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Published by MOKHTAR OMAR, 2019-12-02 22:10:51

Lecture 5 Frame n Walls

Lecture 5 Frame n Walls


Lecture 4

Mokhtar Omar
3 December 2019


Kerangka Bangunan

Building Frame and Construction

• In construction, the building frame is known as
light-frame construction. It is a building technique
based around vertical structural members. The
vertical structure will provide base for the internal
and external construction of the building.

• Di dalam sesuatu pembinaan, rangka bangunan juga
dikenali sebagai pembinaan rangka-ringan. Ia
merupakan satu teknik yang merangkumi beberapa
struktur menegak. Struktur menegak atau rangka ini
menyediakan satu asas bagi pembinaan luar dan
dalam bangunan.

*Structural frame building

What is building frame

Framed buildings are building structures
formed by the framed elements usually in the
form of columns and beams, as well as
further strengthened as necessary by the
introduction of rigid floor membranes and
external walls

 A - Column
 B - Ground beam
 C - Foundation
 D - Beam
 E - Fascia
 F - Strut
 G - Rafter
 H - Ceiling joist
 I - Ridge
 J - Tie

Types of Building Frame

Timber Frame

• Timber frame is one of the oldest forms of

construction, going back to the days when homes
and other buildings were built out of logs

• Timber framing construction are traditional

methods of building with heavy timbers, creating
structures using squared-off and carefully fitted
and joined timbers with joints secured by large
wooden pegs

• Load bearing timber wall for small building may

be constructed by creating a framework.

Timber frame

Steel Frame

Steel frame also known as "skeleton frame" of
vertical steel columns and horizontal I-beams,
constructed in a rectangular grid or any other grid
to support the floors, roof and walls of a building.
The development of this technique made the
construction of the skyscraper possible.

Rangka keluli merupakan struktur menegak dan melintang
yang dibina dalam bentuk segi empat atau pelbagai jenis
bentuk bagi menampung beban lantai, bumbung dan
dinding sesebuah bangunan. Pengenalan teknik binaan ini
menjadikan pembinaan bangunan pencakar langit lebih

Steel Frame

Reinforced Concrete Frame

• The reinforcement concrete frame is

the vertical and horizontal frame that is
made by using concrete. It is usually
accompanied with steel reinforcing

• Rangka ini merupakan rangka menegak dan

mendatar yang dibuat menggunakan konkrit sebagai
bahan utama dan asas. Keluli pengukuh akan
dimasukkan dalam konkrit bagi mengukuhkan lagi

Reinforced concrete frame

Reinforced concrete beam

Pre Fabricated/
Pre Cast Concrete Frame

• Prefabricated frame is a type of building that
consists of several factory-built components or
units that are assembled on-site to complete the

Pre Fabricated/Pre Cast Concrete

Pre Cast Concrete Frames





A wall is defined as a continuous, vertical, solid
structure of brick, stone, concrete, timber or metal,
thin in proportion to its length and height which
encloses and protects a building or serves to divide
buildings into compartments or rooms.

Dinding merupakan sambungan berterusan, menegak dan
struktur kukuh yang diperbuat samada daripada batu,
konkrit, kayu atau pun besi, tidak terlalu tebal bagi lebar
dan panjangnya yang akan bertindak sebagai pelindung
dan membahagi bangunan kepada beberapa bahagian.

Frame wall

Frame wall


Some of the most popular materials that are used for

walls are:

Stone Concrete

Brick Steel

Timber Glass

Types of Wall

Solid Wall

Frame Wall

Constructed either Load bearing Carries
brick, blocks of wall imposed
loads & dead
stone, or concrete
laid in mortar load

Constructed Non
from a frame loadbearing

of small wall
sections of

concrete or


What is the difference
between a load bearing and a non
load bearing wall ?

A load bearing A non load
wall is bearing wall only

a wall that bears supports its own
structural weight weight

along with its

Functional Requirements Of A Wall

Resistance to weather & ground moisture
Durability & freedom from maintenance
Fire safety
Resistance to the passage of heat
Resistance to the passage of sound

Functional Requirements

1. Strength
• A good wall can bear the wind load, dead &
imposed load from floor & roof
• The strength of the wall also depends by the
material used, wall thickness & the way material
are put together

2. Stability
• The stability of wall may be affected by
foundation movement, lateral forces -wind &
expansion due to temperature & moisture

Functional Requirements

3. Resistance to weather & ground moisture
• Building regulation- wall must adequately
resist the passage of moisture to the inside of
the building.

• Moisture may penetrate into a wall by
absorption of water from the ground that is
in contact with foundation walls or through
rain falling on the wall

How To Prevent Passage Of The Moisture Or

Damp Proof Course (DPC)
- Act as a barrier to the passage of the moisture or

water between the parts separate by the dpc.
- There should be a continuous horizontal dpc above

ground in walls whose foundations are contact with
the ground – to prevent moisture from the ground
rising through
- The dpc should be continuous for the whole length
and thickness of the wall and at least be at 150mm
above finished ground level to avoid the possibility
of a build up of material against the wall and acting
as bridge for moisture from the ground.

The movement of moisture or water maybe
upwards in the foundation walls and ground floors.

Functional Requirements

4. Fire safety
• Building regulation set standards to provide
means of escape, limitation of fire spread,
provide access & facilities for the fire service

 Windows & doors may used as a means of

Fire safety

Functional Requirements

5. Resistance to the passage of sound

• Sound is transmitted as airborne sound &

impact sound
 Airborne sound i.e. a radio. The vibration in the

air caused by the sound source

 Impact sound is caused by contact with a

surface, i.e. slamming of a door or footsteps on a
floor which set up vibration in walls and floor

 The building regulations require walls to

provide reasonable resistance to airborne sound
between building spaces

Resistance to the passage of sound

Elements Of An Opening

Elements Of An Opening In A Wall

Elements Of An Opening

1. Head/Lintel

• Function- head is to carry the load of brickwork and
transmit this load to jambs.

• A variety of materials and methods is available
1. Timber (light loads & small span)
2. Steel (painted with bituminous to give the protection
against corrosion)
3. Concrete (design as in situ or precast reinforced
lintel & used for all spans)
4. Stone
5. Brick (suitable for small spans up to 1m)

Elements of opening

2. Jambs

• The brickwork acts like legs which support
brickwork over the head

• Two types of Jambs :
1. plain or square jambs
2. rebated jambs

Elements of opening

3. Reveal

• Describe the thickness of the wall

4. Sill

• The lower part of the opening
• Function of a sill

― to protect the wall below a window
• Appearance and durability are the main

• Sill is not a member which is needed to carry

heavy load

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