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Published by shamkutty14, 2018-12-17 12:08:24

Scientech_2018-19

SCIENCE INDIA FORUM BAHRAIN























































































The


FUTURE



2018-19

Tel. + , +


accountsaarentalbh.com aacrental
ali.haarentalbh.com

His Majesty

King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
Kingdom of Bahrain



His Royal Highness
Prince Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa

The Prime Minister
Kingdom of Bahrain



His Royal Highness
Prince Salman bin Hamad Al Khalifa

The Crown Prince and Deputy Supreme Commander
and First Deputy Prime Minister
Kingdom of Bahrain



Shri. Ram Nath Kovind

President of India



#Science_Knowledge_Creativity


Today, we live a life full of scientific developments, thanks to the accelerating scientific and
technological progress, which paved the way for new variables that reflect the product of human
thought and knowledge and drive us towards more growth in the fields of science, contributing to
the promotion of creativity and innovation.


Modern science today has become a mean to encourage researchers to unleash their creativity
and ideas, resulting in an advanced movement in the scientific field and inspiring the youth to
march forward towards the development of the educational movement. This contributes to
preparing new innovators and scientists who have the ability to push their countries towards more
progress and flourishment, achieving new standards and accelerated growth for overall
development sustainability in all sectors.


The Kingdom of Bahrain has witnessed noticeable development in the educational movement,
thanks to the Royal Auspices and Care of His Majesty King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, as the Kingdom
took huge and clear steps to support science and knowledge under HM the King’s rule, by
embracing the talented and thinkers, and continuing to support and enable the Bahraini youth
towards creativity through different programs, which had a clear effect on the emergence of
innovators who contributed to the progress of the Kingdom.


Allow me to express my sincere appreciation to the organizing committee of the Science India
Forum Bahrain for their great efforts which contributed to achieving the goals the forum was
launched for, becoming a platform that enriches the educational and knowledge scenes by
introducing new ideas, projects and innovations. We look forward to cementing the strong
Bahraini-Indian relations through this forum and utilize its outcomes to develop the educational
movement in the Kingdom of Bahrain.






Khalid bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa

First Deputy President of The Supreme Council for Youth & Sports
President of Bahrain Athletics Association





[email protected] :ﻲﻧوﺮﺘﻜﻟﻻا ﺪﻳﺮﺒﻟا ,ﻦﻳﺮﺤﺒﻟا ﺔﻜﻠﻤﻣ - عﺎﻓﺮﻟا , 28899 :ب .ص , +973 17650316 :ﺲـﻛﺎﻓ , +973 17847777 :ﻒﺗﺎﻫ
Tel: +973 17847777, Fax: +973 17650316, P.O. Box: 28899, Riffa - Kingdom Of Bahrain, Email: [email protected]
www.hhsk.bh

14th July 2018



Message



I am happy to note that Science India Forum Bahrain is
working hard to promote a new generation of creative
scientists by providing opportunities to the young students
to nurture their scientific talents.


This effort of the forum is commendable, it will be appreciated
by the Indian and Bahraini Community in the Kingdom of
Bahrain.


I congratulate Science India Forum Bahrain for their good
work and wish them all the very best in their future endeavors.









Sushma Swaraj
Minister of External Affairs,
Republic of India



DR. HARSH VARDHAN
-110001
MINISTER
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY AND EARTH SCIENCES
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
NEW DELHI - 110001















Message


I am happy to know that the Science India Forum (SIF), Bahrain will be
releasing their yearbook during the Science Fiesta-2018.


SIF Bahrain, an overseas wing of Vijnana Bharati provides a platform for
the young generation to explore, invent and excel. I got to know that the
organization has gained popularity within the student’s community in
Kingdom of Bahrain and this is due to the relentless efforts taken by the
SIF team for the promotion of Science.

The quality of life that we enjoy today is the due to dedication of great
people who have put their heart and soul into the development of the
nation and the world in totality.


I wish all the awardees success in their future endeavors and conclude
with a quote from the “People’s President of India” late Dr. Kalam “When
our SIGNATURE changes to AUTOGRAPH, this marks the SUCCESS”











(Dr. Harsh Vardhan)










209, 2 110001 :+91-11-23316766, 23714230; : +91-11-23316745
209, Anusandhan Bhawan, 2, Rafi Marg, New Delhi-110001 Ph.: +91-11-23316766, 23714230; Fax : +91-11-23316745

DR. HARSH VARDHAN Ambassador Embassy of India, Bahrain
-110001
MINISTER
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY AND EARTH SCIENCES
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
NEW DELHI - 110001








Alok Kumar Sinha

21 November, 2018


Message





I am pleased to know that Science India Forum, Bahrain is releasing
the yearbook SCIENTECH-2018, during the Science Awards Gala on
7 December, 2018


Science India Forum has consistently been providing the young & budding
talents with a platform to compete, explore and create synergies across
a wide spectrum of scientific activities of India and the Gulf region. The
interest and innovation generated through these initiatives go a long way
in promoting the science education, particularly amongst the students
in the Kingdom of Bahrain and greatly support in nurturing the young
minds.


I take this opportunity to wish the Science India Forum, Bahrain all the
very best for releasing the yearbook at the Science Awards Gala and wish
them success in their future endeavours.










(Alok K Sinha)







PO Box 26106, Bldg. 1090, Road 2819, Al-Seef 428, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain
Tel.: (+973) 1756 0360, 1771 5241, Fax: (+973) 1771 5527
209, 2 110001 :+91-11-23316766, 23714230; : +91-11-23316745 E-mail: [email protected] - Website: http://eoi.gov.in/bahrain
209, Anusandhan Bhawan, 2, Rafi Marg, New Delhi-110001 Ph.: +91-11-23316766, 23714230; Fax : +91-11-23316745

Prakash Kumar Devji
Managing Director, Devji Group

Patron, SIF Bahrain


Science India Forum, is truly creating a worthy platform for students in Bahrain. This forum
has ignited a keen interest in students and adults alike. I take this opportunity to congratulate
the volunteers of Science India Forum for their sincere dedication and hradwork, without
which this could not be possible.


Science is an integral part of every day life for all of us. Even economics and finance have hints
of science. Economics as a subject is science in its methodology and an art in its application,
mainly because it has theoretical as well as practical aspects. A life without aspects of science
in it is near impossible.

It’s our duty as parents, teachers and societies to fuel the curiosity of young minds, bringing
to the forefront the seeker in each one of them. The young mind is filled with a variety of
questions, stemming from the fountain of curiosity. Fuelling this curiosity, allowing it to
blossom and flourish should be the goal. Traditional educational practices are a necessity
of today’s world. They are required for survival, but, in the quest of survival, we as a society
should ensure that India’s legacy as an innovator remains intact.


Science India Forum is one such initiative - an initiative to fuel this curiosity and imagination
in the minds of young minds. I sincerely hope that this forum will continue its quest and
create scientific temperament among the students.


Jai Hind. Bharat Mata ki Jai.


















SIF Bahrain 16

Mohamed Bin Abdullah Al Snan
(President Muharraq Municipal Council)
Chief Patron, SIF Bahrain



Science India Forum Bahrain, is an initiative of a group of volunteers to create a platform for the
young children in order to keep them fit to face the challenges of the future. Six years of voluntary
efforts, dedication and commitment of the volunteers of this organization worth mentioning.


The importance of science in modern life is an integral part of common people in their daily life.
All the modern facilities we enjoy in our everyday life is contribution of science and the efforts of
scientists who have worked behind it. In our Holy Quran there is mention about basic science, astro
science and innovations. As a human we require a lot of innovations in the coming decades. We
need to create a lot of scientists for the future to keep and improve the standard of living. So it is
essential to create a fertile environment for students to ignite their young mind.

Bahrain is an island of innovation seekers. Teaching in traditional way makes them being a believer
which is necessary for the strength and discipline of community. We have to follow our tradition
and culture for harmony. With the same spirit, we should teach science among the children to
encourage them to imagine and empower them towards doing research which is necessary for the
development of society.

Let me take this opportunity to congratulate the young scientists of Bahrain and the entire team of
Science India Forum for their initiative to create wonderful platform for this noble cause.

May Allah, the all mighty bless you all..












Mohamed Bin Abdullah Al Snan









SIF Bahrain 17 SIF Bahrain

T. M. Nanda Kumar

G.C.C. Coordinator, Science India Forum
Member of the Governing Council, Vijnana Bharati, India.

Science India Forum (SIF) has been functioning in GCC for nearly 10yrs and it has been successful
in inculcating scientific temper among the students.


We firmly believe in the Indian thought, that the whole world is one family and serving humanity is
the primary responsibility of each individual. We sincerely believe and aspire that the population of
this great nation of Bahrain, should benefit from science and technological interventions in every
walks of life.

The success of Science India Forum (SIF) is a matter of great accomplishment for the inspired
and dedicated volunteers who are working as committed team to achieve its noble objectives. The
support of the officials of Embassy of India and the School authorities is very encouraging. At
this point of time, through our parent organization Vijnana Bharati (VIBHA) we see an exemplary
collaboration and cooperation that has developed across various departments, and organizations
of Ministry of Science & Technology such as DST, ISRO, DRDO, etc. Also educational institutions
such as CBSE, NCERT. etc

I take this opportunity to congratulate the winners of the contest, parents, teachers and the
management of institutions and also for the continuous support given to SIF BAHRAIN. The efforts
put by the Bahrain team to inculcate science and technology among school children is praiseworthy.










T.M. Nanda Kumar












SIF Bahrain 18

Dr. Ravi Warrior
Chairman,
SIF Advisory Board


From “X marks the spot” to “Solve for X”. This is the go-to letter in English alphabets to represent
something unknown. The idea is believed to have come from mathematician Rene Descartes, who used
the last three letters of the alphabets to represent unknown quantities in his book ‘The Geometry’. He
chose a, b and c to stand for known quantities. From known quantities a, b and c to unknown x, y,
and z. Creativity lies in the path from known to unknown. As you discover the unknown your cycle
starts again for further quests. Lots of avenues are open to you. Right decision at the right time is very
important. Delayed decisions may lead you to disaster.

A child, as young as 5, will start showing affinity towards some subjects. Parents and teachers can
identify this and plan to develop this interest. Build a platform to nurture creative thinking among
children. This will go a long way to bring out the best in talented children with scientific aptitude.
Fostering intelligent children, nurturing their talent and guiding them to the right direction rest with
the educators all around. Parents and teachers play a major role in this aspect. As the children grow,
they understand their responsibility to self and to the society. They should then think seriously about
their future contributions to the society and plan gradually to achieve them.


When children learn science not merely to know things but to know themselves, not merely to do but
to compel themselves to do things, think freely and understand the concepts, an array of questions boil
out from their minds. The quest for finding answers to these will lead them to discover things which
were unknown to them till then. To reach this level of education a child should have rigorous discipline
of the powers of observation, of reasoning and the will to reach the roots of every concept related to
the subject. Nothing is impossible in this world. Remember… ‘Even the wingless leaves rise high like
birds when a powerful storm comes’ Try hard and bring out the best in you with true dedication and
hard work.


As I wind up let me recall the words of a great personality, an educator himself Joseph Addison…

“Education is a companion which no misfortune can depress, no crime can destroy, no enemy can
alienate and no depotism can enslave. At home a friend, abroad an introduction in solitude a solace
and in society an ornament. It chastens vice, it guides virtue, it gives, at once, grace and it governs
genius. Without it, what is man? A splendid slave, a reasoning savage…

Best Wishes to all the young generations of this world.

Dr. Ravi Warrior


SIF Bahrain 19 SIF Bahrain

SIF Bahrain

Ravindra Khot

Deputy Chief Executive Officer - Support Group
Ithmaar Bank B.S.C. (C)
I am pleased to note that the Science India Forum (SIF) Bahrain, an initiative of the National Science
Movement of India, is continuing to have such a profound impact on empowering the community and, with
the support of the Indian Embassy in Bahrain, is helping nurture the world’s future scientists.

The SIF Bahrain’s objective of promoting interest in science among the younger generation contributes
directly to helping shape a better future and, in that regard, perfectly aligns with Ithmaar Bank’s long-
standing commitment to playing a real and meaningful role in the community. Science keeps evolving with
new theories, new postulates and new experiments. It is only through experimentation and innovation that
we can enhance our way of living and our surroundings, as well as safeguard our community and our environment.

Science is valued by society because the application of scientific knowledge in its simple form helps to satisfy
many basic human needs and improve living standards. This initiative of SIF Bahrain will certainly help
crystalize the dreams of these budding scientist. I am confident that, in the near future, we will be witnesses
to their great innovations be it in space science, technology, alternate energy, medicine, healthcare or
artificial intelligence.

The success of the SIF Bahrain, a voluntary, non-profit organisation, is largely dependent on the financial
support it receives and I am pleased to continue, for the third consecutive year, our support of this truly
noble and worthy initiative.

Since its establishment five years ago, the SIF Bahrain has grown significantly, and has helped identify and
subsequently develop and nourish talent that could, one day, literally change the world as we know it. That
is the tremendous potential of investing in youth, and it is made exponentially more powerful by the focus
on science. We are excited to be able to help make this happen.
To put this in scale, this year, for example, the SIF Bahrain’s Science Talent Contest, involved screening
more than 11,000 students making it the largest science talent search in the Kingdom. This growth is a
result of the hard work and dedication of many people – and it also a testimony to the growing impact of
science on everyday lives.

Modern science transcends geographic, political and cultural barriers to have a pronounced influence on
our daily lives, regardless of how we choose to live them. This influence, I believe, will only continue to grow
with time, touching our lives in ways we haven’t even started to consider.

I take this opportunity, once again, to commend the SIF Bahrain team of their stupendous efforts, and to
congratulate them on having developed a popular platform that helps nurture scientific innovation among
the youth.
With best regards,




SIF Bahrain 21 SIF Bahrain

RAYMOND INTERNATIONAL






































Integrated Pipeline Services Over 100 years of Experience



Activities include engineering and construction services, fabrication, installation and maintenance of
pipelines for the water, oil, gas and petrochemical industries, pipeline rehabilitation, lining and coating of
pipework, industrial and heavy construction.


Founded in 1897 as the Raymond Concrete Pile Company, the company now employs thousands of
professionals and craftsmen in the design, engineering, fabrication, construction and construction
management disciplines. Our purpose is to meet the need for cost effective, environmentally safe facilities
by the entrepreneurial deployment of superior professional skills.

Our Specialist Services :



• Portland Cement Mortar Lining • Epoxy Lining
• Calcium Aluminate Mortar Lining • Automatic Welding
• Tight Fit HDPE Lining • Pipe Supply & Spool Fabrication
• High Build Epoxy Pipe Coating • FBE Fusion Bond Epoxy Coating/Lining
• Cured-In-Place-Pipe • Polyurethane Coating/Lining
• Pipe Bursting • Field Joints Coating/Lining
• Pipeline Cleaning • Heat Shrink Sleeve Coating
• Cold Wrapping of Pipes




Raymond International WLL
Amani Tower, Ofce 1002, P. O. Box 5063, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain,
Tel: +973 17593978, Fax: +973 17593968, [email protected]

SIF Bahrain

RAYMOND INTERNATIONAL
























Dr. Vinod Manikkara
Hon. President
Science India Forum - Bahrain




Science India Forum (SIF) always had the mission of promoting scientific temper not only in students
but in all. Our volunteering efforts with schools in Bahrain provides students with necessary
Integrated Pipeline Services Over 100 years of Experience opportunity that are needed to develop their scientific curiosity, critical thinking and creativity.
As the founder president of SIF Bahrain, I have seen the rapid growth of our forum through these

Activities include engineering and construction services, fabrication, installation and maintenance of years. Since its inception in 2012 as a non-profit voluntary organization to promote a new generation
pipelines for the water, oil, gas and petrochemical industries, pipeline rehabilitation, lining and coating of of creative scientists, our goal has been to motivate the students to learn beyond the limits of the
classroom.
pipework, industrial and heavy construction.
SIF Bahrain has been expanding its activities, volunteer resources and quality to reach maximum
Founded in 1897 as the Raymond Concrete Pile Company, the company now employs thousands of number of students. Next year, we expect to organize teacher empowerment programs for the benefit
professionals and craftsmen in the design, engineering, fabrication, construction and construction of science teachers to familiarize themselves with the modern best practices in teaching and learning.
We are committed and self-motivated to serve and give back to Bahrain.
management disciplines. Our purpose is to meet the need for cost effective, environmentally safe facilities
by the entrepreneurial deployment of superior professional skills. I express our sincere gratitude to all sponsors and well-wishers who support our noble mission.
Best wishes
Our Specialist Services :



• Portland Cement Mortar Lining • Epoxy Lining
• Calcium Aluminate Mortar Lining • Automatic Welding
• Tight Fit HDPE Lining • Pipe Supply & Spool Fabrication Dr. Vinod Manikkara
• High Build Epoxy Pipe Coating • FBE Fusion Bond Epoxy Coating/Lining
• Cured-In-Place-Pipe • Polyurethane Coating/Lining
• Pipe Bursting • Field Joints Coating/Lining
• Pipeline Cleaning • Heat Shrink Sleeve Coating
• Cold Wrapping of Pipes




Raymond International WLL
Amani Tower, Ofce 1002, P. O. Box 5063, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain,
Tel: +973 17593978, Fax: +973 17593968, [email protected]

SIF Bahrain 23 SIF Bahrain

From Editor’s





Desk

























Science india Forum Bahrain


Scientech 2018-19




CoNTeNTS







25 Editor’s Desk 64 School Coordinators
27 Patrons/Advisory Board 64 School Coordinator’s Meeting


28 The Future 65 Level 2 Qualifiers
34 Dr. Abdul Kalam 67 Science Camp 2018


37 Amazing Nanotechnology The Science of Small 68 Srinivasa Aiyangar Ramanujan
38 Defence Forces, a Great Career Option 75 SIF In News

42 Science Fiesta - 2017 76 A+ Grade Achievers

45 Astronomy in Ancient India 82 Sastrayaan - 2018

50 Islamic Science’s India Connection 84 Bahrain Students’ Innovation Congress
57 Ambassador of India Meets Sastra Pratibhas 86 “A” Grade Achievers
58 Scientists Use The Subconscious Mind 95 25th National Children’s Science Congress

63 Sastra Pratibhas - 2018 96 Annual Report 2017-18


VoLume - 6











SIF Bahrain 24 This yearbook is printed and published by Science India Forum Bahrain and is meant for private circulation only.

From Editor’s





Desk












Dear Readers,

SCIeNCe INDIA FoRUM, BAHRAIN (SIF Bahrain) is publishing its sixth edition of
“Scientech” on the occasion of honoring the winners of the Sastra Pratibha Contest and
Bahrain Students’ Innovation Congress - 2018. This year’s record participation in the
Sastra Pratibha Contest gives us immense pleasure, satisfaction and confidence that,
we are on the right track. It has been very encouraging for our volunteering efforts when
positive comments were received from principals, teachers, parents and personalities from
various walks of life. This encouragement gives us the motivation and the zeal to do more.

‘Scientech’ will share knowledge and information on Science and Technology, through
articles. We take this opportunity to thank the authors, reviewers, for their contribution
towards this yearbook. These articles have required a generous contribution of time
and effort. It is this willingness to make the effort to share knowledge, concerns and
special insights with the community at large that has made this edition possible.
I hope this yearbook with its informative contents will surely be a reference book for the
students.

SIF Bahrain also share the gratitude of being honored and authorized by Department
of Science & Technology, Government of India to conduct the screening of projects for
National Children’s Science Congress (NCSC).NCSC is another prodigious platform for
students from Bahrain to showcase their talents and build up their career in the domain
of Science and Technology. This year’s Bahrain Students’ Innovation Congress showcased
innovative ideas presented by child scientists.


SIF Bahrain is deeply thankful to the Royal family of the Kingdom of Bahrain for supporting
our voluntary efforts. We wish to express our deepest gratitude to the officials of the
Embassy of India, Bahrain, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and Vijnana
Bharati for their assistance and guidance through this journey. A special thanks goes to
school management, our well-wishers & sponsors who have continued their support for
this noble cause.

Thanking you all once again!!


Jai Hind







Sham Kutty
Chief Editor


SIF Bahrain 25 SIF Bahrain

SIF Bahrain

Our Patrons




















Mohamed Bin Abdullah Al Snan Prakash Kumar Devji
(President Muharraq Municipal Council) (Managing Director, Devji Group)
Chief Patron Patron







Our Advisory Board




















Dr. Ravi Warrior
Chairman
















Dr. Babu Ramachandran Dr. Shyam Kumar Dr. Thajudeen Murali Warrier

















John Oommen R. Pavithran P.K Prasad
SIF Bahrain 27 SIF Bahrain

Therefore, it will be very much interesting and inspirational to spare a
thought on “The Future’’ of our human race where the role of science
and technology innovations, research and developments will be the key
game changer. “Great dreams of great dreamers are always transcended”
This is a phenomenal message given by great scientist and former Indian
President, Dr. APJ Abdul Kalaam. One of the most innovative invention
in the twentieth century is believed as the invention of MicroChip. That
led to the invention of computers which paved path for supersonic race
of technological advantages. Today, the amazing new inventions and
progressive technological and scientific developments are shaping up
the future where unimaginable changes are likely to take place. Let us
look into some of the astounding futuristic modernizations which will
change the life of human race completely.

The Quest


It all started from the Quest of Human Beings. Unlike the other species,
human beings are the only living beings who use their brain for ‘Futuristic’
thoughts. The power of immersive imagination made everything possible
that what we are today. The involvement of scientific approach and
technological interventions have led to many extraordinary inventions.
The Future Technology is evolving and scientists are frequently developing new
concepts and making inventions. Thus, the life styles are improving
which makes the world a better place today. There are certain alarming
negative impacts also which may affect the very basic existence of human
race in this planet as well.







There was a time that was not far from this living generation where mobile phones,
computers, internet and various other comfy amenities were not invented and available.
The distant communications used to happen through hand written letters, posted through
Post Offices or trunk booked telephone calls that were very expensive. In India, Televisions
were uncommon except in metro cities. Newspapers and periodicals were the main source
of information which were also not comprehensive. Common people used to depend on
trains even for longer journeys as flight travels were so expensive. Getting a cooking Gas
connection or Telephone was an expensive dream for home makers of India. Until seventies
Cinemas were in black and white. It was altogether a different era.

But, in modern history, the past fifty years has seen the most significant progress for the
humanity by caressing the science and technological advancement after the initial pull
in nineteenth century where Europeans advanced after invention of electric dynamo.
Leaving behind the dark memories of two disastrous world wars, the global powers started
concentrating on economic growth and trade after the second world war. It took couple of
decades to overcome the collateral damage of WWII. Since then, the world is progressing
relentlessly. Today, the human civilization is on the verge of spreading beyond mother earth.
More than a mere possibility, it has become a necessity as the climate changes and resource
depletions are triggering the need to find new shelters for human race. NASA’s ‘InSight’’
expedition vehicle has already started exploring at Mars in search of possibility for setting
up the first inter-planetary colony. However, it may be a dangerous delusion to envisage a
mass migration from Earth to Mars or elsewhere for an extra-terrestrial life. Because the
most suitable planet for inhabitation is still our good old Mother Earth.



SIF Bahrain 28

Therefore, it will be very much interesting and inspirational to spare a
thought on “The Future’’ of our human race where the role of science
and technology innovations, research and developments will be the key
game changer. “Great dreams of great dreamers are always transcended”
This is a phenomenal message given by great scientist and former Indian
President, Dr. APJ Abdul Kalaam. One of the most innovative invention
in the twentieth century is believed as the invention of MicroChip. That
led to the invention of computers which paved path for supersonic race
of technological advantages. Today, the amazing new inventions and
progressive technological and scientific developments are shaping up
the future where unimaginable changes are likely to take place. Let us
look into some of the astounding futuristic modernizations which will
change the life of human race completely.

The Quest


It all started from the Quest of Human Beings. Unlike the other species,
human beings are the only living beings who use their brain for ‘Futuristic’
thoughts. The power of immersive imagination made everything possible
that what we are today. The involvement of scientific approach and
technological interventions have led to many extraordinary inventions.
The Future Technology is evolving and scientists are frequently developing new
concepts and making inventions. Thus, the life styles are improving
which makes the world a better place today. There are certain alarming
negative impacts also which may affect the very basic existence of human
race in this planet as well.







There was a time that was not far from this living generation where mobile phones,
computers, internet and various other comfy amenities were not invented and available.
The distant communications used to happen through hand written letters, posted through
Post Offices or trunk booked telephone calls that were very expensive. In India, Televisions
were uncommon except in metro cities. Newspapers and periodicals were the main source
of information which were also not comprehensive. Common people used to depend on
trains even for longer journeys as flight travels were so expensive. Getting a cooking Gas
connection or Telephone was an expensive dream for home makers of India. Until seventies
Cinemas were in black and white. It was altogether a different era.

But, in modern history, the past fifty years has seen the most significant progress for the
humanity by caressing the science and technological advancement after the initial pull
in nineteenth century where Europeans advanced after invention of electric dynamo.
Leaving behind the dark memories of two disastrous world wars, the global powers started
concentrating on economic growth and trade after the second world war. It took couple of
decades to overcome the collateral damage of WWII. Since then, the world is progressing
relentlessly. Today, the human civilization is on the verge of spreading beyond mother earth.
More than a mere possibility, it has become a necessity as the climate changes and resource
depletions are triggering the need to find new shelters for human race. NASA’s ‘InSight’’
expedition vehicle has already started exploring at Mars in search of possibility for setting
up the first inter-planetary colony. However, it may be a dangerous delusion to envisage a
mass migration from Earth to Mars or elsewhere for an extra-terrestrial life. Because the
most suitable planet for inhabitation is still our good old Mother Earth.



SIF Bahrain

However, the unending quest of human brains are constantly working on the solutions eco-friendliest solutions that we ever had discovered. Further, Solar power is expected to
within the planet and searching for external solutions also which led to planetary voyages make developments all over the life spectrum of human races. From Electricity to home
which may become very common in the future. There are two basic ways to assess the appliances and from cell phone batteries to vehicles and aerospace, environment friendly
Future developments. One is to predict the technological advancements that are in progress solar energy is expected to take over very soon. Solar power is also about to boost the waste
at various countries. Other is to gauge ‘the need’ of human race for the future in which to energy solutions that are known as biomass gasification technology. These are opening
science and technology entails themselves to change and suggest the necessary patterns for massive opportunities for job market as well, which is identified as one of the hottest future
the eternal existence. We shall start from this point. career prospects.


The Environment and Sustainable Renewable Energy Future Cities and Living

Climate changes, mainly due to the high amount of Carbon emission, has become In less than 30 years from now, the entire living style of cities may go for a massive change,
undeniably one of the most important threats for our own generation and the ones that willingly or forcibly as environment scientists predicts. The tall buildings made of glass
follow. This challenge is such that it affects the whole of our space-time spectrum: an urgent and twisted steel will be seen as relics from a bygone era, in the same way we think now
reassessment of our present-day technology is indisputably needed. While at the same time, of 1970s concrete tower blocks: ugly, outdated and unfit for contemporary purpose. The
this challenge also requires the most accurate knowledge of the shifts in temperature in the urban environment of 2045 blends architecture with living materials that are moldable,
hope for a possible and still hypothetical sustainable future. Not only this, but it will also adaptable, responsive and disposable.
concern–and already does–the totality of the planet and of its living.
Entirely new synthetic life forms, or biological machines, made of engineered living cells
This is the biggest challenge in today’s world, also it serves as the biggest market opportunity from bacteria, fungi and algae will grow and evolve with the changing needs of a building’s
too. As climate change becomes a growing threat to our species, we are faced with inhabitants. They breathe in pollutants, clean wastewater, and use sunlight to make useful
significant decisions. Many cities are integrating multiple solutions that involve sustainable chemicals, energy, heat and vibrant vertical gardens. We will start to see a convergence
infrastructure, cleaner transportation, and renewable energy sources. This is a reality now, between biology and technology, to the point where there is no longer a perceptible difference
demand for renewable energy and clean solutions will do miraculous developments in the between the two. Today, synthetic biology labs are looking at the full diversity of what nature
near future itself. Right now, solar powered electricity, heating and cooling systems are the has to offer and using this to mix, match and edit genomes to design synthetic life forms.
Right now, this field is just getting started and the science of synthetic biology is going to be
tougher than most will admit. The future research in this field will be also based on setting
up feasible colonies in other planets.














Future of Transportation


The future of transportation will be exciting. Flying cars running with solar electric power
will replace the petro-chemical fuel systems which is expected to reduce the emission of
carbon by 80%. Planned cities with well-established traffic systems will use auto driven
electrical and solar cars and other public transport systems.


Many fear that the rise of such autonomous vehicles will put millions of people out of jobs,
and this is a fair concern. Yet, while innovation in the transportation sector will displace
many jobs, the rise of innovative vehicles such as self-driving cars, electrics cars, drones,
and hyperloop are representative of new sectors with demand for many novel positions.
Drones will be even used as fire and safety measures where drone driven evacuation from
high rise buildings will be a reality.


Forecasting even further into the future, another exciting demand will be in the area of
interplanetary space pilots. Just recently, Virgin Galactic’s passenger-carrying spaceship
VSS Unity completed its seventh unpowered glider test flight. SpaceX has also announced an
Interplanetary Transport System. In fact, as humanity strives to become an interplanetary
and possibly an intergalactic species this opens up a world of exciting jobs and opportunities
that we’ve only ever seen in science fiction movies.

SIF Bahrain 30

However, the unending quest of human brains are constantly working on the solutions eco-friendliest solutions that we ever had discovered. Further, Solar power is expected to
within the planet and searching for external solutions also which led to planetary voyages make developments all over the life spectrum of human races. From Electricity to home
which may become very common in the future. There are two basic ways to assess the appliances and from cell phone batteries to vehicles and aerospace, environment friendly
Future developments. One is to predict the technological advancements that are in progress solar energy is expected to take over very soon. Solar power is also about to boost the waste
at various countries. Other is to gauge ‘the need’ of human race for the future in which to energy solutions that are known as biomass gasification technology. These are opening
science and technology entails themselves to change and suggest the necessary patterns for massive opportunities for job market as well, which is identified as one of the hottest future
the eternal existence. We shall start from this point. career prospects.


The Environment and Sustainable Renewable Energy Future Cities and Living

Climate changes, mainly due to the high amount of Carbon emission, has become In less than 30 years from now, the entire living style of cities may go for a massive change,
undeniably one of the most important threats for our own generation and the ones that willingly or forcibly as environment scientists predicts. The tall buildings made of glass
follow. This challenge is such that it affects the whole of our space-time spectrum: an urgent and twisted steel will be seen as relics from a bygone era, in the same way we think now
reassessment of our present-day technology is indisputably needed. While at the same time, of 1970s concrete tower blocks: ugly, outdated and unfit for contemporary purpose. The
this challenge also requires the most accurate knowledge of the shifts in temperature in the urban environment of 2045 blends architecture with living materials that are moldable,
hope for a possible and still hypothetical sustainable future. Not only this, but it will also adaptable, responsive and disposable.
concern–and already does–the totality of the planet and of its living.
Entirely new synthetic life forms, or biological machines, made of engineered living cells
This is the biggest challenge in today’s world, also it serves as the biggest market opportunity from bacteria, fungi and algae will grow and evolve with the changing needs of a building’s
too. As climate change becomes a growing threat to our species, we are faced with inhabitants. They breathe in pollutants, clean wastewater, and use sunlight to make useful
significant decisions. Many cities are integrating multiple solutions that involve sustainable chemicals, energy, heat and vibrant vertical gardens. We will start to see a convergence
infrastructure, cleaner transportation, and renewable energy sources. This is a reality now, between biology and technology, to the point where there is no longer a perceptible difference
demand for renewable energy and clean solutions will do miraculous developments in the between the two. Today, synthetic biology labs are looking at the full diversity of what nature
near future itself. Right now, solar powered electricity, heating and cooling systems are the has to offer and using this to mix, match and edit genomes to design synthetic life forms.
Right now, this field is just getting started and the science of synthetic biology is going to be
tougher than most will admit. The future research in this field will be also based on setting
up feasible colonies in other planets.














Future of Transportation


The future of transportation will be exciting. Flying cars running with solar electric power
will replace the petro-chemical fuel systems which is expected to reduce the emission of
carbon by 80%. Planned cities with well-established traffic systems will use auto driven
electrical and solar cars and other public transport systems.


Many fear that the rise of such autonomous vehicles will put millions of people out of jobs,
and this is a fair concern. Yet, while innovation in the transportation sector will displace
many jobs, the rise of innovative vehicles such as self-driving cars, electrics cars, drones,
and hyperloop are representative of new sectors with demand for many novel positions.
Drones will be even used as fire and safety measures where drone driven evacuation from
high rise buildings will be a reality.


Forecasting even further into the future, another exciting demand will be in the area of
interplanetary space pilots. Just recently, Virgin Galactic’s passenger-carrying spaceship
VSS Unity completed its seventh unpowered glider test flight. SpaceX has also announced an
Interplanetary Transport System. In fact, as humanity strives to become an interplanetary
and possibly an intergalactic species this opens up a world of exciting jobs and opportunities
that we’ve only ever seen in science fiction movies.

SIF Bahrain 31 SIF Bahrain

The Future of Work future problems. Being forewarned, patients will be able to take action early, changing
lifestyle habits or taking designer drugs tailored to their individual DNA. Technology will
Instead of working with machines, automation is be key. ‘Telehealth platforms will make in-home patient monitoring the norm for those who
likely to make some jobs redundant. Like, taxi drivers need it,’ says expert researchers in health services. Doctors will be able to consult over the
replaced by self-driving Uber cars; receptionists internet. The perfect solution for people living in remote towns across the globe.
replaced by robots; doctors outclassed by algorithms
that can plug into vast medical databases; and travel Genome mapping will lead to personalised medicines and whole-body scanners will ascertain
agents wiped out by trip-planning, flight-booking actual issues within the body and 3D-printed replacement organs in future. Meanwhile,
web services. unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology will be used in driverless ambulance drones.
The New Zealand-based Martin Jetpack company has already developed such a concept
Even writers and journalists are threatened by which will soon come into existence. Of course, greater awareness of what we need to do to
companies such as Narrative Science, which stay healthy will be equally important, as will avoiding passing health fads such as juicing,
currently uses Artificial Intelligence to automate weight loss supplements and weird detoxification rituals like eating clay. In future, death
the creation of sports reports and financial updates. will be a rare phenomenon as science may find solutions to stop the ageing and prevent
Obviously, there will also be new jobs created. diseases using newer technologies.
The computer engineer/mechanic who fixes the
self-driving Uber taxis; programmers; genome The Future of Technology
mappers and bioengineers; space tour guides;
and vertical farmers. Technology will continue to The film Elysium (2013), where the super-rich, led by Jodie Foster, had abandoned earth to
disrupt businesses and eliminate jobs, creating new live on a luxury space station, this could be a reality very soon. Technology will underpin
professions we can’t yet envisage. everything like food, health, relationships and work. We’re heading into a future where
improved battery technology will enable better electric cars, personal flying machines,
Those of us who work probably won’t do so in a Hyperloop transportation systems, private space tourism and drone delivery services.
traditional office either. We’re already seeing a
shift in the definition of work: it’s now a task you We will wear Band Aid-style fitness sensors on our skin, charge our devices using wireless
perform, not a place you go to. Productivity is no power, let algorithms optimise and guard our homes, and have virtual assistants to help us
longer measured by sitting at a desk. There’s no manage the flood of data and make sense of it. Some of this might happen. Or none of it.
nine to five. No job for life and no pension for jobs Three things, however, are certain: technology will get smaller, smarter and cheaper. In fact,
in future. it will get so small, smart and cheap that we’ll be able to put computers and sensors into
almost anything fridges will tell us when we’ve run out of milk, bins will tell the council when
In MYOB’s report The Future of Business – Australia 2040, chief technology officer Simon they’re full, 4K televisions will notice when we’ve stopped watching and turn themselves
Raik-Allen suggests we will see a return to more vibrant local communities as people work off to save power. We’re on the road to the Internet of Things (IOT) where everything is
within walking distance of their homes. ‘Rather than the office, or even the remote workspace, connected, not only to the internet but also to another human mind through brain wave
localised centres will emerge as the home of business – giant warehouses, which are used by messages. Future passwords for multi-functions will be of brainwave signals or similar
employees from many different companies, spread around the globe… Within each will be systems.
rooms filled with giant wall-sized screens allowing us to work in a fully virtual, telepresence
model. Banks of 3D printers would be continually churning out products ordered by the At the heart of discipline of Artificial Intelligence is the idea that, one day we will be able to
local community. These are kind of fascinating predictions. build a machine that is as smart as human beings and with more efficiency. This
ambitious system has earned a new futuristic name, ÄGI which means, Artificial
General Intelligence.! This distinguishes the concept broadly which will have
The Future of Health and Medical Sciences automatic brain power. Researchers believe that, within next fifty years this
concept will be real. Once this is achieved, there will be major revolution in all
Any episode of Star Trek where Bones whips out a tricorder, diagnoses the illness and the fields. This will used from war to peace and from earth to heaven. Robots
then cures it with a hypo-spray. Instead, Hospitals are the costliest single element in many with AGI are expected to travel beyond the Solar spectrum and explore
nations health system today, representing up to 40 to 50 per cent of our annual health deeper into the Universe to find useful information for the human race.
expenditure. No wonder future healthcare strategies will try to keep people out of them.
Imaginations and productive efforts are the idiosyncratic of human
Prevention will become the focus as we gain beings that separate them from other living beings. The upcoming
greater control of our health information, generations with more perfect and corrected DNAs are expected to
using self-monitoring biosensors and smart perform miraculous inventions in the future. One only can expect and
watches to continuously gather fitness data; pray that it should be more productive rather than destructive for the
web apps will crunch the data, syncing fellow living beings and environment on our good old mother earth.
to electronic health records. Using these
numbers, companies will be able to build a
model of your overall health that can predict


SIF Bahrain 32

The Future of Work future problems. Being forewarned, patients will be able to take action early, changing
lifestyle habits or taking designer drugs tailored to their individual DNA. Technology will
Instead of working with machines, automation is be key. ‘Telehealth platforms will make in-home patient monitoring the norm for those who
likely to make some jobs redundant. Like, taxi drivers need it,’ says expert researchers in health services. Doctors will be able to consult over the
replaced by self-driving Uber cars; receptionists internet. The perfect solution for people living in remote towns across the globe.
replaced by robots; doctors outclassed by algorithms
that can plug into vast medical databases; and travel Genome mapping will lead to personalised medicines and whole-body scanners will ascertain
agents wiped out by trip-planning, flight-booking actual issues within the body and 3D-printed replacement organs in future. Meanwhile,
web services. unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology will be used in driverless ambulance drones.
The New Zealand-based Martin Jetpack company has already developed such a concept
Even writers and journalists are threatened by which will soon come into existence. Of course, greater awareness of what we need to do to
companies such as Narrative Science, which stay healthy will be equally important, as will avoiding passing health fads such as juicing,
currently uses Artificial Intelligence to automate weight loss supplements and weird detoxification rituals like eating clay. In future, death
the creation of sports reports and financial updates. will be a rare phenomenon as science may find solutions to stop the ageing and prevent
Obviously, there will also be new jobs created. diseases using newer technologies.
The computer engineer/mechanic who fixes the
self-driving Uber taxis; programmers; genome The Future of Technology
mappers and bioengineers; space tour guides;
and vertical farmers. Technology will continue to The film Elysium (2013), where the super-rich, led by Jodie Foster, had abandoned earth to
disrupt businesses and eliminate jobs, creating new live on a luxury space station, this could be a reality very soon. Technology will underpin
professions we can’t yet envisage. everything like food, health, relationships and work. We’re heading into a future where
improved battery technology will enable better electric cars, personal flying machines,
Those of us who work probably won’t do so in a Hyperloop transportation systems, private space tourism and drone delivery services.
traditional office either. We’re already seeing a
shift in the definition of work: it’s now a task you We will wear Band Aid-style fitness sensors on our skin, charge our devices using wireless
perform, not a place you go to. Productivity is no power, let algorithms optimise and guard our homes, and have virtual assistants to help us
longer measured by sitting at a desk. There’s no manage the flood of data and make sense of it. Some of this might happen. Or none of it.
nine to five. No job for life and no pension for jobs Three things, however, are certain: technology will get smaller, smarter and cheaper. In fact,
in future. it will get so small, smart and cheap that we’ll be able to put computers and sensors into
almost anything fridges will tell us when we’ve run out of milk, bins will tell the council when
In MYOB’s report The Future of Business – Australia 2040, chief technology officer Simon they’re full, 4K televisions will notice when we’ve stopped watching and turn themselves
Raik-Allen suggests we will see a return to more vibrant local communities as people work off to save power. We’re on the road to the Internet of Things (IOT) where everything is
within walking distance of their homes. ‘Rather than the office, or even the remote workspace, connected, not only to the internet but also to another human mind through brain wave
localised centres will emerge as the home of business – giant warehouses, which are used by messages. Future passwords for multi-functions will be of brainwave signals or similar
employees from many different companies, spread around the globe… Within each will be systems.
rooms filled with giant wall-sized screens allowing us to work in a fully virtual, telepresence
model. Banks of 3D printers would be continually churning out products ordered by the At the heart of discipline of Artificial Intelligence is the idea that, one day we will be able to
local community. These are kind of fascinating predictions. build a machine that is as smart as human beings and with more efficiency. This
ambitious system has earned a new futuristic name, ÄGI which means, Artificial
General Intelligence.! This distinguishes the concept broadly which will have
The Future of Health and Medical Sciences automatic brain power. Researchers believe that, within next fifty years this
concept will be real. Once this is achieved, there will be major revolution in all
Any episode of Star Trek where Bones whips out a tricorder, diagnoses the illness and the fields. This will used from war to peace and from earth to heaven. Robots
then cures it with a hypo-spray. Instead, Hospitals are the costliest single element in many with AGI are expected to travel beyond the Solar spectrum and explore
nations health system today, representing up to 40 to 50 per cent of our annual health deeper into the Universe to find useful information for the human race.
expenditure. No wonder future healthcare strategies will try to keep people out of them.
Imaginations and productive efforts are the idiosyncratic of human
Prevention will become the focus as we gain beings that separate them from other living beings. The upcoming
greater control of our health information, generations with more perfect and corrected DNAs are expected to
using self-monitoring biosensors and smart perform miraculous inventions in the future. One only can expect and
watches to continuously gather fitness data; pray that it should be more productive rather than destructive for the
web apps will crunch the data, syncing fellow living beings and environment on our good old mother earth.
to electronic health records. Using these
numbers, companies will be able to build a
model of your overall health that can predict


SIF Bahrain 33 SIF Bahrain

“Dreams is not


what you see in


sleep is the


thing which


doesn’t let you

sleep”




Dr. Abdul Kalam


Reading success stories of greatest professionals stimulates motivational enzyme within us and
we all wish to emulate them on path of success.

Following above you will read today motivational story of our beloved President and Missile
Man of India, Late Dr. Abdul Kalam: The Man Who Taught Us to Be Human First!!

Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam usually referred as A. P. J. Abdul Kalam was the 11th
President of India for the term 2002 to 2007. Popularly known as the People’s President he
was the chief brain behind India’s attainment of the nuclear status in the global arena and
was known as the ‘Missile Man of India’ for his work on development of ballistic missiles and
space rocket technology.

Last year it was noticed that the presence of condolence messages about the demise of
Dr. A P J Abdul Kalam on banners held at tea shops and auto rickshaws. At first, it was
surprising and wonderful that why shop owners are displaying his picture and messages. In a
country where hardly common men and women are aware about who the current President is,
what is it that made these people showcase love and affection on his death? It was definitely
not a political cause as Kalam was not a political leader. It was because this man touched
every heart in a big and meaningful way. It was on his third visit to Rajiv Gandhi Indian
Institute of Management (IIM) Shillong on July 27th, 2015 when the former President and
world renowned scientist collapsed while giving lecture to the students.


An ineffaceable mark is created in the minds of millions of Indians by our “People’s President”
the late Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam. Very few eminent public figures that history has witnessed had
created such a deep influence even after their demise. This magical name sends an electrical
signal to every soul in our country who wants to be truly successful. He always preferred to
converse with people directly instead of using the web or the electronic media. He was very less
aware of protocols and security measures. He loved spending quality time amongst students
in various schools, colleges and universities to interact with them and to inspire them to be
better individuals when they grow up.

There are numerous experiences of people who worked by the side of this man who has
been deeply motivated by his honest care, affection and thoughtfulness. It was once, under
a very tight project launch a scientist working under him requested an early leave as he was
supposed to take his son to an exhibition. Engrossed in his work, it was three hours late when


SIF Bahrain 34

the scientist realised that he forgot keeping his parental duties. Going back home with a guilty
heart he was amazed to know that his son was not at home. Instead he was at his exhibition.
It was Dr Kalam, who on noticing that the scientist was not leaving his work, thought to keep
his father’s promise to the child by taking him to the exhibition personally. It clearly shows
“Dreams is not how much he valued his men. Because it is men who makes or breaks an organisation.


what you see in Small instances like refusing to sit on a chair offered to him on a seminar at IIT Varanasi
just because its size was bigger than the rest shows how much he believed in being equal.
Personally sending a handwritten thank you card to a kid who sketched his portrait inspired
sleep is the by his book “Wings of Fire” shows how polite he was to respond and acknowledge every good

and positive deed.
thing which He was one of those respected souls in this country whose contribution to our society as


doesn’t let you a scientist, leader and President has been most prominent. Once his terms as a President
were over, Kalam visited various reverend institutes and universities present in India as their
sleep” visiting professor. He loved sharing knowledge and motivating people towards the big picture
of life.


Dr. Abdul Kalam Early childhood and education - It was unknown to parents Jainulabdeen and Ashiamma
that one day their son will become the first citizen of India. Dr A.P.J Kalam served the country
as its 11th President since year 2002 till 2007. The pure heart of the child got its nurture
Reading success stories of greatest professionals stimulates motivational enzyme within us and and care in the humble surroundings of the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Born in a poor
we all wish to emulate them on path of success. family Kalam soon understood that he has to sponsor his own education by all means. From
a very early age Kalam started earning his and his families living by distributing newspapers.
Following above you will read today motivational story of our beloved President and Missile However, money never lured him away from gaining knowledge. His ever growing thirst to gain
Man of India, Late Dr. Abdul Kalam: The Man Who Taught Us to Be Human First!!
knowledge compelled him to complete his studies successfully. In the Institute of Technology
in Madras after studying aerospace engineering he graduated in the year 1960 after which he
Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam usually referred as A. P. J. Abdul Kalam was the 11th joined in the DRDO or the Aeronautical Development Establishment of the Defense Research
President of India for the term 2002 to 2007. Popularly known as the People’s President he and Development Organization as their scientist.
was the chief brain behind India’s attainment of the nuclear status in the global arena and
was known as the ‘Missile Man of India’ for his work on development of ballistic missiles and Career - This multi dimensional persona was a well known scientist exhibiting enormous
space rocket technology.
and endless for science and technological research and development. It was he who made
our country nuclear in its truest sense. It was in the year 1974, under the supervision of
Last year it was noticed that the presence of condolence messages about the demise of Dr Kalam, India underwent its first nuclear test. Next came the Pokhran –II in the year 1988.
Dr. A P J Abdul Kalam on banners held at tea shops and auto rickshaws. At first, it was It was through these nuclear tests Dr Kalam showed the world India’s position and power in
surprising and wonderful that why shop owners are displaying his picture and messages. In a nuclear technology.
country where hardly common men and women are aware about who the current President is,
what is it that made these people showcase love and affection on his death? It was definitely Awards and achievements - His works awarded him three renowned awards from the Govt.
not a political cause as Kalam was not a political leader. It was because this man touched of India namely- Padma Bhushan, Padma Vibhushan and the Bharat Ratna. In the year
every heart in a big and meaningful way. It was on his third visit to Rajiv Gandhi Indian 1997, Kalam was also awarded with the Indira Gandhi Award for National Integration. He was
Institute of Management (IIM) Shillong on July 27th, 2015 when the former President and awarded the Veer Savarkar Award in the year 1980 and the Ramanujan Award in the year
world renowned scientist collapsed while giving lecture to the students.
2000.From 40 universities all across the world, Kalam received honorary doctorates.

An ineffaceable mark is created in the minds of millions of Indians by our “People’s President” Works - He was the proud author of numerous inspirational books like “India 2010”, “Ignited
the late Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam. Very few eminent public figures that history has witnessed had Minds”, “Mission India”, “The Luminous Sparks”, “Wings of Fire” and “Inspiring Thoughts”.
created such a deep influence even after their demise. This magical name sends an electrical
signal to every soul in our country who wants to be truly successful. He always preferred to His life, work and beliefs are filled with examples and inspirations. He will continue to
converse with people directly instead of using the web or the electronic media. He was very less inspire us forever. And this is the real reason why people from all the sections of the society
aware of protocols and security measures. He loved spending quality time amongst students spontaneously shown love for this great human being on his sad demise at IIM Shillong on
in various schools, colleges and universities to interact with them and to inspire them to be 27th July 2015.
better individuals when they grow up.
May This Noble & Pious Soul rest in Peace!!
There are numerous experiences of people who worked by the side of this man who has
been deeply motivated by his honest care, affection and thoughtfulness. It was once, under Mother India is proud of you ‘Sir’ forever and wishes to have sons like you!!
a very tight project launch a scientist working under him requested an early leave as he was
supposed to take his son to an exhibition. Engrossed in his work, it was three hours late when Courtesy : www.mbarendezvous.com Compiled by Sham Kutty


SIF Bahrain 35 SIF Bahrain

Amazing Nanotechnology





The Science of Small


Dr. Reshmi Nair

Nanoscience is the study of materials of nano range size that are 1nm to 100nm in size.
(1nm = 10 m)
-9

Now the question is why nanotechnology is of great importance in future world? Well, to make
it clearer, nanoparticles are 100,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair, or the
thickness of a paper is approximately 75,000 nanometer thick. Hence the word nano relates
to unimaginably small dimensions.

Due to the reduction in the dimensions, the surface area of nanomaterials is much compared to
its volume. This leads to extraordinary properties of nanomaterials which makes them unique
materials. When materials reduce to the nano dimensions, their optical, electrical, electronic,
magnetic and mechanical properties change drastically which make these materials to have
novel and innovative applications.

Types of nanomaterials can be classified into :

a) 2D nanomaterials - thickness is in the nano range compared to other 2 dimensions.
Eg: nanofilms, nanolayers, nanocoating etc.
b) 1D nanomaterials - two dimensions are in the nano range (needle shaped form).
Eg: nanowire, nanotube, nanorods.
c) 0D nanomaterials - all the dimensions are within the nano range.
Eg: nanoparticles

Researches in the field of nanotechnology can change our future world. The applications are
innumerable and exciting. Some of the applications include the fields such as

• Medicine- nanoparticles can be employed to deliver drugs very effectively to diseased cells
especially in the treatment of cancer that can minimize damage to healthy cells. Longer range
research involves the manufacture of nanorobots to administer cellular level problems.
• Nano bioengineering of enzymes and catalysts.
• Nanotechnology is being used to minimize the cost of fuel cells and solar cells.
• Major contributions in electronics and IT applications.
• Everyday commercial products started relying on nanoscale materials such as nanofilms
on camera, computer, eyeglasses that are self-cleaning, antimicrobial, scratch proof,
waterproof etc. Manufacturing vehicles and sports equipment that are strong and light
weight. Fabrics that are durable, light, antimicrobial, dust repellent. High power battery,
efficient gas sensors, biosensors. Household products like cleansers, degreasers, paints
etc.
In a nutshell, nanotechnology rules a lot of domain today and will promise revolutionary
advances in lot more fields in the near future which will make or world a better place.








SIF Bahrain 36

Amazing Nanotechnology





The Science of Small


Dr. Reshmi Nair

Nanoscience is the study of materials of nano range size that are 1nm to 100nm in size.
(1nm = 10 m)
-9

Now the question is why nanotechnology is of great importance in future world? Well, to make
it clearer, nanoparticles are 100,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair, or the
thickness of a paper is approximately 75,000 nanometer thick. Hence the word nano relates
to unimaginably small dimensions.

Due to the reduction in the dimensions, the surface area of nanomaterials is much compared to
its volume. This leads to extraordinary properties of nanomaterials which makes them unique
materials. When materials reduce to the nano dimensions, their optical, electrical, electronic,
magnetic and mechanical properties change drastically which make these materials to have
novel and innovative applications.

Types of nanomaterials can be classified into :

a) 2D nanomaterials - thickness is in the nano range compared to other 2 dimensions.
Eg: nanofilms, nanolayers, nanocoating etc.
b) 1D nanomaterials - two dimensions are in the nano range (needle shaped form).
Eg: nanowire, nanotube, nanorods.
c) 0D nanomaterials - all the dimensions are within the nano range.
Eg: nanoparticles

Researches in the field of nanotechnology can change our future world. The applications are
innumerable and exciting. Some of the applications include the fields such as

• Medicine- nanoparticles can be employed to deliver drugs very effectively to diseased cells
especially in the treatment of cancer that can minimize damage to healthy cells. Longer range
research involves the manufacture of nanorobots to administer cellular level problems.
• Nano bioengineering of enzymes and catalysts.
• Nanotechnology is being used to minimize the cost of fuel cells and solar cells.
• Major contributions in electronics and IT applications.
• Everyday commercial products started relying on nanoscale materials such as nanofilms
on camera, computer, eyeglasses that are self-cleaning, antimicrobial, scratch proof,
waterproof etc. Manufacturing vehicles and sports equipment that are strong and light
weight. Fabrics that are durable, light, antimicrobial, dust repellent. High power battery,
efficient gas sensors, biosensors. Household products like cleansers, degreasers, paints
etc.
In a nutshell, nanotechnology rules a lot of domain today and will promise revolutionary
advances in lot more fields in the near future which will make or world a better place.








SIF Bahrain 37

Defence Forces,


a Great Career Option



























Joining Defence forces can be one of the great career options for kids. Read on to know
more about armed forces as a career option.


A career in defence forces promises one of the most prestigious and respected positions in the
country. Youngsters who aspire to choose a career of excitement, adventure, and challenges
can find no better place than defence to meet all their professional expectations. The Indian
Armed Forces are the military forces of India which consist of four professional uniformed
services: The Indian Army, Indian Air Force, Indian Navy and Indian Coast Guard. The
various paramilitary organisations and various inter-service institutions also help the Indian
Armed Forces. The Ministry of Defence is responsible for the management of armed forces in
India.


The most difficult stage in a teenager’s life comes when it is time to contemplate professional
goals or chalk out a career path. Many teenagers, out of high school and college, are confused
and aimless about what they want to do in life. Children come in social contact with doctors or
teachers often, so that they may subconsciously think of these professions as obvious career
options. But, away from such mainstream professions, there are as many off-beat professions
today as there are ideas floating around. At such times, as parents of a teenager, you have to
be aware of the various career options yourselves so that you can guide your son or daughter
well.

Here, we will dwell over one such career option - the Armed Forces. It is a matter of honour and
pride to join the Armed Forces as these personnel are looked upon as saviours or defenders of
nations and its people. It is one of the few noble professions left today.


The Armed Forces comprise three arms or services, that of the Army, Navy and Air Force.
Apart from defending the borders from external threats, the Armed Forces are often involved
in humanitarian missions like the UN Peacekeeping forces and in disaster management. In the
event of earthquakes, floods or avalanches, the Army, Navy and Air Force are the first to reach
the disaster-prone areas for search and rescue missions. In the recent tsunami disaster, the
Indian Navy did yeomen service in sending its ships and its men with food and medicines to
Sri Lanka for relief operations.


The Indian Military Academy’s Chetwood Hall bears an inscription, which reads: “The safety,
honour and welfare of your country comes first, always and every time. The honour, welfare
and comfort of the men you command, come next. Your own ease, comfort and safety comes
last, always and every time.” That truly epitomizes what a solider stands for and what he

SIF Bahrain 38

Defence Forces, should be. Selfless service for the nation and its people is a soldier’s brief, which he is trained
to follow unfailingly.
a Great Career Option But, apart from that, the military also offers a great opportunity for growth and a good life.

Today, even women are welcome in the Armed Forces in education, logistics, air traffic control
and legal branches. Let us see what you stand to gain by joining the Armed Forces.

A career in the Defence Forces as an officer has always had a place of dignity and respect
amongst the youth, though not very high on the popularity graph as a career option these
days. Notwithstanding the exponential growth in white collar jobs in the last two decades,
the reason to a large extent also depends upon unawareness among the youth regarding the
options available, service conditions and quality of life.


1) Head start

In the Armed Forces, you get to begin your career early in life. Candidates begin their career
and training when they are anywhere between 15 - 20 years of age, of course, eligibility varies
from country to country. Some countries have conscription or compulsory enrolment, but
most modern democracies do not have such a provision.
Joining Defence forces can be one of the great career options for kids. Read on to know
more about armed forces as a career option. The training period can be anywhere from one to three years, again depending on your
nationality. Aspirants can join as officers or in non-officer cadres as ratings, but both follow
A career in defence forces promises one of the most prestigious and respected positions in the different career patterns. The officers, of course, are entitled to greater privileges and perks.
country. Youngsters who aspire to choose a career of excitement, adventure, and challenges An advantage of this early head start in career is that after 10-15 years of service, you are
can find no better place than defence to meet all their professional expectations. The Indian still young enough to choose a career outside the Armed Forces, if you so desire. Moreover,
Armed Forces are the military forces of India which consist of four professional uniformed the military training and service, by its very nature highly equips you for other jobs, say in
services: The Indian Army, Indian Air Force, Indian Navy and Indian Coast Guard. The managerial positions. Naval personnel can make a smooth transition to Merchant Navy and
various paramilitary organisations and various inter-service institutions also help the Indian Air Force pilots can shift to commercial airlines without much ado.
Armed Forces. The Ministry of Defence is responsible for the management of armed forces in
India. 2) Training


The most difficult stage in a teenager’s life comes when it is time to contemplate professional Training and education in most defence academies is free or, at least, highly subsidized.
goals or chalk out a career path. Many teenagers, out of high school and college, are confused Considering the prohibitive costs of education in other streams, this is quite a scream.
and aimless about what they want to do in life. Children come in social contact with doctors or Academies around the world have tie-ups with university programs and along with military
teachers often, so that they may subconsciously think of these professions as obvious career training you stand to get a graduate degree or a diploma.
options. But, away from such mainstream professions, there are as many off-beat professions
today as there are ideas floating around. At such times, as parents of a teenager, you have to Military training lays great emphasis on physical fitness and discipline. In India’s National
be aware of the various career options yourselves so that you can guide your son or daughter Defence Academy, every cadet’s study table has Rudyard Kipling’s inspirational poem, ‘If’
well. framed. That singularly epitomizes what the academy training seeks to achieve.

Here, we will dwell over one such career option - the Armed Forces. It is a matter of honour and As part of the training, you will get to indulge in a wide variety of sports -
pride to join the Armed Forces as these personnel are looked upon as saviours or defenders of from sailing and mountaineering to horse-riding and rifle shooting. Later,
nations and its people. It is one of the few noble professions left today. into the service you can continue with the adventure sports either as a
hobby or take it up seriously as a profession. The silver medalist in
The Armed Forces comprise three arms or services, that of the Army, Navy and Air Force. shooting in Olympics 2003, Major Raghvendra Singh Rathore
Apart from defending the borders from external threats, the Armed Forces are often involved is a professional archer apart from being an Army officer.
in humanitarian missions like the UN Peacekeeping forces and in disaster management. In the Indeed, it was his Army training and coaching which
event of earthquakes, floods or avalanches, the Army, Navy and Air Force are the first to reach has been instrumental in his success.
the disaster-prone areas for search and rescue missions. In the recent tsunami disaster, the
Indian Navy did yeomen service in sending its ships and its men with food and medicines to
Sri Lanka for relief operations. 3) Leadership skills


The Indian Military Academy’s Chetwood Hall bears an inscription, which reads: “The safety, Soldiering is all about facing
honour and welfare of your country comes first, always and every time. The honour, welfare situations whether it is waging
and comfort of the men you command, come next. Your own ease, comfort and safety comes wars, encountering militants or
last, always and every time.” That truly epitomizes what a solider stands for and what he

SIF Bahrain 39 SIF Bahrain

going on humanitarian missions. Soldiers have to rise up to difficult challenges, offer succour
and battle with life and death - all this amidst great expectations from people. If you relish
challenges and like to live on the edge of life, then this is the job for you.

Life in the Armed Forces also gears you to rise above individual aspirations, forget differences
and work as a team towards a common aim. It calls for great leadership skills and fosters the
spirit of camaraderie which shall stand in good stead in any walk of life.

4) Broadening of horizons (Lateral education)


Armed Force personnel get posted in a variety of places - islands, forests, mountains and
even deserts. They come in contact with varied flora and fauna, heritage, cuisines, people
and culture - which is like lateral education for their children and families. They get to dine
with the kings and sup with the commoners, so to say. Such kind of living makes them truly
cosmopolitan. After a while, the distinction of race, caste and creed disappears and they
assume truly homogenous identities.


In a country like India, with its diversities, inter-caste marriages in the Armed Forces are
rampant and you get to see national integration at its best, here.


5) Travel

While they get posted in interesting and remote places, the personnel also get great opportunities
to travel. The Indian Navy’s motto has been: “Join the navy and see the world”. But that holds
true of all the three services of the Armed Forces. Today, as the world is shrinking, there is a
lot of interaction and as such the military personnel are constantly touring foreign countries
for expositions or exercises, whether it is air shows, fleet reviews or peacekeeping missions.
Many go on diplomatic postings or are sent for undergoing certain formal courses.

6) Pay and perks


The pay scales in the Armed Forces are fairly competitive and in most cases, the perks include
accommodation. The living quarters - the cantonment areas or the designated townships -
invariably have good surroundings and are ordered. The officers are the cream of society, and
they have an unmistakably enhanced quality of life.

Contrary to some notions, the Armed Force personnel are not war-mongers; they are simply
conscientious soldiers carrying out the duty of defending their nation against external threats.
But there are facets to their work which many of us do not know. A career in the Armed Forces
makes for a wholesome personality, and indeed, a wholesome life.




























SIF Bahrain 40

going on humanitarian missions. Soldiers have to rise up to difficult challenges, offer succour
and battle with life and death - all this amidst great expectations from people. If you relish The link is to the government portal that displays career opportunity details in Defence and
challenges and like to live on the edge of life, then this is the job for you. paramilitary forces, https://www.india.gov.in/spotlight/career-defence-and-paramilitary-
forces
Life in the Armed Forces also gears you to rise above individual aspirations, forget differences
and work as a team towards a common aim. It calls for great leadership skills and fosters the Top Defence Institutes in India:
spirit of camaraderie which shall stand in good stead in any walk of life. • Air Force Academy, Hyderabad
• Air Force Technical College, Bangalore
4) Broadening of horizons (Lateral education) • INS Garuda, Kochi
• College of Military Engineering, Pune
Armed Force personnel get posted in a variety of places - islands, forests, mountains and • Naval College of Engineering, Lonavala
even deserts. They come in contact with varied flora and fauna, heritage, cuisines, people • Indian Military Academy, Dehradun
and culture - which is like lateral education for their children and families. They get to dine
with the kings and sup with the commoners, so to say. Such kind of living makes them truly Inter-Service Institutions
cosmopolitan. After a while, the distinction of race, caste and creed disappears and they • National Defence Academy (NDA)
assume truly homogenous identities. • National Defence College (NDC)
• Defence Services Staff College (DSSC)
In a country like India, with its diversities, inter-caste marriages in the Armed Forces are • National Cadet Corps (NCC)
rampant and you get to see national integration at its best, here. • Armed forces Medical College (AFMC)


5) Travel Courtesy
http://www.bestindiaedu.com/colleges/defence-institutes.html
While they get posted in interesting and remote places, the personnel also get great opportunities http://www.indiaparenting.com/rhymes-/149_3340/armed-forces-a-great-career-option.html
to travel. The Indian Navy’s motto has been: “Join the navy and see the world”. But that holds https://www.india.gov.in/spotlight/career-defence-and-paramilitary-forces
true of all the three services of the Armed Forces. Today, as the world is shrinking, there is a
lot of interaction and as such the military personnel are constantly touring foreign countries
for expositions or exercises, whether it is air shows, fleet reviews or peacekeeping missions.
Many go on diplomatic postings or are sent for undergoing certain formal courses.

6) Pay and perks


The pay scales in the Armed Forces are fairly competitive and in most cases, the perks include
accommodation. The living quarters - the cantonment areas or the designated townships - ALL THE BRAND NEW VEHICLES UNDER ONE SHOWROOM
invariably have good surroundings and are ordered. The officers are the cream of society, and
they have an unmistakably enhanced quality of life.

Contrary to some notions, the Armed Force personnel are not war-mongers; they are simply [email protected]
conscientious soldiers carrying out the duty of defending their nation against external threats. royalclassmotors
But there are facets to their work which many of us do not know. A career in the Armed Forces
makes for a wholesome personality, and indeed, a wholesome life.
Bldg 188 / Road 5 / Block 222 / BUSAITEEN / BAHRAIN
Sales Expats 34153071 Sales Arabic 35522255 / 33060644 Office 17343333
























SIF Bahrain 41 SIF Bahrain

SCIeNCe FIeSTA - 2017
























Lighting the Lamp


















Mr Anand Prakash Prof. V.N. Rajasekhran Pillai Mr. Mohamed Bin Abdullah Al Snan Mr. A. Jayakumar Mr.T. M. Nanda Kumar
















Mr. Rajeesh Mr.Ravindra Khot Mr. Sham Kutty
Kumar










Releasing the year book













Honouring the School Coordinators

SIF Bahrain 42

SCIeNCe FIeSTA - 2017












































Bahrain Students’ Innovation Congress -2016
Honouring the Sastra Pratibhas















































SIF Bahrain 43 SIF Bahrain

SIF Bahrain 44

Astronomy in Ancient India





Ancient India’s contributions in the field of astronomy are well known and well documented.
The earliest references to astronomy are found in the Rig Veda, which are dated 2000 BC.
During next 2500 years, by 500 AD, ancient Indian astronomy has emerged as an important
part of Indian studies and its affect is also seen in several treatises of that period. In some
instances, astronomical principles were borrowed to explain matters, pertaining to astrology,
like casting of a horoscope. Apart from this linkage of astronomy with astrology in ancient
India, science of astronomy continued to develop independently, and culminated into original
findings, like:
• The calculation of occurrences of eclipses
• Determination of Earth’s circumference
• Theorizing about the theory of gravitation
• Determining that sun was a star and determination of number of planets
under our solar system


There are astronomical references of chronological significance in the Vedas. Some Vedic
notices mark the beginning of the year and that of the vernal equinox in Orion. This was
the case around 4500 BC. Fire altars, with astronomical basis, have been found in the third
millennium cities of India. The texts that describe their designs are conservatively dated to the
first millennium BC, but their contents appear to be much older.


Yajnavalkya (perhaps 1800 BC) advanced a 95-year cycle to synchronize the motions of the
sun and the moon. A text on Vedic astronomy that has been dated to 1350 BC, was written
by Lagadha.

In 500 AD, Aryabhata presented a mathematical system that took the earth to spin on its
axis and considered the motions of the planets with respect to the sun (in other words it was
heliocentric). His book, the Aryabhatya, presented astronomical and mathematical theories
in which the Earth was taken to be spinning on its axis and the periods of the planets were
given with respect to the sun. In this book, the day was reckoned from one sunrise to the next,
whereas in his Aryabhata-Siddhanta he took the day from one midnight to another. There was
also difference in some astronomical parameters.

SIF Bahrain 45 SIF Bahrain

SIF Bahrain

Aryabhata wrote that 1,582,237,500 rotations of the Earth equal 57,753,336 lunar orbits. This
is an extremely accurate of a fundamental astronomical ratio (1,582,237,500/57,753,336 =
27.3964693572), and is perhaps the oldest astronomical constant calculated to such accuracy.
Brahmagupta (598-668) was the head of the astronomical observatory at Ujjain and during
his tenure there wrote a text on astronomy, the Brahmasphutasiddhanta.

Bhaskara (1114-1185) was the head of the astronomical observatory at Ujjain, continuing the
mathematical tradition of Brahmagupta. He wrote the Siddhantasiromani which consists of
two parts: Goladhyaya (sphere) and Grahaganita (mathematics of the planets).


Early cultures identified celestial objects with gods and spirits. They related these objects
(and their movements) to phenomena such as rain, drought, seasons, and tides. It is
generally believed that the first “professional” astronomers were priests (Magi), and that their
understanding of the “heavens” was seen as “divine”, hence astronomy’s ancient connection
to what is now called astrology. Ancient constructions with astronomical alineations (such as
Stonehenge) probably fulfilled both astronomical and religious functions.


Calendars of the world have usually been set by the Sun and Moon (measuring the day, month
and year), and were of importance to agricultural societies, in which the harvest depended
on planting at the correct time of year. The most common modern calendar is based on the
Roman calendar, which divided the year into twelve months of alternating thirty and thirty-
one days apiece. In 46 BC Julius Caesar instigated calendar reform and created the leap year.
There are astronomical references of chronological significance in the Vedas. Some Vedic
notices mark the beginning of the year and that of the vernal equinox in Orion - this was
the case around 4500 BC. Fire altars, with astronomical basis, have been found in the third
millennium cities of India. The texts that describe their designs are conservatively dated to the
first millennium BC, but their contents appear to be much older.

Yajnavalkya (perhaps 1800 BC) described the motions of the Sun and the Moon in his book
Shatapatha Brahmana, and also advanced a 95-year cycle to synchronize the motions of the
Sun and the Moon.

In Indian languages, the science of astronomy is called Khagola-shastra. The word Khagola
perhaps is derived from the famous astronomical observatory at the University of Nalanda
which was called Khagola. It was at Khagola that the famous 5th century Indian Astronomer
Aryabhatta studied and extended the subject.

Around 500 BCE, Aryabhata presented a mathematical
system that took the Earth to spin on its axis and
considered the motions of the planets with respect to
the Sun. He also made an accurate approximation of the
Earth’s circumference and diameter, and also discovered
how the lunar eclipse and solar eclipse happen for the
first time. He gives the radius of the planetary orbits in
terms of the radius of the Earth/Sun orbit as essentially
their periods of rotation around the Sun. He was also the
earliest to discover that the orbits of the planets around
the Sun are ellipses.


He is the first known astronomer on that continent to have
used a continuous system of counting solar days. His
book, The Aryabhatiya, published in 498 AD described
numerical and geometric rules for eclipse calculations.
Aryabhatta’s Magnum Opus, the Aryabhattiya was




SIF Bahrain 47 SIF Bahrain

translated into Latin in the 13th century. Through this translation, European mathematicians
got to know methods for calculating the areas of triangles, volumes of spheres as well as square
But considering that Aryabhatta discovered these facts 1,500 years ago, and 1,000 years
and cube root. Aryabhatta’s ideas about eclipses and the sun being the source of moonlight The sun (Surya) was one of the chief deities in the Vedas. He was recognized as the source of
light (Dinkara), source of warmth (Bhaskara). In the Vedas he is also referred to as the source
before Copernicus and Galileo makes him a pioneer in this area too. In ancient India, eclipses
may not have caused much of an impression on European astronomers as by then they had of all life, the center of creation and the center of the spheres. The last statement is suggestive
were also forecast and their true nature was perceived at least by the astronomers.
come to know of these facts through the observations of Copernicus and Galileo. of the sun being recognized as the centre of the universe (solar system). The idea that the sun
The lack of a telescope hindered further advancement of ancient Indian astronomy. Though was looked upon as the power that attracts heavenly bodies is supported by the virile terms
it should be admitted that with their unaided observations with crude instruments, the
But considering that Aryabhatta discovered these facts 1,500 years ago, and 1,000 years like Raghupati and Aditya used in referring to the sun.
astronomers in ancient India were able to arrive at near perfect measurement of astronomical
before Copernicus and Galileo makes him a pioneer in this area too. In ancient India, eclipses While the male gender is applied to refer to the sun, the Earth (Prithivi, Bhoomi, etc.) is
movements and predict eclipses. Indian astronomers also propounded the theory that the
were also forecast and their true nature was perceived at least by the astronomers. generally referred to as a female. The literal meaning of the term Gurutvakarshan also supports
Earth was a sphere. Aryabhatta was the first one to have propounded this theory in the 5th
century. the recognition of the heliocentric theory, as the term Guru corresponds with the male gender,
The lack of a telescope hindered further advancement of ancient Indian astronomy. Though hence it could not have referred to the earth which was always referred to as a female.
Another Indian astronomer and mathematician, Brahmagupta estimated in the 7th century
it should be admitted that with their unaided observations with crude instruments, the Many ancient Indian astronomers have also referred to the concept of heliocentrism. Aryabhata
that the circumference of the earth was 5000 yojanas. A yojana is around 7.2 kms. Calculating
astronomers in ancient India were able to arrive at near perfect measurement of astronomical has suggested it in his treatise Aryabhattiya. Bhaskaracharya has also made references to it
on this basis we see that the estimate of 36,000 kms as the Earth’s circumference comes quite
movements and predict eclipses. Indian astronomers also propounded the theory that the in his Magnum Opus Siddhanta-Shiromani. But it has to be conceded that the heliocentric
close to the actual circumference known today.
Earth was a sphere. Aryabhatta was the first one to have propounded this theory in the 5th theory of gravitation was also developed in ancient times (i.e. around 500 B.C.) by Greek
astronomers.
There is an old Sanskrit Sloka (couplet) which is as follows:
century.
What supports the contention that it could have existed in India before the Greek astronomers
developed it, is that in Vedic literature the Sun is referred to as the ‘center of spheres’ along
with the term Guru-tva-akarshan which seemingly refers to the sun. The Vedas are dated
around 3000 B.C. to 1000 B.C. Thus the heliocentric idea could have existed in a rudimentary
form in the days of the Rig Veda and was refined further by astronomers of a later age.
“Sarva Dishanaam, Suryaha,

Suryaha, Suryaha.”









This couplet means that there are suns in all directions. This couplet which describes the Indian Astronomers like Aryabhatta and Varahamihira who lived between 476 and 587
Another Indian astronomer and mathematician, Brahmagupta estimated in the 7th century A.D. made close approaches to the concept of Heliocentrism. In the Surya-Siddhanta, an
night sky as full of suns, indicates that in ancient times Indian astronomers had arrived at
that the circumference of the earth was 5000 yojanas. A yojana is around 7.2 kms. Calculating astronomical text dated around 400 A.D., the following appellations have been given to the sun.
the important discovery that the stars visible at night are similar to the Sun visible during day
time. In other words, it was recognized that the sun is also a star, though the nearest one.
on this basis we see that the estimate of 36,000 kms as the Earth’s circumference comes quite “He is denominated the golden wombed (Hiranyagarbha), the blessed; as being the generator”.
This understanding is demonstrated in another Sloka which says that when one sun sinks
close to the actual circumference known today. He is also referred to as “The supreme source of light (Jyoti) upon the border of darkness -
below the horizon, a thousand suns take its place. This apart, many Indian astronomers had
formulated ideas about gravity and gravitation. he revolves. bringing beings into being, the creator of creatures”. The Surya-Siddhanta also
There is an old Sanskrit Sloka (couplet) which is as follows: says that “Bestowing upon him the scriptures (Vedas) as gifts and establishing him within
Brahmagupta, in the 7th century had said about gravity that “Bodies fall towards the Earth the egg as grandfather of all worlds, he himself then revolves causing existence”. Thus we
as it is in the nature of the Earth to attract bodies, just as it is in the nature of water to flow”. can see that what ancient Indian astronomers say comes close to the heliocentric theory of
This couplet means that there are suns in all directions. This couplet which describes the gravitation, which was a thousand years later articulated by Copernicus and Galileo inviting
About a hundred years before Brahmagupta, another astronomer, Varahamihira had claimed
night sky as full of suns, indicates that in ancient times Indian astronomers had arrived at severe reactions from the clergy in Rome.
for the first time perhaps that there should be a force which might be keeping bodies stuck
the important discovery that the stars visible at night are similar to the Sun visible during day
to the Earth, and also keeping heavenly bodies in their determined places. Thus the concept
of the existence of some attractive force that governs the falling of objects to the Earth and
time. In other words, it was recognized that the sun is also a star, though the nearest one. Other important astronomers from India include Madhava, Nilakantha Somayaji and
Jyeshtadeva, who were members of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics from the
their remaining stationary after having once fallen; as also determining the positions which
This understanding is demonstrated in another Sloka which says that when one sun sinks 14th century to the 16th century. They were responsible for founding calculus and modern
heavenly bodies occupy, was recognized. It was also recognized that this force is an attractive
below the horizon, a thousand suns take its place. This apart, many Indian astronomers had mathematical analysis, along with a number of other developments.
force. The Sanskrit term for gravity is Gurutvakarshan which is an amalgam of Guru-tva-
akarshan. Akarshan means to be attracted, thus the fact that the character of this force was
formulated ideas about gravity and gravitation.
of attraction was also recognized. This apart, it seems that the function of attracting heavenly The Jantar Mantar in Jaipur is actually one of six major observatories built by the Maharajah.
bodies was attributed to the sun. The term Gurutvaakarshan can be interpreted to mean, ‘to The one in Jaipur not only follows the movements of the sun and the moon to help determine
Brahmagupta, in the 7th century had said about gravity that “Bodies fall towards the Earth auspicious dates for events, it also helps map out the position of the stars in the sky. Although
the attracted by the Master”. The sun was recognized by all ancient people to be the source of
as it is in the nature of the Earth to attract bodies, just as it is in the nature of water to flow”. no telescopic instruments were available at the time, the precise observation of the stars was
light and warmth.
About a hundred years before Brahmagupta, another astronomer, Varahamihira had claimed greatly facilitated by observatories such as Jantar Mantar.
for the first time perhaps that there should be a force which might be keeping bodies stuck
to the Earth, and also keeping heavenly bodies in their determined places. Thus the concept
of the existence of some attractive force that governs the falling of objects to the Earth and
their remaining stationary after having once fallen; as also determining the positions which
heavenly bodies occupy, was recognized. It was also recognized that this force is an attractive
force. The Sanskrit term for gravity is Gurutvakarshan which is an amalgam of Guru-tva-
akarshan. Akarshan means to be attracted, thus the fact that the character of this force was
of attraction was also recognized. This apart, it seems that the function of attracting heavenly


SIF Bahrain 48

translated into Latin in the 13th century. Through this translation, European mathematicians bodies was attributed to the sun. The term Gurutvaakarshan can be interpreted to mean, ‘to
got to know methods for calculating the areas of triangles, volumes of spheres as well as square the attracted by the Master”. The sun was recognized by all ancient people to be the source of
But considering that Aryabhatta discovered these facts 1,500 years ago, and 1,000 years
light and warmth.
and cube root. Aryabhatta’s ideas about eclipses and the sun being the source of moonlight The sun (Surya) was one of the chief deities in the Vedas. He was recognized as the source of
light (Dinkara), source of warmth (Bhaskara). In the Vedas he is also referred to as the source
before Copernicus and Galileo makes him a pioneer in this area too. In ancient India, eclipses
may not have caused much of an impression on European astronomers as by then they had of all life, the center of creation and the center of the spheres. The last statement is suggestive
were also forecast and their true nature was perceived at least by the astronomers.
The sun (Surya) was one of the chief deities in the Vedas. He was recognized as the source of
come to know of these facts through the observations of Copernicus and Galileo. of the sun being recognized as the centre of the universe (solar system). The idea that the sun
light (Dinkara), source of warmth (Bhaskara). In the Vedas he is also referred to as the source
The lack of a telescope hindered further advancement of ancient Indian astronomy. Though was looked upon as the power that attracts heavenly bodies is supported by the virile terms
it should be admitted that with their unaided observations with crude instruments, the
of all life, the center of creation and the center of the spheres. The last statement is suggestive
But considering that Aryabhatta discovered these facts 1,500 years ago, and 1,000 years like Raghupati and Aditya used in referring to the sun.
astronomers in ancient India were able to arrive at near perfect measurement of astronomical
of the sun being recognized as the centre of the universe (solar system). The idea that the sun
before Copernicus and Galileo makes him a pioneer in this area too. In ancient India, eclipses While the male gender is applied to refer to the sun, the Earth (Prithivi, Bhoomi, etc.) is
movements and predict eclipses. Indian astronomers also propounded the theory that the
was looked upon as the power that attracts heavenly bodies is supported by the virile terms
were also forecast and their true nature was perceived at least by the astronomers. generally referred to as a female. The literal meaning of the term Gurutvakarshan also supports
Earth was a sphere. Aryabhatta was the first one to have propounded this theory in the 5th
like Raghupati and Aditya used in referring to the sun.
century. the recognition of the heliocentric theory, as the term Guru corresponds with the male gender,
The lack of a telescope hindered further advancement of ancient Indian astronomy. Though hence it could not have referred to the earth which was always referred to as a female.
Another Indian astronomer and mathematician, Brahmagupta estimated in the 7th century
While the male gender is applied to refer to the sun, the Earth (Prithivi, Bhoomi, etc.) is
it should be admitted that with their unaided observations with crude instruments, the Many ancient Indian astronomers have also referred to the concept of heliocentrism. Aryabhata
that the circumference of the earth was 5000 yojanas. A yojana is around 7.2 kms. Calculating
generally referred to as a female. The literal meaning of the term Gurutvakarshan also supports
astronomers in ancient India were able to arrive at near perfect measurement of astronomical has suggested it in his treatise Aryabhattiya. Bhaskaracharya has also made references to it
on this basis we see that the estimate of 36,000 kms as the Earth’s circumference comes quite
movements and predict eclipses. Indian astronomers also propounded the theory that the in his Magnum Opus Siddhanta-Shiromani. But it has to be conceded that the heliocentric
the recognition of the heliocentric theory, as the term Guru corresponds with the male gender,
close to the actual circumference known today.
hence it could not have referred to the earth which was always referred to as a female.
Earth was a sphere. Aryabhatta was the first one to have propounded this theory in the 5th theory of gravitation was also developed in ancient times (i.e. around 500 B.C.) by Greek
astronomers.
There is an old Sanskrit Sloka (couplet) which is as follows:
century.
Many ancient Indian astronomers have also referred to the concept of heliocentrism. Aryabhata
What supports the contention that it could have existed in India before the Greek astronomers
has suggested it in his treatise Aryabhattiya. Bhaskaracharya has also made references to it
developed it, is that in Vedic literature the Sun is referred to as the ‘center of spheres’ along
with the term Guru-tva-akarshan which seemingly refers to the sun. The Vedas are dated
in his Magnum Opus Siddhanta-Shiromani. But it has to be conceded that the heliocentric
around 3000 B.C. to 1000 B.C. Thus the heliocentric idea could have existed in a rudimentary
theory of gravitation was also developed in ancient times (i.e. around 500 B.C.) by Greek
form in the days of the Rig Veda and was refined further by astronomers of a later age.
astronomers.
“Sarva Dishanaam, Suryaha,
Suryaha, Suryaha.” What supports the contention that it could have existed in India before the Greek astronomers
developed it, is that in Vedic literature the Sun is referred
to as the ‘center of spheres’ along with the term Guru-tva-
akarshan which seemingly refers to the sun. The Vedas are
dated around 3000 B.C. to 1000 B.C. Thus the heliocentric
idea could have existed in a rudimentary form in the days of
the Rig Veda and was refined further by astronomers of a later
This couplet means that there are suns in all directions. This couplet which describes the Indian Astronomers like Aryabhatta and Varahamihira who lived between 476 and 587
Another Indian astronomer and mathematician, Brahmagupta estimated in the 7th century A.D. made close approaches to the concept of Heliocentrism. In the Surya-Siddhanta, an
night sky as full of suns, indicates that in ancient times Indian astronomers had arrived at
age.
that the circumference of the earth was 5000 yojanas. A yojana is around 7.2 kms. Calculating astronomical text dated around 400 A.D., the following appellations have been given to the sun.
the important discovery that the stars visible at night are similar to the Sun visible during day
time. In other words, it was recognized that the sun is also a star, though the nearest one.
on this basis we see that the estimate of 36,000 kms as the Earth’s circumference comes quite “He is denominated the golden wombed (Hiranyagarbha), the blessed; as being the generator”.
Indian Astronomers like Aryabhatta and Varahamihira who
This understanding is demonstrated in another Sloka which says that when one sun sinks
close to the actual circumference known today. He is also referred to as “The supreme source of light (Jyoti) upon the border of darkness -
lived between 476 and 587 A.D. made close approaches to the concept of Heliocentrism. In
below the horizon, a thousand suns take its place. This apart, many Indian astronomers had
formulated ideas about gravity and gravitation. he revolves. bringing beings into being, the creator of creatures”. The Surya-Siddhanta also
the Surya-Siddhanta, an astronomical text dated around 400 A.D., the following appellations
There is an old Sanskrit Sloka (couplet) which is as follows: says that “Bestowing upon him the scriptures (Vedas) as gifts and establishing him within
have been given to the sun. “He is denominated the golden wombed (Hiranyagarbha), the
Brahmagupta, in the 7th century had said about gravity that “Bodies fall towards the Earth the egg as grandfather of all worlds, he himself then revolves causing existence”. Thus we
blessed; as being the generator”.
as it is in the nature of the Earth to attract bodies, just as it is in the nature of water to flow”. can see that what ancient Indian astronomers say comes close to the heliocentric theory of
This couplet means that there are suns in all directions. This couplet which describes the gravitation, which was a thousand years later articulated by Copernicus and Galileo inviting
About a hundred years before Brahmagupta, another astronomer, Varahamihira had claimed
night sky as full of suns, indicates that in ancient times Indian astronomers had arrived at severe reactions from the clergy in Rome.
for the first time perhaps that there should be a force which might be keeping bodies stuck
He is also referred to as “The supreme source of light (Jyoti) upon the border of darkness -
the important discovery that the stars visible at night are similar to the Sun visible during day he revolves. bringing beings into being, the creator of creatures”. The Surya-Siddhanta also
to the Earth, and also keeping heavenly bodies in their determined places. Thus the concept
of the existence of some attractive force that governs the falling of objects to the Earth and
time. In other words, it was recognized that the sun is also a star, though the nearest one. Other important astronomers from India include Madhava, Nilakantha Somayaji and
says that “Bestowing upon him the scriptures (Vedas) as gifts
Jyeshtadeva, who were members of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics from the and establishing him within
their remaining stationary after having once fallen; as also determining the positions which
This understanding is demonstrated in another Sloka which says that when one sun sinks 14th century to the 16th century. They were responsible for founding calculus and modern
the egg as grandfather of all worlds, he himself then revolves causing existence”. Thus we
heavenly bodies occupy, was recognized. It was also recognized that this force is an attractive
below the horizon, a thousand suns take its place. This apart, many Indian astronomers had mathematical analysis, along with a number of other developments.
force. The Sanskrit term for gravity is Gurutvakarshan which is an amalgam of Guru-tva-
can see that what ancient Indian astronomers say comes close to the heliocentric theory of
formulated ideas about gravity and gravitation. gravitation, which was a thousand years later articulated by Copernicus and Galileo inviting
akarshan. Akarshan means to be attracted, thus the fact that the character of this force was
of attraction was also recognized. This apart, it seems that the function of attracting heavenly The Jantar Mantar in Jaipur is actually one of six major observatories built by the Maharajah.
severe reactions from the clergy in Rome.
bodies was attributed to the sun. The term Gurutvaakarshan can be interpreted to mean, ‘to The one in Jaipur not only follows the movements of the sun and the moon to help determine
Brahmagupta, in the 7th century had said about gravity that “Bodies fall towards the Earth auspicious dates for events, it also helps map out the position of the stars in the sky. Although
the attracted by the Master”. The sun was recognized by all ancient people to be the source of
as it is in the nature of the Earth to attract bodies, just as it is in the nature of water to flow”. no telescopic instruments were available at the time, the precise observation of the stars was
light and warmth.
Other important astronomers from India include Madhava, Nilakantha Somayaji and
About a hundred years before Brahmagupta, another astronomer, Varahamihira had claimed greatly facilitated by observatories such as Jantar Mantar.
Jyeshtadeva, who were members of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics from the
for the first time perhaps that there should be a force which might be keeping bodies stuck 14th century to the 16th century. They were responsible for founding calculus and modern
to the Earth, and also keeping heavenly bodies in their determined places. Thus the concept mathematical analysis, along with a number of other developments.
of the existence of some attractive force that governs the falling of objects to the Earth and
their remaining stationary after having once fallen; as also determining the positions which The Jantar Mantar in Jaipur is actually one of six major observatories built by the Maharajah.
heavenly bodies occupy, was recognized. It was also recognized that this force is an attractive The one in Jaipur not only follows the movements of the sun and the moon to help determine
force. The Sanskrit term for gravity is Gurutvakarshan which is an amalgam of Guru-tva- auspicious dates for events, it also helps map out the position of the stars in the sky. Although
akarshan. Akarshan means to be attracted, thus the fact that the character of this force was no telescopic instruments were available at the time, the precise observation of the stars was
of attraction was also recognized. This apart, it seems that the function of attracting heavenly greatly facilitated by observatories such as Jantar Mantar.
SIF Bahrain 49 SIF Bahrain

SCIENCE HISTORY IMAGES / ALAMY
Regarded as the “founder of Indiology,” Al-Biruni advanced
sciences in the Islamic world with his translations of and
reflections upon a wide range of Indus thought. This illustration
depicts his understanding of the phases of the moon.
Islamic Science's India Connection



From the mid-10th century ce one of history’s great
scientific eras began to flourish across Islamic lands.


Like the European Renaissance, it was marked as
much by cultural exchange, synthesis and dialog as
it was by individual discovery. Connections forged
among scholars and scientists of Islamic lands with
contemporaries and predecessors beyond their own
borders led to an unprecedented pooling of knowledge
over generations and continents. The Indus Valley and
the wider Indian subcontinent proved to be deep wells
of the scholarship that gradually came to be known
westward via translation into Arabic as well as Persian.
From the observations of philosophers to the calculations
of mathematicians, from the models of astronomers to
the treatises of physicians, these works helped shape
the era that became known as “the golden age of Islamic
science”.



NATURAL PHILOSOPHY

After the Muslim conquest of India, several rulers,
including most notably the Mughal emperors of the
16th and early 17th centuries, beginning with Akbar
the Great, facilitated translations of Indian literature
into Persian and Arabic. Several well-known Indian books such as Mahabharata, parts of
the Vedas, Yoga-Vasistha, Bhagavad-Gita and Bhagavata Purana were thus translated. The
most fundamental views contained within these texts express the crux of natural philosophy:
a universe in constant transformation, wherein elements are interconnected, sharing in
absolute unity and having a sequence of creation. The Yoga-Vasistha, for example, a collection
of stories and fables nearly 30,000 verses in length, was appreciated for its “realities, diverse
morals, and remarkable advice.”

SIF Bahrain 50


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