At the end of each subtopic, students should be able to:
1) Define heat and explain the mechanism of heat transfer
2) Use rate of heat conduction, = − to solve problems.
3) Define thermal expansion and factors affecting the thermal expansion.
4) Solve problems involving linear, area and volume thermal expansion.
Heat is a form of energy that is transferred from one body to
another as the result of a difference in temperature.
• The more movement of molecules, the more heat energy
• Heat energy has the ability to do work.
MODE OF HEAT TRANSFER
Conduction is heat transfer within solids or
between contacting solids.
Convection is heat transfer by the movement
of liquids or gasses.
Radiation is heat transfer through space or air
without any aid of material medium.
If one end of a metal rod is at a higher temperature, then energy will be
transferred down the rod toward the colder end because the higher speed
particles will collide with the slower ones with a net transfer of energy to the
After certain period of time, the rod reached a steady state – 16
the temperature at each points remains constant with time.
For conduction between two plane
surfaces , the rate of heat transfer is
dQ k A dT steady-state
Q k A TH TC
T is temperature (in Kelvin),
A is the exposure area (meters squared),
L is the depth of the solid (meters), and
k is a constant that unique for different materials know
as the thermal conductivity (Watts/meters*Kelvin).
Material Thermal conductivity k A good conductor has a
(W.m-1.K-1) large value of k.
Cu 385 18
Body fat 0.6
Calculate the rate of heat transfer on a cold day through a rectangular
window that is 1.2 m wide and 1.8 m high, has a thickness of 6.2 mm, a
thermal conductivity value of 0.90 W/mK. The temperature inside the home
is 21°C and the temperature outside the home is -4°C.
Rate of heat conduction = ( 1− 2)
(0.90 −1 −1)(1.2 1.8 )(294.15 − 269.15 )
= 6.2 10−3
HEAT CONDUCTION THROUGH A
1 1 2 2
steady-state 1 ( 1 − ) = 2 ( − 2)
The figure shows two metal rods M and N with lengths 30 cm and 10 cm respectively.
The cross section for both rods are the same and they joined end-to-end as shown.
The ends are maintained at 100 ⁰C and 0 ⁰C respectively. The rods are perfectly
insulated. Calculate the temperature of the junction.
(Given :Thermal conductivity of M= 30W/m ⁰C and that of N = 60 W/m⁰C
At steady state; 1 ( 1 − ) = 2 ( − 2)
30 A(100⁰C − T) = 60 A(T − 0⁰C)
T= 14.3 ⁰C
Temperature Type of Material Original
Coefficient of linear thermal
expansion of some common solids
A metal rod of length 7 m is being heated to 35o C. If the length of rod expands to 7.12 m
after some time, calculate the expansion coefficient (Room temperature is 27o C).
THERMAL EXPANSION COEFFICIENTS
L L0 T A A0 T V V0 T
Check Point 13.2