics.

Written Practical Test

The main objective of the written practical test is to assess the candidates’ understanding of practical

procedures in the laboratory.

The following candidates are required to register for this paper:

(a) individual private candidates,

(b) candidates from private schools which have no permission to carry out the school-based

assessment of practical work,

(c) candidates who repeat upper six (in government or private schools),

(d) candidates who do not attend classes of lower six and upper six in two consecutive years

(in government or private schools).

(e) candidates who take Physics other than the package offered by schools.

Three structured questions on routine practical work and/or design of experiments will be set.

MEC will not be strictly bound by the syllabus in setting questions. Where appropriate, candidates

will be given sufficient information to enable them to answer the questions. Only knowledge of theory

within the syllabus and knowledge of usual laboratory practical procedures will be expected.

The questions to be set will test candidates’ ability to:

(a) record readings from diagrams of apparatus,

(b) describe, explain, suggest, design or comment on experimental arrangements, techniques

and procedures,

(c) complete tables of data and plot graphs,

(d) interpret, draw conclusions from, and evaluate observations and experimental data,

(e) recognise limitations of experiments and sources of results,

(f) explain the effect of errors on experimental results,

(g) suggest precautions or safety measures,

(h) explain theoretical basis of experiments,

(i) use theory to explain or predict experimental results,

(j) perform simple calculations and error analysis based on experiments.

24

Scheme of Assessment

Term of Paper Code Theme/Title Type of Test Mark Duration Administration

Study and Name (Weighting)

First 960/1 Mechanics and Written Test 60

Term Physics Thermodynamics (26.67%)

Paper 1

Section A 15

15 compulsory 1½ hours Central

multiple-choice 15 assessment

questions to be

answered. 30

Section B

2 compulsory

structured questions

to be answered.

Section C

2 questions to be

answered out of 3

essay questions.

All questions are

based on topics 1 to

11.

Second 960/2 Electricity and Written Test 60

Term Physics Magnetism (26.67%)

Paper 2 Section A

15 compulsory 15

multiple-choice 1½ hours Central

questions to be 15 assessment

answered.

30

Section B

2 compulsory

structured questions

to be answered.

Section C

2 questions to be

answered out of 3

essay questions.

All questions are

based on topics 12

to 18.

25

Term of Paper Code Theme/Title Type of Test Mark Duration Administration

Study and Name (Weighting) 1½ hours

Central

Third 960/3 Oscillations and Written Test 60 assessment

Term Physics Waves, Optics (26.67%)

Paper 3 and Modern Section A

Physics 15 compulsory 15

multiple-choice

questions to be 15

answered.

30

Section B

2 compulsory

structured questions

to be answered.

Section C

2 questions to be

answered out of 3

essay questions.

All questions are

based on topics 19

to 25.

960/5 Written Physics Written Practical 45

Physics (20%)

Paper 5 Practical Test

3 compulsory 1½ hours Central

structured questions assessment

to be answered.

First, 960/4 Physics Practical School-based 225

Second Physics Assessment of to be

Paper 4 Practical scaled to Throughout

and 45 the three

Third 13 compulsory (20%) terms School-based

Terms experiments and assessment

one project to be

carried out.

26

Performance Descriptions

A Grade A candidate is likely able to:

(a) recall the fundamental knowledge of Physics from the syllabus with few significant

omissions;

(b) show good understanding of the fundamental principles and concepts;

(c) identify the appropriate information and apply the correct techniques to solve problems;

(d) communicate effectively using logical sequence based on physics fundamentals, including

usage of mathematical expressions, schematic diagrams, tables and graph;

(e) synthesise information from fundamental principles of different content areas in problem

solving;

(f) show good understanding of the underlying working principles and carry out extensive

calculation in numerical-type questions;

(g) make adaptations, appropriate assumptions and use the fundamental knowledge of Physics

in analyzing an unfamiliar situation;

(h) identify causes, factors or errors in questions involving experiments;

(i) shows good knowledge relating precision of data to the accuracy of the final result;

(j) interpret and evaluate critically the numerical answer in calculations.

A Grade C candidate is likely able to:

(a) recall the knowledge of Physics from most parts of the syllabus;

(b) show some understanding of the main principles and concepts in the syllabus;

(c) present answer using common terminology and simple concepts in the syllabus;

(d) demonstrate some ability to link knowledge between different areas of Physics;

(e) perform calculation on familiar numerical-type or guided questions;

(f) show some understanding of the underlying Physics principles when carrying out numerical

work;

(g) identify causes, factors or errors in questions involving experiments;

(h) shows good knowledge relating precision of data to the accuracy of the final result;

(i) interpret and evaluate critically the numerical answer in calculations.

27

Summary of Key Quantities and Units

Candidates are expected to be familiar with the following quantities, their symbols, their units, and

their interrelationships. They should also be able to perform calculations and deal with questions

involving these quantities as indicated in the syllabus. The list should not be considered exhaustive.

Quantity Usual symbols Units

Base quantities

Amount of matter n mol

Electric current IA

Length lm

Mass m kg

Temperature TK

Time ts

Other quantities

Acceleration a ms 2

Acceleration of free fall g ms 2

Activity of radioactive source A s 1, Bq

Amplitude A m

Angular displac.ement , rad

Angular frequency L rad s 1

Angular momentum , kg m2 rad s 1

Angular speed , rad s 1

rad s 1

Angular velocity A m2

ma kg

Area Z

Atomic mass C F

Atomic number (proton number) J

Capacitance U m3

Change of internal energy n

Charge carrier density 1m 1

Coefficient of friction c

Conductivity Am 2

Critical angle J s1

Current density kg m 3

Decay constant s, x m

Density d m

Displacement Q, q C

Distance E NC 1

Electric charge Φ N C 1 m2

Electric field strength V V

Electric flux V, V V

Electric potential ,E V

Electric potential difference me kg, u

e C

Electromotive force e

Electron mass E, U J

Elementary charge f m

Emissivity F N

Energy

Focal length

Force

28

Quantity Usual symbols Units

Force constant k Nm 1

Frequency f Hz

Gravitational field strength g N kg 1

Gravitational potential V J kg 1

Half-life t½ s

Heat Q J

Heat capacity C JK 1

Image distance v m

Impedance Z

Intensity I Wm 2

Internal energy U J

Latent heat L J

Magnetic flux Φ Wb

Magnetic flux density B T

Magnification power m

Mass number (nucleon number) A kg m 1

Mass per unit length J K 1 mol 1

Molar heat capacity Cm kg mol 1

Molar mass M ms 1

Molecular speed c Ns

Momentum p H

Mutual inductance M kg, u

Neutron mass mn

Neutron number N m

Object distance u s

Period T Hm 1

Permeability Hm 1

Permeability of free space 0 Fm 1

Permittivity Fm 1

Permittivity of free space 0 , rad

Phase difference J

Potential energy U W

Power P Pa

Pressure p J K 1 mol 1

Principal molar heat capacities CV,m; Cp,m m

Radius r

Ratio of heat capacities m

Reactance X H

Refractive index n J K 1 kg 1

Relative atomic mass Ar J kg 1

Relative molecular mass Mr ms 1

Relative permeability ms 1

Relative permittivity r

Resistance r

Resistivity

Self-inductance R

Specific heat capacity

Specific latent heat L

Speed c

Speed of electromagnetic waves l

u, v

c

29

Quantity Usual symbols Units

Stress T, Pa

Surface charge density T Cm 2

Temperature k K, C

Tension N

Thermal conductivity u, v Wm1K 1

Time constant V s

Torque Nm

Velocity k ms 1

Volume W m3

Wavelength W m

Wave number m1

Weight ,W N

Work E, Y J

Work function J

Young’s modulus Pa, N m 2

30

Acceleration of free fall 960 PHYSICS = 9.81 m s 2

Avogadro’s constant Values of constants = 6.02 1023 mol 1

Boltzmann’s constant = 1.38 10 23 J K 1

Gravitational constant g = 6.67 10 11 N m2 kg 2

Magnitude of electronic charge NA = 1.60 10 19 C

Mass of the Earth k, kB = 5.97 1024 kg

Mass of the Sun G = 1.99 1030 kg

Molar gas constant e = 8.31 J K 1 mol 1

Permeability of free space ME = 4 10 7 H m 1

Permittivity of free space MS = 8.85 10 12 F m 1

R

Planck’s constant 1 10 9 F m 1

Radius of the Earth 0 =

Radius of the Sun 0

Rest mass of electron 36

Rest mass of proton h

Speed of light in free space RE = 6.63 10 34 J s

Stefan-Boltzmann constant RS = 6.38 106 m

Unified atomic mass unit me = 6.96 108 m

mp = 9.11 10 31 kg

c = 1.67 10 27 kg

= 3.00 108 m s 1

u = 5.67 10 8 W m 2 K 4

= 1.66 10 27 kg

31

Reference Books

Teachers and candidates may use books specially written for the STPM examination and other

reference books such as those listed below.

1. Adam, S. and Allday, J., 2000. Advanced Physics. New York: Oxford.

2. Breithaupt, J., 2000. Understanding Physics for Advanced Level. 4th edition. Cheltenham:

Nelson Thornes.

3. Duncan, T., 2000. Advanced Physics. 5th edition. London: John Murray.

4. Giancoli, D.C., 2008. Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics. 4th edition.

New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

5. Giancoli, D.C., 2008. Physics-Principles with Application. 6th edition. New Jersey: Pearson

Prentice Hall.

6. Halliday, D., Resnick, R., and Walker, J., 2008. Fundamentals of Physics. 8th edition. New

Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

7. Hutchings, R., 2000. Physics. 2nd edition. London: Nelson Thornes.

8. Jewett Jr, J.W. and Serway, R.A., 2006. Serway’s Principles of Physics. 4th edition. California:

Thomson Brooks/Cole.

9. Jewett Jr, J.W. and Serway, R.A., 2008. Physics for Scientists and Engineers. 7th edition.

California: Thomson Brooks/Cole.

10. Nelkon, M. and Parker, P., 1995. Advanced Level Physics. 7th edition. Oxford: Heinemann.

11. Young, H.D. and Freedman, R.A., 2011. University Physics with Modern Physics. 13th edition.

California: Pearson Addison Wesley.

32

SPECIMEN PAPER

960/1 STPM

PHYSICS (FIZIK)

PAPER 1 (KERTAS 1)

One and a half hours (Satu jam setengah)

MAJLIS PEPERIKSAAN MALAYSIA

(MALAYSIAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL)

SIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA

(MALAYSIA HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE)

Please tear off along the perforated line. Instructions to candidates: For examiner’s use

(Sila koyakkan di sepanjang garis putus-putus ini.) DO NOT OPEN THIS QUESTION PAPER UNTIL YOU ARE (Untuk kegunaan

TOLD TO DO SO.

There are fifteen questions in Section A. For each question, four choices pemeriksa)

of answers are given. Choose one correct answer and indicate it on the Section B

Multiple-choice Answer Sheet provided. Read the instructions on the (Bahagian B)

Multiple-choice Answer Sheet very carefully. Answer all questions. Marks

will not be deducted for wrong answers. 16

Answer all questions in Section B. Write your answers in the spaces 17

provided.

Answer any two questions in Section C. All essential working should be Section C

shown. For numerical answers, unit should be quoted wherever appropriate. (Bahagian C)

Begin each answer on a fresh sheet of paper and arrange your answers in

numerical order.

Tear off the front page of this question paper and your answer sheets of

Section B, and tie both of them together with your answer sheets of Section C.

Values of constants are provided on page in this question paper. Total

Answers may be written in either English or Bahasa Malaysia. (Jumlah)

Arahan kepada calon:

JANGAN BUKA KERTAS SOALAN INI SEHINGGA ANDA DIBENARKAN BERBUAT

DEMIKIAN.

Ada lima belas soalan dalam Bahagian A. Bagi setiap soalan, empat pilihan jawapan diberikan.

Pilih satu jawapan yang betul dan tandakan jawapan itu pada Borang Jawapan Aneka Pilihan yang

dibekalkan. Baca arahan pada Borang Jawapan Aneka Pilihan itu dengan teliti. Jawab semua soalan.

Markah tidak akan ditolak bagi jawapan yang salah.

Jawab semua soalan dalam Bahagian B. Tulis jawapan anda di ruang yang disediakan.

Jawab mana-mana dua soalan dalam Bahagian C. Semua jalan kerja yang sesuai hendaklah

ditunjukkan. Bagi jawapan berangka, unit hendaklah dinyatakan di mana-mana yang sesuai. Mulakan

setiap jawapan pada helaian kertas jawapan yang baharu dan susun jawapan anda mengikut tertib

berangka.

Koyakkan muka hadapan kertas soalan ini dan helaian jawapan anda bagi Bahagian B, dan ikatkan

kedua-duanya bersama-sama dengan helaian jawapan anda bagi Bahagian C.

Nilai pemalar dibekalkan pada halaman kertas soalan ini.

Jawapan boleh ditulis dalam bahasa Inggeris atau Bahasa Malaysia.

This question paper consists of printed pages and blank page.

(Kertas soalan ini terdiri daripada halaman bercetak dan halaman kosong.)

© Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia

STPM 960/1

33

BLANK PAGE

960/1

34

HALAMAN KOSONG

960/1

35

Section A [15 marks]

Answer all questions in this section.

1 Which formula does not have the same unit as work?

A Power time

B Pressure volume

C Mass gravitational potential

D Specific heat capacity temperature

2 A ball is thrown upwards several times with the same speed at different angles of projection.

Which graph shows the variation of the horizontal range R with the angle of projection ?

CD

3 A body with mass 6 kg is acted by a force F which varies with time t as shown in the graph

below.

F/N

10

0 T t/s

If the change of the momentum of the body after time T is 30 N s, what is the value of T ?

A 3s B 5s C 6s D 12 s

960/1

36

Bahagian A [15 markah]

Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini.

1 Rumus yang manakah yang tidak mempunyai unit yang sama dengan kerja?

A Kuasa masa

B Tekanan isi padu

C Jisim keupayaan graviti

D Muatan haba tentu suhu

2 Sebiji bola dilontarkan ke atas beberapa kali dengan laju yang sama pada sudut pelontaran yang

berbeza. Graf yang manakah yang menunjukkan ubahan julat mengufuk R dengan sudut pelontaran

?

CD

3 Satu jasad dengan jisim 6 kg ditindakkan oleh satu daya F yang berubah dengan masa t

ditunjukkan dalam graf di bawah.

F/N

10

0 T t/s

Jika perubahan momentum jasad itu selepas masa T ialah 30 N s, berapakah nilai T ?

A 3s B 5s C 6s D 12 s

960/1

37

4 Which statement is true of the static friction between two surfaces?

A It is always constant.

B It depends on the surface area.

C It depends on the nature of the surfaces.

D It is always smaller than the kinetic friction.

5 A car of mass m with effective power P and initial velocity u climbs a hill of height h. The car

arrives at the peak of the hill at velocity v in time t. Which is true of the motion?

A Pt 1 mu 2 1 mv 2 mgh

22

B Pt 1 mv 2 1 mu 2 mgh

22

C Pt mgh 1 mu 2 1 mv 2

22

D Pt mgh 1 mv 2 1 mu 2

22

6 A car of mass 1000 kg moves along the corner of a level road having a radius of curvature 35.0 m.

If the limiting frictional force between the tyres and the road is 4.0 kN, the maximum speed of the car

without skidding at the corner is

A 4.0 m s 1 B 8.8 m s 1 C 11.8 m s 1 D 140.0 m s 1

7 If the gravitational field strength at a certain region is uniform,

A there is no work done on a mass displaced in that region

B the gravitational potential is the same at all points in that region

C the gravitational force on a mass is the same at all points in that region

D the gravitational potential energy is the same for all masses at all points in that region

8 A ladder PQ with the centre of mass R resting on a wall QS is shown in the diagram below.

T

Q

R

U

PS

If the ladder is in equilibrium and the resultant forces at P and Q are FP and FQ respectively, FP

and FQ must act through point

AR BS CT DU

960/1

38

4 Penyataan yang manakah yang benar tentang geseran statik antara dua permukaan?

A Ia sentiasa malar.

B Ia bergantung kepada luas permukaan itu.

C Ia bergantung kepada sifat permukaan itu.

D Ia sentiasa lebih kecil daripada geseran kinetik.

5 Sebuah kereta berjisim m dengan kuasa berkesan P dan halaju awal u mendaki sebuah bukit

setinggi h. Kereta itu tiba di puncak bukit pada halaju v dalam masa t. Yang manakah yang benar

tentang gerakan itu?

A Pt 1 mu 2 1 mv 2 mgh

22

B Pt 1 mv 2 1 mu 2 mgh

22

C Pt mgh 1 mu 2 1 mv 2

22

D Pt mgh 1 mv 2 1 mu 2

22

6 Sebuah kereta berjisim 1000 kg bergerak melalui satu selekoh jalan raya yang rata yang

mempunyai jejari kelengkungan 35.0 m. Jika had daya geseran antara tayar dengan jalan raya ialah

4.0 kN, laju maksimum tanpa tergelincir kereta pada selekoh itu ialah

A 4.0 m s 1 B 8.8 m s 1 C 11.8 m s 1 D 140.0 m s 1

7 Jika kekuatan medan graviti di suatu kawasan adalah seragam,

A tiada kerja dilakukan ke atas jisim yang tersesar di kawasan itu

B keupayaan graviti adalah sama di semua titik di kawasan itu

C daya graviti ke atas jisim adalah sama di semua titik di kawasan itu

D tenaga keupayaan graviti adalah sama bagi semua jisim di semua titik di kawasan itu

8 Satu tangga PQ dengan pusat jisim R yang bersandar pada dinding QS ditunjukkan dalam gambar

rajah di bawah.

T

Q

R

U

PS

Jika tangga itu berada dalam keseimbangan dan daya paduan di P dan Q masing-masing ialah FP

dan FQ, FP dan FQ mesti bertindak melalui titik

AR BS CT DU

960/1

39

9 Which of the following best shows the stiffness of a solid?

A Young’s modulus

B Elastic limit

C Yield point

D Tensile strength

10 The temperature of two moles of a diatomic gas is raised by 8.0 C from room temperature. The

increase in the internal energy of the gas is

A 2.0 × 102 J B 3.3 × 102 J C 7.0 × 103 J D 1.2 × 104 J

11 The ratio of the molar heat capacity of an ideal gas is 1.4. What is the number of degrees of

freedom of the gas?

A3 B5 C6 D7

12 Molar heat capacity at constant pressure differs from molar heat capacity at constant volume

because

A the internal energy of the gas is higher at constant pressure

B extra heat is required to expand the gas at constant pressure

C extra heat is required to increase the degree of freedom of the gas at constant volume

D work is required to overcome the attractive force between molecules which is stronger at

constant pressure

13 An ideal gas in a cylinder is compressed isothermally. Which statement is true of the gas?

A No work is done on the gas.

B Heat is released from the gas.

C The internal energy of the gas increases.

D The potential energy of the gas molecules increases.

960/1

40

9 Yang manakah yang paling baik menunjukkan kekakuan suatu pepejal?

A Modulus Young’s

B Had kenyal

C Titik alah

D Kekuatan tegangan

10 Suhu dua mol gas dwiatom dinaikkan sebanyak 8.0 C dari suhu bilik. Pertambahan tenaga dalam

bagi gas itu ialah

A 2.0 × 102 J B 3.3 × 102 J C 7.0 × 103 J D 1.2 × 104 J

11 Nisbah muatan haba molar suatu gas unggul ialah 1.4. Berapakah bilangan darjah kebebasan gas

itu?

A3 B5 C6 D7

12 Muatan haba molar pada tekanan malar berbeza daripada muatan haba molar pada isi padu molar

kerana

A tenaga dalam suatu gas adalah lebih tinggi pada tekanan malar

B haba tambahan diperlukan untuk mengembangkan gas pada tekanan malar

C haba tambahan diperlukan untuk meningkatkan darjah kebebasan gas pada isi padu malar

D kerja diperlukan untuk mengatasi daya tarikan antara molekul yang lebih kuat pada tekanan

malar

13 Suatu gas unggul dalam satu silinder dimampatkan secara isoterma. Penyataan yang manakah

yang benar tentang gas itu?

A Tiada kerja dilakukan ke atas gas.

B Haba dibebaskan daripada gas.

C Tenaga dalam gas itu meningkat.

D Tenaga keupayaan molekul gas meningkat.

960/1

41

14 Two perfectly insulated uniform rods R and S of the same material joined thermally is shown in

the diagram below.

Insulator R S 50 C

100 C

Insulator

The length of rod R is two times the length of rod S. The cross-sectional area of rod R is half the

cross-sectional area of rod S. If the free ends of R and S are fixed at 100 C and 50 C respectively,

what is the temperature at the junction of rod R and rod S?

A 55 C B 60 C C 75 C D 90 C

15 The Sun continuously radiates energy into space, some of which is received by the Earth. The

average temperature on the surface of the Earth remains at about 300 K because

A the Earth reflects the Sun’s light

B the thermal conductivity of the Earth is low

C the Earth radiates an amount of energy into space equal to the amount it absorbed

D the energy only raises the temperature of the upper atmosphere and never reaches the

surface

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14 Dua rod seragam R dan S yang bertebat dengan sempurna daripada bahan yang sama disambung

secara terma ditunjukkan dalam gambar rajah di bawah.

Penebat R S 50 C

100 C

Penebat

Panjang rod R adalah dua kali panjang rod S. Luas keratan rentas rod R adalah setengah luas

keratan rentas rod S. Jika hujung bebas R dan S masing-masing ditetapkan pada 100 C and 50 C,

berapakah suhu pada simpang rod R dan rod S?

A 55 C B 60 C C 75 C D 90 C

15 Matahari secara berterusan menyinarkan tenaga ke dalam angkasa, sebahagian daripadanya

diterima oleh Bumi. Purata suhu pada permukaan Bumi kekal pada 300 K kerana

A Bumi memantulkan cahaya Matahari

B kekonduksian terma Bumi adalah rendah

C Bumi menyinarkan amaun tenaga yang sama dengan amaun tenaga yang diserapnya ke dalam

angkasa

D tenaga hanya meningkatkan suhu atmosfera atas dan tidak pernah sampai ke permukaan

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Sila koyakkan di sepanjang garis putus-putus ini.

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45 HALAMAN KOSONG

Section B [15 marks]

Answer all questions in this section.

16 A wire with cross-sectional area 0.50 mm2 and length 20.0 cm is pulled at both ends by a force of

55 N as shown in the diagram below.

F = 55 N Wire F = 55 N

(a) Determine the stress in the wire. [2 marks]

(b) If the extension is 0.40 cm, calculate the strain in the wire. [2 marks]

(c) Determine the Young’s modulus of the wire. [2 marks]

(d) Calculate the strain energy stored in the wire. [2 marks]

17 (a) State two assumptions of an ideal gas. [2 marks]

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(b) State two physical conditions under which a gas behave as an ideal gas. [2 marks]

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(c) A 0.035 m3 gas tank contains 7.0 kg of butane gas. Assuming that the gas behaves as an ideal

gas, calculate its pressure at 27 C. [3 marks]

[The molecular mass of butane is 58 g mol–1.]

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