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DK Children’s Encyclopedia ( PDFDrive )

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DK Children’s Encyclopedia ( PDFDrive )

DK Children’s Encyclopedia ( PDFDrive )

Children’s

ENCYCLOPEDIA



Children’s

ENCYCLOPEDIA

The book that explains everything

Senior editor Lizzie Davey Experts
Senior designers Joanne Clark, Jim Green
Editorial Anwesha Dutta, Satu Fox, Marie Greenwood, Simon Adams has written and Phil Hunt has written, edited, and
Jolyon Goddard, Radhika Haswani, Deborah Lock, contributed to more than 80 books on acted as consultant on a wide range
Ishani Nandi, Sam Priddy, Allison Singer, Kathleen Teece, a wide range of topics: from history to of travel and transportation
Shambavi Thatte, Megan Weal, Amina Youssef the arts and politics. illustrated reference books and
US editorial Karyn Gerhard, Shannon Beatty magazines for adults and children.
Design Ann Cannings, Rhea Gaughan, Rashika Kachroo, Peter Bond has written 12 books and
Shipra Jain, Anthony Limerick, Fiona Macdonald, Nidhi Mehra, contributed to, or edited, many more. Sawako Irie has taught the
Bettina Myklebust Stovne, Seepiya Sahni, Victoria Short, He also writes for the European Japanese language at the
Space Agency and is consultant University of Sheffield and has
Lucy Sims, Mohd Zishan editor for IHS Jane’s Space Systems & run training programs at SOAS
Educational consultants Jacqueline Harris, Industry. He was formerly a press University of London. Currently,
officer for the Royal Astronomical she provides Japanese cultural
Christina Catone Society. and language services.
DTP designers Vijay Kandwal, Vikram Singh
Dr. Marina Brozovic is a physicist at Klint Janulis is a former US Army
Jacket designer Amy Keast NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. She Special Forces operator, medic, and
Jacket coordinator Francesca Young has written many research papers, primitive skills survival instructor.
and works on asteroids, satellites of He provides expert information to
Picture researcher Sakshi Saluja the giant planets, and was involved in the UK television show 10000 BC
Managing editors Laura Gilbert, Alka Thakur Hazarika the New Horizons mission to Pluto. and is currently completing an
Managing art editors Diane Peyton Jones, Romi Chakraborty archeological Doctoral program
Peter Chrisp is an author of children’s at Oxford University.
Production manager Pankaj Sharma history books, with over 80 titles to
Pre-production producer Nikoleta Parasaki his name. He specializes in ancient Rupert Matthews has written
Rome, ancient Greece, and myths and more than 170 books about history.
Producer Isabell Schart legends. He writes for newspapers and
Art director Martin Wilson magazines, and is a public speaker
Emily Dodd is a screenwriter for the at events and in schools.
Publisher Sarah Larter CBeebies science television show
Publishing director Sophie Mitchell Nina and the Neurons. She is Sean McArdle was a headteacher
passionate about science, wildlife, and primary school educator,
Design director Philip Ormerod and storytelling, and is an author of specializing in math. He has written
fiction and nonfiction books. and contributed to many publications
First American Edition, 2017 and mathematics websites.
Published in the United States by DK Publishing James Floyd Kelly is a writer from
345 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014 Atlanta, Georgia. He has written over Dr. Angela McDonald is an
35 books on a range of subjects that Egyptologist based at the Centre for
Copyright © 2017 Dorling Kindersley Limited include 3-D printing, robotics, and Open Studies at the University of
DK, a Division of Penguin Random House LLC coding. Glasgow. She has a PhD from Oxford
University, and is an expert on
17 18 19 20 21 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 E.T. Fox is an author and historian, Egyptian texts. She led tours to Egypt
001-298820-Oct/2017 with particular expertise in the areas for many years, and has published
of British and Atlantic maritime books and articles on ancient Egypt.
All rights reserved. history and piracy, among others.
Without limiting the rights under the copyright reserved above, no part of this He is a lecturer, has published books Bill McGuire is an academic,
publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or and articles, and has advised on broadcaster, and popular science
transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, numerous television productions. and fiction writer. He is currently
recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of the copyright owner. Professor Emeritus of Geophysical
Kirsten Geekie is a film programmer and Climate Hazards at University
Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited. and writer specializing in short films College London.
and cinema for young people. She is
A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. the Film Programming Manager at Marcus Weeks is a musician and
ISBN 978-1-4654-6207-7 Into Film, co-curator of the Into Film author. As well as contributing to
Festival, and was the lead writer of numerous reference books, he has
DK books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk for sales the Children's Book of the Movies. written several books on philosophy,
promotions, premiums, fund-raising, or educational use. For details, contact: psychology, and music.
DK Publishing Special Markets, 345 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014 Cat Hickey is the learning manager
at ZSL Whipsnade Zoo. She has
[email protected] worked in zoos for eight years and
spent a year working as a research
Printed and bound in Hong Kong scientist in Madagascar, collecting
data on lemurs.
All images © Dorling Kindersley Limited
For further information see: www.dkimages.com Dr. Emily Hunt is a professor of
engineering at West Texas A&M
A WORLD OF IDEAS: University. She has a background in
SEE ALL THERE IS TO KNOW mechanical engineering, with a
particular interest in innovative
www.dk.com nanotechnology.

Contents Aztecs 35
Bicycles 36
How this book works 10 Big Bang 37
Biology 38
Africa 12 Birds 39
Aircraft 13 Black holes 40
American West 14 Body cells 41
Amphibians 15 The story of storytelling 42
Ancient China 16 Books 44
Ancient Egypt 17 Brain 45
Ancient Greece 18 Bridges 46
Ancient India 19 Bronze Age 47
Ancient Rome 20 Buildings 48
Animal families 21 Carbon cycle 49
Animal groups 22 The story of the changing world 50
Animal homes 23 Cars 52
Antarctica 24 Castles 53
Arctic 25 Cats 54
The story of color 26 Caves 55
Art 28 Cells 56
Asia 29 Changing states 57
Asteroids 30 Chemistry 58
Astronauts 31 Circuits 59
Astronomy 32 Climate change 60
Atmosphere 33 Clocks 61
Atoms 34 The story of clothing 62
Clouds 64

Coding 65 Europe 94
The story of codes 66 Evolution 95
Comets 68 Explorers 96
Communication 69 Factories 97
Compass 70 Farming 98
Computers 71 Feelings 99
Conservation 72 Film 100
Constellations 73 Fish 101
Coral reefs 74 Flags 102
Crafts 75 Flowers 103
Dance 76 The story of eating 104
Day and night 77 Food 106
Deserts 78 Food chains 107
Digestion 79 Forces 108
Dinosaurs 80 Forests 109
Dogs 81 Fossil fuels 110
Early humans 82 Fossils 111
Earth 83 Fractions 112
Earth’s surface 84 French Revolution 113
Earthquakes 85 Friction 114
Eggs 86 Fruit and seeds 115
Electricity 87 Galaxies 116
The story of energy 88 Gases 117
Elements 90 Gems 118
Engineering 91 Genes 119
Engines 92 The story of water 120
Erosion 93 Glaciers 122

Governments 123 Magnets 151
Grasslands 124 The story of pets 152
Gravity 125 Mammals 154
Habitats 126 Maps 155
Hearing 127 Mars 156
Heart 128 Materials 157
Hibernation 129 Maya 158
Human body 130 Measuring 159
Imperial Japan 131 Medicine 160
Incas 132 Mercury 161
Industrial Revolution 133 Metals 162
Insects 134 Metamorphosis 163
Inside Earth 135 Meteorites 164
The story of inventions 136 Microscopic life 165
Internet 138 Migration 166
Invertebrates 139 Milky Way 167
Iron Age 140 Mixtures 168
Jupiter 141 Money 169
Knights 142 Monkeys and apes 170
Lakes 143 Moon 171
Language 144 Mountains 172
Law 145 Muscles 173
Life cycle 146 Mushrooms 174
Light 147 Musical instruments 175
Liquids 148 The story of music 176
Lungs 149 Myths and legends 178
Machines 150 Native Americans 179

The story of exploration 180 Reptiles 210
Navigation 182 Rivers 211
Neptune 183 Robots 212
North America 184 Rock cycle 213
Numbers 185 Rocks and minerals 214
Oceania 186 Satellites 215
Oceans and seas 187 Saturn 216
Orchestra 188 Science 217
Philosophy 189 The story of the sciences 218
Photography 190 Seashore 220
Photosynthesis 191 Seasons 221
Physics 192 Shapes 222
Pirates 193 Sharks 223
Plants 194 Ships 224
Plastic 195 Sickness 225
Pluto 196 Sight 226
Polar habitats 197 Sinking and floating 227
Pollution 198 Skeleton 228
Precious metals 199 Skin 229
The story of gold 200 Slavery 230
Prehistoric life 202 Sleep 231
Radio 203 Smell 232
Rain forests 204 Solar system 233
Recycling 205 Solids 234
The story of festivals 206 Sound 235
Religion 208 South America 236
Renaissance 209 Space travel 237

Spiders 238 Volcanoes 268
Sports 239 Volume 269
The story of games 240 Water cycle 270
Stars 242 Weather 271
Stone Age 243 The story of school 272
The story of homes 244 Work 274
Storms 246 World 275
Sun 247 World War I 276
Symmetry 248 World War II 277
Taste 249 The story of war 278
Telephone 250 Writing 280
Television 251 Zoo 281
Temperature 252
Theater 253 Reference 282
Tides 254 Glossary 294
Time zones 255 Index 298
Touch 256 Acknowledgments 304
Trade 257
The story of transportation 258
Trains 260
Trees 261
Turkish Empire 262
Universe 263
Uranus 264
Venus 265
Vertebrates 266
Vikings 267

How this book works

Ever wonder what a planet is? Do you know the difference between frogs
and toads? Every page in this encyclopedia is packed with fun facts and amazing
photographs. Dive right in or jump to a page that catches your eye to discover
all about our wonderful world. The helpful tips here will guide you through
using this book.

Alphabetical pages See also

The book’s pages are arranged If you enjoy reading a page, you can use the
alphabetically. You can look up topics “see also” box to find similar pages in the book
using the contents list, which starts and see where they are. This lets you make links
on page four, or flip through the across topics and subject areas and create your
pages in whichever order you like. own journey through the encyclopedia.

Amphibians SEE ALSO In the “see also” box, Follow the suggestions
▸▸ Eggs p.86 “p.” stands for page in the “see also” box to
Amphibians are animals that spend their lives in and and “pp.” for pages. get to related topics
around water. They hatch in water from eggs. As they ▸▸ Water pp.120–121 elsewhere in the book.
grow they develop lungs that let them breathe on land.
Amphibian skin must always be wet, so they stay close ▸▸ Invertebrates
to water. There are three main groups of amphibian. p.139

▸▸ Metamorphosis
p.163

▸▸ Reptiles p.210

▸▸ Skin p.229

Newts and salamanders Caecilians Forever young Metamorphosis SEE ALSO Reptiles SEE ALSO
▸▸ Amphibians p.15 ▸▸ Amphibians p.15
These long-tailed amphibians can Though they look Axolotls are unusual, Some animals go through amazing changes between birth ▸▸ Animal groups Reptiles are scaly-skinned, cold-blooded animals. Most ▸▸ Antarctica p.24
replace injured body parts by growing like worms, caecilians because they stay in water and adulthood. Their appearance changes so much that reptiles lay soft, leathery eggs. A baby reptile grows inside ▸▸ Deserts p.78
new ones. An eye, leg, or tail takes (se-sill-yens) are amphibians. all their lives. They keep their fully grown shape is completely different to the p.22 the egg and then, when it’s ready, breaks its way out. ▸▸ Dinosaurs p.80
just weeks to replace. They live underwater or in their tadpole-like fins and newborn one. This process is called metamorphosis. ▸▸ Eggs p.86 There are four main groups of reptile. ▸▸ Eggs p.86
underground burrows on land. feathery gills even as ▸▸ Insects p.134 ▸▸ Evolution p.95
Bright yellow markings an adult. ▸▸ Life cycle p.146 ▸▸ Sun p.247
warn attackers that the fire
salamander is poisonous. Birth of a butterfly 2. Caterpillar All reptiles have Some lizards
Becoming a beautiful butterfly is a A hungry caterpillar scaly skin. can move their
long process involving many stages emerges from the egg. eyes to look in
and different forms. The process It eats leaves and begins two directions
takes between a month and a year. to grow. Although it at once.
starts life small, the
Congo caecilian caterpillar develops Metamorphosis
quickly. is a Greek word

Fire salamander meaning
“change in
Frogs and toads
shape.”
The most common group
of amphibians includes Large, bulging Axolotl 1. Eggs 3. Chrysalis Lizards
frogs and toads. Frogs are eyes help toads Butterflies start out as tiny The caterpillar wraps These reptiles have many skills.
usually wetter, smaller, and and frogs to see Amphibians can eggs, laid on plants. The itself in a protective layer This chameleon can change the
smoother than toads. in all directions. breathe through size, shape, and color of the called a chrysalis. Inside, color of its skin. Other reptiles can
their skin. egg depends on the type of the caterpillar completely run up walls, or break off their tails
butterfly. changes its body shape. to escape danger.

The chrysalis is Tortoises have
attached to a hard shells.
branch or leaf.
Frogspawn Tortoises Crocodiles Crocodiles and
Tadpole 4. Butterfly and turtles and alligators alligators have
Once the changes are Turtles live in water These giant reptiles have strong jaws.
complete, a butterfly and tortoises live on existed since before dinosaurs.
emerges from the the land. Their shells They hide under water, then Basking
chrysalis. In a few hours, protect them, but are spring up to catch their prey
the butterfly can fly, and heavy, so they move and drag it under. Reptiles are cold-blooded
the life cycle begins again. very slowly out animals. They get the heat
of the water. their bodies need from the
Adult frog Reptiles live on world around them, lying in
every continent the sunshine to warm up.
They hide in the shade to keep
except Antarctica. themselves from overheating.

Toads have dry, bumpy Green tree frog Froglet The chrysalis
skin, unlike frogs that is left empty.
have wet, smooth skin. Becoming a frog
The wings need to
The life cycle of a frog has many stages. A female dry out before the Snakes
lays many eggs, called frogspawn, usually in butterfly can fly. All snakes swallow their prey
water. These hatch into tiny tadpoles with gills for whole. They smell using their
Webbed feet on the breathing. Tadpoles grow bigger and develop legs. tongues. Some snakes have
back legs help frogs Over a few more weeks, a froglet loses its tail, poisonous bites, but most
and toads to swim grows a frog’s tongue, and becomes an adult. are not dangerous to people.
in water.
163 210

Oriental fire-bellied toad The color at the top and bottom of
15 the page shows which type of subject
the page is about. This turquoise color
shows that the amphibians page is
about nature (see below).

Subject areas Art People History Earth Nature Science Technology Space Human

The encyclopedia covers body
nine different subject areas.
Each one has its own color,
which is shown at the top
and bottom of the page.

10

The story of... Helpful pets Guide dogs The story of...
are specially
Pets Dogs are good at keeping trained to help These pages bring together
people company. They are also people who need information from the different
Pets have become an important part of humans’ lives. easy to train, and can be used to help seeing. subjects, to get you thinking
Many animals are kept as companions, for work, or to help people with disabilities. about things from lots of
help people go about their daily lives. It is estimated A dog can be a person’s different angles. These pages
that 44 percent of homes in the world have a pet. eyes or ears, and help are not arranged alphabetically.

them get around.

Canaan dog Pets Budgie Pets in space
big and small
First pets For years, animals have helped
Pets aren’t just dogs and scientists answer questions about
Dogs were the first animals cats—we keep all sorts of how humans would survive in space.
to be kept as pets. They were animals as pets. They vary from Dogs Belka and Strelka (above) were
used for hunting—helping early big dogs and horses to small sent into space on the Sputnik 5 in
humans to catch food. Ancient snakes and hamsters. Each 1960. They returned safely to Earth
species needs a special diet
art from 12,000 years ago using a parachute.
shows humans and and room to exercise.
dogs together.
Dog

Cat

Bronze statue Bearded dragon
of a cat from
ancient Egypt

Holy cats Goldfish

The ancient Egyptians Rabbit Guinea pig Not pets
loved cats. They caught mice, Tarantula
rats, and snakes, which kept Hamster It is illegal to keep some animals.
people’s homes clean. Cats were Gerbil Wild animals, such as monkeys, can
also believed to have special even be dangerous. Before getting a
powers for guarding children. pet, make sure you know that the
animal has come from a good home
The punishment for killing
a cat was death. and has not been taken from
the wild.

Snake

152 153

Tree of life Multiplication Reference

The tree of life shows how Origins of life If you times two numbers Find the second number The reference section
closely related different together you are multiplying (2) on the top row and contains useful lists,
groups of living things are. Bacteria them. You can use this table to follow the column down diagrams, and tables.
You can follow the branches Fungi quickly work out the answer to where it meets the row
to see, for example, that to multiplying any two
sharks evolved before numbers between 1 and 20. 1 2 3 for the first number.
amphibians.
Plants 11 2 3

22 4 6

10 Animals When we multiply a To work out what By following down the For example, there is a
number by itself, we say 3 x 2 equals, find the map of the world, and there
million species are Sponges it has been “squared.” first number (3) on 3 3 6 9 column across from 3 and
thought to live on the lefthand column. down from 2, you can see
that 3 x 2 = 6.
the Earth.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

are lists of great artists,Jellyfish
2 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40

3 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 51 54 57 60

4 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 scientists, and writers.

Vertebrates Starfish 55 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100
66 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 96 102 108 114 120

Mollusks Roundworms 77 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 91 98 105 112 119 126 133 140 Glossary
88 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 88 96 104 112 120 128 136 144 152 160
Jawless

GlossaryArthropods fish 9 9 18 27 cr3a6ter 45 54 63 72 8e1clips9e0 99 108 117 126exo1s3k5ele1to4n4 153 162 171 fu18ng0i

Earthworms Sharks burrow cold-blooded The glossary is a list of some

Hole or tunnel dug in the ground Animal with a body temperature Bowl-shaped dent on the surface When an object in space Hard outer casing of animals Group of living things, including

by an animal, to live in that goes up and down t1o0mat1ch0 20 30 of4a0plane5t0or oth6e0r body7in0spac8e,0 90passe1s0in0to t1h1e0shad1o2w0 130 140suc1h5a0s art1h6ro0pod1s 7th0at d1o8n0ot 190 m2u0sh0rooms and molds, that break

calendar Bony fisthhe surrounding air or water caused by a collision with a rock of another object have an inside skeleton down dead plants and animals to
Breakdown of the year into 33 cr4im4e 55 66 77 88
temperature 11 11 22 99elect1i1o0n 121 132 143 154exp1e6r5ime1n7t6 187 198 209 m2a2ke0their food

days and months; used to work colony Activity that is against the law Event where people vote to Test to see how something galaxy
Index miotenhfxeetptahhlganeelnsobm,aeatTIIsfoonytlsvhootoioaeokdehrnkurrenneg.iyeynocIrd.otfwaxedwihfyfneiiifwostnaxilhcuobgahluiooinawsctlkuytsttoosttfwvapuh,oaeawyolirlrdngporeiogtdehludirskiaydnnciebuonuaeasunmtenthwlibdoceeaaobrnlk.loytok ,BLiirzsdansradkseasnaaasaAfahaaSaiHbaaPOSaMMTaapacnsaedaWAasObtAOtaCaCaVnhhuaettynnndohermeexouaelsssrrbnrnrnmpqdernrnrbataasaaaoglaerengtmpmctaoblddstcamrmtttrlrjceuspacctoercdyranryevtsiwpyaeoaidhseerectniasisehyetitgiwfbcp-tlleeeboyidoohcoiisetnelmgushbindrriroobinasceation,nljswnlttoefadntnaicreotioonarfnynn‘oeretlfltrnfiefzssueatnetodweornttotnieobcru,heaacowiivslaettodnahmswskhtbrworboddecrtadcoehtcietthcudueipuialr,haeubJfkueldtnnioaroieoerwutnaifsbnolrrattcgoayiernaieatueotboelnwpnnfrlesshihdhardsttdlmmsusosrpetddigyuooritlitoatieasvnbwntleenmdvteelruaebafeatthapnceijdrpeglogoryehrrpesneinelaort-aateorrsetarrncariscsrdodthsueotctocisnoacsbruttadbeyneeasnfutnwawoinoeittfscbusnermlcsdtsbipyuohtierfantrhreindoeciylayoaeuraaanartlteidatlsCoaicetlrdtmftnhmgrndtlaelahrooettl,erioolduseieooyisotknrsbfawmntrmtorouceuabghileattsthjnoocel3aPAA3maaaAaaaahnetieotspiatbherfvdliibnwedcc--raatfgyabsilrraaeialisDDnnaisrtruotsitgananedpevcilioin1gntcrlsleeargpsaeoeitoro1igtak2Dlshgssnersllns7feeli2ianinun1nE1n225puttt42ax5ori0eimolpni6,3s3espn1lgbaose82eu.r19o0a2ataeaaSbasWaObabnbSWbTttaeuWStotbSeyIaarBbScabrLTBaiar9rnmpeee1ohhhsatemnbnttfavvrgmueso2ovihtttxesiileraoobCmpbs8nahhr,llaiumwtoraarelueeaomyatoeisddgtmtdae,ofeajliocleiliuE2oneoraydeeceeatddhorsocet2grilnrlaustdomhenamptnlata4urluepotneasannyocndsyiec1ubiokrralli6tueeflruoetinkldnleng5goneitroawfg-8ocieydbdsnro29onfatoao9ntfr,gvmrnrhgsoabashgitnniftnetwnepoh6yCfaatanfn6fiih8e,hlctsplbrtolnmoeaoaaceaildfosorotetg2thtryhlh,qaehytoprirsnad6oiowiuhfnlaoodmya1ovo8wni.wcceurieweparlenniurtpreksiTl8ef,dseisehdvsbsr8nieorahenrmhthenendsomeheeiwtf0cuotboetoegociodgooyaeodaernhepsomhdeiocde–enifsetlisetitarwtsrtcdgnatsean1yalwfhygehvhg,ewhtatEhhawtt8,tsrgttaeoeilhyEeraoonhruipotealnaesaint1papinhrorrartrtr0ftidreyrniashustcvagesunhieuettpreoi.oceteerhhii,eshoool,vtnletatlahrslffbioieahasarp,ceoy,ivragusdatracrisrmnnkravlenunhbstactedherutalAtpoadehdnidahtaobeoi-oealchnpltceslbaomsdrttunathamlaatoegoshaohtiwshnbthtnplanerategiewedabecenenshdylitltaizmpvrtmsmmhhhilirsennise.iteromltieeiaobshsebvsyiaedoporgbtmieaeemettrttaslrihailoecritreaesonlmtnamite5bgtscsfescstasir4yaaooolbsa2ti4l,l1frnn2srit31c3oep21a3SacctrCcCcCSchWHAhcctccbSdcswhtLocfTtacAcctSosoPsWcaet18r5e1norhhhhh,t1ihi2kuoooiiiiiltfhhhaaaaoouvtueuoouuseaeE4nnancrt02aieea5rritvvaueuthaare5o26mecteueolmlt6rymabcrmrmrttaomeerircuccvi1ooeorsa852hmciilittdhhlnesndmitr–a4zagpryitsbt6menlleuuommeeeurrnbem2trteai1itypa6ruodiha6acethip1istaaotswsogchilltrtitdzytgneglinopvosa9tltst5hroeaTtuo6oiichaslnathyid3aslaucecoebahhhetimtnnoscln1tneoattananaoo3gnsfkeaiocfytdalwr9raeuwrltsirhonwatencs6ritaitsrroansnetl,rietcxyueoattnrpinEstroeaea.oggleeotrhbntooh3swhtgat1oaotnuy0Scbgarivfuttrohgenauuseueel7imaerspananfviletpgtoim,oehneeteimnre,trsrp8mrmtc,eetosasrihotmyoesoedamxlyteeoaafpihsirrlpnwefoedlnsialatirvoidrllrlepeacteiebaleaodslrisossscnmroeeeuervtaamceoparlksiodhmtrewaonesinaaeencdsklltronheneashplieronnaonug,nsstnmctprtsenocsavtialaohrufldacoeahdcieihadlepysttutsnnawceraolnptecmii,iebwbla,uhptmsfizdsmstusatuahmhaarleoyseethorehhtnamtrtaenioaccarereynmteheurhnioertivekaddcnsaaedaosoaerfedloelirteepcrtnnltyeslnturtitafsoueilrhbtttbbBbBbbbbbbbbbtbbbbbBosbagnnfagshdeutiaaaaaaaaaaaeeeeeiyiaardiecnghnieei,lllllnrccttraaaeibeylllllaMdrkesytteokatBrvdktyBgssdcn,eeslbltoesaipallla,e2a5cnroeironrJunmomiss71ei65og1nsesansmgrt26d,61hisme1tiea31279l391nsfl33sn(2e5531a6o18M4L7sfSiacWoHaccoACCAOcocscoclwNoiLlpccOApwboatcclTMdccAST92997lr2iiant,,rh1soquvraynnooooooooooooocaoe4iyrtrrrrfeuofc9nr,nbo1a5troa6fiht1eh1yobheeegeruryptrni7onermaotgubw16urrnmnnmnmnnnoirjfert46cmmaei63gifehmeegieisaadiaeeicithlt1nttepsosttth2einssdqddtac5le,sorawoencsrh)heeroahpepsfatanlelgfaoiaeou1bio,ciue.1ac,cteuueototfnalnersc,eglmg2htaue1eO2lAa6seofye1Ao0uelfsmtrstr,omnAumontsnteceprtere5r5irre5o5,sntrE5yrtmacggtifve8mecnehronbcootnstiatcsrstawie,41etaodn5t8cema,ecrahvaasevoethaousreueeftsgulaehtor2idle,mrrest–thristetlauetctureuhptretrnnetr2tiaautsosoes12rykesiohicinrowlmihiehrnacidtk4ccggtoi8cponlpcsns5oekotuoeeftthsaatehtalareftes0tfeg,ntroear9ofbafnranaetto,clhciwh2,aeyeersaceycrlsyedOdtaplleaorpssapgsei2aneoannteronmxeunaanlfcrltloenay5,alswiarsatogatormesslAipnnpeltviwnuisotsanbdsltswiavnrtlreedansatnrnotoeueagaoinoodtciieksnrsolds,oawbfthniesnoditrcfliwaoagdo,hd,rnoettdord,ovdut2i111111ss11,rEeowhinueapightcierlnucanthvid48m9036275uovhumeonasgclareaysponeiaefnruieagdtmitrrosnmvodtssli,leaheucccccccCccCcccccbBbbnopotrsageeepldehadaaaaaaaaaaaaaanuuuaprtrnulsr21111111a1sceyilollrrrrrmmmrraec:lisotzdrcd,4l896n03725nbbrbbbttijcteeyiiseeeouguoooooieaKisvaltrlrusinnhnnmrghs,ooaanafefyseasndcarslcl17sicd1aesl9yetiys433233i22938h4o21rgfosc0s72a5a4xo884906612061e2lm8e1t5io51028de40s583l74es784423,914,7144645334551092564960781526–,4362,7013rroWDTdSapcSahfdWtodrcPtdORtCDccbGdddGdrdlddtcLPdtp,6eeaiuorrhhhra1ysuciyrrorrfeeoaeeurrgiiiiiireeeeereu48666aava5757e6aailernrpnsscaeeuooot1ntpysovnloonmrrahlflstmsfccivvveyyeaeei76a68a4202t8i0eta,tsnuutoeelpoesvtdppttwf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729161u8m1g,940720870c6,o33976,h,312t116)0––i39o256230n,053,s1671)47094,9,227142
airacirratfrtan1s3p,o3raaV3tnaabtirrmiieoeaentlyd;2fooo5ffr9adeopxgeatmoprlefa, rampeudg oeScarhauvarsokteihlncdqagbnuoyiacfmktahecoetviivEniatgryttehc’stsounricfapclccceaoootmmmespppuuoutteenrrdsgsa7tPe5mh1lx8aae,on,1ns1pe3t66tl7ha8,9te1hn,9sa7eu2t1tn,o, 22rb412i1t,s2a8s0tar
astronomy engines 92 isAannzinomionasgti,2oMn8a11ruWcy0os0re2ditd1et9einnacocommmpauntdesr,porrolgarnagmubbbaiiigrogdelcos,agt2ys23,53849,sPc2o,ola71muc87ere,to2wn6he6ehreasitbirsodkeecnidtehde cars 52, 92, 97, 259 Deimos 15f6uel circuits o5u9t of an egg fins 101 it up here.
Study of space othedr emocracySu1b2s3tance that is burned
if cartilage 266 to conducthinegm1i5s7phere fire 82, 105
lawcarts 258 Denmark 1c0re2ate heat or power
insulatorTsop15o7r,b1o9t5tom half of the Eartfhish 22, 74, 101, 120, 181, 266

solar-powered 181 Antarctica 24, 197 display 26 cash machines 150 circuit boards 59 denominators 112 power stations 110 eggs 86

World War II 277 aannttisbi2o21t9,ic74s8,11337,4218 eggs 86 Cassini-Huygens spacecraft 216 coding 65, 66 ddeersmer2ist9s257289, 126, 270 electronics, recycling 205 farming 98
algebra 185 flightless 186 castles 53, 244 Internet 69, 138 electrons 34, 58 sharks 223

allergies 105 apes 170 migration 166 caterpillars 163 condensation 57 diamonds 118 elements 58, 90 fishing 72

alligators 210 apples 115 nests 23 cats 54, 152, 153 conduction 157 diaphragm 149 elephants 12, 19, 154 flags 102, 193

alphabets 280, 284 aqueducts 20 birds of prey 39 cave dwellings 244 conductors 188 dictatorships 123 elliptical galaxies 116 flammability 157

aluminum 90 Arabic 144, 284 black holes 40 cave paintings 28, 243 conifers 109, 126, 194 digestion 79, 130 email 69 Fleming, Alexander 218

Amazon rain forest 204, 236 arachnids 139 Blackbeard 193 caves 55 conscientious objectors 279 digital clocks 61 emojis 280 flight 137, 209, 259, 277

American West 14 Archimedes 269 blind people 256 cells 56 conservation 72, 281 digital money 169 energy 60, 88–89 floating 227

ammonites 95, 202 architecture 245 blood 128, 149 human 41 Constantinople 262 digital radio 203 electricity 87 floods 60

amphibians 15, 22, 86, 266 Arctic 25, 197, 245 blood cells 41, 225 cell phones see mobile phones constellations 73 dinosaurs 80, 111, 184, 202 food 106, 107 flowers 103, 194

Amundsen, Roald 24 Aristotle 218 blood vessels 229 Central Powers 276 constitutions 123 directions 70 fossil fuels 110 fog 271

ancient civilizations art 28, 131, 179, 209, 243, 262 Blue Mosque 262 ceratopsians 80 construction 48 Diwali 207 engineering 91 food 104–105

ancient China 16 arteries 128 blue supergiant stars 242 cereal crops 98 container ships 224 DNA 67, 119 engines 52, 89, 92, 260 digestion 79

ancient Egypt 18 artists 282 board games 240 Charon 196 continents 50–51, 275, 293 doctors 160, 274 English language 144, 280 farming 98

ancient Greece 18 Asia 29 boats see ships cheetahs 154 Cook, James 96 documentaries 100 Enigma codes 67 nutrition 106

ancient India 19 assembly lines 97 body systems 130 chemical engineering 91 cooking 104–105 dogs 81, 95, 152, 153 environment 121, 198, plants 191

ancient Rome 20 asteroids 30, 164, 200 Bollywood 76 chemistry 58, 217 copper 47 dolphins 154 205, 258 taste 249

Aztecs 35 astronauts 31, 83, 171, 237 bones 82, 127, 228, 266 chess 240 coral reefs 74 dormice 129 epidermis 229 food chains 89, 107

Incas 132 astronomy 19, 32, 73, 167, books 43, 44, 201 children 133, 146, 277 core, Earth’s 135 dragons 178, 206–207 equality 189 football 239, 241

Maya 158 218–219 botany 38 chimpanzees 170 cornea 226 drawing 28, 219 erosion 93 forces 108

Native Americans 179 athletics 239 Brachiosaurus 80 China 29, 42, 102, 188, costumes, traditional 63 dreams 231 erratics 122 buoyancy 227

Andes 51, 172, 236 atmosphere braille 256 279, 280 countries 275, 292 drinks 97, 106, 148 eruptions, volcanic 268 friction 114

Andromeda galaxy 167 Earth 33, 49, 50, 83, 164, 270 brain 45, 99, 127, 148, 231, ancient 16, 178, 272 courts 145 droughts 60, 143 esophagus 79 gravity 125

angles 222 planets 183, 264, 265 232, 256 Chinese New Year 206–207 crafts 75, 132 dust mites 165 Europa 141 magnets 151

animals atoms 34, 37, 58, 90, 192 brass instruments 188 chloroplast 56 cranes 48 dwarf planets 196 Europe 94, 276, 277, 292 forests 72, 109, 126, 202, 204

amphibians 15 auroras 33, 247 breathing 130, 149 Christianity 208 craters 164 Ee evaporation 57, 168 Formula 1 52
animal families 21 autumn 221 bridges 46 Christmas 206 crayons 280 evergreen trees 261 fossil fuels 51, 60, 88, 110

animal groups 22 avalanches 93 broadcasting 251 chrysalises 163 creation 37 ears 127, 225, 235 evolution 82, 95, 286 fossils 80, 95, 111, 202, 219

birds 39 axes 136, 243 bronchi 149 cinder cones 268 creation stories 42, 178 Earth 83, 233, 263, 289 exercise 173 foxes 81

cells 56 axolotls 15 bronchioles 149 circles 222 crocodiles 124, 210 atmosphere 33 exosphere 33 fractions 112

colors 26 Aztecs 35 Bronze Age 47 circuits 59 cruise ships 224 changing 50–51 experiments 218 French Revolution 113

conservation 72, 281 bubbles 117 circulation 128, 130 crust, Earth’s 85, 135 gravity 125 exploration 180–181, 267 friction 108, 114

evolution 95 Bb Buddhism 208 cities 275 crustaceans 139 inside 135 explorers 96 Frobisher, Martin 96

farming 98 babies budgies 153 civil engineering 91 cubed units 269 magnetic field 70, 135, 151 exports 257 frogs 15, 78, 129, 163, 236, 266

fish 101 animals 21, 154 buildings 48 civil wars 279 cuneiform 47, 280 moon’s orbit 32, 171 expressions, facial 99, 173 fruit 98, 106, 115

food chains 107 human 146 bullet train 260 classical music 176 currency 169 orbits the sun 32 eyes 54, 119, 226 fungi 38, 174

298 299

11

Africa SEE ALSO
▸▸ Ancient Egypt
Africa is a very hot continent, and a lot of the landscape
is made up of deserts and dry plains. Its central region is p.17
covered in rain forest. This continent was home to the ▸▸ Conservation p.72
first people on Earth millions of years ago. ▸▸ Deserts p.78
▸▸ Early humans p.82
▸▸ Language p.144
▸▸ World p.275

The Tuareg live in Temple of Zeus
the desert. They
wear traditional
blue robes.

Pyramids

Tamarisk
tree

Addax Tuareg Bedouin camel train Bedouin people use
people Jerboa camels to move
goods across the
Sahara Desert.

The horns Zebra
of this rare
antelope can African Benin Okapi Lion
grow to 47 in elephant bronzes
(120 cm) long.
African animals Bonobo Diamonds Acacia Lemurs live on
About Mount Kilimanjaro tree the island of
Africa Africa is home to many Grey Madagascar.
types of animals. Large parrot
Population: areas have been set up
1.216 billion where they can roam
freely and safely. Tourists
go to watch them Leopard
in the wild.

Highest point: Giraffes are the
Mount Kilimanjaro world’s tallest animals,
with males reaching
18 ft (5.5 m). Victoria Falls Lemur

Lowest point: African Giraffe Fossils of human Ancient pyramids
Lake Assal elephants are ancestors
the heaviest The pyramids in Egypt were
Biggest desert: land animals. built 4,500 years ago. Inside
Sahara Desert are the tombs of Egyptian
Table Mountain rulers called pharaohs.

Longest river: The pyramids are made
Nile of millions of stone
blocks that were cut
and dragged into place.

12

Aircraft SEE ALSO
▸▸ Atmosphere p.33
Aircraft are types of transportation that let us travel ▸▸ Birds p.39
through air. They take people on vacations and are also ▸▸ Forces p.108
used by fire crews, doctors, and farmers. Types of aircraft ▸▸ Gravity p.125
include planes, helicopters, and hot air balloons. ▸▸ Transportation

pp.258–259

Plane This 79 ft (24 m)
high tail section
The Airbus A380 is the world’s has a flap called a
largest passenger plane. It can rudder that steers
carry more than 800 people on the aircraft.
two decks and fly nonstop from
the US to Australia. This part of the
tail helps to keep
Ailerons are flaps on the aircraft flying
each wing that move straight.
up and down to turn
the aircraft.

The cockpit is where the pilot The A380 is powered by
and copilot fly the aircraft. four huge jet engines, each
as long as a family car.
Helicopter
How aircraft fly
A helicopter uses fast-spinning blades, called
rotors, to fly through the air. These rotor blades The green arrows show the four pushes and pulls, or
raise the helicopter and move it forward. Smaller forces, acting on an aircraft during flight. The weight
rotors on the tail keep the craft straight. of gravity pulls it down, lift raises it up, thrust moves
it forward, and drag pulls it back. The pilot uses the
Main rotor blades controls to manage these forces to take off, fly, and
land safely.
Tail
rotor Gravity

Cockpit

Drag Thrust

Lift

Landing skis

13

American West SEE ALSO
▸▸ Gold pp.200–201
Between the years of 1840 and 1900, many people living
in the eastern United States moved west to find adventure ▸▸ Native Americans
and start new lives. Some, called settlers, set up farms and p.179
cattle ranches. Others dug mines in search of gold.
▸▸ North America
Wagon train Wagons were pulled by p.184
horses or oxen. They
Settlers traveled west in carried people, supplies, ▸▸ Transportation
groups of wagons called and farming equipment. pp.258–259
wagon trains. They took
with them everything ▸▸ Trains p.260
they needed to make
their new homes. A wagon train
could have up
to 250 wagons.

Native American wars Early railroads Steam from the burning
fuel came out of the
Wars were fought between the settlers and the local People built railroads into the train’s smokestack.
Native American tribes. Despite winning some battles, American West in the years
the tribes ultimately lost the wars and their land. from 1869 to 1893.
The railroads brought
in lots of farmers and
settlers, and carried
out goods to be
sold in cities.

Painting of Custer’s Last Stand, a Native American victory Union Pacific
Railroad
No.119

14

Amphibians SEE ALSO
▸▸ Eggs p.86
Amphibians are animals that spend their lives in and
around water. They hatch in water from eggs. As they ▸▸ Water pp.120–121
grow they develop lungs that let them breathe on land.
Amphibian skin must always be wet, so they stay close ▸▸ Invertebrates
to water. There are three main groups of amphibian. p.139

▸▸ Metamorphosis
p.163

▸▸ Reptiles p.210

▸▸ Skin p.229

Newts and salamanders Caecilians Forever young

These long-tailed amphibians can Though they look Axolotls are unusual,
replace injured body parts by growing like worms, caecilians because they stay in water
new ones. An eye, leg, or tail takes (se-sill-yens) are amphibians. all their lives. They keep
just weeks to replace. They live underwater or in their tadpole-like fins and
underground burrows on land. feathery gills even as
Bright yellow markings an adult.
warn attackers that the fire
salamander is poisonous.

Congo caecilian

Fire salamander Large, bulging Axolotl
eyes help toads
Frogs and toads and frogs to see Amphibians can
in all directions. breathe through
The most common group their skin.
of amphibians includes
frogs and toads. Frogs are
usually wetter, smaller, and
smoother than toads.

Toads have dry, bumpy Green tree frog
skin, unlike frogs that
have wet, smooth skin.

Webbed feet on the
back legs help frogs
and toads to swim
in water.

Oriental fire-bellied toad
15

Ancient China SEE ALSO
▸▸ Eating
Chinese culture is thousands of years old. By 200 bce,
China was united under a family of emperors called the pp.104–105
Han Dynasty from the city of Hanzhong. China produced
many new inventions that spread to the rest of the world. ▸▸ Inventions
pp.136–137

▸▸ Exploration
pp.180–181

▸▸ Trade p.257

▸▸ Writing p.280

This silk costume was Inventions Writing
worn by a woman in
a Chinese opera. The Chinese first made Chinese writing dates
silk clothes about 5,500 to about 1400 bce. Each
The Great Wall years ago. They also of the 4,000 symbols
invented paper, represents a word or
Chinese emperors built gunpowder, printing, part of a word. The text
strong walls to keep out mechanical clocks, the is read from top to
northern tribes. The Great compass, porcelain, bottom and right to left.
Wall of China is 5,500 miles and umbrellas.
(8,850 km) long and The top of the
500 years old. The wall has 25,000 wall is wide
watchtowers. Soldiers enough for
used them to look out soldiers to
for the enemy. march along.

Hilltop walls were
easier to defend.

Rice-growing

Rice was first grown in
China about 10,000
years ago. It is still
farmed today. Rice
grows in flooded fields,
such as these terraces.

16

Ancient Egypt SEE ALSO
▸▸ Buildings p.48
Thousands of years ago, between 7000 bce and 395 ce, ▸▸ Governments
Egypt was led by powerful rulers called pharaohs. The
Egyptian people farmed the land next to the Nile river and p.123
built amazing monuments for their pharaoh and the gods. ▸▸ Life cycle p.146
▸▸ Rivers p.211
Nile River ▸▸ Ships p.224
▸▸ Weather p.271

The Nile was very important in Trading ships
Egyptian life. Farmers grew food sailed the Red Sea,
along the river’s banks and people bringing back
used it to travel up and down the exotic treasures.
whole country.

Pyramids

The Sphinx of Giza The pyramids were tombs built
Giza (a lion statue to protect the pharaoh when he
with a man’s head) People fished died. They were filled with
guards the pyramids. in the waters treasure for the pharoah to use in
of the Nile. the afterlife. The largest pyramid
Every year, rain causes is nearly 460 ft (140 m) tall.
the river to flood,
watering the land The mummy
and all its crops. was put in a
painted wooden
Egyptian society mummy case.

The Pharaoh ran Egypt with Some pharaohs
the help of rich people called were buried
noblemen. Everyone else in in the Valley
Egyptian society worked very of the Kings.
hard for them.

Luxor

Pharaoh Pharaoh Ramses II carved Houses Words were
Noblemen two great temples out of were built of written with
rock at Abu Simbel. He made mud-bricks, picture signs,
himself one of the gods baked in called
worshipped the sun. hieroglyphs.
inside.
Living forever
Abu Simbel
The Egyptians
Farmers and other workers turned their bodies
into mummies when
they died. The body
was dried out using
salt, then wrapped in
bandages. This way,
they hoped they
would live forever.

17

Ancient Greece SEE ALSO
▸▸ Ancient Rome
The ancient Greeks were among the most creative people in
history. They were great builders and artists who invented p.20
theater, politics, history, writing, science, and sports. Some
of the words they created are still used today. Greek ▸▸ Buildings p.48
civilization was at its best between 510 and 323 bce.
▸▸ Crafts p.75

▸▸ Religion p.208

▸▸ Games
pp.240–241

▸▸ Sports p.239

Parthenon The Parthenon stands Greek pottery
on the Acropolis, a hill
The most famous Greek temple is overlooking Athens. Greek vases were often
the Parthenon in Athens. It was built painted with scenes from
for the goddess Athena, protector The Parthenon myths. This vase shows
of the city. was built with one of 12 labors, or tasks,
white marble. carried out by the mythical
hero Hercules.

There
were
46 main
columns.

Vases like this were
all-purpose containers,
for oil, wine, honey,
or other foods.

Gods and Olympics
goddesses
The Greeks held the first
The Greeks athletic competitions,
worshipped such as the Olympic Games.
dozens of gods. This lifelike statue shows
Here are six of the someone throwing a round
most important weight, called a discus.
ones, who are
all members of Zeus, Aphrodite, Apollo, Poseidon, Artemis, Hades,
the same family. king of goddess god of god of the
the gods of love music god of goddess Underworld

the sea of hunting

18

Ancient India SEE ALSO
▸▸ Art p.28
Great cities were built in India 5,000 years ago. This ▸▸ Asia p.29
▸▸ Astronomy p.32
marked the start of a unique civilization. In the years ▸▸ Buildings p.48
▸▸ Religion p.208
1526–1857, India was united as the Mughal Empire. ▸▸ War pp.278–279

The Mughals made scientific breakthroughs and Emperor Babur
commanded his
beautiful works of art. Mughal Empire troops from an
elephant.
The central The Mughal Empire was founded
dome is 115 ft by Babur, a ruler from Central Asia
(35 m) tall. who conquered northern India in
1526. The Empire was ruled
by Babur’s family for more
than 300 years.

Elephant
driver, or
mahout

Taj Mahal

Built by the Mughal ruler Shah Jahan in 1632,
the Taj Mahal is the tomb of his wife, Mumtaz
Mahal. The huge white marble building took
20,000 men more than ten years to finish.

This globe is marked War elephants used
with the positions their trunks and tusks
of the stars. to kill the enemy.

Science Babur’s army
had more than
80,000 men.

The Mughals studied the stars and
made brass globes to map their
positions. Scientists invented shampoo
and new ways to work with metal.

19

Ancient Rome SEE ALSO
▸▸ Buildings p.48
▸▸ Europe p.94

About 2,000 years ago, the ancient Romans ruled a great ▸▸ Governments p.123

empire, including all the lands around the Mediterranean ▸▸ Law p.145

Sea. The Roman Empire was well organized, and it lasted ▸▸ Maps p.155

for hundreds of years. ▸▸ Slavery p.230

Roman society ▸▸ War pp.278–279

Emperor Within the empire, there were different Asia
The ruler of the groups of people, with different rights. Europe
empire, who was Citizens had more rights than non-citizens,
all-powerful. and slaves had no rights at all. Rome

Citizen Freed person Mediterranean Sea
Only citizens were able A former slave, freed
to vote and become by their owner. Roman Empire
government officials.
Slave
A person owned
as property.

The Roman Empire started as just
one city, Rome, in what is now Italy.
Over time it grew across Europe.

Only Roman Roman soldiers
citizens and above
The Romans conquered their
were allowed empire using well-trained
armies, called Legions. This is a
to wear togas. centurion, an officer in charge of
80 legionnaires (foot soldiers).

Centurions
wore a
helmet
crest.

Armor
was made
from metal
links called
chain mail.

Roman buildings Shin guards

The Romans were expert builders, and
many of their buildings still stand. This is
the Pont du Gard, an aqueduct that carried
water to Nîmes, a Roman city in France.

20

Animal families SEE ALSO
▸▸ Animal groups
Animals live in many different types of family groups.
Some animals live in big groups, called colonies. They work p.22
together to bring up their babies. Other animals form male
and female pairs. Family groups help animals to survive. ▸▸ Animal homes p.23

▸▸ Birds p.39

▸▸ Insects p.134

▸▸ Mammals p.154

▸▸ Homes
pp.244—245

Pair
After mating, a pair of
emperor penguins take
turns looking after the egg
and then feeding the baby.
They live with up to 5,000

other penguins.

Herd
Zebras move around in
large groups, called herds.
When babies are born, the
large numbers help protect
them from other animals’

attacks.

Colony
Ant families can be very
large. The queen is the
leader of the colony and lays
the eggs. The other ants
work to protect and feed

the colony.

Small family
After giving birth, a female
river otter cares for her pups
for two to three years until
they are ready to hunt and

look after themselves.

21

Animal groups SEE ALSO
▸▸ Animal families
Animals can be divided into groups, depending on their
body features. Animals that look and act in similar ways p.21
are grouped together. This is called classification.
▸▸ Fish p.101
Amphibians Birds
These animals have Birds have feathers, ▸▸ Insects p.134
wet skin. They live in which keep them warm
or near water. The and help most to fly. They ▸▸ Invertebrates
babies hatch from have beaks to catch or p.139
eggs, and change
pick up food. ▸▸ Spiders p.238
body shape to
become adults. ▸▸ Vertebrates p.266

The green band
shows which
animal groups
are vertebrates.

Invertebrates Animal groups Fish
There are many groups Fish live in water. They
Animals are divided into
of invertebrates, two main groups. are covered in bony
including insects, slugs, plates, called scales,
spiders, and shellfish. Vertebrates have spines,
invertebrates don’t. and have special
organs called gills
There are more groups
inside these two for breathing.
main groups.

Reptiles Mammals
Reptiles have scaly Mammals have fur or
hair on their bodies.
skin. They are
cold-blooded, which They feed their
babies on milk made
means they must
warm up in the sun by the mothers.

before they 22
can move.

Animal homes SEE ALSO
▸▸ Animal groups
Animals need homes for shelter and to keep their
young safe. Animal homes are built in many different p.22
places and in all shapes and sizes. Some animals work ▸▸ Birds p.39
together to build large structures. Others move ▸▸ Insects p.134
every night, making new homes as they go. ▸▸ Mammals p.154
▸▸ Homes
Weaver bird nest Termite mound
pp.244–245
Male weaver birds loop leaves Termites work together to build ▸▸ Work p.274
and grass together to build large mounds. The chimney shape
their nests. The entrance is of the mound helps to keep the Termite mounds
at the bottom to stop other termites inside cool. can reach more than
animals from getting in.
Soldier termites 6 ft (2 m)
protect the mound high!
from ants.

Turrets are built
for different
entrances and exits.

The termite workers
store grass in
the outer areas.

The queen termite
lives in the center of
the colony.

New mud and Beaver lodge
sticks are added
each year. Beavers build their homes from
branches and mud. The entrance
is underwater, to stop other
animals from finding it.

23

Antarctica SEE ALSO
▸▸ Arctic p.25
Antarctica is the fifth largest and most southern continent.
It is very cold and windy. Most of the land is buried under ▸▸ Birds p.39
huge ice sheets, which stretch far out into the sea. In winter,
it can be as cold as –130ºF (–90°C), and windspeeds during ▸▸ Changing world
storms can reach an incredible 200 mph (320 kph). pp.50–51

▸▸ Climate change
p.60

▸▸ Explorers p.96

▸▸ Glaciers p.122

Antarctica Blackfin
is a great place to icefish

Patagonian find meteorites. Research
toothfish These dark space ship

rocks stand South Gigantic icebergs
polar skua break off from the
out against the Antarctic ice sheet
white snow. and float northward.

Snow petrel Iceberg

Minke whale Weddell Wandering Antarctic krill
seal albatross
Fossil ferns found in Scientists are
Antarctica show us Fossil fern South drilling into
that it was once a Pole Lake Vostok,
much warmer place. Mount 2.5 miles (4 km)
Vinson Scott Base below the ice,
About research station looking for new
Antarctica life forms.

Lake
Vostok

Population:
4,000

Highest point: Race to the pole Leopard Mount
Mount Vinson seal

Lowest point: In 1911, Norwegian explorer Erebus
Bentley Subglacial
Roald Amundsen beat Britain’s Adélie
Trench penguin
Robert Scott in the race to be
Biggest desert: Emperor penguin
The whole the first to the South chicks are raised
continent on the sea ice.
Pole. Sadly, Scott’s
Big penguins
team died on the
Emperor penguins are
return journey. Amundsen the largest kind of
used dogsleds penguin. They eat fish
to reach the and squid and dive as
South Pole. deep as 1,640 ft (500 m)
when hunting for food.
Longest river:
Onyx

24

Arctic SEE ALSO
▸▸ Antarctica p.24
The Arctic is a cold region that surrounds the North Pole.
It is mostly sea, which is frozen for much of the year, but ▸▸ Climate change
it also includes most of Greenland and the northernmost p.60
parts of North America, Europe, and Asia.
▸▸ Oceans and seas
p.187

▸▸ Polar habitats
p.197

▸▸ World p.275

Chilly circle

The Arctic Circle is about twice

the size of the US. The animals Chukchi
Reindeer
that live there need to be Arctic
snowy owl
able to survive in the cold.

Land animals have thick Alaska Sea ice Walrus Lemmings are
fur or fluffy feathers, line fishing small rodents.
and sea animals have They eat plants
Arctic tern Brown and live in burrows.
a thick layer of fat. lemming
The Nenets
Narwhal people of Arctic
Russia are reindeer
Musk ox herders who live
in tents made of
About the Submarine Nenets reindeer skin.
Arctic
Arctic North 55 million years
poppy Pole ago, the Arctic was

Population: Inuit ice Arctic fox Arctic so hot that there
At least 500,000 fishing Ocean
in summer, but was no ice, and
fewer in winter Gas
alligators lived
Highest point: Iron ore Ice breaker Oil
Gunnbjørn Fjeld, Arctic cod in the sea.

Greenland

Lowest point: All change Polar bears
Arctic Ocean
Our planet is getting warmer, Polar bears live in the
Biggest desert: and the Arctic sea ice is melting. Arctic and roam the sea
Arctic Polar This means that ships can now ice, hunting seals. The
Desert travel across the Arctic between bears are at risk from
the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. climate change because
the sea ice is melting.
This makes it harder

for the bears to find
seals to eat.

25

The story of... Paint

Color Artists make paint by
mixing something called
Our world is full of beautiful colors. a pigment with water.
The colors we see around us are A pigment is a material
actually different types of light that changes the color of
bouncing off objects and into our reflected light by absorbing
eyes. Colors also have meanings. some colors and reflecting
For example, a red light means “stop”
in traffic, and a white flag means other colors.
“surrender” in war.

Artists mix
paint on a
palette.

Rainbow colors

White light is made from all
the colors of the rainbow—red,

orange, yellow, green, blue,
indigo, and violet. When white

light from the sun passes
through rain, it can refract
(split) to make a rainbow.

The male peacock
is brightly colored
compared to the female.

Animal colors

Male birds are often colorful to
attract female birds. Some

animals use bright colors as a
warning, and some can change
color. Others use their coloring

to blend in with their
surroundings.

Male peacock

Female peacock
26

All the colors of light Green light
except for green are reflects into
absorbed by the leaf. our eyes.

Eye

The green
light is not
absorbed
and bounces
off the leaf.

Reflecting colors

A plant looks green because
green light reflects off it into
our eyes. The other colors of

light from the sun are
absorbed by the
plant’s leaves.

Yellow Yellow and
(Primary) red make
orange.

Yellow and blue
make green.

Blue Red
(Primary) (Primary)

Silk dress Mixing colors Blue and
from 1750 red make
purple.
Fashion
Primary paint colors can be
All around the world,
different styles and colors mixed to make secondary colors.
are used in clothing to help
people express themselves. The primary colors are red, yellow,
Fashion changes over time.
Clothes are very different and blue. Secondary colors can

now from those worn also be mixed to make new
250 years ago.
colors—for example, mixing

orange and green

makes brown.

27

Art SEE ALSO
▸▸ Ancient Rome
When you create a picture or sculpture, you are making art.
Art can show something from real life or the imagination, p.20
and is made of different materials. Throughout history, ▸▸ Color pp.26–27
people have drawn or painted pictures of the world around ▸▸ Buildings p.48
them. Art helps us show our feelings about the world and ▸▸ Crafts p.75
creates beautiful objects to look at. ▸▸ Photography

Painting Bedroom in Arles by Vincent van Gogh, 1888 p.190
▸▸ Stone Age p.243
Painters use an object such
as a brush loaded with Landscape at Ceret
colored paint to create an by Juan Gris, 1911
image on paper, board, or
canvas. Paintings can be
detailed or simply show lines
and shapes.

Stone Age handprints at
Cueva de las Manos

Cave painting Lifelike painting Abstract painting
The first paintings were made on Many paintings show lifelike images from the Abstract art uses colors and
cave walls around 40,000 years world. This could be an indoor or an outdoor shapes to show amazing pictures
ago. They showed handprints, view, a person, or an object. that aren’t lifelike, but could
people, and animals. show something real.

Sculpture Dancer Adjusting her Shoe The Great Wave by Hokusai, c. 1831
by Degas, c. 1890
Sculptors work in clay, wood, stone,
metal, or other materials to create
objects. These might show people
or abstract shapes.

Sculpture of a man, Drawing Printing
from ancient Rome.
Artists use pencils, colored Pictures can be cut out of a material
crayons, chalk, charcoal, and ink such as wood and covered in ink or
to draw beautiful images on paper. paint. The ink or paint on the cutout
Drawing is quicker than painting, picture is then transferred onto
so it is a good way of recording paper, to create a print.
real-life scenes.

28

Asia SEE ALSO
▸▸ Ancient China
The biggest continent on Earth is Asia. More than
60 percent of the world’s population live here. p.16
Asia has many landscapes, from snow-capped
mountains and sun-scorched deserts to ▸▸ Ancient India
lush rain forests and sandy beaches. p.19

▸▸ Buildings p.48

▸▸ Mammals p.154

▸▸ Maps p.155

▸▸ World p.275

India and China Much of northern
Asia has a rocky
are both home landscape, with few
to more than people living in it.

one billion Flying squirrel Yakuts
people.
Cross-country
skiing in winter Baikal seal Kamchatka hot About
springs Asia

Weightlifting Saiga Raccoon Tokyo Population:
antelope dog Skytree 4.427 billion

Bactrian Forbidden Highest point:
camel City Mount Everest

Sand cat Lowest point:
Dead Sea, Israel
Yak Rice
Biggest desert:
Caracal Giant panda Golden Rice is one of Arabian Desert
larch the main foods
Burj Khalifa in most Asian Longest river:
countries. Yangtze, China

Sand dunes

Taj Mahal

Taj Mahal Indian Shwedagon
elephant Paya
India’s most famous building is
the Taj Mahal. It is made of white Orangutan
marble and was completed in
1648. The Taj Mahal is the burial Toraja house
place of Mumtaz Mahal, wife of
the emperor Shah Jahan.

Rafflesia

Pandas

These rare black-and-white bears
live in the mountains of China.
They spend most of their time
eating bamboo. Pandas
are a symbol of peace and
friendship in China.

29

Asteroids SEE ALSO
▸▸ Gravity p.125
Asteroids are rocky or metallic objects that travel ▸▸ Metals p.162
around the sun. They formed at the same time as the ▸▸ Meteorites
planets. Most asteroids are covered in craters, or dents,
from where they have smashed into each other. p.164
▸▸ Rocks and
Asteroid shapes The craters on an asteroid’s
surface are made by bumping minerals p.214
Most asteroids have uneven shapes, into smaller asteroids. ▸▸ Solar system
but the biggest asteroids are round.
The biggest asteroids are also called p.233
dwarf planets.
The asteroid

Toutatis is
3 miles

(5 km) long.

Scientists think Toutatis is It takes Toutatis
made of two separate pieces four years to travel
held together by gravity. around the sun.

Venus The main belt Asteroid mining
Mercury
Most asteroids travel Scientists think that in the future
around the sun in the people will mine asteroids for their
“main belt” between metals, minerals, and water. Spaceships
Mars and Jupiter. may stop off on asteroids as they
There are millions travel around the solar system.
of asteroids in this
Sun Mars belt, but they are
very far apart.
Earth

Jupiter The asteroid belt
30

Astronauts SEE ALSO
▸▸ Explorers p.96
Astronauts are people who are specially trained to take ▸▸ Moon p.171
part in missions in space. They help us learn more about ▸▸ Exploration
the universe we live in. Fewer than 600 people have
been into space, and only 12 have walked on the moon. pp.180–181
▸▸ Solar system
The helmet visor has a
special filter that shields p.233
sunlight, as it can be ▸▸ Space travel p.237
extremely bright in space. ▸▸ Universe p.263

Solar panels

A camera Tools can be The International
records what attached to the Space Station
the astronaut front of the
is seeing. spacesuit. The International Space
Station is a permanent
The backpack The suit is base for astronauts.
holds oxygen made of many The station is 250 miles
supplies for layers of fabric (400 km) above the
breathing. that keep the Earth. It can house six
astronaut safe astronauts at a time.
In 1961, Russian and warm.
space explorer
Becoming an astronaut
Yuri Gagarin
It takes many years of work to become an
became the first astronaut. Astronauts have to learn many
human to go new skills. They also train hard to make
into space. sure they are fit and healthy.

Astronaut suit Astronauts train underwater because
they float weightlessly, like in space.
Space can be both very hot and
very cold. To keep themselves safe, 31
astronauts wear special suits with
helmets, gloves, boots, and an air supply.

Astronomy SEE ALSO
▸▸ Earth p.83
Astronomy is the science of studying space. The first ▸▸ Light p.147
▸▸ Science p.217

astronomers looked at the night sky with just their eyes. ▸▸ The sciences
Modern astronomers use binoculars and telescopes to pp.218–219
look at things too far away to be seen with the naked
eye. They look at space to learn about our ▸▸ Sun p.247

▸▸ Universe p.263

planet and the universe around it.

Telescope The “eyepiece” has Rays of light
a small lens that enter the
Telescopes collect light and magnifies the image. telescope’s
magnify images of distant tube.
objects. They are made of A mirror reflects
specially shaped glass surfaces light towards
called mirrors and lenses, which the eye.
can bounce (reflect) or bend
(refract) rays of light.

Light is reflected off The biggest
this curved mirror. telescope on Earth

is the Gran Telescopio
Canarias in Spain. It

has a mirror 34 ft

(10 m) wide!

Earth in space

Until the 16th century, people believed
that the Earth was at the center of the
solar system. We now know this is not true.

Galileo Galilei Earth Moon
Sun
Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) was the first
scientist to use a telescope to study space People used to believe that the sun and moon
objects. However, his findings weren’t always moved around the Earth.
accepted by other
people. He was put
in prison for saying
that the sun, as
opposed to the
Earth, was at the
center of the
solar system.

Now we know that the moon moves around the
Earth, which moves around the sun.

32

Atmosphere SEE ALSO
▸▸ Atoms p.34
An atmosphere is a blanket layer of gases that surrounds a ▸▸ Earth p.83
planet or moon. The Earth’s atmosphere gives us the air we ▸▸ Gases p.117
breathe. It also keeps our planet warm, blocks harmful rays ▸▸ Meteorites p.164
from the sun, and stops space rocks from hitting us. ▸▸ Sun p.247
▸▸ Temperature p.252
▸▸ Weather p.271

Earth’s atmosphere The Hubble Space
Telescope travels around
The Earth’s atmosphere has five Earth in the exosphere.
layers, each of a different thickness. It takes amazing photos
The atmosphere gets thinner as of space.
it gets higher and closer
to space. Exosphere
The exosphere is the last layer
International
Space Station before outer space starts. It
reaches halfway to the moon.

Thermosphere
The temperature in this
layer can change a lot. The
thermosphere contains glowing
lights, known as auroras.

The first human in Mesosphere Aurora
space, Yuri Gagarin, This is the coldest part
traveled around of Earth’s atmosphere. It When a bit of space
the Earth in the stops falling space dust dust burns up in the
thermosphere. from striking the Earth. Earth’s atmosphere
it is called a meteor.
Highest Stratosphere
skydive The stratosphere contains the

ozone layer, which protects
us from the sun’s rays.

The highest Troposphere Airplanes fly in
skydive started The troposphere begins at the the troposphere.
Earth’s surface. It is where all
24 miles (39 km)
of our weather takes place.
above the Earth’s
surface.

33

Atoms SEE ALSO
▸▸ Carbon cycle p.49
Atoms are tiny, round building blocks that build everything
in the universe. They are so small we can’t see them and ▸▸ Changing states
are mostly made of empty space. Humans, cars, stars, and p.57
everything else around us are all made from tiny atoms.
▸▸ Chemistry p.58

▸▸ Elements p.90

▸▸ Solar system
p.233

Inside an atom? Atom The atoms in a
molecule share
Atoms are made of even An oxygen electrons.
smaller particles. There are molecule is
three types of particles made from two
inside atoms: protons, oxygen atoms.
neutrons, and electrons.

Nucleus Oxygen
The center molecules
of the atom
is called its Molecules
nucleus.
Two or more atoms
Protons stuck together are
called a molecule.
Neutron Molecules can be long
chains of atoms, or
Electrons arranged in shapes.
Electrons circle
the edges of There are
every atom.
7 billion

atoms in the period
at the end of this

sentence—more than
there are people
on Earth.

Carbon atoms

Carbon joins with other atoms
in molecules to form all living
things. Carbon atoms can be
arranged in different ways to
make different materials.

Diamond Pencil

34

Aztecs The turquoise stone SEE ALSO
symbolized the ▸▸ Buildings p.48
breath of the gods. ▸▸ Crafts p.75
▸▸ Farming p.98
The Aztecs were a people who lived ▸▸ Incas p.132
in Central America. They had a huge ▸▸ Maya p.158
empire between 1400 and 1519 ce, ▸▸ Religion p.208
during which time they built great
stone cities. Farmers produced corn
and avocados, and bred turkeys.

Aztec city Priests sacrificed Mask
animals and humans
At the center of each city stood using knives of flint. The Aztecs used masks in
a group of temples. Most temples religious ceremonies or to display
were set on top of enormous in temples. This wooden mask is
stepped pyramids that could be covered with pieces of a precious
more than 197 ft (60 m) tall. blue-green stone called turquoise.

Pyramids and Many pyramids had
palaces were twin temples on top.
made of stone.
Only priests and
those who were
to be sacrificed
climbed the
pyramid.

Markets
were held
once a week.

Boats were Crowds sang
used for during sacrifices.
transporting
goods. Most cities were built
beside lakes or rivers.
Merchants traveled
35 huge distances to
sell their goods.

Bicycles SEE ALSO
▸▸ Inventions
A bicycle is a two-wheeled vehicle. There are many types
of bicycles. Some are for cycling on the road, others for pp.136–137
riding up and down mountains, and others for racing
around a track. Cyclists wear helmets to ▸▸ Metals p.162
protect their heads.
▸▸ Sports p.239

▸▸ Games
pp.240–241

▸▸ Transportation
pp.258—259

How a bicycle works The hard outer covering
and spongy inner material
To move a bicycle forward, a of bicycle helmets protect
cyclist pushes down on the pedals. riders’ heads if they fall.
These move a chain connected to
the rear wheel. The bike is steered The right lever applies
with a set of handlebars, which the front brake, and the
have brake levers to help the left lever applies the
rider to slow down. rear brake.

This racing bike has The curved
very thin tires for handlebars on this
extra speed. bike allow the rider
to crouch down for
an easier ride.

The derailleur Bicycle wheels Cycle racing
is a part of the
bike that moves Most bicycle wheels have In the fastest type of bike
the chain to a traditional spokes (wire racing, riders compete on
different cog rods) that join the hub at bicycles without brakes
for going up the center of the wheel or gears. They ride on
or down hills. to the rim at the edge. sloped tracks in arenas
Racing wheels have just called velodromes. Other
Traditional a few large spokes. types of races take place
spoked on mountain tracks and
wheel on roads. The most famous
of these races is the
2,175 mile (3,500 km)
Tour de France.

Carbon-fiber
racing wheel

36

Big Bang SEE ALSO
▸▸ Atoms p.34
Scientists believe that the universe began in a ▸▸ Elements p.90
dramatic event called the Big Bang, 13.8 billion years ▸▸ Gases p.117
ago. The universe was tiny at the start, but it has ▸▸ Light p.147
been expanding ever since. ▸▸ Solar system p.233
▸▸ Universe p.263
1. The Big Bang Creation ▸▸ Volume p.269
The universe was tiny and
very hot. It started to grow. The universe started as a tiny Re-creating the
point of pure energy. It then Big Bang
2. Atoms
After 380,000 years, began to quickly expand and Scientists try to create the conditions
tiny particles formed, cool down. Over time it got of the Big Bang in huge machines
called atoms. bigger and bigger. called accelerators, which smash tiny
particles together.
3. First stars and galaxies Scientists think
The first stars and clusters of the first stars were Particle
stars, called galaxies, appeared probably very big accelerator
100 to 200 million years after and very bright.
the Big Bang.

Most scientists Light from distant
galaxies travels
think our universe for billions of
will keep years before it
reaches Earth.
expanding

forever.

4. Our solar system
The sun and the rest of the solar
system formed nine billion years
after the Big Bang.

The space between
galaxies keeps expanding.

The universe may keep
expanding forever.

5. Today’s universe
The universe is still expanding.
Scientists study this stretching of
space by measuring how fast other
galaxies are moving away from us.

37

Biology SEE ALSO
▸▸ Cells p.56
Biology is the science of living things. It studies how ▸▸ Evolution p.95
plants and animals interact with each other and their ▸▸ Food p.106
surroundings. It includes grouping and labeling living ▸▸ Food chains p.107
things and investigating how they live. ▸▸ Habitats p.126
▸▸ Human body p.130
Each part of a plant has a Botany ▸▸ Plants p.194
name. This is the petal. This is the study of
plants, from tiny Ecology
The human body is mosses and algae The study of how
made up of many plants and animals
connecting parts. all the way to depend on each other
massive trees. and their environment,

Human biology to survive.
This investigates
how the human
body works—how
it’s put together,
and what it needs
to stay healthy.

Biology

Biology covers lots of
different areas. It can be
broken down into smaller
sections that often overlap.

Zoology Living things
Zoology is the are made of
study of animals— tiny parts
how their bodies called cells.
work and develop
and how they Microbiology
This is the study of
behave. tiny living things

like bacteria,
viruses, and fungi.

38

Birds SEE ALSO
▸▸ Aircraft p.13
Birds are animals that have feathers and beaks. They lay ▸▸ Animal groups
hard eggs, which their chicks hatch out of. Most birds can
fly, and they are found all over the world. p.22
▸▸ Dinosaurs p.80
Brightly colored ▸▸ Eggs p.86
feathers stand ▸▸ Fruit and seeds
out among
the trees. p.115
▸▸ Rain forest p.204

Short beak to pick
up nuts and seeds.

Hooked beak for Yellow
picking food. warbler

Macaw Songbirds

Parrots Strong claws Most birds in the world are part
to move along of a huge family called songbirds.
These tropical birds are branches. Each type of songbird has its
colorful and often very own special song.
noisy. They are strong fliers
and eat fruit, nuts, and seeds. Long tail
feathers help
with steering.

Large wings Curved beak There are almost
help to fly high. tears food.
10,000 different
Birds of prey
kinds of birds.
Birds of prey hunt
Bald eagle for their food. They
have sharp beaks,
fly fast, and grab
food, such as fish,
with their feet.

Long, curved bill Swimming birds
used to find food.
Not all birds can fly.
Wading birds Webbed Penguins swim
feet for underwater instead.
These long-legged birds walking Their feathers are
wade around in the mud. in water. waterproof, and they
They search for small use their wings to steer.
animals, such as crabs,
in the water to eat. Emperor penguin

Scarlet ibis
39

Black holes SEE ALSO
▸▸ Galaxies p.116
Black holes are the universe’s most mysterious objects. ▸▸ Gravity p.125
They form when a star much more massive than the sun ▸▸ Light p.147
runs out of fuel. It explodes as a “supernova,” then ▸▸ Physics p.192
collapses under its own gravity, creating a black hole. ▸▸ Stars p.242
▸▸ Sun p.247
▸▸ Volume p.269

The enormous The edge of a
gravity of a black black hole is called
hole distorts space an event horizon.
and time.
Invisible monster

We can’t see black holes, as even
light gets trapped by their gravity.
However, many are surrounded by
hot discs of gas and dust, which give
off high-energy radiation that can
be seen using special telescopes.

Black holes can

collide with other

black holes and

get larger.

Supermassive black hole The center of a
black hole is called
The most massive black holes are found at the a singularity.
center of galaxies such as the Milky Way. They
may form when massive clouds of gas collapse. Spaghettification

Things that fall into black holes are
stretched out, or “spaghettified.” An
imaginary astronaut would feel a
stronger pull on one end of their body
than the other, stretching them apart.
40

Body cells SEE ALSO
▸▸ Cells p.56
Body parts are made up of tiny things called cells. Cells
have important jobs to do, like sending messages, turning ▸▸ Genes p.119
food into energy, and fighting off germs. Every cell has a
particular job to do to keep the body healthy. ▸▸ Human body
p.130

▸▸ Microscopic life
p.165

▸▸ Sickness p.225

▸▸ Skin p.229

Inside a cell Nucleus
The nucleus is the control
All our body cells have an center of the cell. It
outer shell with a liquid contains instructions
inside. In the very center called genes.
of the cell is a core,
called the nucleus.

Mitochondria Cell membrane
These tiny structures The membrane is
release energy to the edge of the cell.
power the cell. It allows things to
move in and out.

Cytoplasm There are
Cytoplasm is a approximately
liquid inside the cell
where chemicals 37.2 trillion
mix together to cells in the
bring the cell to life. human body!

Types of cell Red blood cells Fat cells store and Nerve cells have
pick up oxygen release energy. long stems. They
Cells come in many from the lungs They protect the carry electrical
different sizes and and transport it body from bumps messages to
shapes. Each one is around the body. and knocks. the brain.
perfectly suited for
the job it does in White blood cells Intestine cells
the body. Cells can change shape and are frilly. The
divide to make more squeeze in frills absorb
of themselves. between other useful nutrients
cells to kill germs. from food.

41

The story of... Animal stories

Storytelling Many stories feature animals
as their main characters. These
Storytelling is the activity of telling or writing animals speak and dress like real
stories. They can be real or made up, can be
of any length, and can be about any subject. people, although they often
People have always told stories to entertain live in animal homes. Br’er
each other or to inform people about, and Rabbit is a character
make sense of, their world. from the South.

Oral history Br’er Rabbit
wears human
Because early people clothes.
couldn’t read or write, they
passed on stories by telling Br’er Rabbit

them to each other. The
storyteller often acted out
bits of the story. People still

tell stories in this
way today.

In ancient India, Storytelling in a library
people recited all
What is a story?
10,600
verses of the sacred A story is a fictional (made-up)
hymn book, Rigveda, account of imaginary or real
from memory.
events and people. A story has a
beginning, a middle, and an end.

The Chinese story of Pangu
explains the creation
of the Earth.

Beginning Middle End
In the beginning, there was chaos. Out As Pangu grew up, he created the Earth When Pangu died, his breath became
of chaos came an egg, and out of this and the sky, and stood between them the wind, his voice became thunder,
egg hatched Pangu, the first creature. to force them slowly apart. and his bones became valuable minerals.

42

Poetry Fairy tales

Poetry is a type of A fairy tale is a story that
literature. It often has short, contains magic and characters
rhyming lines joined together such as fairies, witches, goblins,
in verses. A poem uses words or giants. Fairy tales tell the story
of good versus evil, and usually
very carefully to suggest have a happy ending. Sleeping
different meanings or ideas. Beauty, Aladdin, and The Boy

It can be any length and Who Cried Wolf are
about any subject. all examples of
fairy tales.

Beowulf is a very In the fairy tale
long poem about Aladdin, a genie
an ancient hero. magically appears
from a lamp.

Novels Magical lamp

A novel is a long With more than
story about people and
their lives. Novels can be set in 8,000 pages, the
imaginary or real worlds, and can
take place at any point in time. world’s longest novel is
There are many different types of Men of Goodwill by
novel. For example, a historical French author Jules
novel would be set in the past Romains.
and teach about history.

Filming Films
Romeo
and Juliet Films are a visual
form of stories. Actors
Children’s stories perform the story in
from around a real-life setting. The actors
the world speak the lines of the story
and try to make the film as

realistic and lifelike
as possible.

43

Books SEE ALSO
▸▸ Storytelling
Books are collections of written words put together
to tell stories or give you information. Before books were pp.42–43
invented, people shared stories by remembering and
telling them to each other. Millions of books have been ▸▸ Inventions
created since paper was invented, and many are now read pp.136–137
on electronic devices such as tablets.
▸▸ Language p.144

▸▸ Materials p.157

▸▸ Writing p.280

Early books Medieval prayer book

Books have been written
and decorated by hand
for thousands of years.
Pages were often made
from parchment, which is
the thinned skin of an
animal. These books took
a long time to make.

J.K. Rowling’s Golden book
first Harry Potter In Europe, monks wrote
book has sold more the first books in Latin. They
decorated them with real gold.
than 100 million

copies since
1997.

Printing

In around 1440 in Germany,
Johannes Gutenberg invented
the printing press. He carved
single letters onto metal
blocks, then put them
together as words, and
printed them onto pages.

1900s Fiction Non-fiction
printing
press A book of fiction is a story in A non-fiction book contains facts
which the author writes about about the real world. Dictionaries,
imaginary people and events. atlases, cookbooks, and books
Fiction books can also be about history and animals are all
called novels. examples of non-fiction books.

44

Brain SEE ALSO
▸▸ Body cells p.41
The brain controls the whole body. Every time we think, ▸▸ Feelings p.99
feel, or move, the brain is at work. It even keeps working ▸▸ Human body
when we’re asleep. The brain is the most complicated
organ in the living world. p.130
▸▸ Robots p.212
▸▸ Sight p.226
▸▸ Sleep p.231

Mov Brain
ement Nerves
Touch Planning Thinking
Speaking Judging Nervous system
Understanding
words Feeling Nerves connect the brain
to the rest of the body in a
Sound Taste network called the
Smell nervous system. Nerves
Recognizing Feelings carry information between
Vision faces different body parts.

Brain map Memory

Different areas of The brain has an Brain areas
the brain are in area especially for Senses
charge of different storing memories. Thoughts
jobs in the body. Language
This area controls Movement
coordination, Understanding
helping different the world
parts of the body Feelings
work together. Coordination

The spinal cord
sends signals to
and receives
signals from the
rest of the body.

Thinking Neuron Acting alone
passes
The brain is made up of on signal. The brain does some things
tiny cells called nerves, or without us having to think.
neurons. They look like For example, it keeps our
little trees. When we hearts pumping blood
think, tiny electrical and around our bodies at the
chemical signals move right speed and controls
quickly through the cells. our breathing.

45

Bridges SEE ALSO
▸▸ Cars p.52
Bridges are structures that carry people and vehicles ▸▸ Engineering p.91
over obstacles. They are usually built over rivers, ▸▸ Materials p.157
valleys, and roads. Bridges are designed to hold ▸▸ Rivers p.211
heavy loads and survive bad weather. ▸▸ Storms p.243
▸▸ Transportation
Bridge types
pp.258–259
Engineers design different types of bridges
depending on the size of the gap to be The wires used
crossed, the type of land around it, and for the cables on
the weight of the crossing traffic.
the Golden Gate
Suspension bridges Bridge could go
A suspension bridge can carry
heavy loads. Steel cables are around the Earth
anchored to strong supportive three times.
towers, spreading the weight.
Tall towers at each
Cables provide end of the bridge
support from above. are anchored deep
in the ground.

Golden Gate Bridge, Road or
San Francisco, CA walkway made
from strong
concrete.

Arch Truss Beam
Arch bridges are usually made of stones A truss bridge is built from triangles called A beam bridge is the most simple design.
cut into exactly the right wedge shapes trusses. Triangles are the strongest shapes, All the weight is placed directly on top.
to form an arch. so this bridge can carry heavy weights. It is built to be stiff and not bend.

46

Bronze Age SEE ALSO
▸▸ Buildings p.48
The Bronze Age is a period of history after the Stone Age ▸▸ Crafts p.75
and before the Iron Age. It began about 5,500 years ago ▸▸ Iron Age p.140
when societies first learned to make a metal called bronze. ▸▸ Metals p.162
Bronze is a mix of the metals tin and copper. Combined, ▸▸ Stone Age p.243
these metals are stronger than they would be alone. ▸▸ Trade p.257
▸▸ Writing p.280

Br onze Age bracelets Bronze weapons Bronze Age spear tip
were used by the
Bronze first armies during Early writing

Using bronze tools allowed the Bronze Age. The first written language
societies to clear more land was invented in the Bronze
for farming, and to grow, store, Age. It was called cuneiform.
and trade more food and goods. Writers used pointed reeds
Bronze was also used to make called styluses to make marks
weapons and jewelry. in soft clay tablets, which
then hardened.
Settlements
People traded more with
During the Bronze Age, other societies during the
people lived together in Bronze Age. Some traders
large groups for the first used their money to buy
time. Settlements were bronze jewelry.
bigger than earlier
villages had been. Bronze Age cuneiform
There were even tablet from Iraq
towns and cities.
These buildings The houses have
in Germany are wooden frames and
copies of Bronze are built on stilts.
Age houses.

47

Buildings SEE ALSO
▸▸ Ancient Greece
A building is a solid structure fixed in one place. It has walls
and a roof to shelter us from the weather. The shape of the p.18
building depends on its purpose. Buildings can be many
different things, including hospitals, schools, and houses. ▸▸ Ancient India
p.19

▸▸ Bridges p.46

▸▸ Castles p.53

▸▸ Engineering p.91

▸▸ Factories p.97

Types of buildings Older buildings, The world’s
like this cathedral,
Many towns and cities have a mix of are less tall but are tallest building,
buildings from across history. These often designed
buildings have different designs and to look very the Burj Khalifa in
are made from a variety of materials. impressive. Dubai, is 2,716 ft
(828 m) tall—which
Skyscrapers are Modern buildings is more than 100
tall buildings with are often made
many floors. They of glass. Glass is houses tall.
are used as offices strong and lets in
or apartments. lots of light.

Stone has been
used for building
for thousands of
years, because it
is strong and
lasts a long time.

London skyline

Construction

Machines are used to put up
large buildings. Foundations
are dug deep into the
ground to stop the building
from falling down. Cranes
lift heavy building materials
such as steel beams and
panes of glass for windows.

48


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