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Published by GRAPHIC @ UiTM Perak Branch, 2020-02-19 03:25:02

AFA 2019 - Symposium

AFA 2019 - Symposium

Keywords: symposium art

11th ASIA FIBER ART Editor
Noor A’yunni Binti Muhamad
Editor Bersama
Cetakan Pertama/First Printing, 2019
Dr. Nor Nazida Binti Awang
©Fakulti Seni Lukis dan Seni Reka (FSSR) Dr. Zainudin Md.Nor
Universiti Teknologi Mara Nur Adibah Nidiah Binti Mohd. Aripin
Cawangan Perak, Seri Iskandar 2019 Siti Ermi Syahirah Binti Jamil

eISBN 978-967-5741-93-7 Pereka

Hak cipta terpelihara. Tiada bahagian daripada Muhammad Fikri Bin Saidi Othman
Terbitan ini boleh diterbitkan semula, disimpan untuk
Pengeluaran atau ditukar ke dalam sebarang bentuk
Atau dengan sebarang alat juga pun, sama ada
dengan elektronik, gambar serta rakaman dan
sebagainya tanpa kebenaran bertulis daripada,
Fakulti Seni Lukis dan Seni Reka (FSSR),
Universiti Teknologi Mara Cawangan Perak,
Kampus Seri Iskandar

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be
Reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
Means, electronic or mechanical including photocopy,
Recording, or any information storage and retrievel system,
without permission in writing from the
Faculty of Art & Design (FSSR),
Universiti Teknologi Mara, Perak Branch,
Seri Iskandar Campus

Diterbitkan di Malaysia/Published inMalaysia by

Fakulti Seni Lukis dan Seni Reka (FSSR)
Universiti Teknologi Mara Cawangan Perak,
Kampus Seri Iskandar, Seri Iskandar,
32610 Perak, Malaysia


Kandungan yang diterbitkan tidak semestinya
Mencerminkan pandangan mahupun pendirian pihak
Fakulti Seni Lukis dan Seni Reka (FSSR),
Universiti Teknologi Mara Cawangan Perak

Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia
Data Pengkatalogan-Dalam-Penerbitan




1 1
12. ART 113


AFA 2019



24-25 September 2019



Noor A’yunni Muhamad, Noor Enfendi bin Desa, Nur Adibah Nadiah Mohd Aripin, Mohd Fawazie Arshad,
Dr Azian Tahir, Dr Syed Alwi Syed Abu Bakar

1Department of Fine Arts, Faculty of Art And Design, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Perak Branch
1Department of Fine Arts, Faculty of Art And Design, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Perak Branch
1Department of Fine Arts, Faculty of Art And Design, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Perak Branch
1Department of Fine Arts, Faculty of Art And Design, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Perak Branch
1Department of Fine Arts, Faculty of Art And Design, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Perak Branch
1Department of Fine Arts, Faculty of Art And Design, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Perak Branch

[email protected], [email protected] , [email protected] , [email protected] , [email protected]
[email protected]

Abstract - Printing technology is one of the creative industries that have popular demands in today’s society.
There is a dire need of potential research on the use of the current synthetic dyes which involve chemicals and
pigmentation to explore the nature-based ingredients as part of the production in fibre printing paste. The existing
fibre printing paste contains a certain amount of chemicals which might affect humans’ health in long-term
usage. As an example, water-based printing paste contains 62% of white spirit which is a common formulation
of colour emulsion in the printing paste process. In the printing industry, fibre printing paste mostly contains
pigments, wetting agents, thickener, solvents, spirit, oxidizing and reducing agents, catalyst, oxygen carrier with
acid and alkali, and also other miscellaneous agents. Based on this notion, this research aims to explore other
novel methods in producing nature-based fibre printing paste. This printing paste does not only produce better
fibre colour pigments but also celebrate an eco-friendly concept of living. As this research attempts to embrace
the use of nature-based printing paste in the printing industry, it will also help to reduce pollution and encourage
the industry to support such eco-green projects.

Keywords - Effect, Natural, Pigments, Chemical, Fiber , Printing PastE


Fibre Printing plays an important role especially in the creative industries due to the
involvement of the textile technology in the world’s economic development. Along with the
development of textile technology, the use of the high-tech machine and textile innovation has been
one of the contributors to the world’s chemical pollution. Based on this notion, the implementation of
the current printing paste has been notified as one of the contributors in the world’s pollution due to
the involvement of various chemicals which has been used in it (“Textile Printing and The
Environment”, 2012). This research aims to collect evidence from previous literature which can
support the study on the possibility of natural printing paste as a substitute to current printing paste.
This research is vital due to the fact that natural colours has become a relevant topic among researchers
since its characteristic is more to environment friendly, economical and does not bring harm to the
nature, even though these natural dyes have been proven to not perform well with synthetic fibres (EL-
Hennawi, Ahmed & El-Thalouth, 2012) . In website, it is stated that the
United States of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has acknowledged that the printing
industries spread 99% of its total Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) to the air and the other 1% of the


toxic has been spread between water and land (“Textile Printing And The Environment”, 2012).

Overall, the quantity of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) which has been released through one
time of textile print is in the average of 130 mg (tons) per year (“Textile Printing And The
Environment”’, 2012). According to, VOC is very dangerous to our surroundings.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) claims that VOC has caused negative impact in terms of

health where it may cause throat, nose and eye irritation, experience numerous headaches, feel of

nausea and if the exposure to these chemicals are often, the hazardous might cause harm to the liver,
kidney and also our nervous system ( “The Epa On The Dangers Of Volatile Organic Compounds”,




The textile industries are all about the combination of colouration and fabric. The method of
colouration can be achieved by implementing dyes or pigments which exists in printing paste. The
success of any prints technique is based on the levelness, the way the technique is being handled,
sharpness, and the appropriate use of the dye (Hossain, Asaduzzaman, Kamruzzaman, Talukder,
Miah, & Quan, 2016). Before further investigation of natural printing paste is analysed, the first
important step is to observe the ingredients and identify the chemicals which have been used in the
making of printing paste.

Table 1: Table of Common Ingredients in existing Printing.

Num Ingredients Function Example
2. Dyes  Attraction of dyestuff to the fibre due to the  Vat
Pigments presence of auxochrome  Azoic
5.  Achieving colour effect on the fabric  Reactive

 Producing required shade  Direct dye

Wetting agents  Making the fabric and dyestuff wet  Olive oil,

 Reducing surface tension of water allowing the  T.R oil

dyestuff for easy penetration into fibre  Caster oil

 Obtaining smooth paste  Lissapol N

 Dissolving the dyestuff in the paste  Animal oil

 Glycerine.

Solvents  Developing bright design  Urea

Dispersing  Assisting dye penetration,  Glycerine
agents  Spreading the dye molecules evenly in the  Desirable
Solution acids  Alcohol

 Assisting in the process of dye fixation  Acetone

 Preventing aggregation of dye molecules in the  Diethylene

highly concentrated of the dye. glycol

 Avoiding precipitation.  Thio-

 Increasing solubility of the dyes. diethylene

 Developing proper printing shade. glycol.

Thickener  Producing required viscosity to the printing  Na-alginate

paste  Fine gum

 Preventing premature reactions between the  British gum

chemicals contained in the print paste.  CMC.
 Gripping the ingredients of the print paste on

the fabric

Defoaming  Preventing the foam generation during printing  Silicone

agents  Defoamer

 Sulphated oil

 Perminol KB


6. Oxidizing  Producing the final colour during steaming or  Emulsified
agents in the subsequent after treatment. pine oil

7. Reducing  Assisting in the process of dye fixation.  Sodium
agents chlorate
 Used in the reduction process of different dyes.
8. Catalyst and  Used mainly in discharge printing.  Potasium
oxygen carrier  Used for destroying colour from the ground of chlorate

9. Acids fabric.  Sodium
Alkalis  Used to make the insoluble dye soluble. nitrate
 To avoid fibre damage during steaming.
10. Swelling  To accelerate the final colour development by  Resist salt
agents  Ammonium
11. Carrier  To reduce the risk of oxidation chlorite
 Ludigol
12. Miscellaneous  To maintain pH.  Na or K
agents  To produce the colour or printed fabric.
 To fix dye on the fabric permanently dichromate
13. Mild oxidizing  Sodium
agents  Create big size holes of the fibres.
 Help to swell the fibre structure. hydrosulphite,
 Reduce crystallinity. Stanus
 Help the easy penetration of dye molecule chloride etc.
inside the fibre polymer
 Copper
 Use for fixing disperse dyes on polyester or sulphide,
polyester wool blends at a temperature below Ammonium
105oC vanadate

 Assist in the process of fixation of dyes.  Potassium
 Absorb moisture from the air. ferrocyanide
 Facilitate subsequent washing off
 During steaming of ago colour, the partial  Organic acid
Alkali KOH
colour can be destroyed by the effect of
reducing. To secure this condition, a mild agent  NaOH
is used.  Na2CO3
 Pottasium

 Sodium

 Sodium

 Polyethylene

 Phenols
 DEGDA (Di-

 Diphenol
 Ortho-phenol
 Tri-chloro
 Urea
 Glycerine

 Ludigol,
Resist salt


(Source : Retrieved from Fashion2apparel website, nd)

Based on the table above, there are 13 most common chemicals used in the making of fibre
printing paste. Taking Discharge Printing Technology as an example, most of the time, around 20-
30% of the chemicals are used for one phase of printing activity like carbon monoxide, sulphur
dioxide, zinc oxide, and other supporting chemicals, which is harmful to the environment (Seema,
Deepik, & Babu, 2018). In Discharge Printing technique, one of the chemicals used is considered
quite toxic and might bring harm to humans, though it is one of the most powerful discharging agents.
The name of this chemical is Formaldehyde Sulphoxylate (NaHSO2.CH2O.2H2O) and this chemical
produces Formaldehyde which may cause nasal sinus cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer (Karthikeyan
& Dhurai, 2011).

In Screen Printing Technology, it has been stated that the exposure in printing paste/inks might
lead to the cause of disease such as dermatitis, and acrylates (Starovoytova, 2018). The use of Ethylene
Glycol Ethers might cause mild irritation to the user’s skin and the use of the liquid paste might cause
conjunctivitis and upper respiratory tract irritation (Starovoytova, 2018). It is also stated that severe
contact to Ethylene Glycol Ethers might lead to narcosis, pulmonary-oedema, and severe-kidney and
liver-damage (Starovoytova, 2018). Ceri (1996) researched on chemical threats which are caused by
chemicals in printing paste. According to Ceri, there are a lot of classifications in chemical threats such
as neurotoxins, immune-agents, dermatologic-agents, carcinogens, reproductive toxins, system-toxins,
asthmagens, pneumoconiosis-agents also sensitizers (Starovoytova, 2018).


The most important element in Textile Industries is the use of colours which is significant to
embrace the creativity in textile development. Colours have their artistic value, practicalities, and also
one of the contributors to economic influences. This is why the growth of synthetic dyes has been
massive nowadays even though the product such as printing paste contains elements which bring harm
and negative consequences on human health and environment (Salem, Shahin, El Sayad, & El
Halwagy, 2013). The issues of chemicals in printing paste have been argued since long time ago.
Tsatsaroni & Eledftheriadis (1994) has stated that there have been hints for the demands of natural
printing dyes which are more eco-friendly in textile printing. For Tsatsaroni & Eledftheriadis, this
natural dyes should explore biodegradability which is compatible with nature (Salem, Shahin, El
Sayad, & El Halwagy, 2013). As indicated by, Biodegradability is the capability of
organic elements to be transformed into simpler material with the help of enzymes from
microorganisms (“Biodegradability & Compostability”, n.d.). In this case, the concept of
Biodegradability in manufacturing printing paste helps to reduce risky chemical used plus turning
textile manufacturing into eco-friendly industries. Besides, if this Biodegradability process is complete
in the making of printing paste, the existing of organic elements will transform into simpler inorganic
molecules, for instance, water, carbon dioxide (which is important to be absorbed by nature element
such plants) and methane (“Biodegradability & Compostability”, n.d.).

3.1 Existing Evidence in Natural Ingredients of Printing Materials

Table 2: Natural Ingredients in Printing Materials based on existing research

Num Natural Function Description Sources
Substitute for Rhubarb contains molecules of regular (Osman, 2014)
1. Rhubarb Dye: Natural dye and based on quinone molecule
Yellow 23
The molecules are in small particles
and hydrophobic in nature and at the
same time, Rhubarb has the molecules


which have all the characteristic of a
typical disperse dye.

It is believed that they are based on a

quinone molecule hence substantive to

hydrophobic fibres. [12]

2. Maize (Corn) Substitute for Through the experiments which have (Shahidullah,

Starch Gum synthetic been conducted by the previous Ahmed, Halim,

thickener in researcher, by using jute and cotton Anwer, 2008)

Printing paste fabric, printing paste with maize starch

gum displays the excellent result based

on the sharpness ranking, washing and

rubbing fastness [13].

3. Red Poppy Substitute for Red Poppy been experiment with

(Papaver Dye : Red chitosan nanoparticles by using the (Hebeish, Shahin,

rhoeas L.) medium of Ramie fabrics without the Rekaby, & Ragheb,

used of binders. 2015)

The result explains red poppy with
chitosan nanoparticle produce particle
size diameters in the range of 100-150
nm (usual size diameters is in the range
of 8-20nm).

Expanding the natural dye with
chitosan nanoparticles show some
outcome in higher Colour Strength
(K/S) value measurement in spite of
technique and fixation used.

Overall, the combination of chitosan

nanoparticles and natural dye Red

Poppy represented an eco-friendly

approach to environmental textile

printing [14].

4. Madder Substitute for Produces pigments in its roots

(Rubia Dye : Turkish (Taner, Secim,

tinctorum L.) Red Madder has been known as one of the Demiri, Gulumseri,

oldest natural dyes. It can produce & Ozdogani, 2014)

colours such as orange, red and violet

In these experiments, the result shows
the K/S in natural printing paste has
successfully growth as madder dye
powder arises from 15-45g/kg and the
absorption of the urea arose from 50-

Based on the experiments which have
been conducted by previous literature,
madder is likely bringing in and
alternative in terms of ecological
designs. It is believed that this type of


ecological new material may solve

toxicological problems which are

caused by synthetic printing paste [15].

5. Horseradish Substitute for Based on this research, the result

peroxidase printing shows the ideal condition after (Karthikeyan &

Enzymes Reducing implementing horseradish peroxidase Dhurai, 2011)

Agents enzymes formulation which is pH 8.5,

in 70°C, producing a dye concentration

of 80 g/L (gram per litre) and 60 min

of treatment.

Through this study, through the

application of peroxidase enzyme

discharge printing techniques, some of

the benefits include:

 Formaldehyde will be

removed in Reducing Agents

for printing paste

 Eco-friendly printing

materials will be developed

 Energy saving [16].

6. Marigold Marigolf Based on the experiment which has

Flower and Flower as been handled by the previous (Shwetambri &

Guar Gum substitute for researcher, the outcomes show that the Verma, 2017)

printing dye samples which have been printed by

using marigold flower dye with guar

gum thickening agents have produced

Guar Gum as outstanding colourfastness reaction to

substitute for sunlight


agents in This studies have also highlighted the

printing paste colourfastness reaction to silk fabric by

using marigold flower dye and Guar

Gum thickening paste. The results

stated that there is no colour change

and stains existed on all printed

samples regardless of different

Printing parameters. [17]

7. Wild Taro Wild Taro By using silk fabric as a sample, the

Corm Starch Corm starch result shows that natural indigo dye has (Mongkholrattanasit,

(Colocasia as substitute increased the colour strength value Klaichoi, Sasithorn,

esculenta to natural (K/S) between the range of 500-800g. Changmuang,

(L.) Schott) thickening Manarungwit,

agents The result in using wild taro as natural Photsathon,

Indigofera thickening agents shows an increase of Boonkerd,

Plant Indigofera wild taro concentration from 0-50g Sangaphat, &

plants as which has improved the K/S value of Pangsai, 2018)

substitute to the natural indigo print [18].

natural indigo


The table above obviously shows that natural-based materials can be an excellent substitute for the
existing chemicals in producing printing paste. This is due to their eco-friendly character compared to


synthetic pigments which bring a negative impact in terms of the level of toxicity since it is usually
made from petroleum products (Taner, Secim, Demiri, Gulumseri, & Ozdogani, 2014).

However, since the invention of synthetic materials is developed, the usage of natural-based
materials lessened slowly.


This study has highlighted the importance of expanding the use of natural material in producing
fibre printing paste. Since it is related to textile industries, it also has a special connection with every
human in this world. In the textile technology, clothing seems to have direct contact with our skin and
obviously, the use of the chemical in printing materials accidentally will be absorbed into human skin
through pores and there is a possibility that the toxicity from certain chemicals will develop various
skin irritations (Shwetambri &Verma, 2017). Based on this notion, it seems like natural pigments and
material are the best choices in terms of their aesthetic and safety purposes. It might have minor flaws
since most of the natural material is still under exploration and experimentation. However, if the idea
of using natural pigments as a substitute for the chemical which exists in synthetic printing material is
put into consideration seriously, this eco-friendly printing material will prevent humans from toxicity

Biodegradability & Compostability. (Nd). Retrieved from

EL-Hennawi, H. M., Ahmed, K. A. & El-Thalouth, A.(2012). A Novel Bio-Technique Using Laccase
Enzyme In Textile Printing To Fix Natural Dyes. Journal Of Textile And Fiber Research, 37, 245-

Hebeish, A., Shahin, A A., Rekaby, M ., & Rahgeb, A. A. (2015). New Environment-Friendly
Approach for Textile Printing Using Natural Dye Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles Starch Gum.
Egypt Journal of Chemical, 6, 659-670.

Hossain, M. F., Asaduzzaman, Kamaruzzaman, M., Talukder, M E., & Miah, M. R. A.(2016).
Application of New Synthetic Fifth Generation Thickeners for Printing Cotton Fabric with
Reactive Dyes. American Journal of Polymer Science & Engineering, 4 (1), 1-10

Karthikeyan, K., Dhurai, B. (2011). New Method Of Discharge Printing On Cotton Fabrics Using
Horseradish Peroxidase. AUTEX Research Journal, 11 (2), 61-65.

Mongkholrattanasit, R., Klaichoi, C., Sasithorn, N. Changmuang , W., Manarungwit, K. Maha-in, K.
Ruenma, P., Boonkerd, N., Sangaphat, K., & Pangsai, M. (2018). Screen Printing On Silk Fabric
Using Natural Indigo. Fibres and Textiles Journal, 3, 61-65.

Osman, H. (2014). Eco-Friendly Printing of Textile Substrates with Rhubarb Natural Dye
Nanoparticles. World Applied Sciences Journal, 29 (5), 592-599, .

Ozguney, A. T., Secim, P., Demir, A., & Gulumseri, T (2015). Ecological Process Development For
Printing On Various Fabrics With Madder*. Tekstil Ve Konfeksiyon Jounal, 25 (2), 166-171.

Printing Paste Ingredients And Their Function. (Nd). Retrieved from

Salem, A. A., Shahin, M. F., El Sayad, H. S, & El Halwagy, A. A., ( 2013). Transfer Printing of
Polyester Fabrics with Natural Dyes. Research Journal Of Textile and Apparel, 17 (3), 61-67.
Retrieved from

Seema, H S., Deepika, L., & Babu, A..( 2018). A Comparative Study on Discharge Printing Using


Conventional and Ecological Recipe. (p.p 245-261). Crimson Publishers.
Shahidullah, M., Ahmed, H U., Uddin, M. M., Halim, A. & Anwer , M. M. ( 2008). Formulation of

Print Paste Using Natural and Indigenous Thickener- Maize (Zea Mays L.) Starch Gum. Green
World Foundation (GWF). J. Soil. Nature. 2 (2), 5-8
Shwetambri Verma, C. (2017). Printing Of Cotton And Silk Fabric With Marigold Flower Dye And
Guar Gum , International Journal of Home Science, 3 (2), 511-517.
Starovoytova, D. (2018). Hazards and Risks at Rotary Screen Printing (Part 6/6): Control of
Chemical Hazards via Cleaner Production Approaches. Chemical and Process Engineering
Research, 57, 17-21
Taner, A. (2014). Ecological Process Development For Printing On Various Fabrics With Madder,
Tekstil Ve Konfeksiyon Jounal, 25 (2), 166-171
Textile Printing And The Environment. (Nd). Retrieved from
The Epa On The Dangers Of Volatile Organic Compounds. (nd). Retrieved from


AFA 2019



24-25 September 2019



Aznan Omar, Junidsyazji Basharuddin

1Department of Fine Arts, Faculty of Art And Design, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Perak Branch
1Department of Grafhic and Media Digital, Faculty of Art And Design, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Perak Branch

[email protected] , [email protected]

Abstrak - Interaksi manusia dengan alat menerusi gaya hidup digital dilihat dari aspek budaya berhibur dalam
konteks teknologi mudah alih. Projek kajian ini menginterpretasikan semula fenomena masyarakat tentang
pengalaman berhibur gaya digital menerusi elemen interaksi sosial, tingkah laku dan obsesi terhadap aplikasi
hiburan di media sosial. Penerokaan idea terhadap aspek hiburan digital diinspirasikan dari karya artis rujukan
iaitu Scott Snibbe, melibatkan isu amalan masyarakat pengguna menerusi interaksi, refleksi, interaktif dan
perkongsian sosial menerusi media digital. Kaedah penyelidikan praktik studio digunakan menerusi pendekatan
refleksi kritikal kendiri, eksperimentasi studio dan ulasan kontekstual. Projek penyelidikan ini memberi
sumbangan dalam bidang Seni Halus menerusi himpunan koleksi simbolik visual dan perkaitan isu-isu kolektif
budaya berhibur dalam konteks gaya hidup popular masyarakat digital di dalam ruang realiti dan maya. Projek
penyelidikan ini memberi impak dalam penjanaan pemahaman terhadap trend dan amalan hiburan digital yang
begitu digemari yang bersifat variasi, sentiasa berubah-ubah dan membentuk budaya popular menerusi semangat
dan tingkah laku, keinginan dan kepuasan ekspresi masyarakat pengguna.

Kata Kunci: Hiburan Digital, Interaksi Sosial, Teknologi Mudah Alih


Alat teknologi mudah alih seperti telefon pintar dan tablet merupakan alat yang membolehkan
pengguna terlibat bukan sahaja untuk komunikasi dan pencarian maklumat malah menyajikan bentuk-
bentuk hiburan mudah alih. Hiburan digital mudah alih semakin menjadi sebahagian daripada objek
baru untuk budaya dan gaya hidup digital masa kini (Aguado & Martínez, 2014). Interaktiviti
berbentuk hiburan yang dilakukan menerusi telefon mudah alih semakin menjadi kebiasaan dan
merupakan keseronokan kepada pengguna pada setiap masa. Ini kerana kemampuan alat teknologi itu
sendiri yang membenarkan akses pada bentuk hiburan digital dengan begitu mudah dan cepat. Bentuk
hiburan menerusi telefon pintar yang sering dilakukan antaranya seperti mendengar muzik atas talian,
menonton movie online, permainan digital interaktif dan menyanyi di aplikasi sosial.

Aplikasi berbentuk hiburan yang semakin popular antaranya seperti aplikasi muzik karaoke
atas talian iaitu ‘Sing Smule’. Aplikasi nyanyian ini lebih mudah dikenali sebagai ‘smule’ merupakan
karaoke ‘online’ yang boleh dimainkan menerusi telefon pintar melalui sokongan sistem operasi
Android dan iOS. ‘smule’ membolehkan pengguna menyanyi, menari dan mencipta muzik bersama
rakan dan kenalan menerusi penyertaan dari seluruh dunia. Aplikasi ‘smule’ menawarkan karaoke
secara solo, berkumpulan, menyanyi cappella atau berduet dengan penyanyi terkenal serta pengguna
lain mengikuti pilihan lagu kegemaran masing-masing. Ia juga menawarkan akses pada lagu yang


sedang hangat popular masa kini dan berduet bersama penyanyi pujaan tempatan atau pun
antarabangsa. Menerusi telefon pintar yang dilengkapi kamera depan dan belakang, membolehkan
peminat atau pengguna ‘smule’ berinteraksi dan beraksi bersama-sama secara ‘video live’, yang mana
pengguna dapat melihat wajah dan gelagat rakan nyanyian mereka antara satu sama lain secara
langsung di atas talian..

Gambar 1. Contoh imej dari aplikasi ‘smule’ yang sedang popular masa kini.
Ragam pengguna aplikasi ‘smule’ sedang menyanyi sambil menari akan digunakan di dalam
penghasilan karya ini bagi menjelaskan aktiviti yang dilakukan dalam berbentuk hiburan mudah alih.
Ia juga menggambarkan gaya hidup digital yang ketika ini sedang dibudayakan oleh masyarakat masa
kini. Gambar 1 adalah contoh aksi menyanyi sambil menari yang menarik untuk di interpretasi di dalam
fabrikasi karya arca instalasi.

Scott Snibbe merupakan artis yang dirujuk berdasarkan kepada isu-isu yang berkaitan dengan

kajian manusia melibatkan hiburan digital. Scott Snibbe adalah seorang artis multimedia dan dalam
masa yang sama juga merupakan seorang pengarah filem. Beliau aktif dalam membicarakan persoalan
sosiologi dan dipersembahkan menerusi media baru yang berkaitan dengan teknologi mudah alih
seperti peranti pintar dan alat teknologi digital. Beliau terpengaruh dengan animasi tanpa suara dan
filem realiti yang sering melibatkan penglibatan penonton dalam karyanya. Karya-karya beliau yang
bersifat media sosial interaktif, menekankan representasi berkaitan pendidikan dan kebudayaan.

Gambar 2. Scott Snibbe. ‘Deepwalls’ 2002 dan detil, imej yang tertera pada 16 skrin.
Karyanya yang bertajuk ‘Deepwalls’ (2002) merupakan skrin kabinet yang memberi refleksi

kepada tindak balas perlakuan manusia di hadapan kamera. Apabila seseorang berjalan melintasi
kamera projektor, dinding interaktif akan mula merakam bayang-bayang mereka yang beraktiviti di
hadapan layar skrin. Sehingga orang terakhir berlalu melepasi bingkai, maka imej yang dirakam akan
dimainkan semula melalui salah satu daripada 16 ruang kabinet skrin segi empat tepat kecil. Imej yang
dirakam akan di ulang tayang secara berterusan. Ia merupakan proses yang dikenali sebagai ‘Memori


Cinematic’. Menurut Fornari (2013), Semua kerja-kerja seni Snibbe membolehkan pengguna untuk
berinteraksi, kolaborasi, dan bermain dengan rakaman imej perwakilan mereka sendiri. Ia merupakan
satu bentuk filem strukturalisme yang mana koleksi video yang berulang-ulang akan membentuk imej
siluet yang unik dan tersendiri.

Gambar 3. Karya Scott Snibbe bertajuk ‘YOU!’ bersifat interaktif.
Hasil karya beliau bersifat interaktif, memerlukan penglibatan penonton secara fizikal dengan
pelbagai media termasuk peranti mudah alih, alatan digital dan peralatan elektro mekanik. Beliau
menekankan penggunaan kaedah interaksi dan interaktif di dalam hasil seni beliau bagi memupuk
pemahaman bahawa kehidupan adalah saling bergantung. Manusia atau mana-mana fenomena adalah
saling berinteraksi dan berhubungan di dalam dunia realiti. Snibbe membawa penglibatan masyarakat
bersama melalui penggunaan teknologi digital di dalam karyanya. Fokus utamanya adalah
‘networking’ yang merupakan sebahagian dari rangkaian perhubungan yang terdiri dari perkongsian
di dunia maya dan perwakilan manusia di seluruh rangkaian. Karya ini memaparkan unsur-unsur
pergerakan melalui elemen pengulangan yang dihasilkan oleh kesan khas teknologi digital.

Metodologi dan analisis merujuk kepada proses yang dibina di atas aspek-aspek yang

terkandung dalam penyelidikan studio praktis. Melalui amalan studio ini, kajian akan dibincangkan
dan dianalisis berdasarkan tiga aspek utama iaitu; Pertama ialah melalui kaedah kritikal refleksi kendiri
(Critical Self-Reflection) yang mana menekankan penggunaan pendekatan Feldman di dalam ‘Method
Of Art Criticism’ (1994). Manakala yang kedua akan menjurus kepada konteks kajian yang melibatkan
beberapa siri eksperimentasi studio yang dilakukan. Aspek ketiga pula menyentuh aspek ulasan
kontekstual yang melibatkan sesi kritik di antara pengkaji dengan rakan-rakan artis dan ahli akademik
untuk mendapatkan pandangan umum yang berkaitan dengan hasil kerja dan juga pandangan mengenai
cadangan atau idea-idea baharu yang boleh digunakan sebagai penambahbaikan penghasilan karya






Gambar 4. Kerangka Konseptual.


Kajian lapangan dilakukan di lokasi tumpuan awam seperti di pusat membeli belah bagi
mendapatkan imej visual gaya hidup digital masyarakat masa kini. Begitu juga kajian visual yang
dilakukan di dalam aplikasi sosial seperti di instagram sebagai interpretasi budaya berhibur dalam
konteks hiburan digital. Kajian mendapati ‘netizen’ yang sentiasa terlibat dalam semua aktiviti di media
sosial iaitu mereka yang mengambil berat dan peduli tentang Internet (Hauben & Back, 1997). Apabila
sesuatu status menjadi tular, ‘netizen’ akan berinteraksi, menonton dan memberi komen terhadap isu

Gambar 5. Imej-imej figura sedang berinteraksi didapati daripada kajian visual.

Imej kajian dipermudahkan kepada siluet untuk dijadikan templat dan diwarnakan hitam.
Seterusnya ditukar kepada bentuk figura bersifat garisan. Pengolahan idea dilakukan dengan cara
membuat pengulangan imej. Teknik pertindihan berulang kali dilakukan bagi mendapatkan kesan


pergerakan. Unsur-unsur pergerakan ini menggambarkan sebagai tindak balas spontan pengguna
kepada peranti mudah alih pada setiap masa. Kesan pertindihan imej juga menghasilkan bilangan
kuantiti yang banyak, menandakan ramai orang boleh terlibat untuk melayan hiburan di gajet.

Gambar 6. Templat hitam ditukar kepada templat berunsur garisan.

Gambar 7. Contoh teknik pengulangan dilakukan pada templat yang sama.
Bentuk garisan figura yang terhasil secara berulang-ulang dari penggunaan templat yang sama
ini menjelaskan tentang interaktiviti yang dilakukan dengan peranti mudah alih adalah secara berulang-
ulang. Ini menunjukkan bahawa perbuatan atau amalan yang melibatkan hiburan digital dilakukan
dengan cara yang sangat mengasyikkan dan menggambarkan budaya berhibur amat digemari oleh
masyarakat masa kini.


Gambar 8. ‘Artis Impression’, komposisi arca.
Rekaan untuk karya yang dihasilkan menggunakan konsep pergerakan ini menjadi simbolik ke
arah memahami tingkah laku pengguna. Kajian melibatkan interaksi yang dilakukan melalui peranti
teknologi mudah alih menerusi aplikasi ‘smule’. Dari kajian yang dilakukan mendapati aktiviti ‘smule’
yang membenarkan aksi menyanyi dan menari adalah antara sebab aplikasi ini semakin diminati.
Bahan kepingan aluminium yang dipotong nipis berukuran setengah inci digunakan sebagai
bahan dalam penghasilan karya ini. Ini adalah untuk memudahkan lagi proses membentuk arca figura
mengikut templat yang dicadangkan. Proses membentuk arca figura dilakukan secara manual dan
sangat terkawal. Proses ini dilakukan berulang kali secara mass produk pada setiap templat bagi
mendapatkan jumlah figura yang banyak untuk diolah menjadi karya.

Gambar 9. Contoh arca figura dibentuk menggunakan templat.

Gambar 10. Aznan Omar. ‘Gerak Layan’, aluminium, pelbagai saiz, 2017.
‘Gerak Layan’ merupakan karya instalasi yang bersifat ‘mobile’ menggunakan unsur-unsur
garisan membentuk figura sedang melakukan aktiviti berhibur. Karya ini menekankan isu utama
berkaitan budaya hiburan digital yang boleh dilakukan menerusi aplikasi muzik seperti aplikasi ‘smule’
di teknologi mudah alih. Komposisi yang dihasilkan ini menjelaskan persoalan amalan dan tingkah laku
masyarakat yang aktif berinteraktiviti dengan alat teknologi mudah alih secara berulang kali. Penyataan
serta maklumat yang berkaitan dengan elemen pergerakan menjadi keutamaan di dalam karya ini. Imej-
imej figura yang dihasilkan secara berulang-ulang terhasil dari penggunaan templat asas yang sama.


Penampilan imej yang berulang berupaya menjelaskan tentang kekerapan aktiviti itu dilakukan. Imej
figura yang berganda ini menunjukkan bahawa perbuatan atau amalan yang dilakukan sangatlah
seronok dan mengasyikkan. Ini memberi gambaran bahawa budaya berhibur menerusi teknologi digital
amat digemari oleh masyarakat masa kini.


Kesimpulannya, amalan ini memberi kesan keseronokan dan kepuasan kepada pengguna
dalam menikmati bentuk hiburan di samping menjalankan tugas-tugas yang berkaitan dengan kerja,
bersosial, berbual dan interaksi fizikal di sekeliling individu (Bakardjieva, 2011). Tingkah laku
sebegini merupakan satu gaya hidup baru yang popular ketika ini dan dapat diterima pakai oleh
masyarakat hari ini sama ada ia dilakukan pada masa-masa tertentu ataupun ketika masa lapang.
Masyarakat masa kini lebih cenderung terlibat dengan interaksi sosial di dalam media-media digital
berbanding penglibatan secara fizikal. Keadaan ini dipengaruhi oleh aplikasi-aplikasi mudah alih
berbentuk sosial dan hiburan yang sangat menarik minat pengguna untuk terus cenderung
menggunakan alat teknologi pada bila-bila masa. Sliwinski et al. (2015) menerangkan, interaksi
pengguna dengan gajet boleh melekakan mereka tentang masa. Aktiviti digital yang dilakukan secara
berulang-ulang boleh digambarkan sebagai amalan meditasi secara tidak langsung. Jadi kesemua
faktor ini diinterpretasikan di dalam karya arca instalasi sebagai refleksi kepada gaya hidup melibatkan
budaya berhibur digital yang kian popular masa kini.


Arif Ishak, (29 Mac 2016). #Tips : Aspek Yang Perlu Diambil Kira Sebelum Membeli Telefon Pintar.
Di muat turun dari:

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Bijker, W. E. (2001). Understanding technological culture through a constructivist view of science,
technology, and society. Visions of STS: Counterpoints in science, technology and society

Feldman, E.B. (1994). Practical art criticism. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Fornari, F. (2013). Specification And Prototype Implementation Of An Open Source Interactive
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Gary Liam (19 Januari 2017). Daftar Aplikasi & Software Edit Foto Terbaik 2017. Dimuat turun

Hamid, S. A. (2016). Pengaruh media massa terhadap perubahan sosial masyarakat. 1, 214-226.
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AFA 2019


24-25 September 2019

Traditional Culture and Contemporary Design of Peking Opera
Costume Craftsmanship

BiRan1 and LiWei2

1 China Tsinghua University

2 China Tsinghua University

biran910603@sina com

Abstract - Traditional Chinese Peking Opera costumes, also known as "Xing Tou", are an extremely

part of Peking Opera art. Peking Opera costumes inherit traditional Chinese costume manufacturing
techniquesand reflect a variety of exquisite weaving and decoration craftsmanship. In addition, its costume
manufacturingalso adopts strict steps and methods and intensively and fully expresses Chinese traditional
costume culture inthe form of stage art. After the heyday in the Qing Dynasty, the reform during the Republic
of China and thedecline in the modern and contemporary times, the high manual manufacturing of Peking Opera
costumes is nowfacing the challenge from insufficient market demand and mechanized production. Taking the
manufacturingprocess of traditional Peking Opera costumes as the starting point, this study explored the
contemporary valueand design concept of creation wisdom and traditional craft thinking in traditional Chinese
handicraft techniques.

It is hoped that this study can bring some enlightenment to the protection of traditional handicraft in terms
ofconcept, thinking and practice. The inheritance of handicraft should not be merely a continuation of
technicalskills, but also a consideration of the philosophical value of handicraft in cultural inheritance. The
productiontechnique of Peking Opera costumes reflects the memory value with a sense of identity and history
in the actualcostume, and demonstrates the diversity of Chinese culture and the creative cultural gene value in
creationphilosophy and wisdom.

Keywords ‐ Peking Opera, clothing, fashion design


Peking Opera is the quintessence of Chinese culture. Chinese traditional Peking Opera
costumesare also means “Xingtou”, and they are an important means of shaping characters. As a
highlyfreehand artistic technique, Peking Opera clothing absorbs the traditional costumes and
craftsmanshipof China for thousands of years while using virtual, freehand and stylized expression
methods. Avariety of weaving and embroidery techniques are reflected in the exquisite craftsmanship
of PekingOpera costumes, and their manufacturing techniques are also strictly regulated, forming a
completesystem, which is the most concentrated and fully expressed expression of Chinese traditional
culture instage art. . Peking Opera costumes have profound cultural connotations and enrich the history
andculture of the Chinese nation for 5,000 years. The production process has absorbed the
traditionalcostumes of China for thousands of years, and many traditional garment processes and
techniques arevividly reflected in them. Therefore, the research and application of traditional Peking
Opera clothingtechniques is an indispensable part of the inheritance and innovation of Chinese culture.


Figure 1 : Beijing Opera Clothing

Making a Peking Opera costume requires multiple processes, including plate making,

materialselection, cutting, dyeing, embroidery, scraping paste, slashing, garment, and rear. Each item
containsseveral steps. For example, the embroidery is divided into six processes: drawing, zigzag,
brushing,wiring, stretching, twisting, and embroidering. Among them, scraping paste is a special
process that isdifferent from the traditional Chinese garment manufacturing process. It is mainly used
to make thefabric stiff and bond in the production process. Because the Peking Opera costumes cannot
be washedin order to protect the embroidery and maintain the hardness of the fabric, the scraping paste
process iswidely used in the production process of Peking Opera costumes.

The paste used in the scraping paste is made from flour and is divided into three types:
Net paste: Wash the flour with gluten and beat the flour with flour. This kind of paste has nostrength
and acts as a flat cloth.
Mixed paste: directly wash the flour with hot water and mix well. The paste is strong, sticky
Hair paste: Put the net paste to mold and remove the hair before use. Fermentation causes all
thestrength of the paste to shed, the thickness becomes smaller, and the thin fabric is flatter and lighter.


Figure 2 scraping paste process

In the production process of Peking Opera costumes, there are many places where you need
toscrape. The first is to scrape on the embroidered piece of embroidered flowers. The paste has a
certainbonding effect, and the embroidery is not easy to loosely deform after drying. When the
embroidery was finished, turned the tongs over and gently applied the embroidered stitches to the back
of thefabric with fingers. And the piece can be removed when it dried. Nankao,nvkao,mangbai, etc.
whichrequire higher fabric hardness, need to be scrapped. In the old process, the embroidered piece
shouldbe fastened and fixed on the empty stretcher. Now four corners are nailed and fixed on the
woodenboard. The whole side of the embroidered piece is scraped with slurry to dry, commonly
known assupporting the piece. In the swaying, leaning, and other parts, the lining paper or the lining
cloth willbe adhered to the place where the thickening is needed, and the fabric and the lining cloth
need to besprayed before affixing. Scrape the cloth when it is wet, then place a paper or patch on the
edge of theembroidery. When the fabric needs to be flat and stiff, the fabric is scraped full of paste. At
this time,the slurry should be scraped thinly, and water is sprayed before the squeegee to fully fuse the
pasteand the cloth. The more viscous paste also has the function of bonding the fabric, and it is
necessary toscrape the slurry in the process of splitting the piece, the edging, the wrapping and the

Peking Opera costumes are used for stage performances. There is a certain distance between
theactors and the audience. Therefore, the embroidery process does not require the stitches to be very
fine,but the embroidery is required to be durable, and the garments are always flat and wide in
thecontinuous performance. Therefore, the production of Peking Opera clothing is inseparable from
theScraping paste process. Garments using the scraping paste process present a hard, soft texture.

Compared to the hot linings that are used today, scraping paste can make the fabric more tough,
not rigid, sturdy, non-foaming, and always flattened during use. Scraping paste is a complex
andsystematic process that embodies the craftsmanship and wisdom of the traditional Chinese
PekingOpera costumes.


Scraping paste is a very representative and special process in the production process of
PekingOpera. In the author's design practice, this process is refined and transformed, and the
newinterpretation is based on the theme of “Entering the Opera”. It is intended to reflect the ecstasy
stateof the Peking Opera actor's immersive character performance, and to refine and transform
the dancemovement trajectory in the traditional Peking Opera. While studying materials and shaping
thestructure, the author joins the understanding of the aesthetic culture of traditional Chinese costumes.


Figure 3 : Inspiration source picture
The clothing series is re-engineered by using the Scraping paste process in the production
ofPeking Opera, and the fabric after Scraping paste will be more rigid and stylish. In the design, it
makesfull use of the tension of the material after Scraping paste to achieve the clever combination of
curvesand straight lines, and presents a three-dimensional shape with a flat structure, showing
theconnotation and charm of Chinese traditional costumes with a simple and powerful method.
In terms of design elements, the Scraping paste process of Peking Opera is used as the main
detailprocess, and the fabrics, which is brushed with paste, of different colors and different thicknesses
areused to match the various parts of the garment. In addition to Scraping paste, the digital prints
willshow the details of the Peking Opera dance trajectory, and the effect of the virtual reality will
appearon the clothing. This expresses an understanding of the performance of the Peking Opera, which
isalso true and false, and also true and false.
The Scraping paste process is designed to create the Scraping paste mechanism with differenttextures
and different colors, and apply it reasonably in the design of the clothing series.

Figure 4 Scraping paste experimental fabric sample.
In the process of the scraping paste experiment, the author accidentally found that the slurry
wasdirectly smeared on the wooden board pasted with the plastic film, and after the paste was dried,
itcould be completely peeled off to form a transparent film. Although this kind of film is not
enoughtoughness, it is easy to tear, but it brings a lot of inspiration to the author. If the silk thread is
placed onthe wooden board and then the slurry is applied, after drying, the silk thread can be fixed into


a pieceto be peeled off to form a new fabric mechanism. The thread increases the strength of the paste
andhas a certain ability to be used in the design of the garment as a partial decorative mechanism. The
silkthread is like the line of the brush. It can be arranged in a random way to combine the
mechanismeffect. The paste is flattened and fixed to form a fabric. The natural rich change and the
transparenttexture produce a mysterious effect like ink painting. The author combines different kinds
of lines andpastes, and has carried out a large number of experiments on the changes of different colors,
differentdense and dense lines, and the arrangement of silk threads, and made a variety of different
fabricsamples. This was used as a reference for the scraping paste process used in fashion design.
Finally,three mechanisms for application and clothing design were selected. These mechanisms
werecombined with the structure of the garment to complete the design of the following two sets
ofwomen's clothing.

Figure 5. Fashion Design

Beijing Opera, which came into being in modern times, is the end of ancient opera in terms

ofcultural nature. Its costumes, inheriting the "Yi opera" and "Kun opera", are
the peak of thedevelopment of Chinese classical opera costumes. This study analyzed the design
aesthetics of PekingOpera costumes from the perspective of female aesthetic culture. The changes of
female lead heroines'costumes in different times reflect the changes of Chinese women's
aesthetic spirit and genderrelations. Opera costumes are not limited to the stage, but interact with
women's fashion of the sameperiod all the time. In the contemporary era, with the revival of
traditional culture, the application ofopera costume elements in apparel design has been a prevailing
trend. From the pure beauty ofrepresentation form to the culture and spirit highlighted by opera symbols,
the design aestheticscontained therein further expresses and deepens the Chinese aesthetic spirit and
aesthetic concept.

Traditional costume culture reflects the meaning and order between human and things.
Operacostume is an integration of politics, history, economy, art and other diverse cultures rather than
anindependent cultural carrier. These costumes originated from and higher than life reflect the
artisticcharacteristics of comprehensiveness, realism, virtuality and program, as well as the
Chinesecharacteristics of deep metaphor formed by natural objects in pursuit of good meanings.

Through the origin and development of Peking Opera costumes, which come from daily
lifecostumes, song and dance costumes, and costumes of southern opera, poetic drama, kun opera,
folkoperas of the Qing Dynasty, Hua Bu and other local operas, it is not hard to see that stage
costumesand daily costumes never exist in isolation, but interact with each other according to the
fashion trend.


In the modern application of Beijing opera costume elements, the straightforward
transformation ofdecorative techniques and other technical elements is a common design technique,
while the orientalaesthetic concept, classical beauty, nationality and identity are cultural expressions
higher than thetechnical level.

Costume, as an important part of Chinese traditional culture, is endowed with strong color of
gender ethical evaluation. Opera costumes are refined and sublimated from Chinese traditionalcostume
culture. The significance of studies on Peking Opera costumes lies in exploring how toexpress and
deepen Chinese aesthetic spirit and aesthetic concept systematically by means ofsymbolization and how
to gain an even deeper understanding of the historical inheritance of Chineseaesthetic spirit and Chinese
classical costume style.


As a handicraft that has been passed down from ancient times, the production process of Peking
Opera clothing has complicated process, high production cost and long cycle, and it cannot adapt tothe
large-scale, low-cost production mode of contemporary factories. At the same time, due to the
lowdemand for finely crafted Peking Opera clothing, the exquisite traditional crafts are gradually
facingthe danger of being lost, and traditional craft techniques are rarely understood by contemporary

Taking the unique Scraping paste process in the production process of Peking Opera as the
startingpoint of this research and design application, combing and researching the production process
ofPeking Opera costume, the Scraping paste process is appropriately transformed and applied
incontemporary fashion design. It will strive to show the face of the traditional Chinese Peking
Operacostumes and the wisdom of the people's creations through the external technical forms
and thecultural connotations embodied therein.

Nowadays, the value of culture and traditional handicrafts is becoming more and more
obvious.The inheritance and innovation of intangible cultural heritage are more and more
people's attention. Itis an important subject worthy of discussion to apply the craftsmanship of
historical culture andpredecessors' wisdom to design. . This is also the responsibility of each of
our cultural researchers anddesigners. By extracting the production process of Peking Opera costumes,
this paper attempts tocombine traditional handicraft techniques with modern design techniques and
make bold innovations.

In the inheritance of excellent traditional handicrafts, we will find the trigger point of fashion
andtransform traditional crafts under the thinking of modern design concepts. Through this research
anddesign, the author sincerely hopes to better integrate the Peking Opera costume production process
asan important intangible cultural heritage with contemporary fashion design and inherit innovation.

Tradition is not the opposite of modernity, but the source of modernity. The study on the
aestheticdesign of Peking Opera costumes can provide new design ideas and methods for reference in
theexploration and practice of the classical beauty and nationality of contemporary costumes.
Theapplication of Peking Opera elements in apparel design can arouse contemporary people's
culturalidentity of traditional costumes, thus transforming into the identity and cultural confidence of
theChinese nation


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AFA 2019



24-25 September 2019


Hazrul Mazran Bin Rusli, Dr. Abdul Aziz Bin Zalay @ Zali

1Department of Art Trivium, Faculty of Art And Design, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Perak Branch
1Department of Arts, Sultan Azlan Shah Campus, Sultan Idris Education University, Tanjung Malim, Perak

[email protected]

Abstrak - Penulisan ini bertujuan membincangkan penghasilan karya seni visual berdasarkan adaptasi terhadap
salah satu bentuk kesusasteraan rakyat Melayu iaitu Cerita Si Luncai. Adaptasi yang dilakukan adalah
memfokuskan kepada unsur-unsur didaktik atau pengajaran yang terkandung di dalam teks cerita Si Luncai.
Objektif penulisan ini adlah untuk melihat samada pelukis boleh membaca, mentafsir dan mengupas sesebuah
hasil kesusasteraan dan menterjemahkannya dalam bentuk imej visual. Penyelidikan ini menggunakan gabungan
pendekatan Teori Adaptasi oleh Desmond & Hawkes (2006) dan kaedah ekplorasi visual yang diperkenalkan
oleh O’Grady J. & K (2009). Bentuk karya seni visual yang dihasilkan adalah karya seni cetakan blok kayu
konvensional. Dapatan penulisan kajian ini adalah sebanyak satu (01) karya cetakan blok kayu konvensional
dengan sepuluh (10) edisi telah dihasilkan berdasarkan adaptasi yang dilakukan terhadap subjek kajian untuk
tatapan penghayat. Kesimpulannya, hasil dari penyelidikan ini mendapati bahawa bahan kesusasteraan rakyat
Melayu mampu diterjemah semula secara visual dan amat berpotensi untuk dijadikan sebagai subjek atau tema
didalam penghasilan karya seni visual. Disamping itu, penulisan ini juga mampu untuk memperkayakan
penghayatan kedua-dua bentuk kesenian ini..

Kata Kunci - Kesusasteraan Rakyat; Cerita Jenaka Melayu; Seni Visual; Cetakan; Adaptasi


Takrifan yang diberikan oleh Kamus Dewan edisi ketiga terhadap perkataan sastera ialah
bahasa yang digunakan di dalam kitab. Dalam kata lain yang lebih mudah, perkataan sastera bolehlah
dianggap ia sebagai satu bentuk bahasa yang bukan digunakan dalam perbualan seharian atau bahasa
basahan. Perkataan susastera pula membawa pengertian terhadap seni sastera atau sebarang unsur
kesenian yang tercipta dengan penggunaan bahasa, tulisan atau lisan oleh mereka yang mahir sastera
atau mempunyai pengetahuan yang baik dalam seni persuratan. Menurut Ismail Yusoff (2008), hasil-
hasil sastera adalah ungkapan bahasa yang indah yang diucapkan atau bertulis yang mempunyai nilai
kesenian yang murni, halus, merdu, suci dan cantik dari segenap segi iaitu bahasa, isi dan
penyampaian. Shamsul Amri Baharuddin (2009) pula menggambarkan hasil sastera sebagai satu
bentuk kesenian yang menggunakan bahasa yang indah-indah, halus dan tertib. Tambah beliau
(Samsul Amri Baharuddin, 2009), apabila dibaca ianya menjadi merdu dan berirama, malah lebih
lunak apabila didendangkan. Pusat Rujukan Persuratan Melayu Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka
memberikan takrifan terhadap terma kesusasteraan adalah sebagai satu hasil seni yang diwujudkan
dalam bentuk karangan bebas atau dalam bentuk puisi. Ismail Yusoff (2008) dalam kajian beliau pula
memberikan takrifan terhadap terma kesusasteraan sebagai himpunan beberapa atau lebih dari satu
hasilan susastera.

Sastera Rakyat pula adalah satu bentuk hasilan sastera tertua yang pada asalnya disampaikan
secara lisan dan berkisar dalam kelompok masyarakat tertentu. Sastera rakyat lahir atas tujuan hiburan
dan pengajaran. Ia juga turut mempunyai unsur tokok tambah dan pengaruh tempatan. Mohd Taib
Osman (2007) memetik kenyataan oleh Francis Lee Utley dalam penulisan beliau yang berjudul


“Folklore: Some Operational Definition” pada tahun 1965 yang menegaskan bahawa sastera rakyat
ialah sastera yang dipindahkan secara lisan dikalangan masyarakat primitif yang terpencil atau dalam
kebudayaan pinggiran yang bertamadun, atau dikalangan masyarakat andar atau desa, atau dikalangan
kelompok dominan atau kecil. Mohd Taib Osman (2007) yang mengupas lebih lanjut di dalam konteks
masyarakat Melayu mengatakan bahawa sastera rakyat adalah satu bentuk genre Kesusasteraan
Melayu Lama yang tertua di dalam masyarakat melayu berbentuk lisan (oral tradition) yang wujud
sebelum kesusasteraan bertulis (literary tradition) dan dinikmati oleh golongan luar istana.

Harun Mat Piah et al. (2000) pula mentafsirkan sastera rakyat sebagai satu bentuk hasilan
sastera milik sesuatu kumpulan masyarakat yang diperturunkan daripada satu generasi ke satu generasi
yang lain. Harun Mat Piah et al. (2000) juga menegaskan bahawa sastera rakyat turut dikenali sebagai
sastera lisan dan sifat lisan itulah yang menentukan identitinya sebagai sastera rakyat. Menurut Mohd.
Taib Osman (1972) sastera rakyat mempunyai pengertian yang lebih sempit berbanding dengan tradisi
lisan. Beliau menegaskan sastera rakyat sering dilihat sebagai sesuatu yang sudah mati atau setidak-
tidaknya merupakan warisan atau tinggalan zaman lampau. Penggunaannnya juga terbatas pada cerita-
cerita lisan dan cerita-cerita tradisional yang biasanya dituturkan pada kanak-kanak sewaktu hendak
tidur. Walaubagaimanapun, takrifan yang lebih sihat diberikan oleh Safian et al. (1988). Menurut
beliau, tradisi lisan membawa pengertian yang lebih luas. Ia meliputi bahan naratif dan bukan naratif,
dan apa juga ekspresi lisan sesuatu budaya termasuklah cerita-cerita lipur lara,, cerita jenaka, mitos,
lagenda, peribahasa, pantun, ungkapan adat dan sebagainya. Safian et al. turut menegaskan sastera
rakyat adalah sebahagian daripada tradisi lisan yang dapat difahami sebagai ekspresi budaya yang
mengunakan bahasa dan mempunyai hubungan langsung dengan berbagai aspek budaya seperti agama
dan kepercayaan, undang-undang, keperluan masa lapang, kegiatan ekonomi, system kekeluargaan
dan susunan nilai sosial masyarakatnya.

Berdasarkan penyelidikan oleh Ismail Yusoff (2008), hasil kesusasteraan rakyat dapat
dikategorikan kepada dua (02) kategori. Kategori pertama adalah bahan sastera yang berbentuk cerita
(narrative). Contoh-contoh hasil sastera yang tergolong di dalam kategori ini adalah seperti Cerita Asal
Usul, Cerita Penglipur Lara, Cerita Jenaka, Cerita Binatang, Cerita Rakyat, Cerita Pengajaran, Cerita
Hantu dan Cerita Lagenda. Kategori sastera rakyat yang kedua pula adalah bahan sastera yang tidak
berbentuk cerita (non-narrative). Contoh-contoh hasil sastera kategori ini adalah seperti Peribahasa,
Perbilangan Adat, Pantun, Teka-teki, Jampi Serapah dan juga Bahasa Berirama.


Cerita Si Luncai adalah salah satu daripada hasil kesusasteraan rakyat yang berbentuk cerita jenaka
berwatak manusia yang diklasifikasikan dalam kategori Cerita Jenaka Melayu. Unsur kejenakaan
dalam cerita-cerita jenaka Melayu biasanya menampilkan perwatakan manusia sejagat yang bersifat
kedunguan seperti dalam cerita Pak Kaduk yang menang sorak walaupun kampungnya tergadai. Cerita
Pak pandir pula menampilkan watak kebodohan dan lurus bendul, manakala sifat suka berangan-angan
kosong ditunjukkan dalam cerita Mat Jenin dan Lebai malang pula menggambarkan kritikan terhadap
sifat tamak yang akhirnya membawa kerugian. Mohd Taib Osman (2007) menegaskan walaupun unsur
kejenakaan dalam sastera rakyat ini bertujuan untuk menghiburkan, namun ia turut mempunyai fungsi
dan tujuan untuk mengajar, menyemai adab moral, mengkritik dan menyindir terhadap sesuatu yang
tidak kena.

Penulisan ini menumpukan sepenuhnya terhadap cerita si Luncai sahaja kerana kecerdikan dan
kelicikannya mencari helah bagi mengatasi masalah yang dihadapinya. Watak Si Luncai juga turut
digambarkan sebagai seorang Melayu yang tidak stereotype berbanding watak-watak dalam cerita
jenaka lain kerana beliau tidak mudah mengalah, tidak mudah tunduk kepada pihak yang lebih
berwibawa dan patuh kepada pihak berkuasa. Disamping itu, penulis merasakan bahawa cerita Si
Luncai turut mengandungi kritikan terhadap pemerintah. Harun Mat Piah et al. (2002) menyatakan
dalan penyelidikannya bahawa cerita-cerita jenaka turut mempunyai unsur-unsur atau elemen berbau
politik. Keadaan ini dibuktikan dalam teks Si Luncai apabila beliau (Si Luncai) dengan secara terbuka
begitu berani mengatakan bahawa wajah raja menyerupai wajah ayahnya yang telah meninggal dunia
dan mencari helah bagi melepaskan diri dari hukuman zalim yang dikenakan keatasnya.



Terma cetakan adalah merujuk kepada sesuatu bahan atau perkara yang dicetak melalui
penggunaan acuan atau mesin-mesin yang boleh membantu kerja-kerja mencetak itu. Perkataan ini
terbit dari kata dasar cetak yang membawa maksud sebarang cap atau cop berbentuk tanda, huruf dan
sebagainya pada kertas atau kain. Perkataan ini turut merujuk kepada sebarang bahan yang dijadiakan
acuan untuk menghasilkan sesuatu produk. Takrifan cetakan secara umum juga dapat difahami dengan
melihat kepada objek-objek seharian yang mempunyai elemen percetakan. Contoh yang boleh kita
lihat adalah seperti surat khabar, majalah, buku, duit dan sebagainya. Namun, objek-objek harian ini
tidak boleh diangkat sebagai sebuah karya seni.

Takrifan dalam kontek seni tampak pula, terma cetakan adalah merujuk kepada sebarang
perbuatan mengalihkan dan menggandakan imajan dari satu permukaan kepada permukaan lain
dengan menggunakan sebarang kaedah atau teknik-teknik tertentu. Mazlan Karim (2012) dalam
kajiannya menggariskan cetakan konvensional adalah sebuah karya seni bersifat dua dimensi dan
boleh diulang cetak dalam jumlah yang banyak selagi blok atau matrik yang digunakan tidak rosak
dan mampu untuk menghasilkan cetakan atau impression ke atas permukaan kertas, kanvas atau kain.
Mazlan Karim (2012) turut memetik Alexia Tala (2009) yang menyatakan karya cetakan konvensional
sebagai suatu hasil cetakan yang dipamerkan di dinding dan dalam bingkai kaca. Sharifah Fatimah
Zubir (1982) dalam katalog Pameran Cetakan, Muzium Seni Negara pula menggariskan bahawa
cetakan adalah hasil daripada suatu aktiviti atau perbuatan yang meninggalkan kesan atau bekas secara
visual di atas permukaan bentuk yang lain. Beliau memberikan contoh seperti kesan tapak kaki yang
di tinggalkan di atas pasir, salinan lukisan atau garisan pen dan pensil.

Mazlan Karim (2012) dalam kajiannya menyatakan bahawa ‘Cetakan asli’ merupakan terma
yang lebih tepat dan komprehensif apabila menghuraikan definisi cetak dalam konteks seni halus.
Kenyataan oleh Mazlan dentity dilihat selari dengan kenyataan oleh Sharifah Fatimah Zubir (1982)
yang menyatakan bahawa pelukis lebih suka menggunakan istilah cetakan asli (original print) dalam
membezakan hasil karya mereka dengan salinan cetak (reproduction copies) karya-karya seni sedia
ada. Penetapan sesbuah cetakan itu sebagai asli turut berkisar kepada bagaimana imajan sesebuah
karya cetakan itu dihasilkan. Bernard S. Myers (1963) memberikan takrifan cetakan konvensional
adalah sebuah karya kreatif yang bermula dengan penghasilan blok atau terma yang lebih khusus iaitu
matrik. Blok atau matrik ini samada menggunakan kayu, logam, lino atau sutera saring. Seniman cetak
mengolah permukaan blok melalui aktiviti torehan alat turis, stensil, potongan pisau dan lain-lain
sebagaimana seorang pelukis menghasilkan catan atau lukisan menggunakan berus, pensil, arang, cat
minyak dan kanvas. Mazlan Karim (2011) turut menekankan bahawa di samping penggunaan blok
atau matrik, keaslian sesebuah cetakan konvensional atau tradisi itu turut bergantung kepada medium,
kaedah dan disiplin seni cetak yang digunakan oleh seseorang seniman cetak.

Medium paling biasa yang digunakan oleh seniman cetak dalam menghasilkan karya adalah
kertas. Secara umum, teknologi pembuatan kertas telah bermula ketika peradaban Cina dan
dikembangkan dan diperhalusi pula oleh orang-orang Jepun apabila meraka mendapati kertas-kertas
dari Cina terlalu rapuh. Rosalind Ragan (2005) menulis dalam kajian beliau, kertas telah digunakan
secara konvensional oleh seniman cetak untuk medapatkan ‘impression’ atau hasil cetakan daripada
blok yang digunakan. Berdasarkan pengalaman penyelidik sendiri, penggunaan kertas sebagai
bahantara utama dalam penghasilan cetakan adalah kerana sifat kertas itu sendiri yang sesuai untuk
semua kaedah dan teknik cetakan seperti cetakan timbulan (blok kayu, dan lino), intaglio, stensil dan
sebagainya. Dari sudut estetik pula adalah kerana kesan-kesan unik yang diperolehi daripada
kepelbagaian jenis kertas itu sendiri yang menjadi dentity dan tarikan utama karya-karya seni cetak
berbanding karya seni visual yang lain.

Karya-karya cetakan konvensional juga ditentukan melalui teknik-teknik cetakan yang
digunakan. Mazlan Karim (2012) memetik kenyataan oleh Ponirin Amin (1995) yang menegaskan
bahawa perhatian utama dalam penghasilan karya cetakan adalah tekniknya. Rosalind Ragan (2005)
menggariskan terdapat empat kaedah tradisi untuk menghasilkan karya cetakan iaitu kaedah relief


(timbulan), intaglio, lithografi dan sutera saring. Long Thien Shih (1993) pula menjelaskan hasil
cetakan dapat diperolehi melalui teknik timbulan, permukaan dan stensil. Malah menurut beliau juga,
kemahiran teknikal yang tinggi amat diperlukan bagi mendapatkan kualiti cetakan yang optimum.

Disamping elemen blok atau matrik, medium dan teknikal, cetakan konvensional juga menitik
beratkan elemen etika dan disiplin dalam proses penghasilan karya. Mazlan Karim (2012) menjelaskan
disiplin dan etika dalam proses penghasilan karya cetakan konvensioanl merujuk kepada standard atau
piawaian yang perlu dipatuhi oleh seniman cetak. Kajian oleh Lessing J. Rosenwald (1961)
menjelaskan bahawa piawaian ini dicetuskan oleh Gabor Peterdi di Third International Congress of
Plastic Art, Vienna pada September 1960 dan dipersetujui oleh Majlis Seni Cetak Amerika bagi
menentukan keaslian sesebuah karya cetakan.


Penulisan ini membincangkan bagaimana elemen didaktik atau pengajaran yang terkandung
dalam bahan sastera rakyat (cerita Si Luncai) diolah dan digunakan sebagai subjek kajian di dalam
penghasilan karya seni visual berbentuk cetakan. Teknik cetakan yang dipilih adalah cetakan blok
kayu. Melalui penghasilan karya, penulis juga cuba untuk memberikan respon terhadap persoalan yang
dilontarkan oleh Prof. Madya Salmah Abu Mansor (2009) iaitu sama ada pelukis boleh membaca,
mentafsir dan mengupas sesebuah bahan sastera seperti pantun, gurindam, perumpamaan atau syair
dan menterjemahkannya ke atas sekeping kanvas atau kertas dalam bentuk imej visual dengan
menggunakan pelbagai medium seperti cat minyak atau cat air.

Penyelidikan studio ini dijalankan bagi mengolah dan menggunakan bahan kesusasteraan
rakyat untuk dijadikan tema dalam menghasilkan sesebuah karya seni visual. Berdasarkan pengamatan
yang dijalankan, penulis mendapati bahawa bahan kesusasteraan rakyat ini semakin dipinggirkan.
Generasi muda khususnya tidak lagi gemar membaca atau mengkaji hasil-hasil sastera jenis ini. Aznan
Bakar (2010), seorang pengarang Akhbar Utusan menulis di dalam artikel beliau yang berjudul
“Sastera tempatan terpinggir?” yang diterbitkan pada 26 Mac 2010 mengutarakan pandangan yang
menyokong pernyataan di atas. Beliau menyatakan bahawa ruang yang diberikan untuk aktiviti sastera
di negara ini semakin sempit apabila generasi elektronik hari ini tidak lagi merasakan sastera itu
penting dan tidak menyumbang apa-apa dalam kehidupan.

Pada tahun 2007, forum bertajuk Masa Hadapan Sastera Malaysia telah berlangsung di Rumah
Pena. Forum ini telah diterajui oleh beberapa sarjana tempatan seperti Prof. Ir. Dr. Irwan Abu Bakar
(Universiti Malaya), Dr. Nor Faridah Abd. Manaf (Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia) dan Dr.
Chong Fah Ming (Universiti Putra Malaysia). Antara yang diperkatakan oleh Nor Faridah (2007) dan
diperbincangkan di dalam forum tersebut adalah faktor yang telah menyebabkan sastera Malaysia
tidak dapat melangkah jauh berbanding sastera Barat adalah kerana tidak ada usaha menyeluruh
daripada pelbagai pihak. Tambah beliau lagi, bagi memastikan sastera Malaysia mempunyai kekuatan,
ia perlu dipersembahkan dan digarap menggunakan pendekatan multi disiplin. Kenyataan Nor Faridah
(2007) jelas selari dengan kenyataan oleh Abu Hassan Hasbullah (Jabatan Pengajian Media, Universiti
Malaya) yang melontarkan pendapatnya sewaktu membentangkan kertas kerjanya pada Seminar
Sasterawan Dalam Pembinaan Peradaban Malaysia di ASWARA pada tahun 2008. Abu Hassan
Hasbullah (2008) telah menyentuh berkenaan struktur organisasi kesusasteraan tempatan yang masih
belum dibangunkan secara menyeluruh. Sebagai contoh, aktiviti berkenaan sastera hanya tertumpu di
kota, seolah-olah kawasan desa dan pedalaman terpinggir daripada arus perkembangan dunia
kesusasteraan yang meliputi para penggemarnya di merata-rata tempat. Beliau juga turut menegaskan
bahawa tidak banyak pihak yang sanggup untuk mengangkat karya-karya sastera bagi diterjemahkan
kedalam bentuk lain seperti ke layar perak seperti yang berlaku di Barat.

Berdasarkan pemerhatian penyelidik terhadap perkembangan seni visual pula, penulis
mendapati bahawa golongan seniman seni visual tidak begitu gemar untuk menggunakan bahan
sastera dalam karya mereka terutamanya jenis kesusasteraan rakyat khususnya dikalangan seniman
muda. Kenyataan ini jelas disokong oleh Salmah Abu Mansor (2009) dalam buku pameran


Tampannya Budi yang berlangsung di Balai Seni Visual Negara pada tahun 2009. Salmah Abu Mansor
(2009) menegaskan bahawa penggunaan bahan sastera dalam penghasilan karya seni visual seolah-
olah terabai oleh kerana penekanan yang berlebihan terhadap kajian dalam bentuk teks bercetak
berkenaan Alam Melayu. Beliau turut menegaskan bahawa karya seni visual juga adalah suatu bahan
bersifat tekstual yang boleh dibaca, ditafsir dan dikupas oleh sesiapa sahaja tidak kira samada oleh
seorang yang pakar ataupun bukan. Sebagai bukti, pameran Tampannya Budi 2009 merupakan
pameran sulung yang menampilkan karya-karya yang menjadikan bahan sastera klasik Melayu secara
menyeluruh sebagai tema dalam karya. Pameran ini merupakan hasil kerjasama Balai Seni Visual
Negara dengan Institut Alam dan Tamadun Melayu, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Penggunaan bahan kesusasteraan dalam penghasilan karya seni visual bukanlah merupakan
suatu perkara baru. Menurut pandangan beberapa tokoh sarjana tempatan, terdapat kaitan rapat antara
sastera klasik Melayu dengan seni lukis moden Malaysia sejak sekitar 1970-an. Siti Zainon Ismail
(1989) menjelaskan bahawa karya-karya seni lukis moden Malaysia mula memperlihatkan dent-ciri
kecintaan terhadap nilai tradisi dan peribumi kesan daripada Seminar Akar-akar Kesenian Peribumi
dan Perkembangan Kini yang diadakan di Institut Teknologi Mara pada Disember 1979. Pelukis-
pelukis tempatan khususnya lulusan institusi tinggi mula menyedari akan hakikat nilai dan dentity
tempatan. Mereka ghairah menyelitkan elemen-elemen budaya ke dalam karya-karya mereka. Kajian
oleh Muliyadi Mahamood (2002) menyatakan seniman tempatan mula merujuk kepada kesenian
tradisi dalam mencari dan membina dentity dalam karya-karya mereka sejak 1970-an dan 1980-an.


Penghasilan sesebuah karya seni visual adalah suatu proses yang menggabungkan tiga elemen
utama. Menurut Rosalind Ragans (2005), sebuah karya seni terhasil apabila ia menggabungkan elemen
subjek, komposisi dan makna. Penjelasan selanjutnya diberikan oleh Ocvirk, Stinson, Wigg, Bone &
Clayton (2009) yang mengatakan bahawa perkara asas yang melengkapkan sesebuah karya seni halus
terdiri daripada tiga komponen utama iaitu bahan rujukan atau subjek (subject) bentuk (Form) dan
makna (Content).

Untuk membina ‘makna’ yang tersirat disebalik ‘subjek’ dan ‘bentuk’, penyelidikan studio ini
telah menggunakan gabungan dua pendekatan. Pendekatan pertama, penulis menggunakan pendekatan
adaptasi longgar berdasarkan Teori Adaptasi yang dikemukakan oleh Desmond & Hawkes (2006).
Menurut Desmond & Hawkes (2006), tiga kaedah adaptasi yang boleh dilakukan apabila
membincangkan adaptasi bahan sastera kepada bentuk filem. Tiga bentuk kaedah ini adalah adaptasi
tertutup (close adaptation), adaptasi longgar (loose adaptation) dan adaptasi sederhana (intermediate
adaptation). Adaptasi tertutup merupakan satu teknik adaptasi yang dilakukan bagi mengekalkan
sebahagian besar bahan literal asal dengan penambahan minimal dalam karya baru. Kaedah adaptasi
longgar pula merupakan teknik adaptasi yang hanya mengambil sebahagian kecil bahan literal dan
menggantikan sebahagian besar dengan unsur atau olahan yang baru. Manakala kaedah adaptasi
sederhana merupakan proses adaptasi yang berada diantara adaptasi tertutup atau longgar. Biasanya
adaptasi bentuk ini masih mengekalkan sebahagian besar bahan literal asal dengan penambahan unsur
baru yang tidak kurang banyak.

Pendekatan kedua, penyelidik menggunakan pendekatan ekplorasi visual yang diperkenalkan
oleh O’grady J&K (2009). Menurut O’grady J&K (2009), pendekatan eksplorasi visual merupakan
kaedah yang paling biasa dan banyak digunakan oleh para pereka bagi menyelesaikan permasalahan
‘bentuk’ (Form) dan komunikasi visual yang terhasil daripada olahan komposisi (Composition).
Pendekatan kajian sebegini biasanya dimulakan dengan melibatkan aktiviti pengumpulan imajan,
kajian warna, tipografi dan struktur. Pendekatan eksplorasi visual ini juga membolehkan penyelidik
membina olahan komposisi karya yang paling tepat melalui penggunakan teknik lakaran samada
secara tradisi menggunakan pensil dan kertas ataupun secara digital melalui penggunaan aplikasi
digital. O’Grady J&K (2009) menjelaskan bahawa; “…generation of multiple visual solution allows
for comparative analysis of broad sample of possibilities, which enables the designers to see the most
successful vehicle for communication.”.


Analisis dan Perbincangan Terhadap Adaptasi Cerita Si Luncai Dalam Karya ‘Alkisah Luncai
dan Raja’, Cetakan Blok Kayu, 2015.

Rekonstruksi naratif yang cuba dibina dalam karya ini adalah penyelidik ingin menyampaikan
suatu bentuk respon terhadap suasana politik tanah air sejak kebelakangan ini. Berdasarkan analisis
yang telah dijalankan terhadap kisah Si Luncai, penyelidik mendapati bahawa watak Si Luncai yang
digambarkan dalam kisah ini bukanlah dikalangan rakyat biasa yang sentiasa patuh pada perintah Raja
atau pihak berkuasa. Sebaliknya, Si Luncai digambarkan sebagai seorang yang licik dan mempunyai
daya intelek yang tinggi. Kenyataan ini dibuktikan dimana dari awal penceritaan lagi apabila watak Si
Luncai yang digambarkan sentiasa berusaha dan memikirkan rancangan untuk melepaskan diri dari
hukuman yang diperintahkan keatasnya. Bahkan pada babak-babak pengakhiran cerita, Si Luncai
akhirnya berjaya membalas dendam dengan merancang pembunuhan raja yang telah menzaliminya
dan berjaya mengahwini puteri raja tersebut.

Mohd Taib Osman (2007) menyatakan bahawa Kisah Si Luncai ini menggambarkan world-
view masyarakat Melayu kosmopolitan di bandar dan pelabuhan perdagangan berbanding watak-
watak lain yang digambarkan di dalam cerita jenaka Melayu. Di samping itu, pemerhatian penyelidik
turut mengesan sindiran dan kritikan dalam konteks politik dalam cerita Si Luncai yang dikaji ini.
Harun Mat Piah et al. (2002) menegaskan bahawa plot-plot kritikan berbau politik ini memang wujud
dalam bentuk hasil sastera rakyat seperti cerita jenaka Melayu. Menurut beliau juga, unsur kelucuan
yang cuba disampaikan dalam cerita jenaka Melayu tidak akan sampai sekiranya pembaca tidak dapat
memahami situasi, latar belakang atau konteks kemunculannya. Kejenakaan dalam kisah Si Luncai ini
timbul bukan hanya pada tipu helah yang dirancang dan dilaksanakannya, tetapi turut timbul pada
keberanian Si Luncai (rakyat biasa) dengan sengaja dan tanpa rasa segan silu mengkritik pemerintah,
dalam konteks perbincangan ini ialah raja Melayu sehinggalah menyebabkan beliau (Si Luncai)
dijatuhkan hukuman bunuh. Suatu bentuk hukuman yang melampau, zalim dan tidak setimpal dengan
kesalahan yang telah dilakukan walaupun dalam konteks masyarakat Melayu moden hari ini juga kita
sedia maklum bahawa mendatangkan kemurkaan raja itu adalah adalah menjadi satu kesalahan.


Berdasarkan naratif yang digarap daripada kisah Si Luncai, penyelidik mendapati bahawa
senario yang hampir sama juga berlaku dalam konteks politik tanah air semasa. Sebelum perbincangan
lebih lanjut dijalankan, perlu ditegaskan disini bahawa penyelidik tidak memihak kepada mana-mana
parti politik samada parti pemerintah (kerajaan) atau pembangkang. Penyelidik hanya merekodkan
senario semasa yang berlaku dan difikirkan relevan dengan konteks penyelidikan studio ini. Sebagai
seorang seniman, penulis hanya memberikan respon melalui penghasilan karya berdasarkan apa yang
dilihat dan berlaku di persekitaran penulis dalam konteks ruang lingkup semasa.

Disamping imej tangan-tangan yang memegang sepanduk yang biasa kita lihat dalam mana-
mana demonstrasi ataupun tunjuk perasaan, subjek utama dalam karya ini adalah imej topeng Guy
Fawkes yang dipopularkan melalui filem V For Vendetta. Filem V For Vendetta merupakan adaptasi

semula daripada novel berbentuk grafik karya Alan Moore. Ilustrasi novel grafik ini pula
dihasilkan oleh David Lloyd dan Tony Weare. Novel ini telah diterbitkan pada September 1988
sehingga Mei 1989 oleh beberapa syarikat penerbitan seperti Quality Communication (United
Kingdom), Vertigo atau lebih dikenali sebagai DC Comics (Amerika Syarikat), Delcourt (Perancis),
Abril Jovem serta Panini Comics di Brazil. Komik ini telah diterbitkan dalam versi filem oleh Warner
Bros pada tahun 2006.

Watak ‘V’ samada di dalam filem atau komik V For Vendetta sentiasa digambarkan memakai
topeng Guy Fawkes kerana watak ini digarap berdasarkan kisah dan sejarah ‘The Gunpowder Plot’
yang berlaku di Britain pada tahun 1604. Menurut Greenspan (2012) dan Shape (2005) insiden‘The
Gunpowder Plot’ merupakan satu konspirasi untuk menggulingkan dan membunuh Raja James 1 dan
menggantikannya Puteri Elizabeth. Guy Fawkes adalah antara individu dalam kumpulan yang terlibat
dalam rancangan konspirasi ini. Konspirasi ‘The Gunpowder Plot’ ini telah berjaya dipatahkan oleh
pihak berkuasa, namun hanya Guy Fawkes yang ditangkap dan dijatuhkan hukuman. Daripada sudut
tema dan genre pula, naskhah filem V For Vendetta menghidangkan naratif yang jelas berbau kritikan
politik. Secara keseluruhannya, filem ini memaparkan konflik yang berlaku diantara parti pemerintah
berfahaman fasis (The Norsefire Party) dengan watak ‘V’ yang berfahaman anarchisme.

Imej topeng Guy Fawkes ini dipilih bukan hanya berdasarkan faktor sejarah disebalik
pembikinan filem V For Vendetta tersebut yang didapati mempunyai persamaan dengan kisah Si
Luncai dalam konteks menzahirkan penentangan terhadap pemerintah yang zalim, tetapi juga
disebabkan topeng Guy Fawkes ini juga telah menjadi satu ikon pop kerana ia telah digunakan oleh
peserta demonstrasi dan beberapa parti politik di seluruh dunia sebagai simbol alegori terhadap
penindasan yang dilakukan oleh kerajaan terhadap rakyat. Menurut Landers (2008), penggunaan
topeng muka Guy Fawkes ini telah dipopularkan oleh sebuah pertubuhan atau kumpulan aktivis yang
terdiri daripada penggodam internet yang dinamakan sebagai ‘The Anonymous’. ‘The Anonymous’
telah menggunakan topeng muka dengan wajah Guy Fawkes ini dalam protes dan demonstrasi yang
dijalankan oleh mereka di Amerika Syarikat. Antara demonstrasi dan serangan ikonik yang telah
mereka adakan adalah ‘Project Chanology’ iaitu satu demonstrasi yang membantah ‘The Church Of
Scientology’ pada tahun 2008 (Landers 2008).

Menurut McMillan (2008) dalam tulisan beliau berjudul ‘Hackers Hit Scientology With Online
Attack’ yang diterbitkan dalam PC World oleh IDG News Service, Project Chanology dilancarkan
sebagai bantahan terhadap usaha Gereja Scientology yang mendesak laman perkongsian video
Youtube untuk menarik semula tayangan klip video untuk kegunaan dalaman gereja tersebut yang
telah tersebar kepada tontonan umum. McMillan (2008) turut melaporkan bahawa lawan web rasmi
milik Gereja Scientology telah lumpuh sepenuhnya akibat dari serangan oleh ‘The Anonymous’ ini.
Braiker (2008) pula melaporkan dalam NewsWeek Web Exclusive bahawa klip video tersebut telah
mendapat jumlah tontonan sebanyak lebih 2 juta dalam tempoh dua hari sejak ‘The Anonymous’
melancarkan serangan mereka.

Ekoran daripada serangan ‘The Chanology Project’ ini, penggunaan topeng muka Guy Fawkes
ini telah menular keseluruh dunia. Pada 23 Mei 2009, BBC News pula menyiarkan paparan berita
yang menunjukkan kumpulan penunjuk perasaan membakar objek berupa tong serbuk peledak palsu
sebagai simbol protes terhadap isu perbelanjaan ahli parlimen di U.K turut mengenakan topeng Guy
Fawkes. Menurut Moore (2012), senario yang sama turut dilihat dalam beberapa lagi demonstrasi anti


kerajaan di Eropah sepanjang tahun 2011 hingga 2012. Pengaruh kumpulan ‘The Anonymous’ juga
dilihat berkembang sehingga ke Amerika Selatan dan juga Asia. Di Mumbai, peserta sebuah
demontrasi yang membantah sekatan kandungan internet turut dilihat menggunakan topeng muka Guy
Fawkes. Menurut Hill (2011) dan Sumaiya (2011), antara demonstrasi ikonik yang berlaku di Asia
adalah ketika berlakunya Revolusi Arab pada sekitar tahun 2011. Arab Spring yang bermula di Mesir
dan akhirnya telah mempengaruhi negara-negara Arab disekitarnya. Belia-belia Arab yang menyertai
siri demonstrasi turut dilihat menggunakan topeng Guy Fawkes.

Penggunaan topeng Guy Fawkes oleh penunjuk perasaan di seluruh dunia ini mendapat
perhatian dan sokongan oleh pencipta watak ‘V’ tersebut iaitu Alan Moore. Walaupun pada asalnya,
beliau hanya mencipta watak bagi sebuah komik dan tidak bertujuan untuk menjadikannya
sebagai satu ikon. Gopalan (2008) dalam dua buah laporannya yang disiarkan dalam Entertainment
Weekly memetik kenyataan Alan Moore sebagai;

"I was also quite heartened the other day when watching the news to see that there were demonstrations
outside the Scientology headquarters over here, and that they suddenly flashed to a clip showing all
these demonstrators wearing V for Vendetta Guy Fawkes masks. That pleased me. That gave me a
warm little glow." (Alan Moore, 2008)

Kenyataan hampir sama turut disuarakan oleh David Lloyd yang telah menghasilkan ilustrasi
dan juga pencipta bersama komik tersebut. Laporan oleh Waites (2011) yang disiarkan dalam BBC
News memetik kenyataan beliau sebagai;
“The Guy Fawkes mask has now become a common brand and a convenient placard to use in protest
against tyranny – and I'm happy with people using it, it seems quite unique, an icon of popular culture
being used this way. My feeling is the Anonymous group needed an all-purpose image to hide their
identity and also symbolise that they stand for individualism - V for Vendetta is a story about one
person against the system. We knew that V was going to be an escapee from aconcentration camp
where he had been subjected to medical experiments but then I had the idea that in his craziness he
would decide to adopt the persona and mission of Guy Fawkes”. (David Lloyd, 2011)

Topeng berwajah Guy Fawkes ini akhirnya menjadi satu ikon popular di seluruh dunia dan
menjadi satu imej visual bagi menggambarkan penentangan terhadap penyelewengan-penyelewangan
yang dilakukan oleh kerajaan atau parti-parti pemerintah di mana-mana negara. Majalah Times (2011)
menyifatkan topeng ini telah terjual sebanyak ratusan ribu unit menjadi top-selling di laman web

Perkara yang sama juga turut berlaku di negara kita Malaysia. Sejak beberapa tahun
kebelakangan ini, kita sering melihat beberapa siri demontrasi secara aman memprotes skandal-
skandal melibatkan kerajaan yang dirasakan zalim, korup dan juga menekan rakyat. Sebagai contoh,
beberapa siri Perhimpunan Bersih yang ditunjangi oleh parti-parti pembangkang dan juga NGO pro-
pembangkang telah dilancarkan dan telah mendapat sambutan yang hangat daripada rakyat. Mereka
yang turut sama dalam perhimpunan dan demonstrasi jalanan ini juga menggunakan topeng Guy
Fawkes ini sebagai salah satu cara atau kaedah untuk menggambarkan ketidakpuasan hati mereka.
Senario ini terbukti melalui beberapa gambar semasa perhimpunan tersebut yang diambil oleh
penyelidik melalui internet seperti dipaparkan di bawah.


Gambar 2 Gambar 3

Gambar 2 & 3: Aksi peserta Perhimpunan Bersih yang mengenakan topeng Guy
Fawkes di Kuala Lumpur.


Gambar 4: Penggunaan topeng Guy Fawkes oleh peserta-peserta Perhimpunan Bersih
di Kuala Lumpur.



Penggunaan bahan sastera dalam penghasilan karya seni visual bukanlah suatu perkara yang
baru. Namun, penyelidikan studio yang dijalankan ini telah berjaya memberikan satu lagi bentuk
pengucapan, pengolahan dan penghayatan bersifat akademik terhadap hasilan sastera rakyat yang
dibimbangi semakin terpinggir. Karya yang telah berjaya dihasilkan sepanjang penyelidikan studio ini
diusahakan merupakan interpretasi penulis terhadap elemen didaktik yang sarat terkandung di dalam
hasilan sastera rakyat. Bentuk hasilan sastera ini bukan hanya berfungsi sebagai medium hiburan,
bahkan begitu sarat dengan unsur-unsur pengajaran. Ibarat menarik rambut dalam tepung, begitulah
bijak dan halusnya cendekiawan Melayu lampau. Menegur dengan cara yang begitu bersahaja.

Elemen-elemen didaktik yang sarat dalam cerita jenaka Melayu telah diterjemahkan semula
dalam bentuk visual dan disesuaikan dengan konteks semasa dan juga permasalahan harian yang
membelenggu masyarakat moden hari ini khususnya dari kalangan bangsa Melayu itu sendiri. Penulis
berharap, isu-isu yang disentuh dan telah disuntik ke dalam karya-karya yang merangkumi konteks
sosial, politik, sejarah dan juga ekonomi dapat memberikan sumbangan ke arah pembinaan budaya dan


masyarakat yang lebih positif. Walaupun hari ini kita hidup dalam suasana moden, namun karektor Pak
Pandir, Si Luncai dan Pak Kadok seringkali dapat kita perhatikan. Tidak kurang pula ada masanya kita
sendiri merasakan bahawa tindakan dan keputusan yang kita ambil seakan-akan mengulangi nasib
malang yang menimpa Si Lebai.

Penulis akan terus menjadikan hasilan kesusasteraan sebagai sumber inspirasi bagi
menghasilkan karya-karya akan datang. Kaedah berkarya yang berteraskan penyelidikan juga telah
mempengaruhi proses-proses pengkaryaan penyelidik di masa hadapan. Penyelidikan studio yang
dijalankan ini turut dilihat sebagai satu usaha memperkayakan lagi karya-karya cetakan di Malaysia.
Karya-karya cetakan dilihat sedikit terpinggir berbanding karya-karya seni visual yang lain seperti
catan, arca dan instalasi yang sering menjadi medium pilihan seniman di dalam menghasilkan karya.
Penyelidikan studio ini juga telah memberikan satu platform kepada penyelidik untuk meneroka konsep
cetakan itu sendiri lebih jauh lagi dan menghasilkan karya-karya yang mencabar ruang lingkup definisi
dan disiplin seni cetakan konvensional di dalam karya-karya penulis yang akan datang. Noyce (2006)
dan Ponirin (1995) menegaskan bahawa amalan seni cetak tidak harus terbelenggu dengan disiplin-
disiplin tradisi dan seniman seni cetak bertanggungjawab untuk mengembangkannya selari dengan
konteks perkembangan zaman.

Namun begitu, keputusan-keputusan yang didapati daripada penyelidikan studio ini bukanlah
sesuatu yang bersifat muktamad. Segala keputusan yang diperolehi oleh penyelidikan studio ini adalah
terhasil daripada keterbatasan sumber dan kepakaran yang dimiliki oleh penyelidik. Ia berupaya untuk
diperhalusi dan diperkembang lagi oleh penyelidik-penyelidik lain selepas ini. Sebagai contoh, gaya,
material dan bentuk karya yang lebih mantap dan berkualiti.

Kesimpulan kepada penyelidikan studio ini, jelas bahawa hasilan sastera rakyat ini mempunyai
potensi tinggi untuk diteroka, diolah dan diterjemahkan kedalam bentuk baru oleh seniman dalam
konteks seni visual. Sebenarnya, hasil kesusasteraan rakyat ini sentiasa bersifat malar segar dan bersedia
untuk dicernakan dalam konteks semasa. Hasil sastera rakyat masih lagi relevan untuk dijadikan bacaan
dan pedoman kehidupan masa kini. Kajian oleh Shamsul Amri Baharudin (2009) memperjelaskan
bahawa sastera klasik Melayu sarat mengandungi falsafah pandangan dunia atau worldview masyarakat
Melayu itu sendiri. Beliau menegaskan bahawa terdapat unsur kepintaran, kebijaksanaan dan kekuatan
yang merentas masa dalam hasil sastera klasik Melayu samada dalam bentuk prosa atau puisi. Kedua-
duanya menggunakan ragam bahasa yang indah, halus dan tertib. Samsul Amri Baharudin (2009)
mengulas lebih lanjut bahawa aspek keindahan ini haruslah dikekalkan dan menjadikannya sebagai
warisan budaya yang mencerminkan nilai intelek yang tinggi dan menjadi kemegahan masyarakat
Melayu itu sendiri. Memandangkan sifat bahan ini yang tidak terikat pada sebarang ‘time frame’, maka
elemen pendidikan dan pengajaran yang digarap daripada hasil kesusasteraan rakyat sebenarnya ini
masih lagi relevan untuk di jadikan cerminan kepada masyarakat moden hari ini. Lantaran, penyelidik
merasakan bahawa penyelidikan ini sedikit sebanyak akan membantu memartabatkan hasil
kesusasteraan rakyat yang semakin terpinggir.

Penyelidik berpendapat bahawa usaha memartabatkan hasilan sastera rakyat ini merupakan
tanggungjawab yang harus dipikul bersama khususnya dikalangan seniman. Begitu juga halnya dalam
konteks seni visual. Kelompok seniman tidak harus bersifat menunggu permintaan dari khalayak,
sebaliknya haruslah sentiasa menawarkan produk untuk dinikmati. Perkara ini harus dilihat sebagai satu
cabaran yang harus didepani agar kedua-dua genre kesenian ini dapat diperkayakan lagi demi
kelangsungannya untuk generasi akan datang.


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Online 30 Jun 2008. Diambil dari
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Azman Ismail, (2007). Sastera Malaysia Semakin Terpinggir. Utusan Malaysia
01/11/2007. Diambil dari 20

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Braiker, B. (2008).‘Anonymous’ Takes On Scientology. NewsWeek p.p. Technology,
NewsWeek Web Services. Diambil dari
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1850, Manchester, Manchester University Press.

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And Processes, London, Laurence King Publishing Ltd.

Gopalan, N. (2008). Q & A: Watchmen Creator Alan Moore. Entertainment Weekly. Diambil
dari pada 8 Jun 2016.

Gopalan, N. (2008). Alan Moore Still Knows The Score. Entertainment Weekly. Diambil
dari pada 8 Jun 2016.

Greenspan, J. (2012). Guy Fawkes Day: A Brief History. A+T Networks.

Harun Mat Piah, Ismail Hamid, Siti Hawa Salleh, Abu Hassan Sham, Abdul Rahman
Kaeh, Jamilah Ahmad, et al. (2002). Kesusasteraan Melayu Tradisional Edisi
Kedua. Kuala Lumpur: Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia.

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Bahasa dan Pustaka, Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia.

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Ismail Yusoff, (2008), Kesusasteraan Melayu Lama dan Baru, Sintok, Universiti Utara

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Edition, USA, SAGE Publication.

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dalam Karya Cetakan Pelukis Malaysia , Jurnal Elektronik Jabatan Bahasa &

Kebudayaan Melayu , jilid 3 (2011) 41-53.

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Yayasan Karyawan.

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or Oral Traditions. Dlm The Brunei Museum, Jurnal 2:4 hlm 159- 164.

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ambil dari pada 14 Februari 2016.

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Knowing Your Clients and What They Really Need. USA: Rockport Publisher

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‘Alternatif Printmaking’. Kuala Lumpur: Balai Seni Visual Negara.

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AFA 2019


24-25 September 2019


Muhammad Khalik Mustafa , Zainuddin Md Nor , Ahmad Fazlan Ahmad Zamri, Lilinieta Talib

1Department of Fashion, Faculty of Art And Design, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Perak Branch
1Department of Fashion, Faculty of Art And Design, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Perak Branch
1Department of Fashion, Faculty of Art And Design, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Perak Branch
1Department of Fashion, Faculty of Art And Design, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Perak Branch

[email protected]

Abstract- When we talk about attire, what come into our mind are our clothes and dresses. The beauty and the
development of the attire are fascinating and endless. The definition of clothing given by the Oxford Advanced
Learner’s Dictionary is things worn to cover a person’s body. It is a material made by weaving and worn by
people as a symbol of their profession. The Malay Costumes was much said in most the Malay Literature books
such as the Sejarah Melayu. For The local Malay people, their customary attire consists of sarung , baju and
destar for men where as for the ladies, their customary attire is Baju Kurung, Sarung and Selendang.The
collection of this attire such as baju kurung can be an identity to the Malaysian culture. In the world of
globalization the influence in fashion makes these changes give an impact to the design of these famous
traditional dresses. The objectives of the research are to study the transformation of kurung base on design cutting
and how they are displayed as a modern design. The finding of the research will reveal the changes on baju
kurung and the differences between the previous baju kurung.

Keywords: identity, influence, Baju Kurung, traditional dresses


Transformation involved a process of changes where the product produced is definitely
different from the original. When the elements from other countries are being used and merged into the
existing attire then the transformation is said to have taken place. Baju Melayu are worn by Malay men.
It’s being matched with the trousers such as “seluar potong Aceh” and more and some will matched
with “kain Pelikat”. These kinds of clothes can be seen nowadays worn during the Friday prayers,
wedding celebration and Raya Festival. For the Malay women, the traditional costumes which are most
widely worn are the “sarung” and “baju kurung”. “Baju kurung” quite like the “baju Melayu”. Its
simple knee-length blouses worn over a long skirt pleated at the side. The outfit is completed with a
selendang or tudung around the shoulders or on the head. Baju kurung too can be matched with kain
songket, batik or even pelikat.


The originality of baju kurung cannot be preserved.


The purpose of the study is to make comparison between the past and present Malay traditional costume
that is Baju kurung.



The study will focus on making comparison on the outlook of the past and present of baju kurung.


Changes in the Malay attire are being influenced by the trends of fashion from others countries.


Leather, leaves According to the archaeologist and anthropologist, the earliest clothing
probably consisted of fur, leather, leaves or grass, draped, wrapped or tied about the body for protection
from the elements. Some human cultures, such as the various people of the Arctic Circle, until recently
made clothing entirely of preplaced leather and skins with cloth: woven, knitted, or twined from various
animals and vegetable fibers. In the thousands of years that humans have spent constructing clothing,
they have created an astonishing array of style, many of which we can reconstruct surviving garments,
photos, painting, mosaics, as well as from written descriptions. Costume history serves as a source of
inspiration to current fashion designers, as well as a topic of professional interest to costumers
constructing for plays film, television and historical re-enactment.


The Malacca Empire was enjoying its heydays during the 15th to the 16th century until the
Portuguese conquered Malacca in 1511. It was the strongest empire in the region then stretching from
Sumatra in the south to Thailand in the north, and was a center of entre port trade, with traders from
India, China, Middle East and Europe coming and sailing to trade there. With the influx of foreigners
to Malacca, they also brought with them their own fashion style. These eventually influenced the Malay
Attire, which combined the flowing loose fitting styles of the Arabs and Indians, trousers and pants of
the Mongols and the Turks, with the simplicity and elegance of the Europeans. And the ‘Malay Baju
Melayu” was born. During the late twentieth century, fashion began to crisscross international
boundaries with rapidity. Popular western styles were adopted all over the world and many designers
from outside of the west had profound impact on fashion.


It is said that costumes of the ordinary Malays in the olden days are simple dresses, but as times
progress the attire evolved and became more sophisticated, while the wearer become more discerning
in their fashion taste. For instance, Chinese chronicles described the attire of the Malay in the 13th
century for both male and female as covering only the bottom part of the body, with no cloth to cover
the upper body.

Later, tunics which are simple cover all that are either short sleeve or sleeveless, were said to
be the main attire of the Malays. And the pants or trousers worn were mostly in the Aceh cut fashion
style and the trousers just below the knee. The women folks, on the other hand, normally wear sarongs
in the “berkemban” style that is by wrapping a piece of sarong around the body covering the chest.
However with the growth of trade and the importance of the silk route in China, traders crossed the
Malay Archipelago from the Arabian Archipelago and India to China by ships to sell their products.
And these ships stopped at the ports and villages along the coasts of the Malay Archipelago that
bloomed into trading posts in South East Asia. Goods from China, India, Middle East and European
countries were traded here. And the foreign traders not only brought with them goods for sale and barter,
but also unique dressings and fashion style.

The Malay were therefore influenced and exposed to various fashions and costumes from
various countries early in the civilized state, and these foreigners have influenced greatly the evolution
of the traditional Malay costumes and dress. And when the Malacca Empire was at its height in the
1400’s with Islam as main religion, the Malay traditional costume the baju kurung was born as clearly
described in the Sejarah Melayu or “Malay Annals”. When they become more civilized with the


adoption of Islam as their religion, the Malays slowly covered their bodies according to the tenets and
teachings of Islam.

The main difference between this two fashion styles is the cutting style at the neck. Where the

Teluk Belanga style has no collar and the neckline is stitched in the style known as tulang belut. On the
other hand the Cekak Musang style has a standing collar with holes for five button including two buttons
for the collar. The Cekak Musang shirt also normally has three pockets- two at the bottom and the one
at the upper left breast. The teluk Belanga shirt normally has only two pockets both at the bottom.

Figure 1: Baju Kurung Teluk Belanga Source Busana Melayu , Zubaidah Sual


Figure 2: Baju Kurung Cekak Musang source from Rupa dan Gaya by Azah Aziz

The baju kurung is not just merely a dress or costume, but knowingly or unknowingly when

wearing it, the Malays follow certain traditional practices and ethics. The baju kurung cekak musang
shirt is opened at the front from the neck up to the middle of the chest with five buttons, two at the
collar or neck area and the other three for the upper body. This is the traditional cut and is of significance
for the fact that the Malays follow the Islamic faith and the number of buttons on the symbol the five
pillars of Islam.

In the case of Baju kurung Teluk belanga, it has no collar and there is only one button or a
kancing that used strap the shirt at the neck. Having one button symbolically signifies the only one God
or Allah worshipped by the Malay Muslims. Another ethical concept is that the baju kurung as a fashion
style, the whole dress from shirt to the trousers is loose fitting, so as to fit with the usage of the costume
for Islamic prayers when bending and sitting are required.

Baju kurung is loose fitting and it is very comfortable to wear in the hot and humid weather of
the equatorial climate. It is also look smart on fat or pregnant ladies. The baju kurung also fits and
conforms to the Islamic requirement to enclose the body except the face and the hands and that the
clothes should not be tight and body hugging as to show the outlines of the wearer body.


Figure 3: Baju Kurung Cekak Musang with Dagang Luar style (Samping) sourse from Busana Melayu,
Zubaidah Shual

11.1 Pattern Baju Kurung By Azah Aziz

Figure 4: Technical drawing by Azaz Aziz source Rupa dan Gaya
According to Azah Aziz, the design and cutting of Baju Kurung Teluk Belangan are the same for men
and women. Both dresses consist of body, arm, kekek and the pesak. The only difference is the length
of the dress where length of the ladies is much longer than the men. For the lady, the length is up to the


knee where as for men, it is below the hip. The bottom line of the dress is cut straight but curved a little
bit towards the centre. Formerly, baju kurung teluk belanga has no pocket but for wearer convenience,
one pocket has pasted either on the left side of the dress just above the waist line or at the left pesak of
the dress. The use of the pocket is one of the influences from the Indian community that has migrated
to Malaya. The cutting of the neck is circular (shape of a full moon) with a slit bout 12 centimetres or
5 inches long.
11.2 Pattern Of Baju Kurung By Zubaidah Sual

Figure 5 : Technical drawing by zubaidah Sual
Baju kurung Teluk Belanga according to Zubaidah Sual consists of body, arm, pesak, kekek and the
pokets. The length of the dress and the cutting of the neck line is the same as mentioned by Azah Aziz
above with one exception that the neck line is being stitched with “tulang belut” style with two small
loops where a beautiful pin or button is placed through the loops to close and tighten up the neck of the
dress. Baju Kurung Teluk Belanga for men has three pockets. A smaller one is pasted on the upper left
side of the chest while the other two of the same size is pasted at the lowers part of the dress about a
few centimetres apart. For the ladies, the pocket is only one and being pasted at the left pesak of the
dress and pocket is called the pocket Benggali or pocket Bai, influence from the migration of the Punjabi
to Malaya.



Figure 6: Transformation of Baju Kurung through Innovation and Outside Influences.

This survey was done on 100 respondents to see the acceptance of sociaty towards the
transformation of traditional kurungs. The result show that about 36%of the respondents accepts the
transformation of the traditional kurungs. On the other hands about 14% disgreed on the transformation
of traditional kurungs. This results also include the rationale and reson by the respondents on why they
agree or disagree on the transformation of trditional kurungs.

The analyisi is taken from the individual views who were asked regarding this matter on the society’s
view on he transformation of traditional kurungs.

12.1 Agree with the transformation of traditional kurungs.

About 36% agreed with the transformation of traditional kurungs and the rationale is as follow:

The transformation of traditional kurungs are able to attract the interest of non-Malays to wear it.
Besides that, it can also attract more interest for people to wear it as it has been given a new life which
suitable for today. Apart from that, some of the respondents suggested that unless the traditional kurungs
are given a new life, it has the possibility to be forgotten in time and outdated when compare to more
updated western-influenced and current clothing. Beside that, the modernization and the ever-changing
fashion industries is rapidly which prefer to be mobile. Other traditional costume such as frm China or
india and other countries have given the influences to international designers who had innovated these

Other than that, these changes had contributed towards a positive side in which the development in
terms the culture of wearing kurungs. This is to ensure that there are possibilities to go further in the
fashion industries. These well as following the current trends. The changes can also promote a more
positive view of malaysian society so that they will not get bored with the traditional patterns which
some people consider as too straight with no shape at all.

There are few opinion which claim that traditional kurung is inappropriate for several occasions such
as a daily outfit and to move freely. From 100 respondents who gave their views, a few of them claimed
that fashion trend should be updated however still maintain the traditional characteristic. This situation
is suitable with current trends where a noted international fashion designer who create a renovation
spring/summer collection inspired by traditional japanese costume and transformed it into a new and
creative collection that year.

Other views given by the respondants are, these changes is for the better which can be the pride of
Malaysia as well as able to bring foward our traditional costumes to the international lavel. As most


people know, the kurungs are somewhat similar to that of Indonesian clothings. For that, Malaysia
kurungs should be exposed to the world. The changes in traditional kurung as shown in the survey are
the reformation that showed boldness in the styling of kurungs. This is can also encourage the designer
to think creatively in sketching clothes with kurung style. It also shows that there is change in providing
customers with variety for this clothing to make it more partical nowadays.

The views and opinion gathered from this survey clearly shows tahat the people openheartedly accept
the changes in kurung. However, it also needs to make sure that these changes do not obey the ethics
of wearing these clothing. The traditional characteristic should be preserved because these clothing is
very special full with eastern traditions and politeness with more esthetic values compared to western

12.2 Disagree with the transformation of kurungs.

About 14% do not agree with the transformation of kurungs. The rationale is as follow:

Most respondents think that the changes done on kurung by modernizing the clothing would tarnish the
esthetic values. This is because kurung are traditional costume which have high graceful value in which
tarnished with western influences. These changes can also disrupt the uniqueness of the traditional
kurungs where the original style and ways to wear them got lost compared with the original form. This
will cause the Malay identity with customs and gracefulness lost its touch.

There is an opinion which said that the changes done will make Malay’s values to disappear. These
malay values hold on the gracefulness and in covering up. As most people know, the history of kurungs
had taken a lot of influence from Arabian culture with islamic values. When the changes occurred, it
can be seen that the islamic values of covering up had gone. When looking at today’s society, most
youngdesigners raced to create contemporary attire based on traditional clothing. However, these
changed clothing do not show the real identity of kurung. There is also a view which said that these
clothing dominate the traditional custumes towards a negative side.

A lot of views said that the changes done on the kurungs caused the Malay originality to disappear. As
most people know, kurungs have high graceful values which show the specialty of Malay itself. From
this survey, its clearly showns that respondents claimed that kurung are true identity of Malaysian
society, with these changes; it can cause the pride of the society of Mlaly ethics will be lost.


As conclusion, even though the changes on the cutting and the way they are displayed nowadays, the
transformation did not changes the orgin of baju kurungs as Malaysian unique identity. These Malay
traditional clothes symbolize the Malay fashion collection which received ne touch so that they will be
acceptable in the modern life now. Modern touch or design on the traditional concept will not make
kurungs outdated but they become compatible with the new fashion nowadays.


Abbas Alias and Norwani MD Nawawi. (2006), Pakaian Melayu Sepanjang Zaman, Dewan Bahasa
Dan Pustaka.

Abdul Latiff abu Bakar & Mohd Nefi Imran, (2004)Busana Melayu Serumpun, , Institut Seni Malaysia

Azah Aziz. (2006) Rupa dan Gaya, Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Hasri Ali. (2012,July) Kurung Raya Ciptaan Micheal Shu, from World Wide Web:

Hamizah Badiran.(2011, October) Manfaat 22 Tahun Pengalaman. Harian Metro


Harian Metro, Variasi, Noriah idris, Padanan Fesyen Lama, Gaya Semasa, Jumaat 13 Feruary

Mohd Said Sulaiman, Pakai Patut Melayu, 2008, Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Bangi.
Simon Seivewright .(2007) Basics Fashion Design 01: Research and Design, AVA Publishing.
Siti Zainon Ismail, Pakaian Cara Melayu, 2009,Penerbit Universiti Kebagsaan Malaysia Bangi.
Siti Zarinah Sahib (2012, December) Inspirasi Baju Kurung Kedah, Harian Metro. From world Wide

Zubaidah Shawal, Busana Melayu, 1994, Percetakan Rina Sdn. Bhd.
Zubaidah Sual, Busana Melayu Bermula Dari Melaka, 2004, Institut seni Malaysia.


AFA 2019


24-25 September 2019



Liang Zhiyin 1* (Liang Zhiyin)

1Department of Fashion and Textile Design, Academy of Art and Design, Tsinghua Univerisity, China

[email protected] *

Abstract - With the development of the art forms, the art forms aren’t limited to the single form of easel painting,
but gradually create more forms. The modern fiber art, as a young and energetic expression of fiber and textile
material art in the contemporary artworks, has a rich form of expression and is a popular art carrier for
contemporary artists to express their views and values. Fiber material, as one of the most common art material,
has a rich material language, a wide range of technological means, and shows its effect on the expression of art
theme. With the change of artistic ideas and transformational creation, fiber art transformed gradually into
conceptual art from the original art. As one of the most common themes in modern fiber art, the conceptual
expression research of “life” has certain universality and representativeness. The paper Conceptual Expressions
of Modern Fiber Art takes modern fiber art as the subject of study, focus on the conceptual expression research
of modern fiber art and combines with its expressing content and artistic form. The paper takes the theme of life
as an example, analyzing the artistic material, expressing meaning and representation form base on the existing
modern fiber artworks.

Keywords - Modern Fiber Art, Design Expression, Concept, Life


1.1 Research Background

As a new art form developed from the old handicraft, fiber art has gradually bloomed into a
conceptual art form from the primary art of decoration with the enhancement of science, technology
and ideology. For the past few years, lots artists have incorporated personal emotions and concepts
into modern design, making artistic design submit to inner activities and the artistic expression of
design further deepens the transmission of artistic ideas in works. Looking at the “international fiber
art biennale”, the fiber artworks in recent years have gradually converted from the discovery of
traditional craft into the expression of ideas. When artists create works, they gradually separate from
the expression of single craft skills, making the expression form of works subordinate to the expression
of the main idea of works.

1.2 Research Value

Life as the eternal theme of mankind, people have never stopped exploring life. In different
domains, humans have carried out various levels of exploration and study in life. In the field of art, a
lot of artists present their feelings and ideas on “life” in the way of artistic creation. In particular, under
the existing general trend of conceptual expression of fiber art, “life” has become one of the most
popular themes in artists’ works. As a common way of existence, everybody has different
comprehensions and feelings, from which specific cultural phenomena have been formed. And these
specific cultural phenomena are reprocessed by artists and presented in artistic works.


The conceptual study of fiber artworks owns academic and cultural value. After sorting out and
studying the works, we can observe the development of modern fiber art, learn about the specific
expression of concepts in modern fiber art, and supply the theoretical foundation for the expression of
modern fiber art. In aspects of practical value, studying the concept expression of modern fiber art can
dig out more possibilities of combining people’s ideological form with the expression form of fiber
art, which has reference meaning for the enhancement of modern fiber art in the future.

1.3 Research Status

There are some books on fiber art in China, but compared with other art disciplines, the range
of research is still to be extended. Most literature works focus on the history of fiber art, the techniques
of fiber art expression and the expression of fiber art ideas to conduct the discussion.

1.3.1 Research Status of Fiber Art History

As a subject of the same kind as the textile art, fiber art history is interwoven and integrated
with the development of textile art. In some publications about the history of fiber art, depending on
the various geographical environments, the editors have carried out a study on the history of traditional
fiber history in the context of Chinese ancient fiber history and world ancient fiber history. For
instance, In the “Fiber Art History” (Zhang & Lan, 2006) by Zhang Yizhuang and Lan Suming, the
records of the history of fiber art in ancient China are divided into four modules according to the craft
types: Chinese silk, tapestry, Chinese embroidery and Chinese carpet. In the history of world classical
fiber art, “Fiber Art History” (Zhang & Lan, 2006), is divided into 12 chapters including the Inca
fabric, the Indian yarn tie-dyed fabric, the Persian fabric, the Mediterranean fabric art, the Byzantine
fabric and the Islamic carpet according to different geographical distribution and types of crafts in
different historical times.

At present, some artists and scholars exist a dispute on the birth of modern fiber art. Some
people consider that modern fiber art originated before or after the arts and crafts movement, and some
people think that the holding of “Lausanne International Biennale of Tradition and Modern Tapestry”
makes the real meaning transformation from traditional fiber art to modern fiber art. In the book “Fiber
Art history” (Zhang & Lan, 2006), Zhang Yizhuang and Lan Suming begin from the art and craft
movement and tell the origin and blossom of modern fiber art under the impact of Art Nouveau
movement and Bauhaus era. The editor takes “Lausanne International Biennale of Tapestry” as the
mainline to log the variation and development of modern fiber art form.

1.3.2 Research Status of Fiber Art Forms
In addition to the study on the history of fiber art, the current scholars and artists have extensive

discovery and discussion on the performance skills of modern fiber art. At the moment, there is rich
domestic literature on the expression forms of fiber art in China, most of which are elaborated from
the formal languages such as the structure and form of fiber art, the application of materials and
weaving techniques. For example, in “Fiber Art” (Lin & Wang, 2006), in the two chapters of “Fiber
Material Techniques and Production Procedures” and “Creativity and Expression of Fiber Art”, Lin
Lecheng and Wang Kai take fiber artworks as instances to study and summarize the expression forms
of modern fiber art from the terms of material language, spatial form and art techniques. In the
“Production and Appreciation of Modern Fiber Art” (Zhou, Zhou & Chen,2008) compiled by Zhou
Xiaoou, Zhou Xiaoxin and Chen Yanyan, the editor begins with various fiber artworks and introduces
the procedure and method of making each work.

1.3.3 Research Status of Fiber Art Concept
Most studies on the conceptual nature of fiber art are conducted in the form of essays, and few

works are available. A few works, such as Gong Jianpei’s “The Originality and Display of Fiber Art”
(Gong, 2007), have more elaborate discussions on this. In the book, the editor states the expression of
artistic presentation form to ideology from the two aspects of creative material and expressive meaning
of fiber art. Fiber, as an eye by Ma Fenghui and Shi Hui, researches the different ideas and connotations
expressed in modern fiber artworks one by one through the presentation of fiber artists and their works.


In academic papers, for instance, Wang Yazhu’s master’s thesis of Shanxi University comes up with
his own opinions on “The Local Development of Modern Conceptual Fiber Art” (Wang, 2012).

1.4 Research Contents and Methods

This article investigates the convey of the concept of modern fiber art and discusses the
feasibility of combining the artistic idea with the form of expression. Besides, the integration between
the artist concept and modern fiber art is discussed and analyzed from the sides of case analysis,
material sorting, semantic expression and composing form, to look for the expression disciplines
between works. In terms of study methods, it mainly applies literature research method, inductive
analysis, works case investigation method, personal practice, etc., to carry out research and discussion
on the conceptual expression of modern fiber art. In this article, the concept of modern fiber art is
defined on the basis of previous literature. At the same time, with the development history of concept
art as the clue, analyzing the conceptual expression of modern fiber art. Moreover, the article takes the
fiber artworks in the past 20 years as examples, studies the concept expression and expression methods
of the works, and explores the unity of the expression form and concept of the fiber artworks.


2.1 Concepts of Modern Fiber Art

Modern fiber art is a new art form developed from the ancient weaving techniques, even
though at the beginning of the formation, modern fiber art has been questioned by some artists and
scholars as an independent art subject. However, after constantly exploration and discovery by artists,
the academic concept and theoretical system of modern fiber art gradually become mature. The idea
of “fiber art” is gradually enriched and full, extending a deeper semantics from the primary definition
of “An art form with fiber as material”. In “Fiber art” (Lin & Wang, 2006) finished by Lin Lecheng
and Wang kai, the editors define fiber art as “An art form that uses weaving, knotting, winding,
stitching and other ways to create images of flat, three-dimensional and spatial installations”1. In the
book “The Originality and Display of Fiber Art” (Gong, 2007), Gong Peijian from art feature to
understand “fiber art “, “the artist takes the broad sense of fiber material as the key creation medium,
depends on the traditional textile technology, takes the modern artistic concept as the orientation, is
far away from the traditional practical observation, and has a strong conceptual, experimental,
participatory, comprehensive and modern aesthetic characteristics of a new art form.”2

2.2 Characteristics of Modern Fiber Art

With the development of modern technology and ideology, fiber art is divided from the initial
decorative art, on the one hand, is the inheritance of traditional crafts, on the other hand, is the
exploration of modern art. In the modernization procedure of fiber art, it gradually transfers the
emphasis of expression from decorative into ideological, from practical to artistic.

Compared with modern fiber art, traditional fiber art pays more attention to the decorative and
practical expression of works. Decoration refers to the beautification function of fiber artworks on the
ambient environment. A decorative fiber product can delight people’s mood and make a comfortable
space atmosphere. The close relationship between fiber art and architecture can fit different
architectural manners and requirements, displaying great significance in dressing up space
atmosphere, coordinating people and environmental connection.

With the awakening of self-consciousness of modern artists and designers, the pure aesthetic
expression can no more satisfy the expression demands of their products. Under the impact of
conceptual art, the application of modern fiber art with concept as the expression key point comes into
being. In the late 1930s, the increasingly fiber artists projected their emotions and thoughts into their

1 Lin, L.C. & Wang, K. (2006). Fiber Art, China: Shanghai Pictoria Press, p2
2 Gong, P.J. (2007). The Orginality and Display of Fiber Art, China: Southwest Normal University press, p5


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