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Published by Fatin Izzaty, 2019-11-29 15:07:25

imr (2)

imr (2)












2019702223 2018208098


2018683262 2018639126 2019717659

10 - 25
MAGAZINE 26 - 31
32 - 37


Course Info


FACULTY OF 1957 was the year that Faculty
BUSINESS AND Business Management start to
MANAGEMENT build and create which is known as
Dewan Latihan RIDA (Rural
Industrial Development Authority).

This faculty manage all the courses
for Bumiputera, in Business and
Management in rural and urban
areas. During this year , the first
course that relevant in business
and management was 18 day
preparatory programmed for the
London Chamber of Commerce ath
Higher and Intermediate levels.

After 10 years, Dewan Latihan RIDA
was renamed after MARA College
(Maktab MARA). This was the
beginning for Faculty Business and
Management when Diploma in
Business Studies (DBS) and the
Diploma in Banking (DIB), has been
decided under control of College.


Bachelor of Business
(International Business)

Entry Requirements: SPM+STPM+MUET or its equiv.

Career Prospects:
Graduates can expect to
find employment at
multinational corporations,
at home and abroad, in the
field of international trade,
global marketing, business
management and business


Bachelor of Business
Administration (Event

Entry Requirements: SPM+STPM+MUET or its equiv.

Career Prospects:
Graduates can expect to
find employment at
corporations, at home and
abroad, in the field of
international trade, global
marketing, business
management and
business consultancy.


“You only live once, 5
but if you do it right,
once is enough.”



I am faeez farhan bin mohd firdaus, 23 years old. I
was born in pusat rawatan ibu kota Kuala Lumpur.
Now stay in Ampang, Selangor.

My journey began when I was attending preschool
at Sekolah Kebangsaan Taman Muda and continue
to study until I am in standard 6. Then I move to
boarding school in Kuala Lumpur which is Victoria
Institution from form 1 till form 5

After I finished my secondary school I further my
student in UiTM Machang, Kelantan as business
student. I finished my diploma for 2 year and half.
After finished diploma I worked for a while and
currently I am UiTM Puncak Alam student.

iman Muhammad nur iman is the name that
my parent gave to me. Hence the being
that i am today. Being grow up in Shah
Alam, Selangor my childhood was the
best, its because of my supportive

Started my school at Sekolah
Kebangsaan Seksyen 7 and then proceed
to Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan
Seksyen 7 which teaches many things
because it was a boarding school i
learned the importance of knowledge in

"BEAUTY IS NOTHING IF YOU HAVE A After my SPM, with a flying color result i
ROTTEN ATTITUDE AND was offered to go to Uitm Machang,
Kelantan. Which was the best in facility
in my opinion. Two years and a half of my
diploma years was full with new
experience, meeting new people, learning
the hard work to strive and survive inthe
new university environment. Finally i am
now at Uitm Puncak Alam, doing my
degree in International Business, i do
hope that my degree life will be just a
beautiful and fun like my previous
moment in life. The most important
thing in life is that we have to always be
connected to the almighty God. Because
the real hope is on God.






"It's not about
how hard you can
hit, it's about
how hard you can
get hit and keep
moving forward"

My name is Zahirah Binti Md Zaman. I am 22 years old and my
birthday at 31 October 1997. I was born in Universiti Malaya, Kuala
Lumpur and staying at Kota Damansara and move to Puncak Alam
during my diploma.  In primary school,

I studies in SK Seksyen 9 Kota Damansara and for secondary school

SMK Seksyen 10 Kota Damansara until i finished my SPM. After

finished my SPM,i finished my Diploma Technology Screen and for

now i got offered from UITM Puncak Alam in Degree Event

Management.  7



My name is Nur Aimi Erna
Nadia Binti Norazian.  I am
21 years old and my
birthday at 18 May 1998. I
was born in Perlis and
staying at Jitra,Kedah since

In primary school, I studies

in SK Hosba and for

secondary school SMK

Hosba until i finished my "Life is a question
STPM. After finished my

STPM, i got offered to and how we live it is

further my studies at UITM

Puncak Alam for course our answer"

Degree in Event

Management. 8

My name is Nurul Fatin Izzaty "Life is like playing a
Muhammad Faudzi. I am 21 violin in public and
years old and my birthday at 15 learning the instrument
February 1998. I was born in as one goes on "
Pusrawi, Kuala Lumpur and
staying at Kuala Lumpur since

In primary school, I studies in
SK Bandar Tasik Selatan and
for secondary school SMK
Bandar Tasik Selatan  and
continue my study in STPM at
SMK Seri Sentosa. After
finished my STPM, i got
offered to further my studies
at UITM Puncak Alam for
course Degree in Event





Electronic The fact that the author using empirical across different types of record keepers
Records based on the need for education and training types
Management: The observation is actually are a good point revealed by the different record keepers
Development of A and by giving example it will helps us by their words and ideas. The author
Model of to understands more on his points. apply best and easy method to share with
Education and organizations and peoples but
Training for In the first section of methodology, the unfortunately there are some things
Record Keepers. article introduces the technique and happened due to the lack of verification
strategy that were choose in respond to from the respondents so this kind of
Good record-keeping is an essential part the analysis was quantitative data. The things is not supposed to happened
of running a successful business. authors mention that idea was came from especially when it comes to government
Accurate, organised records make it Yin (2004) “suggests the relevance of and policies issues.
quicker to prepare your accounts at year- qualitative research methods including
end, help you monitor your company’s “survey” and “case study” strategies Keeping accurate and up-to-date records
cashflow and ensure you are tax-efficient used for this particular work”. Qualitative is vital to the success of any business. The
(Sophie Turton, 2015). This will helps data gathered and analysis techniques business must realise that records kept
organization to organised record well- will be one of the most important
ordered and tidy especially when disaster were chosen to keep and collect all the management tools. There are many
happened to the business organization . data. This process was accomplished after benefits in finding and hire a good record
This could lead to a lot of negativity and using four steps according to the keeping In develop a model of education
destroying of the document if the record standards of phases. After accomplished and training for record keeper by using
keeper is not well prepared. In this case, all the phases, the qualitative data was previous models and pragmatic it was the
we need a high quality of model and a collected via a person and organization best method for current international best
high standard of education gain that involve. Even though, the data was practices even though the data was
knowledge and skills to ensure that contributed by the by the informants or collected through web service. Academic
organization have a good record keeper respondent but it was confirm against the institutions of higher learning have
for the effective management of documentary sources. Due to this played a significant role in delivering
electronic records. It is necessary to issue, government and the policies on educational and training programs on
clearly define the core competencies and electronic records management was ERM in developed countries such as
key knowledge and skills required by all checked against the relevant published Australia, UK, US , Canada and Europe
records management staff so as to ensure information. At the end of the process, the (Rusnah Johare, 2012).
that colleagues understand their roles and qualitative data was have two levels
responsibilities, can offer expert advice (contiguous and multi-dimensional). This shows that by having higher
and guidance, and can remain proactive education and good training will led to a
in their management of record keeping At a contiguous level, even though Nvivo great model and example to organization.
issues and procedures (National Records version 6 was used, the writers need to Education is considered as one of the
of Scotland, 2016). make sense of the data in which patterns primary inspiring factors beyond national
apparent in relation to various types economic development and is one of the
of education and training and their most effective ways in which individuals
contents were examined. At the multi-
dimensional level of analysis, the writers 11
explored patterns that were evident

can ever hope to achieve better Secondly, how to organize information. According to the Malaysian Service
opportunities and a higher standard of Archivists excel at organizing Circular No. 6 a government employees
living (Muaadh Mukred , Zawiyah M. are required to continuously attend
Yusof , Umi Asma’ Mokhtar Nazura Abdul information in a way that will courses, trainings and workshops
Manap, 2016) improve discovery by researchers. In the for at least seven days in a year
archives world, this is known as (collectively known as training) to
business records. Experimentation “arrangement and description” or, more improve their competencies. In this case,
is employed as integral tool of program informally, “processing.” to facilitate the management of these
development. The various components are Archivists might be helpful in arenas like training records MOE introduces Blue
tested experimentally against the shared drive clean up and file Card as a method to keep the training
conventional educational methods, which management. Thirdly, how to identify records. The Blue Card is to be completed
are used in the control groups (Henry W. historical records. Archivists are trained upon attending the trainings, as this card
Riecken, Robert F. Boruch,2013). to appraise records for archival value. serve as a prove to their attendance (
Basically, organization can used Just like you might consult an attorney to Rosnizam Eusoff Zawiyah M. Yusof, 2011).
experimental to see the potential of record determine the legal value of a record, you
keepers which workers are on the bottom should absolutely consult an archivist to .Document control in record management
and hire level. Comprehensive Program determine the historical value of a record. will become efficient and effective if the
Development is another method that Not only do many archivists receive record keepers managing the start from
organization can use. Experiments of this extensive training in archival appraisal; the day that were created until disposed
magnitude are less common. They involve they also work with researchers enough according to the retention schedule from
a total program including for example, to be able to know what information National Acrhieves. Proper records
staff training, program materials, people will need to conduct research, now procedures and guidelines will ensure the
administrative procedures, project and in the future (Texas Records, 2014) proper control, well organized and
leadership, institutional sponsorship and managed, accurately and reliably. This
in some cases legal and administrative In addition, Malaysia have set their own will enable the organisation to retrieve
changes necessary to make the program content in developing the record keepers. them fast and efficiently (Mr. S.
work successfully (Henry W. Riecken, The Ministry of Education of Malaysia Adikalsamy, 2018)
Robert F. Boruch,2013). In this paragraph (MOE) is the ministry with the most
we focus more on the method that can be number of staff. There are thousands of The training and education that require
used schools, institutions, education by stakeholder , there was no approval on
for organization to have systematic departments and sectors under the MOE’s body of knowledge or agreed to training
records management . jurisdiction (Ministry of Education, curriculum, except for the e-TERM
Malaysia 2012). This circumstances shows (European Education and Training for
In becoming a good model, record that we need a large volume of record Electronic Records Management). This
managers can learn a few things from keepers to handling this record because program was actually under the European
archivist. We identified three areas of the there are bunch different volume of Union’s Leornardo Project; the Five Day
archivist’s expertise that could be of great records but stills we need different Seminar Cycle (FDSC) developed by the
value to records managers such as how to players and different levels to ensure Netherlands Archives School. The author
preserve information. Besides ,Archivists every single records is keeping organized highlight about excellence procedure that
are trained on the long-term preservation well-ordered and based on the standard. have been used by the international
of paper materials and, increasingly,
digital formats as well. 12

practices and also the author mentioned The various concept is using to don’t see any reason why they need to join
that the government did not take serious reach out the goals based on a few educational programmes. Besides, record
and shows the significance of training researchers even with the Malaysian manager also did not consider to be a
and education that really importance to Education Ministry were against this professional records and their only the
manage records in archival institutions point. So basically in this paragraph, role from the above department
and professional organizations. even though the author mentioned that especially administration. In the Malaysia
Although the author has some good points Malaysian Education were against but context, it is generally evident
but his article is quite biased their still establish the generic model of that the EG constituted an important
especially when it comes to organization. vocational and professional. This “context/driver” for the different record
statement contains some keepers to learn about ERM, whereas the
The following paragraph will list and misinterpretation and misunderstandings. generic model was a response to a wider
explain more in detail for conceptual In this case, electronic environment as evident in the
underpinning. The basic to construct the government really support this or pragmatic examples programs. The data
model is to analyse the education and actually not. also suggests that the IT personnel
training programs in ERM and develop a regarded ERM to be an inevitable
model. Every education and training was The last conceptual underpinning extension of their existing job. This
using a different concept that were is the giving the pragmatic example of matched the generic model elements. It
supported by a few of name that mention educations and training ERM developed in was good points but somehow it looks like
by author. From the different concept but UK and Europe which is include with three the author is being biased and it
know come up with three distinct phases. The first phase is high could bring misunderstanding to people
dimensions which is “context/drivers”, level survey with higher people who read this it might seems like
“target to be educated and trained” and government and professional electronic record is not a professional job
“fulfilling the need for education and organization. Second phase to analysed or maybe it was truth that ERM was
training”. The argument that were given and the last one phases number a generic lack of something on their jobs.
by the author was acceptable especially model of vocational and professional
when their mention a few name that also education and training for EMR based on In the second selection issues is by
were using and supporting the same three elements. The author give a good building partnership between
point point and great example for more detail to organizations. In the generic model, the
figure out the example how ERM develop element of building partnership was clear
Aside from that, the vocational and in UK and Europe. in E-TERM with the chance opportunity to
professional education training needed in gain knowledge and orientation of the
term of knowledge and skills control the In the first section issues of from group curriculum of ERM through education and
electronic records. In Malaysia, there are discussion when testing the generic training program. However, it will be
two aims of the study a model suitable to Model of Education and Training for EMR different in Malaysian perspective
address problems associated with records is to establishing the need. In this case because
practitioners and professionals should be administration and IT believe that
based on vocational and professional ERM can’t develop their own
education and training. responsibility and they also


during the group discussion the In the first selection of fulfilling the need thinks that the target group need
records is focusing more partnership with for education and training is by to learn how to manage electronic
various Ministries and Departments programs. During this final group records. The administrative highlight
because records manager in Malaysia discussion archivist take this opportunity focus subject such as legal issues, policy
needs to collaborate with National to inform the participant of the National guideline and etc. During the last group
Achieves. During the last group Archives’ legitimate role and discussion, administration suggested that
discussion the participants explored in responsibility in the area of ERM in all email management should be included
detail and focusing to develop partnership government departments. Besides, the in their training because email is the
among themselves with the policy makers participant also agreed participants more convenience way to communicate
at the strategic level. The author focusing agreed that only the archives and record with government. Other than that,
more in the general which is including staff (at certain levels) needed to archivist, records managers and IT
themselves and policy makers. However, have accredited educational qualifications personnel supported the idea. The way
the author seems like telling us that the in ERM. During this focus group author highlight the last part is satisfying
partnership of Malaysia is more like administration and IT argued their own because everyone having different
just for the names and not focusing on perspective about their did not need perspective so it shows that everyone
knowledge and skills by reading this it qualification education. Basically, for have something we can agreed on but
shows that Malaysia did not take serious administration and IT, refers to somehow author choose to focus on
in education and training for record nothing more than programs that everyone and highlight
keepers. organized by institute. As we can see more detail on this paragraphs.
people see that ERM is play the small role
In the first selection of target in organization. However, in Malaysia In the third selection of fulfilling the need
that need to be educate and trained it different level of the target groups for education and training is using
depends on the different types of record pedagogic approach by testing the
keeper. In the generic model, target Although, we don’t agree with the author genericmodel elements among the
groups were limited for education and explanation when the author mentions Malaysian record keepers, learning
training and only limited to a few of that education is not important that’s not approaches similarto Kolb’s (1984) were
operational level and etc. For Malaysian what you supposed to write because it suggested for education. The method gain
case, education was very limited but our more likes author encourage people and knowledge must be easy to carry out and
training still includes with everyone tell people education is not important. understand of ERM concepts and theory to
across the Malaysia. Based on the data, the target groups to be applied in their
the data reveals that the different In the second selection of fulfilling the real working situation. There are two
record keepers focused their attention on need for education and training is learning outcomes, the acquisition of
target groups in their respective through curriculum or subject that knowledge and competence in ERM. They
schemes of service. Out of all records suggested by different record keepers by focus more on academic programmes that
keeper, only archivists needs training archivist and record keepers that could help record officers. Administrator
and education so it will be easy to transfer associated with ERM. In the Malaysian highlight that pedagogic approach
them to any department of case, the core skills and specialist skills centred
Achieves. The authors states based on the required differed according to specific
data and it was acceptable. roles and responsibilities but the record


around need to know basis. .However, the way author telling us about
However, archivist argue that the Malaysia achievement in ERM is
programmes must be able to transfer actually good points to encourage us to
skills and so on. Record managers also improve our performance in working.
needs to know at least the basic
knowledge of the principles To conclude the appropriate concept of
of conventional records management. The generic model to the Malaysia, we need to
IT personnel felt that skills in the used literature review and pragmatic
area of ERM could be gained in a example of vocational and professional
laboratory setting. In this paragraph, the education and training for ERM. The
author write in very details about the partnership can be build by using method
essential and the importance things that between different key player and level.
needed by every division. Malaysian record keepers was first to
establish partnership among the key
In the fourth selection of stakeholders at the strategic level, as ERM
fulfilling the need for education and needs high level support. Besides,
training is achievement. The achievement Malaysia can start to improve their
is actually based on individual education and training instead of focusing
qualification that is expertise on partnership. The generic model is an
acknowledge. Due to the Malaysia lack easy access or basic to implement
expertise in ERM, archivist believe that in educational and training record keepers
ERM they need to depends on advance in Malaysia to achieve a better result in
countries for their professional education Malaysia.
such UK and USA. However, not everyone
will trust because of the records and 15
archival professional organizations were
non-existent in Malaysia. Records
manager lacked awareness because they
did not discuss on this subject as they
knew little existence in Malaysia. New
administrative office will be appointed
that assigned to manage electronic
records to get knowledge from ERM.
During individual focus groups, IT
proposed idea by experts on the level of
competence and it was supposed to have
achievement award or recognition should
be awarded so they could improve their
performance by giving promotion. We all
need to agree with this point because
every human being have desire to climb
up to the top of organization.

Customer service is the direct one-on-one interaction between a consumer ‘QUALITY OF
making a purchase and a representative of the company that is selling CUSTOMER
it. Most retailers see this direct interaction as a critical factor in ensuring SERVICE:
buyer satisfaction and encouraging repeat business. (KAGAN, 2019). Quality ESSENTIALS OF
customer service is providing efficient, quick and friendly service, building QUALITY CUSTOMER
strong relationships with customers, handling complaints quickly and SERVICES AS A
responding to customers' issues on time. Quality customer service is the best MAJOR FACTOR IN
way to keep customers coming back, thus ensuring long-term success. Every SUCCESS OF A
companies must aim to attract new customers and keep the current COMPANY’
customers. Providing quality customer service is one sure way of achieving
this. Opening all communication channels is important to provide customers
with several options for contacting customer care. Understanding customers'
needs, wants and meeting them is very crucial. Good process and quality
product design are also important aspects of customer service. Ultimately,
developing a positive relationship with customers through high-quality
service benefits your business because you have access to the best kind of
market research: Your clients will tell you directly what they want. Listening
to clients gives you the opportunity to change your product or service to
satisfy clients before they abandon your company in favor of a
competitors. (Lovering, 2017)

What customer’s wants and needs is just all the things that beyond their expectation. Same goes to customer service. If businesses or
companies can give the best of quality customers services to their customers and fulfill their satisfaction. So, the companies or businesses
can reach their target and also can maintain relationship with their old customers and can attracted the new customers. Reliability here the
ability to provides a value to the customer. Reliabilitycan distinguish products. Reliability means the product, service, or system will perform
as expected now and in the future. Statisticians provide the language to discuss product reliability. Reliability also refers to a situation where
a service provider or a company can be dependable to the customers, where customers can easily trust or put their trust in the service
provider or company to provide them with desirable services. A customer may pay in advance for the services expecting the service provider
to provide the services at a later stage, if the service provider or company settles the debt amicably, then customers will render him reliable.

Next, companies also need to have competency which is qualification, professional training and skills of providing customer service are
essential in providing quality customers services. Customer service representatives are hired to assist a company's customers with their
needs, such as addressing complaints or processing orders. Representatives work in various locations where there is direct contact with the
public, like banks and retail stores. (Scott, n.d.) The ability to connect with people is another important part of this position. Consistent contact
with consumers means people skills are critical in this role. Customers need to feel like their voice is being heard in order to be satisfied. So,
companies need to train the staff. It's important to make sure all of your employees, not just your customer service representatives,
understand the way they should talk to, interact with, and otherwise assist customers. Provide employee training that gives your staff the
tools they need to carry good service through the entire customer experience. (GREGORY, 2019)


Assurance also important for good companies’ customer service. Assurance based on guarantee
and promise to the customers that the services provider is committed to giving them relevant and
reliable services on time. Quality assurance means developing operational controls to ensure that
the results match the desired outcomes. Customer service operations are designed to keep
customers satisfied while protecting the organization. To make sure customer service achieves
these goals in your small business, the person responsible for quality assurance must define the
quality functions as they apply to how you serve your customers. Once such definitions are in
place, you can define the resources required to fulfill the defined mandate and make sure your
customers experience quality service. The quality assurance system can compare what you
promise the customer to what the customer expects and what your customer service delivers. If
the delivered service matches customer expectations and what you promised to deliver, quality
with respect to this customer service element is high. If there are gaps, you can use the quality
assurance system to track improvements. (Markgraf, 2019)

The other dimension that should have in managing a good
quality of customer services is responsiveness. Customer
responsiveness measures the speed and quality at which
company provides customer service and communication. When
we treat all our customers like they are our best customers, they
will become your best customers. If a customer has to wait five
days just for a simple email response, they might be more
willing to take their business elsewhere. Not only do you want to
focus on being quick to communicate via email, but social media,
phone, and all other places that you’re listed online. There are
four smart ways that can improve company’s customer service
responsiveness in a variety of areas are stop making excuses,
make a system (and use it), listen on social media and leverage

Quality customer services is the lifeblood of business. If we make our customer dissatisfied with our services, we will lost them and of
course our sale will decreases. But, if we treat our customers better and make them satisfied with our services, so we will got a lot of
customers, can maintain the old customers and can attract the new one. That will be the opportunities to the companies open many
door for business. By treating your customers like gold, you are sure to reduce the overall problems associated with your business,
sales and the potential for any legal issues that might arise. Treat your customers poorly, and you can almost be certain that you'll run
into problems at one point or another. And those problems can oftentimes lead to the ominous and untimely demise of your business.


Taking care of customers conveys a strong set of moral values and beliefs in the company's mission. It means that it's transcending the
necessity for profits by focusing on building its tribe. It also means that there are greater forces at work here than mere profits. It's
indicative of a deeper desire to build something of value, to help others, and to somehow, in some way or another, change the world a bit by
doing so. This is because, it can take years to build up a good reputation, but just moments to ruin it. This effectively describes the
importance of keeping customers happy and satisfied through the customer service of your business.

(Adams, 2016)Excellent customer service will not only result in maximum customer retention, but it will also help in customer acquisition.
A robust brand image that has good customer strength can easily retain customers and build a sense of trust. It is always advisable to keep
your customers happy and satisfied by doing whatever it takes to keep them; they are essential for your business. Prioritizing customer
service support helps you attract and retain loyal customers, and can have a big impact on your company’s bottom line.

The way you deal with your users decides whether a
customer is likely to use your brand again. On the other
hand, if you want to attract more consumers to your
business, it will cost approximately five times more than it
takes in order to maintain the existing customer for your
business. As conclusion, to ensure that our companies also
can fight with other best companies is we need to always
take care of our customer services. Quality of customer
service in businesses or companies play a role in
maintaining the successful of the businesses or
companies. Excellent customer service for businesses will
help you and your long-term goals and make your brand
successful. Nothing is more important than keeping your
customers happy and satisfied, and the way to do this is by
providing desirable and excellent customer care service.


Customer service is how you deliver your One of factors that could lead to improve Common types of customer segmentation include
demographic segmentation, geographic
product and service to the customer customer service is customer segmentation, behavioral segmentation,
psychographic segmentation and customer
including the accessibility, efficiency, cost- segmentation. It is process of dividing journey segmentation. For a growing business,
segmentation is necessary to know our customers
effectiveness and satisfaction. Customer customers into groups based on common and our market, and share this understanding
across teams. Beyond a certain size, it’s
service is also about creating a relationship characteristics so companies can market impossible to do without. At Intercom, we have
benefitted from customer segmentation in these
of trust and loyalty beyond the immediate to each group effectively and ways by describing types of customers in a
common way across go to market, product, and
interaction. It is what a company does to appropriately. In business-to-business engineering. For example, our Sales team is now
able to give segmented customer feedback to our
meet and exceed customer expectations. marketing, a company might segment product leaders to influence our roadmap.
Understanding our most and least engaged
Customer service is a company-wide customers according to a wide range of customers at a granular level. For example, our
Analytics team might find that one customer
philosophy about understanding the factors, including industry, Number of segment tends to use our product weekly, while
another just monthly. Surfacing promising or
customer and what they want and need employees, products previously untapped business opportunities. For example,
imagine this scenario: our Marketing team
include process of helping people find what purchased from the company, location. discovers a new segment that’s already
converting well without having been explicitly
they want during the entire transaction cycle While In business to consumer marketing, targeted before enabling us to make tactical
decisions with a holistic view of our
and customer service is the degree to which companies often segment customers customers. For example, our Product team could
decide to build a data export API after learning
a product fails to meet, meets or exceeds according to demographics that include our fastest growing segment exports their
conversation data far more often than other
customer's expectations. It defines the age, gender, marital status, location segments (we can already do this in Intercom ).
Informing our approach to the market. For
customer's perception of the interaction with (urban, suburban, rural), life stage example, our leadership team might decide to
focus our company strategy on targeting the
the company. In order to build their trust we (single, married, divorced, empty-nester, segments with the best revenue retention.
Assessing progress on our marketing
should to take an action by providing the best retired, etc.). (Patel, 2019). strategy. For example, our Finance team is now
able to confirm whether new customer growth is
in customer service. Customer satisfaction is up in our target segments. (Reddy, n.d.)

key in creating a long-term relationship with 19

customers. Customer satisfaction measures

how your product, service, and overall

experience either falls short, meets, or

exceeds customer expectations. Keeping a

long term relationship functioning is hard

work. We need to keep delivering value time

and need to keep our customer satisfied with

our service.

Factors that could lead to
improve customer service in
business organization: Factors
Affecting on Customer Loyalty in
Service Organizations

Next is sensitization workshop and Consultation of customers is I tell a story about how a grain of rice in
the wrong place in a restaurant could
orientation programs. Building the capacity one of factor that could lead to improve destroy their reputation. This forms part
of the workshop but can be astand alone’
of staff is the cornerstone of any facility’s customer service. Research has shown that keynote or motivational talk of 40
minutes. (Brenda, 2012)
ability to address violence against women the cost of acquiring a new customer is
Last but not least is atmosphere.
and girls in an ethical and effective way. Too five times greater than the cost of Companies vary in size, industry,
products and services, but unless they
often, especially in resource poor settings, retaining a current customer. Despite this, provide excellent customer service, they
won't be in business for long. While
staff does not receive adequate training and 44 percent of companies put their employees at every level work to satisfy
the customer, human resources is
support: if they receive training at all, it is resources primarily into customer responsible for making employees happy
and productive. They deliver important
often a single training with limited to no acquisition, while only 18 percent put more services that can affect employee
satisfaction, motivation and the company's
follow-up. In general, facilities should energy into retention. A customer service ability to attract and retain
talent. The positive reputation HR builds
consider the following key activities to build consultant can help a company do a better within a company has a positive
effect on the HR community as well.
staff capacity. All staff, from facility job of retaining its customers by improving (Nestor,n.d.)

administrators to service providers to its service policies and actions. However,

support staff, should first be sensitized about you'll need specific corporate work

issues related to violence against women and experience to qualify. An MBA can also

gender discrimination. Evidence suggests help we land customer service contracts.

that health professionals are as likely as any Before deciding to start a customer service

other members of society to hold views that consulting business, consider what

may be detrimental to the welfare of customer service experience and education

survivors, such as blaming the victim. Staff you bring to the table. Having a job in

also need to have a basic understanding of customer service like being an online

the nature and scope of violence against or telephone rep, for instance is good

women and girls, the dynamics of abuse, risk experience, but it's probably not enough

factors and consequences. Specialized to convince potential clients that we have

As a conclusion, there are many factors

staff, including all medical professional the knowledge and experience needed

that could lead to improve customer

providing direct services to survivors, should to help them improve their customer

service in business organization which is

receive additional and ongoing training on service. Employment experience working

customer segmentation, sensitization

key elements related to intake, examination, for a large and prestigious corporate

workshop an orientation programs,

record keeping, etc. Specialized staff should consultancy firm like Bain Consulting, on

consultation of customers,

also receive ongoing support to manage the the other hand, is highly desirable and

tangible and atmosphere. During the

challenges of working with survivors, would go far in convincing our potential

elaboration of this research paper of

through supervision, in service trainings, customer service clients that we have the

factors affecting on customer loyalty in

case reviews, etc. (UN Women, chops to help them improve. (Gleeson,

service organizations, these 5 factors

2011) 2019)

would provide a good lead to improve

Next is tangible. These are customer service by achieving and
aspects which cannot easily be articulated.
For example, what the customer (patient, maintaining the high standard of customer
client, member, parent etc.) sees, hears,
smells and touches adds or detracts from service. Failing to do so can seriously
their experience in dealing with you.
compromise the organization’s chance of

success 20

Umi Asma’ Mokhtar Zawiyah Mohammad the author don’t tell about the second Since the author use the questioner to
Yusof, (2009), Faculty of Technology and version of e-SPARK and why the first e- server their question, 25 Malaysia
Information Sciene, Universiti Kebangsaan SPARK fail in Malaysia, the author also government department were selected for
Malaysia, ”Electronic record management in don’t inform about the full function of the the study sample. The author only take
the Malaysian public sector: the existence of e-SPARK and what is the next step for thegovernment because record
policy” ,Record Management Journal, Vol.19 Malaysian to recover this situation. management was introduced as early 1997.
Iss pp.231-244 said government and private
organization’ acceptance level of electronic Electronic The author should find the private agency
records management in Malaysia is very record so that we can compare from the
encouraging. Almost all private agency or management in government and the private agency. More
government sector are using electronic the Malaysian view of conclusion can be made if we can
application to manage data. Record and public sector: compare this two differentsector and how
information management is an important The existence their managing their record.
element to help improve the performance, of policy.
accountability and transparency of an In these second section of this article,
organization (Wakuma and Mutula,2005). hypothesis one is the data derived from the
Record management should be implemented questionnaire were analyzed using the
with a transparent, explicit and Statistical Package for Social Science
comprehensive policy. Countries like (SPSS) software, version 11.0. The
Australia, USA, Canada, New Zealand and
Uk are based on act, statutes, laws, and In the first section of this article, Umi Asma’ observation is base on 1.frequency
specific standards. Malaysia is still stated that there search aim was to develop of the existence and compliance of policy
considered to be average in terms of laws for an element of integration mode electronic 2.factors of compromising policies 3.the
records (Yusof,2000). The National Archive records management in Malaysia’s public existence of the policy and compliance with
of Malaysia (NAM) conducted a project sector. Five hypotheses were develop in order policy. There are using (H0) is electronic
entitled e-Strategy for Preservation of to test the correlation of aset of variable. records management does not exist in
Government Records and Archives (e- There are two methods for accepting or public sector in Malaysia, (H1) is electronic
SPARKS) to produce policies and followed by rejecting a hypothesis, based on the records management exist in the public
an e-SPARK system. There is only one frequency of expectation and statistical sector in Malaysia. The hypothesis is
document about standards, policy and hypothesis testing. The hypothesis determined by referring to the question
guidelines relating to records management testing based on the expectation of the related to existence, obedience and
and that is produced by the Malaysian frequency says that the null hypothesis equality of the policy attach department.
Administrative Modernization and H0 will not be accepted when the percentage From my review the questionnaire is
Management Planning Unit (MAMPU). This score is greater than or equal to 50 simple question that can understand by
article some how show the history about per cent. H0 is accepted when the score is other. Even thought the question is simple
record management in Malaysia, but only the less than 50 per cent. (Danieland Terrell, but the content or point can be reach by
starting point all the history only for the 1992; Bidinand Sharipah, 2001). This is a people that answer it. People who answer
beginning, example for the e-SPARK, good start because the author explained the question don’t require time to thing
about how to calculated the hypothesis because their already know the answer.

assumption. New knowledge for the new 21

In the third section of this article, the In the fourth section of this article, the As conclusion, many government
second hypothesis was tested using the third hypothesis was tested using the department were unaware
Pearsonchi-square method to investigate frequency and evaluation technique of the importance of electronic record
the relationship between explicitly referred to Barry(2000). Barry’s simple management policy.
communicated policy. (H0) refer to calculation classified three categories such
relationship does not exist between as marginal/dependability, NAM has produced six guidelines and
policy content and ease of following policy. compel/desperate and in policies for electronic records
The observation is base on 1.relationship sequential/unconstrained. Respondent management.
between policy content and easy to follow were aware and ready
policy 2.frequency of suitable policy to accepted electronic records 1.electronic record management policy
content, simple and easy to follow policy management. This is base on the 2.general guidelines of electronic records
and frequency of problem occurring in a observation of the need for electronic management
week. In this point 76 per cent answer ’yes’ records management (ERM) policy. Since 3.guidelines of electronic
and 20 per cent replied ’no’ . The different all the respondence is record management – structured
in the percentage is significant. Its already know about the record environment
show that the policy is easy to follow. management policy this should be any 4. Guidelines of electronic record
There was a relationship between problem to understand management
appropriate policy content and ease of but the author should add comment and - unstructured environment
following it, meaning that clear and opinions. With this info we can see why
comprehensive policies would facilitate their feel the policy is importance rather 5. Guidelines of electronic record
their implementation. However, there are that choose the answer that a already management -web environment
still difficulties in handling electronic given. 6.electronic records management
records management with 60 percent of specification.
the respondence admitting to having
difficulties with managing electronic With all this guidelines its
records. The state is clear and good but the easier to understand about the record
author should add some point of view so management but its also need some time
that they respondence can write why its for the staff to practice and being expect
hard to managing electronic records. With on it.
this kind of info we can take an action
toward this kind of problem because the
respondent already give the problem.
We are talking about staff that is already
know about electronic record management,
supposedly their already know what is the


Business continuity planning (BCP) is the We need to well prepare for our businesses Yet the very nature of disasters makes this
process involved in creating a system of for the consequences of a disaster. ideal unachievable. There are five major
prevention and recovery from potential Historically, dealing with disasters focused characteristics of disasters that make them
threats to a company (Will Kenton, 2019). on emergency response, but towards the hard to overcome (Donahue and Joyce,
The plan ensures that personnel and assets end of the 20th century it was increasingly 2010). Disasters are large, rapid-onset
are protected and are able to function recognized that disasters are not natural incidents relative to the size and resources
quickly in the event of a disaster. The BCP (even if the associated hazard is) of an affected jurisdiction. That is, they
is generally conceived in advance and and that it is only by reducing and harm a high percentage of the
involves input from key stakeholders and managing conditions of hazard, exposure jurisdiction’s property or population, and
personnel. The term disaster means the and vulnerability that we can prevent damage occurs quickly relative to the
unplanned interruption of normal losses and alleviate the impacts of jurisdiction’s ability to avert or avoid it.
business processes resulting from the disasters. Since we cannot reduce the
interruption of the IT infrastructure severity of natural hazards, the main ‘Business
components used to support them. This opportunity for reducing risk lies in Continuity
definition includes information systems reducing vulnerability and exposure. Planning: An
and networks and their hardware and Reducing these two components of risk Empirical
software components (Jon William Togo, requires identifying and reducing the Study of
2010). Disaster in business can be happen underlying drivers of risk, which are Factors that
anytime if we do not prepare earlier particularly related to poor economic and Hinder
to overcome this problem. In a disaster, urban development choices and practice, Effective
lives can be lost, property and equipment degradation of the environment, poverty Disaster
destroyed and business operations come to and inequality and climate change, which Preparedness
a standstill. After lost happen according create and exacerbate conditions of of Businesses’
researcher most of the small business hazard, exposure and vulnerability.
never open their business again was high. Addressing these underlying risk drivers They may also directly impact the
Disasters strike in every corner of the will reduce disaster risk, lessen the
world, during every season, and on impacts of climate change and, resources and personnel available
different scales throughout the year. consequently, maintain the sustainability
Nonprofit organizations serve as key of development (UNISDR, 2015). to respond. As a result, response to
players during these disasters, providing
aid and resources to those affected. There are many actions undertaken by disasters evokes a profound sense of
Indeed, hospitals, food banks, human and participants in disaster management that
animal shelters, and other nonprofits are support this goal both pre-disaster to urgency, and coping with them drains a
integrated into most response and forestall or reduce potential damage and
recovery efforts during emergencies post-disaster to recover from actual jurisdiction’s human resources,
(Annelise Ferry, 2017). damage, and ideally these activities would
reduce the potential effects of a equipment, supplies, and funds. If pre-
disaster to the point of elimination.
incident data are available, geospatial

analysis can provide important insight into

the nature and extent of changes

wrought by disasters. 23

Disasters are uncertain with respect to While most agree that response assistance Disasters are relatively rare. Most
both their occurrences and their outcomes.
This uncertainty arises because hazards should be provided to those who have communities experience few, if any,
that present a threat of disaster are hard to
identify, the causal relationship between suffered from a disaster, questions arise disasters during the average time in office
hazards and disaster events is poorly
understood, and risks are hard to measure as to whether insurance for those in risk- of a political official or the average time of
that is, it is difficult to specify what kind of
damage is possible, how much damage is prone areas should be subsidized by the residence of a citizen. Thus,
possible, and how likely it is that a given
type and severity of damage will federal government and to what extent many communities are unlikely to have
occur. Geospatial models can help predict
the locations, footprints, times, and repeated damage should be compensated recent experience with disasters, and
durations of events, and the damage they
may cause, so that jurisdictions can for example, by paying for rebuilding the governments may feel little imperative to
better prepare for them. Risks
and benefits are difficult to assess and same house after a second or third flood. build their disaster-management
compare. Disasters present emergency
planners, emergency managers, and policy An important component of this issue is the capacity, even if the hazards are real and
makers with countervailing pressures. On
the one hand, it is important to minimize accuracy of risk assessment. Geospatial the risks formidable (Waugh, 2011).
the exposure of populations and
infrastructure to hazards; on the other, data and tools are invaluable in making the More obvious and immediately pressing
people want to build and live in scenic, but
hazard-prone, areas and often oppose necessary assessments of the geographic public service concerns readily displace
government regulation. Further, how
should the various levels of government distribution of risk and in estimating the disaster preparedness as a priority.
address the balance between providing
relief to the victims of disasters and quality of each assessment. Disasters are Specialized capabilities, such as
the need or desire to avoid encouraging
risk-accepting behavior; also, to what dynamic events. Disasters evolve as they geospatial data and tools, are especially
extent should the costs of such behavior be
shifted from those who engage in progress, and they change in response to vulnerable to budget cuts and
this behavior to the larger population?
human actions and natural forces. This resource reallocation. Natural disasters

makes it imperative that response often strike with little to no

strategies be flexible and argues for the warning, but their operational and

value of analysis in helping responders economic impact to organizations can be

understand and adapt to the changing devastating. As scientists expect the future

conditions they face. Managing these will likely include more cases of

phenomena can thus be a highly technical extreme weather, organizations should

endeavor requiring specialized expertise leverage the calm before the storm to

for both policy development and policy ensure that business continuity plans

implementation. In particular, geospatial address key impacts of a natural disaster

data and tools can help incident managers event. Preparation is the best defense

to visualize the event over time, track against these disasters, and the time

the activities of responders, and predict for preparing is now before disaster

the outcomes of various courses of strikes. Key elements that business

action continuity plans should incorporate

include the potential operational and

economic impact of such events,

particularly in light of previous natural



Specifically, the aftermath and losses of thedesignated individuals and crisis factor in Disaster preparedness and obtain
Hurricane Sandy in 2012and the more management team should implement the an appropriate explanation. Addressing
recent mandatory evacuation of the business continuity plan to limit loss of these four important factors would provide
Eastern seaboard duringHurricane life, destruction of property and a good basis for an effectiveness disaster
Matthew in 2016 highlight the importance businessinterruption, taking into account preparedness of businesses.
of business continuityplanning and the enact a procedure for receiving Effective disaster preparedness is strongly
preparedness. andresponding to warnings from outside correlated with Business continuity
agencies and emergency responders. planning which is important to be
A recent study conducted by a leading undertaken. From the above discussion, it
insurance provider found that 48 percent Last for not least is disaster recovery. is evident that businesses need to prepare
of all small businesses do not have a Successful recoveries depend upon for disasters or threats whether
business continuity plan. The Federal business disaster preparedness planning. external or internal, in order to protect
Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) After a disaster occurs, businesses should employees.
estimates that 40 percent of businesses do quickly assess the situation to ascertain
not reopen after a disaster, and another 25 physical damage and impact to operations, As a conclusion, effective disaster
percent fail within one year. The factor incorporating the considerations such
underlying this failure rate is business’ as prepare for and communicate to preparedness of businesses is affected by
fundamental under-preparedness. employees that access to affected
Compounding the problem is the lack of areas will be controlled. Specifically, four key factors of perception of
understanding of the scope and breadth employees may not have access to the
of insurance coverage or government business facility until search and rescue high cost, lack of staff, inadequate
provisions. As a best practice, all operations are complete and safety
businesses should have a business hazards are cleared. Use caution before information, low priority, whilst
continuity plan and a disaster recovery entering your business. Check
plan to address crisis situations such as a for power lines, gas leaks and structural surprising, apathy had less effect on
natural disaster. We will discuss about damage. Effective disaster preparedness of
the guidelines toward preparedness. businesses is affected by four key factors effective disaster preparedness contrary
Firstly is planning. Understand and of perception of high cost, lack of staff,
document the normal structure, policies, inadequate information, low priority, to many belief. Further research will be
practices and personnel involved with whilst surprising, apathy had less effect on
the business. Identify the business effective disaster preparedness contrary required to analyze the Apathy factor
activities necessary for continued to many belief. Further research will be
operation during a disruption. In doing so, required to analyze the Apathy in Disaster preparedness and obtain an
consider the business’ supply chain
in order to assess essential supply lines for appropriate explanation. Addressing these
operation. Second in implementation
when a natural disaster strikes, or there is four important factors would provide a
a threat of impending weather,
good basis for an effectiveness disaster

preparedness of businesses. Effective

disaster preparedness is strongly

correlated with Business continuity

planning which is important to be

undertaken. From the above discussion, it

is evident that businesses need to

prepare for disasters or threats whether

external or internal, in order to

protect employees, property and

equipment, data, products and profitability

and to guarantee continuity of business





Knowledge gained

by learning this subject I realized that business record is not
only specific for business but it could be everything such as
film records, education record, medical records and etc.
Follow with the new technology in this new era we need to
keep all the data in electronic, data is important because this
is our information/evidence


  The skill that I have gained is accounting( such as
financial statement, balance sheet), business
law(acts, legal document) ,communication skill
with teammate, software , video editing and more.
All of this skill really helpful in term of building
up our confidence level and compete with other

Experience           27

To conclude my skill, knowledge gain and experience. I receive
a lot of benefit from every subject that I have learned. The
best thing to know new people in our life. Degree life is more
challenging compare to diploma life and that is the best thing
from me because I like challenging stuff.


I am grateful to learnt Business Business record subject taught me skill to
records subject because I can be a good record keeper that not everyone
gained a lot of knowledge with it. can do that. Skill of record keeping should
So basically business record help be learn by all individual that work in
me to identify whether the company that needed to keep a lot of
document is important to keep as document. Sometime not all document can
record keeping or just normal keep in electronic record because we need
document. Based on this subject physical record as evidence.
as businessman we should have
basic knowledge of record
keeping, by doing that we will
reduce cost and save time to find
important document.


I gained a lot of experience during my previous semester. All

the subject that I learnt during my second semester really

helpful, for example Ecommerce subject that I take have taught

me how to sell my products using online system.



Business records is a document that used to keep and store
information for business organization. Every organization
have their own records from their own operation which is
include accounting records, legal documents, license,
insurance document and etc. In this subject IMR 652, I have
learned that the importance and highlight key according to
the business records. This shows that management record
play the main role to make sure every records kept well in


This showed every skills that I gained during my one and a half
year. It makes me realised the significance of learning.
Basically, the skills that I gained is accounting (such
as  financial statement , balance sheet , etc), business law (acts,
legal document) and so on.


Basically, during my three semester in here I have experienced too many
thing especially the hardest part during last year semester which is
second semester because I have to learn subject Economics and Finance. I
almost want to give up because this is quite tough for me as a beginner
but somehow I still managed to get a good results. For me, my first and
second semester is the moment when I’m really having hard time to
focusing on my studies because I thought I’m not doing very well and


Knowledge gain

Business record is a document that Skills
records a business dealing. Business
records include meeting minutes, There are many skills that I
memoranda, employment contracts, have gained during my one
and accounting source documents. I and half year which is how to
have learned that the every manage your organization
importance and highlight key (such as planning,
according to the business records in organizing, controlling and
subject IMR652. It shows that leading), marketing ( product,
management record play importance price, place and promotion)
role to make sure every records kept and so on.
well in ordered.


during my three semester in here I have experienced too many thing especially
the hardest part during my first semester because I have to learn subject
Account and Business Law. It’s hard for me at first but then I can score a good
result in the end. For me, my first and second semester is the moment when I’m
really having easy time to focusing on my studies because surrounding with
friend who I can ask when I don’t know how to do the task or assignment.


Knowledge gain
What I have learned in UiTM
Cawangan Selangor, Campus skills
Puncak Alam are a lot. There
are so many knowledge that I In this course,
gained from every aspects. skill that I know is about
For my course which is in how to set a budgeting for
Bachelor of Event doing event and should
Management (Hons), the have “rainy fund” for every
knowledge that I gained are event that been held. Tfor
how to planning, the skill that I get
set up, and shut down the from accounting, I just
event in a correct way. I knew how to do balance
learning many subjects in this sheet and for finance I able
program to do cash flow and I
such as marketing, realized  that was so
management, business law, important and should be
accounting and others. practice in daily life.

.My experience that I get are how to handle an events, and
work in a team. Working in a team
is important in event management because all department

work together to make
sure the event going well.







1)     E-Record  Management Policy of  MECD (Ministry of Education, Culture
and Sport) Madrid

The National Interoperability Framework (hereon NIF, regulated by Royal
Decree 4/2010) is defined in section 1 of Article 42 of Law 11/2007, of 22 June,
regarding citizens' electronic access to public services as “…a set of criteria
and recommendations on security and standardisation of information, formats
and software and on the preservation of information to be taken into account
by the public administration entities when adopting technological decisions so
as to ensure interoperability.”

2)     International electronic record management from India

The National Policy on Electronics 2019 (“Policy”) was released by the
Ministryo Electronics and Information Technology (“MeitY”) on 25.02.2019.
The Policy, which recognises the electronics industry as the “world’s largest
and fastest growing industry”, seeks to “position India as a global hub for
Electronics System Design and Manufacturing (“ESDM”) by developing core
components and creating an enabling environment for the industry to
compete globally”.




1)      System Specification for public offices

Good management of records and information is
fundamental to a well-functioning organisation since it supports business
activity and provides a basis for efficient service delivery. It also provides
the mechanism whereby both the private and public sectors can account
for their decisions and actions. Records provide evidence for the public to
confirm or claim their public rights and entitlements, as well as providing
individuals with evidence to justify government decisions and a
mechanism whereby they can have trust in private enterprise. Moreover,
good records management is simply good business practice.

2)      Electronic Record Management by National Archives of Malaysia

 The Electronic RecordManagement Guidelines are published by the
National Archives of Malaysia to assist public offices in managing
electronic records. More specific guidelines on record management in a
particular environment are also available. The guidelines are as follows:
Electronic Record Management in an Unstructured Environment,
Electronic Record Management in a Structured Environment, and
Electronic Record Management in a Web Environment.



This E-Record Management Policy is found in the organisation’s context
together with the rest of policies implemented in the course of its
activities. Particularly, this policy is found in the records
management general framework of the MECD, regardless of the medium
in which these records may be found. The diagram below shows the
record management process from the Guide of the TIS (Technical
Interoperability Standard) for E-Record Management Policies, which
includes an e-records management system in the context of the
organisation’s record Management Policy:



RECORDS Management

1)    Global Records Management Policy Dole Food Company, Inc. One
Dole Drive Westlake Village, CA 91362(2010)

This Global Records Management and Destruction Policy (collectively
with all appendices, this “Policy”) governs the creation, retention and
destruction of all records in the normal course of business of Dole
Food Company, Inc. and it subsidiaries worldwide (collectively, “Dole”).
Unless otherwise noted, capitalized terms are defined in Appendix.

2)  International record management from United Kingdom
This guidance has been produced in support of
the good practice recommendations in the Code of Practice on
Records Management issued by the Lord Chancellor under section 46
of the Freedom of Information Act 2000.This guide is written for
people who have no background in records and information
management but find themselves responsible for it
within their organisation, or have some other reason for acquiring a
basic understanding of the subject.



RECORDS Management

1)  MALAYSIA POLICY ISO 15489:2001

In accordance with ISO 15489:2001 [11]; “institutions should document
and define a policy for records management. The aim of the policy
should be the creation, formation and management of reliable,
authentic and usable records capable of supporting business purposes
and activities for as long as they are needed. Institutions should make
certain that the policy is communicated and fully implemented at all
levels in the institution. The policy should be implemented and
endorsed at the highest decision-making level and transmitted
through the institution.
Responsibility for compliance should be appointed”.

2)      MALAYSIA ISO 15489

An organization seeking to conform to this part of ISO 15489 should
establish, document, maintain and promulgate policies, procedures
and practices for records management to ensure that its business
need for evidence, accountability and information about its activities
is met.



Administrative records: Records relating to those general
tasks or activities performed within an organisation that are common to all
businesses or organisations, such as maintenance of resources, care of the
physical plant or other routine office matters. Also known as housekeeping

Capture: In a computer environment, the deliberate actions that results in the
storage of a record in a record-keeping system, including the registration and
classification of the record and the addition of metadata about the record. For
certain business activities, these actions may be designed into electronic
systems so that the capture of records into record-keeping systems takes place
when those records are created.

Classification: In a records and archives environment, the process of identifying and
arranging business activities and the resulting records into categories
according to logically structured conventions, methods and procedural rules.
See also Functional classification and Subject classification.

Classified records: Records that have been restricted in
their circulation and access because they contain information that needs to be
protected from unauthorised access. Classified records may bear security
markings such as ‘confidential,’ ‘secret’ or ‘top secret.’ Sometimes also
referred to as confidential or secret records.



Database: A structured assembly of logically related data designed to be used in
various software applications. Database record: A complete set of information
in a database; records are composed of fields, each of which contains one item
of information.

Digital record: A record maintained in a coded numeric
format that can only be accessed using a computer system that converts the
numbers into text or images that can be GLOSSARY OF TERMS 14 comprehended by
the human eye. Digital records include records stored in electronic and
non-electronic formats such as optical disk. See also Born digital.
E-government: The use by government agencies of information technologies (such as
Wide Area Networks or WANs, the Internet and mobile computing) to provide
services, including: better delivery of government services to citizens;
improved interactions with business and industry; citizen empowerment through
access to information; or more efficient government operations.

Electronic document: Information recorded in a manner that
requires a computer or other electronic device to display, interpret and
process it. Electronic documents can include text, graphics or spreadsheets,
electronic mail and documents transmitted using electronic data interchange

Electronic record: A digital record that can be stored,
transmitted or processed by a computer.
Export: In a computer environment, the process of producing a copy of
electronic records, along with their metadata, for another system.



Electronic document management system (EDMS): An electronic
system or process – managed with the aid of computers and software –
implemented in order to manage different kinds of documents in an organisation.
Electronic document management systems may have limited records management
functionality and may be combined with electronic records management systems.
See also Electronic records management system and Electronic document and
records management system.

Record (1): In a records and archives environment, documentary evidence,
regardless of form or medium, created, received, maintained and used by an
organisation (public or private) or an individual in pursuance of legal
obligations or in the transaction of business.

Record (2): In a computer environment, a complete set of information in a
database. Database records are composed of fields, each of which contains one
item of information. Note: the term ‘database record’ is generally used in this
study programme to refer to database records, to distinguish the term from
record (1), which refers to documentary evidence.

Record keeping: The act of documenting an activity by
creating, collecting or receiving records and ensuring that they are available,
understandable and usable for as long as they are needed. See also Records
management. Record-keeping system: An information system that captures, manages
and provides access to records through time.

Semi-current records: In a records and archives environment, 40
records that are likely to be required only infrequently in the conduct of
current business. Semi-current records will normally be maintained in a records
centre or other offsite storage location pending their ultimate disposal. Also
known as semi-active records.


Registration: The process of recording standard information about, and assigning a
unique identifier to, a document or record. See also Register.

Relational database: In a computer environment, a database that
organises, structures and stores information into tables of rows and columns
(flat files) so that related data elements from different tables can be
manipulated and extracted for various purposes.
Reliability: In a records and archives environment, the quality of being
trustworthy; in reference to records, reliability is confirmed by ensuring that
a record was created by a competent authority according to established
processes and that the record contains all the necessary elements of an
official record.

Repository: A storage facility, physical or electronic, where records are held for
safekeeping. With reference to paper-based records, a repository is a building
or part of a building in which records or archives are preserved and made
available for consultation. Also known as an archival repository or archives.
Note: To avoid confusion with the use of the term ‘archives’ to refer to
records with ongoing value, the term ‘archives’ is not used to refer to a

Requirements: In a computer environment, the conditions or performance standards
that a new or altered computer system should meet. See also Functional
requirements, Management / user requirements and Technical requirements.



LAW, I. (2019,



YUSOF, R. E. (2011,



ADAMS, R. (2016, DECEMBER 12). 10


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