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Published by sridzuaniah, 2019-07-18 02:30:59

Topik_9_Life Threatening Condition

Topik_9_Life Threatening Condition

Management of Life
Threatening Condition

Hasil pembelajaran

Diakhir sesi pembelajaran, pelajar dapat:

1. Menerangkan kepentingan tindakan awal
menyelamatkan nyawa.

2. Melakukan teknik dalam cardiopulmonary
resuscitation dan choking dengan turutan yang
betul bagi menyelamatkan nyawa.

CPR
CHAIN OF SURVIVAL

BLS ACLS

Life Threatening
Condition

Respiratory Arrest Cardiac Emergencies
1. Airway obstruction
2. Choking 1. Acute myocardial
3. Drowning infarction

2. Cardiac Arrest
3. Asystole

4. Ventricular fibrillation
5. Pulseless ventricular

tachycardia

Cardiovascular
Emergencies

AMI/ Heart attack
adalah kematian otot
miokardium
disebabkan oleh
kurang bekalan darah.

Rawatan Kecemasan

1. Check ABCs
2. Call EMS
3. If possible, give nitroglycerine
4. If needed, use AED

DEFISIT DEATH
BEKALAN
OKSIGEN

CLINICAL BIOLOGICAL
DEATH DEATH

• Kematian peringkat pertama. • > 4 – 6 minit, sel-sel otak
• Berlaku selepas jantung & paru mula terjejas peranannya.

-paru gagal berfungsi. • > 10minit seluruh sel otak
• Oksigen boleh bertahan selama tidak lagi berfungsi.

4-6 minit selepas pernafasan & • Brain death akan berlaku.
denyutan jantung terhenti.

Cardiopulmonary
Resuscitation

• D = Danger
• R = Responsiveness
• S = Shout for HELP

• A = Airway
• B = Breathing
• C = Chest Compression
• D = Defibrillation

D: Danger

1. Pastikan persekitaran selamat untuk
penyelamat dan mangsa.

2. Bawa mangsa ke tempat yang selamat.
3. Pakai Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).
4. Pastikan katil @ strecther @ troli kukuh.

R: Responsiveness

• Gerakkan mangsa.
• Tepuk di bahu.
• Panggil dengan kuat:

“ARE YOU OK?”

S: Shout for HELP

• Minta pertolongan
“TOLONG”.

• Activate “Code Blue”.
• Telefon ambulan.
• Bawa troli

kecemasan/defibrilator.
• Posisikan ke supine.

A- Airway

B- Breathing

• Look 5-10sec
• Listen
• Feel

Mulakan tekanan dada dengan segera jika tiada pernafasan @
pernafasan abnormal (abnormal breathing).

C-Chest Compression
Lokasi tangan

• bahagian heel tangan • Interlock jari kedua
pada lower ½ sternum. belah tangan.

C- Chest Compression

• PUSH HARD, PUSH FAST.

• Rate: 100 -120/minit.
• Depth: 5 - 6cm
• Recoil: Benarkan chest recoil

selepas setiap tekanan dada.
• Ratio chest compression to

ventilation:30:2
• Minimal interuption < 10s.

Ventilation

• 2 kali bantuan pernafasan (< 5s) selepas
30 tekanan dada.
Setiap pernafasan 1saat.

• Perhatikan pengembangan dada.

D - Defibrillation

• Pasangkan manual external defibrillator @
AED (Automated External Defibrilator) tanpa
menghentikan tekanan dada.

• Cara pasang pad defib :

– di pertengahan dada kanan dan,
– di bahagian apek jantung.

• Periksa ritma jantung setiap 5kitaran/2 minit.

Defibrillator

Manual External Defibrillator

AED (Automated External
Defibrillator)



Reassessment

• Periksa nadi karotid dan pernafasan selepas setiap 5
kitaran.

• Jika terdapat nadi dan pernafasan:
1. Hentikan CPR.

2. Letak pesakit dalam posisi recovery (jika mangsa tidak

sedar).

• Jika tiada nadi :
1. Teruskan CPR sehingga bantuan tiba.

• Jika ada nadi tetapi tiada pernafasan:

Menghentikan CPR

• Menghentikan CPR apabila:

o Mangsa pulih dengan nadi dan pernafasan yang
normal.

o Bantuan tiba dan digantikan oleh penyelamat lain.
o Penyelamat keletihan.
o Lokasi tidak selamat.

• Avoid exhaustion:

– Switch role of chest compression every 5 cycle/
2minutes.

D- Danger Wear PPE
You, victim and bystander safe

R- Response Shake victim on the shoulder.
Ask loudly “ Hello. Are you Okay?”

S- Shout Shout for HELP
Get E Trolley

A- Airway Perform head tilt, chin lift @ jaw thrust.

B- Breathing Assess breathing (5-10s)
Start compression if not breathing or abnormal breathing (gasps only)

C- Circulation Push hard, push fast
Depth : 2inci (5 – 6cm)
Rate: 100 - 120/min
Ratio 30:2
Each breath given over 1 second to ensure visible chest rise.

D- Defibrillation Attach AED as soon as possible without interrupting compression.
•Follow AED prompt
•Manual defibrillator –shock if VF/VT recognizes.

•Shockable: give 1 shock, resume CPR immediately for 2minutes.
•Non Shockable: Resume CPR immediately for 2 minutes.

Check rhythm every 2 minutes.

CHOKING

Choking

• Lidah merupakan sebab utama choking
berlaku kepada mangsa unconscious.

• Mangsa boleh tercekit disebabkan oleh:

1. Vomitus
2. Foreign body
3. Swelling (allergic reactions/ irritants)

Manifestasi Klinikal

• Kesukaran untuk batuk.
• Tidak boleh bercakap, bernafas atau

batuk.
• Universal distress signal (clutches neck).
• Cyanosis.
• Wheezing.

Adult with Foreign Body
Airway Obstruction

Paediatric with Foreign
Body Airway Obstruction

Give 5 back blow Give 5 chest thrusts

Paediatric Foreign Body
Airway Obstruction

Mengenali Choking

• Kesukaran untuk batuk.
• Tidak boleh bercakap, bernafas atau

batuk.
• Universal distress signal (clutches

neck).
• Cyanosis.
• Wheezing


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