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Published by mjarvis, 2019-09-11 10:55:35

9780435047511_takeapeek

9780435047511_takeapeek

An Introduction to the

Hair Beautyand
Sector

Gilly Ford
Helen Stewart
Samantha Taylor

Heinemann is an imprint of Pearson Education Limited, Acknowledgements
Edinburgh Gate, Harlow, Essex, CM20 2JE.
The author and publisher would like to thank the following
www.pearsonschoolsandfecolleges.co.uk individuals and organisations for permission to reproduce
photographs:
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Every effort has been made to contact copyright holders
Printed in Spain by Grafos S.A. of material reproduced in this book. Any omissions will be
rectified in subsequent printings if notice is given to the
Websites publishers.
There are links to relevant websites in this book. In order to
ensure that the links are up-to-date, that the links work, and Author acknowledgements
that the sites aren’t inadvertently linked to sites that could be Gilly Ford: My heartfelt thanks to the excellent ‘hair and beauty
considered offensive, we have made the links available on our team’ at Bolton College whose passion and commitment to
website at www.pearsonhotlinks.co.uk. Search for this title or teaching hairdressing and beauty therapy inspires me!
ISBN 9780435047511. Helen Stewart: To Ade, Paul and Mike for their love and
support, and to Sharon Sawyer and Susan Cressy for their
friendship, as well as their thoughts and suggestions when
writer’s block set in!
Samantha Taylor: I would like to acknowledge all those industry
specialists and qualification developers who collaborated to
produce a valuable entry-level qualification in hair and beauty
where it previously didn’t exist. They have made the writing
of this student handbook, designed to support learners’
throughout their course, possible.

Contents 2
4
Acknowledgements
Introduction 6
16
Generic units 34
44
Introduction to the hair and beauty sector 52
Follow health and safety in the salon 58
Presenting a professional image in a salon
Salon reception duties 82
Create an image using colour 90
Anatomy and physiology 106
118
Hairdressing units
144
Shampoo and conditioning 154
Styling women’s and men’s hair 174
Plaiting and twisting hair 194
The art of dressing hair 208

Beauty therapy units 224
225
Skin care 228
Hand and foot care
Basic make-up application
Themed face painting
Nail art

Mapping grid
Answers to ‘Just checking’
Index

3

Introduction

This book has been written to help you achieve your Entry 3 and Level 1 quali cation(s) in An
introduction to the hair and beauty sector. It has been designed to provide you with all the
information you need to guide you through the quali cation for the main awarding bodies
(City & Guilds, VTCT and Edexcel). It contains lots of technical information and real-life salon
situations, including step-by-step photographs and illustrations of hairdressing and beauty
therapy tasks. Some of the units are just about hairdressing, some are just about beauty
therapy and some units relate to both (these are known as generic units).

Generic units
• Introduction to the hair and beauty sector (Entry 3 and Level 1)
• Follow health and safety in the salon (Level 1)
• Presenting a professional image in a salon (Entry 3 and Level 1)
• Salon reception duties (Level 1)
• Create an image using colour (Entry 3)

Hairdressing Beauty therapy
• Shampoo and conditioning (Entry 3) • Skin care (Entry 3)
• Styling women’s and men’s hair (Level 1) • Hand and foot care (Entry 3)
• Plaiting and twisting hair (Level 1) • Basic make-up application (Level 1)
• The art of dressing hair (Level 2) • Themed face painting (Level 1)
• Nail art (Level 1)

Anatomy and physiology is covered in a separate unit but includes all of the hairdressing and
beauty therapy information you will need.

This quali cation is for anyone, at any age, who wishes to follow a career in either hairdressing
or beauty therapy. The quali cation acts as a good introduction to working in hairdressing
or beauty therapy. You can begin to develop the necessary skills without having to show
occupational competence, as is necessary when completing an NVQ quali cation.

This quali cation aims to provide you with:

• knowledge and skills (for Hairdressing or Beauty Therapy) that will provide a good foundation

for further learning

• the skills to perform your own services and to assist colleagues in the salon
• an introduction to the hairdressing and beauty therapy industries and the skills required to

work in them, helping you to decide whether this is the right career for you

• a chance to decide if you have the right personal skills to work in hairdressing and/or beauty

therapy

• a general insight into the world of work.

Methods of assessment

While working towards this quali cation, you will be assessed in a number of di erent ways,
depending on the awarding body quali cation you are taking:

4 An introduction to the hair and beauty sector

City & Guilds

For City & Guilds, each assignment is divided into a series of tasks. To achieve each unit you
have to complete all the tasks. For each unit there is likely to be:

• a task that requires you to prove your subject knowledge
• a task that requires you to nd out and report on hairdressing and beauty treatments, products

and fashions within the industry

• a task that requires you to show your practical skills.

VTCT

The method by which you are assessed will vary from unit to unit so you will need to check your
record of assessment book for the speci c requirements for each unit. For each of the practical
units you will have a practical observation. You may also be questioned using oral questioning
by your tutor or assessor to check your knowledge and understanding of the unit.

You will also need to produce a portfolio of evidence, either electronically or paper-based, to
show your knowledge, understanding and skills. Your tutor or assessor will be able to give you
further details on how to put it together and what it needs to contain.

Edexcel

Evidence will be assessed in a variety of ways. Your tutor or assessor will carry out observations
of your practical skills. You will also have to complete some written assignments to test your
knowledge and understanding. You will also be required to answer oral questions and have
discussions with your tutor or assessor to demonstrate your understanding.

Features of this book

As you read through this book, you will notice several special features. Key term

• Starter questions – an interesting question to start you thinking about the topic. Technical – words or
• Key terms – some of the words used in this book might be new to you, especially if
they are technical. They appear in bold and the meaning of the word can be found phrases that you will need

in the margin, just as in the example given here. special knowledge to
understand
• Top tips – bits of information and great pieces of advice that will help you work
professionally.

• In the salon – an example of a real-life situation from a salon with questions to get
you thinking about what you might have done in the same situation.

• Try it out – fun activities or tasks that get you to think about or build on what you have read.
• Just checking – questions at the end of each spread so you can make sure you have
understood and remembered what you have learned so far.

• Functional skills icons – to help you spot activities that support functional skills. If you are
taking this quali cation as part of a foundation learning programme, you will attend classes on

functional skills, English, Mathematics and ICT.

Introduction 5

Introduction to the hair
and beauty sector

In this unit you will learn about:
• Working in the hairdressing and beauty industry
• Career opportunities and working patterns in the beauty and

hairdressing sectors

• Different types of salon
• The main hairdressing services and beauty treatments available

Introduction

This is a very exciting time in your career as a hairdresser or beauty therapist. When you start out
in this industry you have many choices. The hair and beauty sector provides many di erent career
opportunities and a variety of occupational roles. Most of them o er di erent working patterns that
can easily t into your personal life. As you step into the hair and beauty sector you may already know
where you want your career to take you. However, you may move into an area that you never thought
about, as other opportunities arise.

Top tip Key terms

Because of the variety of jobs Career opportunities – the types of places you may go to work as
available in hair and beauty, try to a hairdresser or beauty therapist; for example, salon, nail bar, health
train in di erent areas before you and tness club
make your mind up what career Occupational roles – the types of job you may carry out in your
path to follow. Don’t limit yourself career; for example, salon manager, colour technician, make-up
to only one thing – try a few and artist
see where it takes you! Working patterns – the types of hours you work; for example, full-
time, part-time, evenings only, days only

6

Try it out

Think of several types of jobs or
places where you could work as
a hairdresser or beauty therapist.
Write a list. Highlight the ones that
you think you would really like for
your career. See if you feel the same
when you have looked through this
unit and learned more about each of
those choices.

Functional skills
English reading and writing

7

Working in the hairdressing
and beauty industry

In the salon – Jignesh

Jignesh began work as a junior in a barbers’ shop, sweeping up and
making drinks for clients and generally keeping the salon clean and
tidy while the barbers were busy cutting hair. He watched and learned
all the techniques and practised at home on his friends and family. He
was particularly interested in pattern work, where images are cut into
men’s short hair to create a variety of patterns and designs. He found
he had a real air for this and decided to make a career out of cutting
hair by enrolling at college on a Barbering NVQ Level 2 course.
While completing his course he observed the ladies’ hairdressing
classes and was drawn into ladies’ hair too. As he worked full-time in a
salon he signed up for an apprenticeship course so he could achieve NVQ Levels 2 and 3. He also began
entering competitions and his work became famous, leading him into TV and photographic work.
Now he is quali ed in both ladies’ and men’s hair, he has opened his own very successful hairdressing
salon. He is continuing his work in competitions as a National judge and has more TV work lined up!

In the salon – Katie

Katie began her hairdressing career straight from school at college on
a full-time combined hair and beauty course. She studied for 3 years
achieving NVQ Levels 1, 2 and 3 in Hairdressing and NVQ Levels 1 and
2 in Beauty Therapy. While a student she also entered competitions
and greatly enjoyed her training.
When she had nished at college she decided to follow hairdressing
instead of beauty and found herself a job in a city centre salon. Even
though she enjoyed the work in the salon, she was always more
interested in training the junior sta . Because of this, she decided to
try assessing/teaching at the college where she originally trained.
After a few years, and having gained lots of experience teaching a variety of learners at college, she went
to work as an educator at the Wella studios. Even though she only works for one product manufacturer,
she is nding it extremely challenging and ful lling. She is very satis ed in her chosen career.

8 An introduction to the hair and beauty sector

In the salon – Angela

Angela studied Beauty Therapy at college on a full-time basis for 3
years and achieved NVQ Levels 2 and 3 in Beauty Therapy. Although
she really loved Beauty, she felt that, at 21 years old, she couldn’t be
con ned to working in a salon environment anymore. She wanted to
travel and see some of the world. So she decided to combine the two
and found a job working on a Steiner cruise liner as a beauty therapist.

Although the hours were often long, and she regularly worked 6
days a week, she loved the travelling. She also met some marvellous
people. For 7 years she felt she had the perfect life but then, in her
late twenties, she decided to leave the ships and return home to work.
However, the routine of being based in a salon meant she was soon bored and she decided to begin
teaching.

She now works as a full-time beauty therapy lecturer, working mainly with Level 3 and Level 4 learners
and nds the variety this job o ers much more stimulating.

In the salon – Mykala

Mykala worked in a salon from the age of 14 as a Saturday junior. When
she left school she carried on working there and attended college 1 day
a week to gain her NVQs.

Mykala had a creative personality and was very interested in
photographic and TV work, especially dramatic make-up. She went to
night school and studied photographic and theatrical make-up, along
with Beauty NVQ Level 2. This gave her all the quali cations she needed
to nd work within TV, theatre and photographic work. She looked for
work in this area while continuing her job in the salon part-time.

However, she decided that she needed to work in this area full-time
and left the salon to become a freelance TV and photographic stylist. Now she works up and down the
country on di erent TV shows and on location wherever her job takes her. She has already built up a
good reputation and is working on some high-pro le shows.

Introduction to the hair and beauty sector 9

Career opportunities and working
patterns in the beauty sector

In this topic you will learn about:
• The occupational roles and career opportunities available in

the beauty sector

• The working patterns in the beauty sector

Q List all the di erent types of beauty therapy jobs you can think of.
Do any of them appeal to you strongly?

In the salon Try it out

Siobhain was working in the salon when an old college Visit the website for Habia (Hair
friend came in. Siobhain couldn’t wait to tell her she was and Beauty Industry Authority)
now the senior therapist and how well she had done for and the website for Connexions.
herself. Her friend then told her about her career on the Links to these sites have been
cruise liners. She had earned plenty of money and was now made available at www.
a college lecturer with a good wage and holidays that tted pearsonhotlinks.co.uk. Just search
in with her young family. Siobhain found herself thinking, for this title and click on this
‘Why didn’t I push myself to try something so exciting?’ activity. Search for information
about careers in beauty therapy.
Do you think her friend has chosen the most exciting career What is your dream career? How
path, and if so, why? If not, why does Siobhain’s job appeal many di erent routes can you take?
more to you?
Functional skills
ICT

Top tip

All of the career options in
beauty therapy can lead you to
work with a variety of clients
and earn di erent sums of
money. Think carefully about
what you want from a job in
terms of personal satisfaction
and reward.

10 An introduction to the hair and beauty sector

Working patterns in the
beauty sector

In beauty therapy, full-time work usually means working 40 hours per week
and part-time work is anything less than this. Shift work involves working
outside the hours of 9 am–5 pm, for example, 12 noon–8 pm. Most beauty
therapists will have to work weekends – are you happy to do this for the
rest of your working life? The following table shows the working patterns
you may come across.

Type of job in Potential working pattern Advantages and disadvantages
beauty
Therapist in a Shift work, full-time or part- Use of the gym facilities. Working shifts o ers you more
time and weekends due to free time in the day. However, working late evenings and
tness centre the long opening hours weekends may not be suitable.

Cruise liner Full-time, long days into early Travelling the world and meeting many di erent people.
therapist
Make-up artist, evenings and weekends Working away from home for long periods of time.
TV, theatre or
photographic Full-time or part-time, days, Flexible working where you may be able to choose your
nights, weekends, no set own working hours once you are established. Working
College lecturer place of work, travel involved long hours on shoots and travelling up and down the
country can be time-consuming.
Freelance
therapist Full-time or part-time, days May suit family commitments if you have children
or evenings, term time only at school. Lots of work to do outside of college
(preparation and marking, and college promotional
events to attend).

Full-time or part-time, days If you are successful and established you can choose
or evenings your own working times to t in around other
commitments; for example, children. Clients will phone
you evenings and weekends for appointments as you
don’t have set opening hours.

Just checking

1 If you achieve Level 3 Beauty Therapy, can you work for yourself visiting clients
in their own homes?

2 Where can you nd information about careers in beauty therapy?
3 What is the di erence between working full-time or part-time?

Introduction to the hair and beauty sector 11

Career opportunities and working patterns
in the hairdressing sector

In this topic you will learn about:
• The occupational roles and career opportunities available in

the hairdressing sector

• Working patterns in the hairdressing sector

Q With a partner, discuss the di erent areas of hairdressing you
could work in. Does either of you already have a passion for a
particular area?

In the salon Try it out

Paul had been working in a barbers’ salon Visit the website for Habia (the hair and beauty industry
for the past 5 years and felt a little bored. ainudtuhsotrriytya)uatnhdortihtye)waenbdstihteefworeCbosintenefoxrioCnosn. Lnienxkisons.
One day a rep for a new product company tLointkhsetsoetshiteessehsaitveesbheaevne mbeaednemavaadielaabvleaialatbwlewawt.www.
came in to talk about their range. As it pearsonhotlinks.co.uk. EJunsttesretharechexfporetshsiscotidtle XaXnXdXc.lick
was quiet, Paul decided to listen and was Soenatrhcihs faocrtivniftoyr.mSeaatriochn faobroinuftocramreaetirosninahbaoiurdtrceasrseinergs.
inspired by the range and the possibilities iWnhhaatirids ryeosusirndgr.eWamhactaisreyeoru?rHdorweamacnayredeir?eHreonwt rmouatneys
it o ered for a client’s hair and grooming dcai neyroenuttraokuet?es can you take?
routine. The rep told him they needed
salon trainers for their company and asked Functional skills – ICT
if he would be interested. Paul realised
this was just the opportunity he needed Key terms
to nd his passion again in hairdressing.
He contacted the company and after a Inspired – nding interest in something, wanting to
successful interview he found himself know more
driving around the country training and Grooming routine – an expression used to describe a
selling products. He loved his new job! shaving or trimming routine for men’s facial hair
Passion – enthusiastic, feeling strongly about
What do you think may have stopped Paul something
from progressing into this type of work
before?

12 An introduction to the hair and beauty sector

Working patterns in the
hairdressing sector

Hairdressing involves long days, most of which will be spent standing. It also
involves working weekends. Do you think you can handle this long term as a
career choice? The following table details the working patterns you may come
across in a variety of hairdressing jobs.

Type of job in Potential working Advantages and disadvantages
hairdressing pattern

Hairdressing in a Shift work, full-time Use of the gym facilities. Working shifts o ers you more free time
tness centre or part-time and in the day but working late evenings and weekends may not be
weekends due to the suitable.
long opening hours

Cruise liner Full-time, long days Travelling the world and meeting many di erent people. Working
hairdresser into early evenings away from home for long periods of time.
and weekends

TV or theatre or Full-time or part- Flexible working where you may be able to choose your own
photographic time, days, nights, working hours once you are established. Working long hours
stylist weekends on shoots and travelling up and down the country can be time-
consuming.

College lecturer Full-time or part- May suit family commitments if you have children at school. Lots
time, days or of work to do outside of college (preparation and marking, and
evenings, term time college promotional events to attend).
only

Freelance Full-time or part- If you are successful and established you can choose your own
hairdresser time, days or working times to t in around other commitments; for example,
evenings children. Clients will phone you evenings and weekends for
appointments as you don’t have set opening hours.

Just checking

1 If you achieve Level 3 Hairdressing, would you be quali ed to work
independently either as a salon owner or as a freelance hairdresser?

2 If you have problems standing for long periods because of injury or disability,
would hairdressing be a good career choice for you?

Introduction to the hair and beauty sector 13

Different types of salon and the main hairdressing
services and beauty treatments available

In this topic you will learn about:
• The di erent types of hair and beauty salons and the clients

they attract

• The main hairdressing services and beauty treatments

available in salons

Q Write down as many hairdressing services and beauty treatments as you
can think of that a salon may o er. Pick up a price/treatment list from a local
salon and compare it with your list to see what is available.

Types of salon and the clients they attract

The main hairdressing services o ered

in salons Try it out

Hairdressing Picture of Description of service

service service

Cutting <insert 047511_ Cutting hair either to restyle
ph_019> and create a new look or to
trim o the ends

Setting <insert 047511_ Using rollers or bendies to set
ph_020> the hair into curl or wave or
just to add volume

Colouring <insert 047511_ Changing hair colour,
ph_021> either temporary or more
permanent, darker or lighter

Extensions <insert 047511_ Adding extra hair to the
ph_022> natural hair using either
Patterning in human hair or synthetic hair
hair Look at the two images above and identify
<insert 047511_ Using the razor and clippers what looks di erent about them. What type
ph_023> to cut a pattern or design into of clients do you think each salon might
very short hair attract, for example, wealthy, trendy, older,
families?

14 An introduction to the hair and beauty sector

Main beauty treatments o ered by salons

Type of service Picture of service Description of service
Manicure
A treatment on the hand and nails that softens the skin and
tidies the nails before painting them

Waxing Removal of hair using either hot or cold wax

Facials A deep cleanse of the face using massage and masks to
remove dirt and debris
Eyelash
perming Curling the lashes using a small cotton rod and lotions (lasts
about 3 weeks)
Massage
A relaxing and comforting treatment where the hands are
massaged using cream, oil or talc

Just checking Top tip

1 Do you think hairdressing and beauty services can be combined into one salon? Make sure you are very
familiar your salon’s price/
2 Below there is a list of salon names. Which do you think are hair salons and treatment list. It may look
which are beauty salons? unprofessional if you don’t
a A Cut Above the Rest know when a client asks you.
b Body Perfect
c The Style Inn
d Aura Spa

Introduction to the hair and beauty sector 15

UsFNaoIflTelo1tIywninthretoahledthsuaaclnotdnion

In this unit you will learn about:
• Hazards and risks in the salon
• The Health and Safety at Work Act
• COSHH (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health)
• PPE (Personal Protective Equipment)
• The Electricity at Work Regulations
• Safe manual handling
• Methods of sterilisation
• Emergencies and rst aid
• Fire safety

Introduction

There are lots of rules about health and safety in the salon. They are there to make sure that everyone is
kept safe and free from harm.
This unit will help you to work safely in a salon by knowing what could possibly cause harm to you or
someone else. It will also show you how to deal with these problems to make sure the salon is a safe
place to work.
You will also learn what you should do if there is an accident or an emergency in the salon.

Top tip

Always follow the rules the salon owner gives you about working safely. This
will make sure both you and the salon owner don’t get into trouble.

16

Try it out

Have a look around the room
you’re in at the moment. Can
you see anything that you think
may cause you harm?

17

Hazards and risks and the Health
and Safety at Work Act

In this topic you will learn about:
• Hazards and risks in the workplace
• The Health and Safety at Work Act

Q Why do you think that hair and beauty salons have to be kept
clean and tidy? What might happen if a salon was allowed to get
untidy and dirty?

Hazards and risks

You will nd the words hazards and risks discussed frequently. It’s Water on the floor is a hazard and there is
important you know what they mean and the di erence between a risk that someone may slip and fall.
them.

• A hazard is something that could possibly cause an accident or an

injury. For example, water on the oor is a hazard as it could cause
someone to slip and fall.

• A risk is the likelihood (how likely something is to happen) that an

accident might occur. For example, how likely is it that someone
might slip on the water that has been spilled on the oor?

Health and Safety at Work Act

This is the main health and safety law. All employers have to To provide a safe To provide good
make sure the salon is a safe place for you to work. There are lots place to work entrances and exits
of di erent ways they can do this.
for the salon

To provide safe To keep humidity To provide
methods of storing, levels acceptable safe tools and

handling and recognising equipment to use
hazardous substances
To provide like chemicals To provide
information, Employers’ protective clothing
instruction, training responsibilities
and supervision of To make sure
employees – the the salon is the
right temperature
workers
to work in
To report To make sure there
accidents in are clean toilets and

wash areas

the right way To make sure the salon is properly

To make sure there are ventilated so the air is fresh and
good evacuation plans
To keep a fully stocked in place, including an well circulated to prevent problems
assembly point with fumes and dust
rst aid box

18 An introduction to the hair and beauty sector

The salon has to have its own health and safety policy. This
sets out the rules the employer must follow to make sure all
employees and clients are safe. Your employer must review the
policy at regular intervals to make sure it’s working well.

There will also be rules that you have to follow. You must make
sure that no one gets harmed because of things you do, or don’t
do. If you notice a hazard, try to deal with it immediately. If
you can’t, report it to your employer. For example, if you notice
there is hair on the oor, sweep it up straight away. If you don’t,
someone might slip and fall and hurt themselves.

Most accidents in the salon are caused by slips, trips and falls.

In the salon Try it out

Ami was a fun-loving junior in a busy salon. She loved salon life Has your salon got a health
and enjoyed chatting to the clients. The only down side was her and safety policy? Get a
manager – Ami always seemed to be in trouble. He was always copy and write down any
reminding her about health and safety but she couldn’t understand important information you
why it was so important.
Part of Ami’s role was to keep the salon clean and tidy and nd in it.
put things away. One of the stylists had just nished with the
straightening irons and asked Ami to them to turn them o and put Functional skills
them away – but she didn’t. A client had brought her young son into English
the salon and, when no one was looking, he picked them up and
burned his hand very badly.

• Was Ami at fault? Do you think the manager would be in trouble?

Just checking

1 An example of a hazard could be:
a A hairdryer
b Tweezers
c Hair on the oor
d Tiles on the oor.

2 Most accidents in the salon are caused by:
a Slips, trips and hops
b Hop, skip and jumps
c Slips, trips and falls
d Trips, journeys and jumps.

Follow health and safety in the salon 19

More on hazards and risks

In this topic you will learn about:
• More potential hazards and risks in the workplace

Q If you spot a bottle of nail varnish remover with its top o , what
should you do to make sure everyone in the salon is safe? Why do
you think it’s important?

Need original

20 An introduction to the hair and beauty sector


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