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Jubaland Crisis Response and Recovery Plan

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Published by somrep, 2022-04-22 05:00:40

Jubaland Crisis Response and Recovery Plan

Jubaland Crisis Response and Recovery Plan

Acknowledgement i
Executive Summary ii


1.1. CRRP Assumption 1

1.2. Strategic linkage to the National Development Plan (NDP-9) 2


2.1. Geographical Coverage 2

2.2. Methodological Approach 3

2.2.1. Review of secondary data and tracking records 4

2.2.2. Rapid Rural appraisals (RRA) for primary data 4

2.2.3. Consultative electronic meeting 5



4.1. Overview of shocks 6

4.1.1. Drought and food insecurity 6

4.1.2. Floods 8

4.1.3. COVID 19 9

4.1.4. Desert locusts 10

4.1.5. Conflict and internal displacement 11

4.1.6. Monsoons 11


5.1.1. Agriculture Sector Investment Analysis 13

5.2. Infrastructure Investment Analysis 14

5.3. Health and Nutrition Investment Analysis 15

5.4. Education Investment Analysis 16

5.5 Investment for IDP Recovery and Restoration 17


6.2. Resource Mobilization 23

6.3. Programmatic coordination 24


Annex 1: CRRP sample M&E Framework 28

List of tables 3
Table 1:Areas in Jubaland

Table 2: Number of acutely food insecure people (rural, urban, IDP combined) 6

Table 3: Detailed agricultural and rain-fed crops losses in Jubaland 7

Figure 4: Somalia mean rainfall (MM) April 2009-November 2016:- Source: FSNAU 8

Table 5: Likely impact of COVID-19 on humanitarian operations 10

Figure 6: Estimated Jubaland fish catch for the period April-August 2020. Source:

Ministry of fisheries & Marine resources-Jubaland 12

Table 7:Agriculture sector investment matrix 13

Table 8: Infrastructure Investment Matrix 14

Table 9: Health and nutrition investment 15

Table 10: Pupil-teacher ratio by region and locality (Rural vs Urban) in Jubaland 16

Table 11: Education investment analysis 16

Table 12: IDP Investment matrix 17

Table 13:Women inclusion investment matrix 18

Table 14: Proposed Crisis/Dynamic specific intervention 18

Table 15: Proposed implementation structure 22

Table 16: Implementation arrangements 24



This document is made possible through the efforts from various stakeholders and technical persons with expertise in numerous
aspects of crisis response and recovery.We are indebted to SomRep firstly, for the dedication in making a difference in Somalia and
secondly, for the financial support, without which, the development of this document would not have been possible. Many thanks!
Special gratitude to all the Ministry of Planning and International cooperation (MOPIC) of Jubaland staff who furnished us with
relevant documents and comments pertinent to the exercise. Singular gratitude goes to the Director General, Mr. Abdiwahid,
for reviewing initial drafts and providing constructive feedback. The useful pointers given and additional materials provided were
invaluable in directing key touch points of this plan.
Special appreciation to Ministers, representatives from the 12-line Ministries and local authority personnel (Regional and District
representatives) who worked closely with researchers in preparing this plan. Ministries’/supply side thoughts, inputs, documents
and contexts aligned this plan to real life expectations and bolstered proposed activities, not just through problem tree analyses
but also via actual bottom of the pyramid situational scrutiny and consideration.A big thank you!
To the Jubaland Refugee Agency, all International NGOs and local NGOs, we are sincere grateful for your assistance in understanding
the prevailing humanitarian contexts and the nuances of crises response in politically fragile and economically volatile settings
within Jubaland.The work you do is invaluable and the support you provided to build this plan is immeasurable. Much appreciated!
This plan would not be complete without information and the very useful demand side ground setting from the community.To all
key informants, community members who graced our focus group discussions and more so the representatives of youths, women
and IDPs- you were the most important pillar in solidifying this plan.This plan, its contents and the preparing team are all beholden
to you!
To Savana Consultancy and Research Services team, thank you for the effort and hard work in putting together this document!


Executive Summary

The situation

For a very long time, Somalia has been in a perpetual state of humanitarian crisisc with 5.2 million people considered to be in dire
need of humanitarian assistance. The cumulative effects of three decades of incessant armed conflict, cyclical natural calamities,
persistent security concerns, protracted and repeated displacement, layered on top of pre-existing development challenges, have
negatively impacted the country.This has translated into extreme poverty, lack of livelihoods and access to basic services.Additional
to the psychological distress, new and emerging shocks: Desert Locust (DL) and the COVID-19 pandemic have heightened
existential vulnerabilities.
Like almost every other area in Somalia, the livelihood conditions in Jubaland are set to worsen.This is largely due to the resultant
effects of the erratic Gu characterized by early cessation of the rainfall season between April and June in the region followed by
a below average Deyr rainfall season of 2020. In a region that is highly reliant on agriculture, crop production of post- Gu rainfall
is set to fall 30- 40% due to crop destruction by flash floods and inadequate rainfall to necessitate proper harvests. 1The impact
of COVID-19 that necessitated economic-damaging yet necessary containment measures such as shutdown of businesses and
restriction of movement has exacerbated the situation.

Shocks and the crisis response plan

Jubaland state experiences a myriad of shocks, some cyclical while others are emerging: - they include, pressing need of populations
affected by Drought, Floods, Locusts, Covid-19 and Monsoons. Founded on a mixed-methods approach and a thorough multi-
sectoral needs analyses, this plan provides a comprehensive understanding of the crises and a consolidated evidence base to helps
inform joint strategic response planning. It is designed to give direction and support governance structures in coordinating efforts
related to containing, responding to and preventing crises.


In support of the “Humanitarian-Development Nexus”, as well as “New Way of Working” approaches, the plan’s proposed activities
are aligned to and contributes towards the shared objectives, ambitions, priorities, as well as collective outcomes of the Somali
National Development Plan (NDP) and other International Development Frameworks.It proposes recovery activities for productive
sectors including agriculture, Infrastructure, Health and nutrition and education. Further, it also explores other key factors such as
Women inclusion and IDP recovery and restoration.


This plan provides an implementation strategy that outlines both response structures as well as action trigger levels with priorities
categorised as either: short, medium or long-term. Note that while activities are universally presented, a caveat has been included
for consideration of friction costs (feasibility studies, access issues, need to use third parties like private companies or local NGOs)
in implementation in non-liberated districts.

1FEWSNET & FSNAU Somalia Food Security Outlook



When international humanitarian drive and impact the humanitarian crisis The vulnerability has further been
assistance was first adopted as a tool for in Somalia. Such factors have resulted heightened by new and emerging shocks;
tackling the destruction of livelihoods, in protracted economic vulnerabilities Desert Locust (DL) and COVID-19.
there was widespread assumption that in the economies where the livelihoods While the desert locust upsurge was
coordinated efforts by several actors over of the majority of Somalia’s households, initially limited to the pastoral areas in
a prolonged period would reach across particularly agro-pastoralists, are the border with Kenya and Ethiopia, the
the poverty spectrum. It soon became embedded. Besides the unfavourable swarms in 2019 migrated into the agro-
apparent that in fact the most vulnerable climatic conditions, on-going armed pastoral and riverine areas including areas
benefitted more from programmes and conflict and insecurity has spurred mass along the river Jubba in Gedo, Lower Juba
interventions that strengthened their population movement toward urban and Middle Juba regions of Jubaland. The
ability and preparedness to overcome and peri-urban areas, further straining threat of desert locust is expected to be
shocks in their livelihoods rather than the limited resources and absorption critical given the ever-expanding areas
from the direct provision of humanitarian capacity of host communities. Estimates affected especially in the breadbasket
assistance. As such, the approach to show that up to 2.6 million people across regions of Jubaland especially in Gedo
humanitarian assistance has evolved Somalia are internally displaced scattered region, continued hatching and formation
to programmes that build resilience among host communities in rural areas or of hoppers and swarms as many parts of
in target communities and those that living in informal settlements. While the Puntland and Somaliland of the country.
aim to graduate them out of extreme humanitarian crisis affects all regions of At the same time, COVID-19 presents
vulnerability. However, success is often Somalia, the internally displaced persons an unprecedented challenge not only to
the exception rather than the norm as a (IDPs) and the host communities bear communities and households in Somalia
single shock has the potential of eroding the most substantial burden. Ongoing but also to humanitarian actors and
and reversing several years of resilience struggle over limited resources and interventions. As is the case globally,
building. access to aid had contributed to conflict the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic
Nowhere has this been more evident between host communities and the IDPs. is expected to fall disproportionately
than in Somalia. Somalia continues to As a testament to the vulnerability and on those who are already vulnerable in
experience one of the most long-standing fragility of households, 2018 saw some Somalia.
humanitarian crises in the world.Estimates improvements in the food security Against this backdrop, the Ministry of
reveal that more than 5.2 million people outlook, mainly due to the above-average Planning and International Cooperation
in Somalia are in need of humanitarian Gu rainfall and sustained humanitarian (MOPIC) of Jubaland and the consortium
assistance. Ongoing armed conflict and response. However, the same rainfall also of Somali Resilience Program (SomRep)
insecurity, as well as cyclical climatic caused flooding that resulted in internal sought to develop a crisis response and
shocks, amid compounding political and displacements in some areas (especially recovery plan (CRRP) with the Objectives
socioeconomic factors, continue to along the two rivers) and destruction of of: -

1. Establishing the foundation for effective medium- and long- 4. Developing a framework to guide governance structures
term recovery and support sustainable economic recovery for coordination of multi- sectoral response and recovery
for the populations affected by Drought, Floods, Locusts, action with Jubaland state line Ministries.
Covid-19 and Monsoons
5. Establishing functional humanitarian crisis management
2. Rapid recovery assessment for productive sectors related institutions at all levels of governance.
to ministries of agriculture, livestock, water, interior and
resettlement, LNGOs, INGOs, UN and donors.

3. Develop a comprehensive Crisis Response and recovery
Framework covering the period 2020-2024 that addresses
the needs of different livelihood groups and adopts a multi-
sectoral multi-actor approach to prioritize suitable high
impact interventions

1.1. CRRP Assumption
This CRRP is based upon several prospects such as; critical gaps in resources, governance and coordination will likely have been
plugged in as at the time of crisis support need. That partner identification and resources mobilization for crisis response and
recovery will run smoothly even in the face of Covid-19 global pandemic. This includes the assumption of ease in on-boarding
additional local and international partners. Further, that humanitarian partners already providing external support important for
building resilience will continue to do so and that crises pattern will hold to the extent that available early warning systems can
forecast their incidences. Specifically, this plan is founded upon the following assumptions;


1. This CRRP has prioritised 3. One of the key pillars of this plan therefore assumes that resources
interventions for implementation is collaborative efforts, in line with mobilization is either on-going or
across Jubaland with the assumption the New Way of Working approach. will be instigated prior to the genesis
that there will be adequate funding As such, a key assumption is that of any crisis response activities.
for implementation. As such, the development partners and donor 6. Finally, this plan predicates upon
approach is based on ‘what needs to organizations will continue funding the prospects of upward mobilityin
be done’ rather than ‘what can be programs and interventions that a crisis situation as opposed to
done with the resources available’. are central to the achievement of absolute economic recovery.
this plan to facilitate multi-actor
2. This plan is based on humanitarian coordinated approaches.
needs as at September 2020 and
will be adjusted as new livelihood 4. That committees with technical
threats emerge and old or existing know-how to lead the coordination
ones abate. For instance, the plan and implementation of collaborative
has been adjusted to take into solutions, will be established at state,
consideration the potential impact of regional and district levels to steer
COVID-19 and DL even though their the CRRP.
effective impacts were yet to be fully
understood. 5. Crisis Intervention and recovery
actions are resource, this plan

1.2. Strategic linkage to the National Development Plan (NDP-9)

This plan reflects the ambitions and the use of development aid. Notably, invest in resilience for poverty reduction.
priorities outlined in Somalia National the overarching objective of the NDP From a humanitarian perspective, key
Development Plan (NDP), 2020 to 2024 is poverty reduction with improved elements of the NDP also include the
and by extension therefore, regional economic development identified as one aspiration to prioritise durable solutions
and global development frameworks. of the three national priority requisites for tolong-term displacement and strengthen
The NDP stipulates Somalia ‘s short poverty reduction. Additionally, resilience the interface between humanitarian and
to medium term strategic direction, is a key theme of the NDP, acknowledging development planning, all of which are
development priorities and proposed that the poor are the most vulnerable to also key elements of this plan.
implementation mechanisms including shocks with the government required to


2.1. Geographical Coverage
The Crisis Response and Recovery Plan essentially covers all the districts in Jubaland State of Somalia, and is focused on
Major Recurrent Crises; Drought, Flood, Locust, Monsoons and the new COVID-19 global pandemic. Jubaland state is
comprised of both liberated and un-liberated areas within its three regions. Areas visited for rapid recovery assessment
as well as are summarised in table 1 below.
Table 1: Areas in Jubaland


Region District Visited villages Accessible villages Accessible Islands
Lower Jubba Kismayo BuulobartireQaamQaam Yontoy, Bulogadud, Goobweyn Ingumi
Jamame (Under AS) Wirkooy Singaleyr Kanrey
Towfiq Barsanguni Qandal
Badhadhe (Under AS) None Kudhaa, None
Raskamboni Kulbio, Waraq Madhawo

Gedo Afmadow None Dhooobley, Qoqani and others None
Dolow None
Kaharey, Qorof, Waranley, Aborey. Una,Ramaga
Belethawo Bantal bay
Garbaharey   No accessible villages
Luq NA  
Miradhubo Geedweyne,
anmudule Haradin
Shatilow Arunde,

Bardhere  Kormarey
Middle Jubba Jilib All under AS
Bu’ale None

2.2. Methodological Approach

The plan adopted a mixed-methods from qualitative rapid appraisals using a validation workshop was organised by
approach comprising of three main Focus group discussions (FGDs) and Key the MOPIC and SomRep to validate the
components, that is; secondary data and informant interviews (KIIs) along with contents of the plan.
situation tracking reviews, primary data consultative electronic meetings. Finally,


Figure 1: Validation workshop

2.2.1. Review of secondary data and tracking records
Secondary data sources reviewed for this plan encompassed all relevant literature on Somalia situational tracking, displacement/
movement records, crisis measures and projections, livelihood maps etc with a narrow focus on Jubaland.

2.2.2. Rapid Rural appraisals (RRA) for primary data

Primary data was obtained from target select key informers. RRA was the choice were triangulated with secondary
crises recovery beneficiaries through high approach for primary data collection information to form the key components
level FGDs and KII with representatives because it is the fastest most pragmatic of this plan. Informative quotes are also
of partner organizations involved in means to quick data gathering and the included in-text. Data collection targeted
humanitarian assistance in Somalia, most feasible given the realities of covid-19 the following Ministries as well as other
community member representatives and prevention measures. RRA highlights key informants.

Figure 2: Engaging line ministries


1. Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation (MOPIC) 8. Ministry of Gender and family affairs
2. Ministry of Interior and Local Governments 9. Ministry of Education
3. Ministry of Environment and tourism 10. Ministry of Health
4. Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation 11. Ministry of Commerce and Industry
5. Ministry of Livestock, Forestry and Range 12. Ministry Public works and Housing
6. Ministry of Fishery and Marine Resources 13. Jubaland Refugee Agency (JRA)
7. Ministry of Minerals, Energy and Water

Insight from the Regional administration Gedo: Dolow, Luq and Bardere). Four engaged via phone interviews. In addition,
of Lower Jubba was sought, along with district commissaries from Badhadhe of community opinion leaders, youth and
that of the District commissionaires of six Lower Juba, and Garbaharey, Burdhubo women representatives and IDPs in all
districts (Lower Jubba: Kismayo,Afmadow. and Abudwaq of Gedo region were also regions were interviewed.

2.2.3. Consultative electronic meeting it helped in understanding the various
Online consultative meeting and calls align the plan to the prevailing contexts stakeholder needs and interests for
were utilized throughout the development and the on -the-ground realities of better planning and forecasting.
of this plan.This was key to appropriately support/assistance planning. In addition,


Somalia is currently amid one the worst Camps for the internally displaced are and access to aid had contributed to
humanitarian crisis globally.The effects of the hotspots for new infections. Lastly, conflict between host communities
the worst desert locust infestation in the scarcity of resources will mean that and the IDPs. As a testament to the
last 25 years, the impact of longstanding humanitarian assistance is diverted from vulnerability and fragility of households,
armed conflict, cyclical drought, annual current efforts towards fighting the 2018 saw some improvements in the
monsoons and destructive floods impact of the pandemic. food security outlook, mainly due to the
have now been compounded by the The humanitarian shocks have further above-average Gu rainfall and sustained
COVID-19 pandemic. Despite concerted spurred mass population movement humanitarian response. However, the
efforts to mitigate these disasters, new toward urban and peri-urban areas, same rainfall also caused flooding that
cases of invasion by desert locust swarms further straining the limited resources resulted in internal displacements in some
and hopper bands and their continuous and absorption capacity of host areas and destruction of infrastructure.
breeding across the country has put communities. Estimates show that up to Estimates put the total number of people
tremendous strain on ongoing effort to 2.6 million people across Somalia are in the country in need of humanitarian
build hunger and famine resilience in an internally displaced scattered among host assistance at 5.2 million, with 3.2 million
already fragile situation. 2At the same time, communities in rural areas or living in (63%) of them being children. 3From a
the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is informal settlements in urban centers. resource standpoint, estimates by the UN
expected to fall disproportionately fall While the humanitarian crisis affects all show that the country needs US$1.01
on those who are already vulnerable in regions of Somalia,the internally displaced billion to drive humanitarian assistance
Somalia. For instance, informal workers persons (IDPs) and the host communities and help manage the crisis in Somalia in
in urban centres such as Kismaayo are bear the most substantial burden. On 2020.4
at the risk of losing their livelihoods as -going struggle over limited resources
containment measures are put into place.


Geographically, Jubaland resides the Federal government and Jubaland state The main economic activity is livestock
in the southern-most area of has seen trade in charcoal and other illicit rearing and farming. The Juba River
Somalia and shares its borders goods halted. Besides trade, the region is provides Jubaland with the potentialfor
with Kenya to the West, Ethiopia comprised of agro-pastoralists, riverine irrigated agriculture ranging from crops
to the North caonadstlitnhees. Indian communities, fishery and pastoralists such asbananas, sugar cane, sesame
Ocean along its Jubaland in the northern parts of Afmadow and seeds and cotton to staplefoods such as
is divided into three administrative regions Badhaadhe districts. Gedo Region is the sorghum and maize. Middle Juba borders
namely Lower Jubaland, Middle Jubaland second largest region in Somalia and is with Bay region to the north, Gedo to
and Gedo, all of which are further divided located on the borders with Ethiopia and the west and northwest, Lower Shebelle
into districts. Lower Juba borders Middle Kenya. to the northeast and Lower Juba to the
Juba and Gedo to the north, Kenya to It shares borders with four Somali south. The region has four districts: Jilib,
the west, Middle Juba to the northeast regions: Bay; Bakool; Middle Jubba and Bu’ale, Dujuma and Sakow. It has borne
and the Indian Ocean to the east. It has Lower Jubba. It is mostly rural and has the brunt of the Al-Shabaab remains
five districts: Kismaayo, Jamaame, Hagar, six administrative districts: Garbaharey, under the control of the militant group.
Afmadow and Badhaadhe. The port of Baardheere (the capital), CeelWaaq in As a result, the region was for the longest
Kismaayo is the main economic hub and the south and BeletXaawo, Doloow, and time cut off from humanitarian assistance
most important port in Somalia. It is Luuq. Two major rivers run through the as no international NGO had any form of
dependent on income from exports and region, the main river Jubathe Dawa. presence.
imports. Recent restrictions imposed by

2FAO Desert Locust Emergency in Somalia update 7|August 2020 5
3World Vision Somalia Situation Report 1| June 2020
4OCHA Somalia HRP Revision | July 2020

4.1. Overview of shocks Deyr rainfall season between (October harvests7. This has been accompanied by
Like almost every other area and December) as predicted by the an astronomical rise in the cost of basic
in Somalia, the livelihood IGAD Climate Prediction and Application food items. 8 The impact of COVID-19
conditions in Jubaland are set Centre(ICPAC)6 , In a region that is highly that necessitated economic-damaging
to worsen. This is largely due to reliant on agriculture,the crop production yet necessary containment measures
the resultant effects of the erratic Gu of post- Gu rainfall is set to fall 30- 40% such as the shutdown businesses and
characterized by early cessation of the due to crop destruction by flash floods and restriction of movement has exacerbated
rainfall season between April and June in inadequate rainfall to necessitate proper the situation.
the region followed by a below average

4.1.1. Drought and food insecurity

Like most parts of Somalia, Jubaland In addition, the upsurge in desert locusts in level 3 (crisis). 9The 2020 Deyrrainfall
continues to grapple with the effects has led to an increase in the food season is expected to be below average
severe drought that has been a perennial -insecure population and the severity of to average across Somalia which could
occurrence in recent decades. The food insecurity in Somalia. Forecasts by lead to drought and trigger a worsening of
incidences and effects of drought have FSNAU show that the food insecurity the humanitarian situationif the 2021 Gu
been compounded by other climatic outlook is disparate across Jubaland. (April-June) season rainfall is also delayed
events such as the flooding of Juba River Parts of lower and middle Juba are in IPC or performs poorly.These outlooks are
which not only causes displacement of level 1 indicatingminimal threats of food expected to persist through December
people but also lead to extensive damages insecurity while Gedo is in IPC level 2 2020 in the absence of humanitarian
to crops and agricultural infrastructure. (stressed) with areas along the Juba River assistance.

Table 2: Number of acutely food insecure people (rural, urban, IDP combined)

Current (July-Sept 2020) Projected (Oct-Dec 2020)
Stressed Crisis Emergency
Region Stressed Crisis Emergency
(IPC 2) (IPC 3) (IPC 4)
109,000 34,000 11,000 (IPC 2 (IPC 3) (IPC 4)

Gedo 430,943 47,000 31,000 9,000 123,000 58,000 11,000
Middle 648,396 108,000 66,000 9,000 52,000 35,000 6,000
134,000 100,000 12,000


The drought situation has Jubaland is classified as serious (10-14.9%) and water from the 2019 Deyr season,
worsened existing humanitarian with some parts of middle Juba classified availability is expected to decline towards
and development challenges. as critical (15-29.9%). 11At the same time, the end of 2020 due to anticipated below
Estimates show that the total effects the 2020 Gu harvest was 40% lower than average Deyr season rainfall, triggering
of the drought due to damages and the long-term average for 1995-2019 migrations by pastoralists in search of
losses in Jubaland are expected to due to successive and severe flooding, pasture. Drought-related displacements
exceed US$ 508 million with irrigated erratic rainfall, crop damage by the desert in Jubaland between January and July
and rainfed crop, livestock and fisheries locusts and the prolonged dry spell. This 2020 totalled 3,380 people in Gedo,
production accounting for 18.4% of the will worsen the nutritional situation. 1,460 in lower Juba and 1,390 in middle
losses. 10Results from nutritional surveys While the current availability of pasture in Juba. Arrivals into the respective areas
show that prevalence of Global Acute Jubaland is adequate to support livestock over the same period amounted to 3,130,
Malnutrition (GAM) in almost all parts of largely on account of carryover pasture 1,440 and 5,550. 12

10Somalia drought impact and needs assessment, Volume III. Federal member states and administrative region reports. 6
11Somalia estimated nutrition situation, July-September 2020. FSNAU
12Somalia internal displacements, PRMN. July 2020

Table 3: Detailed agricultural and rain-fed crops losses in Jubaland

Agriculture-irrigated and rain-fed crops losses Cost US$
Cowpeas (758,714)
Maize (1,088,873)
Sesame 4,281,600
Sorghum 2,042,506
Banana 2,831,970
Papaya 404,567
Watermelon 240,814
Tomatoes 8,441,607
Total 5,918,667
Livestock losses
Camel Milk 39,708,366
Cow Milk 16,647,599
Sheep and Goat Milk
Camel Live Weight/Value 5,098,634
Cattle Live Weight/Value 41,744,856
Sheep and Goat Live Weight/Value 24,105,316
Total 31,095,694
Fisheries losses 158,400,466
Loss of Sales
Loss of Consumption 2,070,603
Loss of Assets 1,035,301
Loss of Access to Fishing Grounds
Total 619,176
Damages to irrigated and rain-fed crops 619,176
Loss of Banana Trees 4,344,255
Primary Canal Damages
Total 2,520,000
Damages to livestock
Camels 2,542,575
Sheep and Goats 16,997,442
Total 6,974,402
Damages to water supply and sanitation
Boreholes 31,380,398
Shallow Wells
Total 910,000
Source: Somalia drought needs and impact assessment volume III 1,154,000

The Federal Government and DINA presents a breakdown of overall accounting for 43.1% of the losses. The
humanitarian partners are damages, losses and recovery needs by DINA does not only quantify the losses
scaling up their response to the FMS including Jubaland and provides and damages but crucially, identify and
drought situation. At the macro sector-specific disaggregation of data. quantify the recovery needs in terms
level, the Ministry of Planning and The DINA estimates that the total of the interventions required to build
international Cooperation (MOPIC)with effects of the drought in Jubaland are the livelihoods of those impacted by
the support of development partners expected to exceed US$ 508 million the droughts.As part of this process,
developed the Somalia Drought Impact with the productive sector (irrigated and the DINA identified the key priority for
and Needs Assessment (DINA). The rain-fed crops, livestock and fisheries) recovery and resilience in Jubaland as


the promotion and delivery of quality analytical and policy groundwork and will, among others, includepiloting an
veterinary training. Additionally, the capacities to enable a government-led, integrated flood-drought preparedness
Somalia crisis recovery project includes integrated approach to flood and drought and response solution.
a component aimed at establishing the risk management and preparedness. This

4.1.2. Floods families. Displacements due to flooding further subjected to low rainfall since
Jubaland continues to be one have also been reported in Doolow, it is located towards the leeward side
of the regions most affected by Luuq, Buurdhuubo, Baardheere, Sakow of the Kenyan and Ethiopian highlands.
floods, triggered by the intense and Buaalle.15 While Somalia often confronts drought-
2020 Gu rains. Heavy rainfall in the The recent flooding reflects a worrying like conditions, the country also
Juba River basin and the surrounding trend.Normal rains are no longer the periodically experiences flooding due
Ethiopian highlands in April 2020 led norm and instead point to a pattern to heavy rainfall. This flooding mostly
to high water levels in the Juba and where extreme weather conditions are occurs during the Deyr season, largely
Shabelle rivers leading to riverine increasing in frequency and intensity. influenced by rainfall in the upper
flooding in Jubaland. 13The flooding 16Rainfall in Somalia has historically been catchments of the Shabelle and Juba
came barely four months following lowand inconsistent, often resulting in Rivers in neighboring Ethiopia. Over the
heavy Deyr rainfall in parts of Somalia periods of prolonged drought. past three decades, severe floods have
including Jubaland and against the Somalia’s peak rainfall season occurs been recorded in Somalia, including
backdrop of the Gu 2018 season where during the Gu (April-June) and the Deyr 1997 (Deyr), 2006 (Deyr), 2018 (Gu)
flooding along the Juba river affected up (October–December). Descending and the current 2019 (Deyr) floods.The
to 50,000 hectares of crop land. 14The motion of the air and the resulting low extreme weather patterns have been
most affected areas in Jubaland include humidity is cited as the main cause compounded by the absence of a well-
Baardheere and Luuq districts in Gedo for this variability in rainfall. Somalia is functioning and water infrastructure
region. Shallow wells in BaletHaawo that have been damaged and degraded
town have also been flooded, potentially over the years.
polluting water sources for 20,000

Figure 4: Somalia mean rainfall (MM) April 2009-November 2016:- Source: FSNAU

The recent floods have severely impacted of water-borne disease and associated had been displaced due to floods caused
livelihoods and households in Jubaland. with the current outbreak of desert by riverine and heavy rainfall. Most of
The floods, continue to take place within locusts in the region. 17Estimates by the population affected are small-scale
the context of high levels of pre-existing the Protection and Returns Monitoring farmers, livestock producers and traders
food insecurity caused by repeated Network (PRMN) 18show that as of July with an almost equal split in the gender
drought and crop failure in recent years 2020, a total of 23,520 persons in Lower of those displaced. The priority needs of
and are accompanied by an elevated risk Juba and 5,870 persons in Upper Juba the displaced include shelter, food, safe

13Somalia humanitarian dashboard, June 2020: OCHA 8
14Somalia flood update, 2018: FAO
15Somalia flash flooding update No. 4 as at May 2020, OCHA. Accessed
16Presss release by UNHCR, August 2020, accessed here.

drinking water, mosquito nets and hygiene instituted measures and interventions feeder roads. It will also support local
services. Besides displacement, the floods to provide life-saving assistance across mitigation efforts for risk reduction such
have also led to destruction of agricultural Somalia including Jubaland. In February as slope protection and environmental
infrastructure such as canals, culverts and 2020, the Federal Government of rehabilitation. In May 2020, Jubaland State
river gates and have destroyed crops. Somalia with the support of the World authoritiesmobilised emergency food
The floods inundated 600 farms along Bank published the 2019 floods impact assistance consisting of 39 MT of assorted
Dawa river farmland between Doolow and needs assessment that profiles the food for 500 floodaffected households.
and BeletHaawo districts of Gedo region, 2019 floods and including the recovery The supplies also included 2,150 iron
inundating over 10,000 hectares of onion and resilience needs. The assessment sheets for repair of damaged houses in
and other vegetable plantations that were estimates that the three regions of Gedo, Kudhaa, Madhawa and Jula islands.As of 10
to be harvested between June and July. Middle Juba and Lower Juba require May, the Lower Juba regional cluster has
This is expected to lead to an increase in the restoration of approximately 3.4 distributed 3,000 hygiene kits in Kismayo
food prices. At the same time, the floods million, 2.3 million and 700,000 fully and Dhobley. In August 2020, UNICEF
have occasioned a rise in incidences and partly destroyed private houses and implementing partners supported the
of Acute Watery Diarrhoea (AWD) respectively within the next three years. provision of emergency water reaching
across Somalia. While new admissions The Somalia Crisis Recovery Project 52,000 vulnerable people in Lower Juba
of suspected AWD cases have dropped (SCRP) that is funded by a World Bank regionof Jubalandand Lower Shabelleof
significantly in Jubaland, there are fears grant through the Ministry of Finance has Hirshabelle. This included 34,000 people
that hat new cases could emerge in the earmarked US$ 42 million to support through water trucking and 18,000
outskirts of Kismayo where communities the rehabilitation of critical public and people had access to safe water after
living in riverine areas have limited access community infrastructurein the flood chlorination of 50 water points in the
to health care and face other threats affected states of Hirshabelle, South affected areas.
from infectious diseases and the impact West and Jubaland. This component will
of floods. rehabilitate water and sanitation systems,
Humanitarian response to the floods broken or non-functioning pre-existing
is underway but need to be scaled up. flood control systems (embankments,
Various humanitarian partners have drainage, irrigation canals and restoration
of river channels through dredging),
health facilities, bridges, and small

4.1.3. COVID-19

On March 16th, Somalia’s with the support of development partners evictions are still on the rise despite a
government announced its first instituted containment measures and moratorium suspending evictions during
case of COVID-19, which has increased investment in the healthcare the COVID-19 response.
so far infected more than 3,000 system, including efforts to scale Containment measures to reduce the
people and caused more than 90 community-based surveillance focused spread of the virus have far-reaching
deaths in the country.In Jubaland, on early detection, testing, tracking and impact on key socioeconomic sectors.The
there have been of 212 confirmed cases tracing of cases. closure of schools disrupted the learning
thus far with one reported death and a COVID-19 has heightened existing of over 1.1 million children impacting
total of 162 recoveries. 25The number vulnerabilities and continues to impact not only the right to education but also
of cases in Jubaland is currently lower livelihoods. The advent of the pandemic to food and nutrition. The disruption in
than in Benadir (1,535), Somaliland (934), has exacerbated the already dire learning has disproportionately impacted
Puntland (496) and higher than Southwest humanitarian situation and threatens to poor learners who are more prone to
state (144), Galmudug (119) and push not just Jubaland, but the entire gender-based abuse and exploitation,early
Hirshabelle (25). Even though mortality Somalia into another crisis. Previous marriages, child labour and recruitment
rates of COVID-19 are relatively and on-going cycles of flooding, drought, into armed groups.The job opportunities
low compared to other diseases and desert locusts and armed conflict have created at the port in Jubaland are
confirmed cases continue to decline26, now been compounded by the impact expected to significantly decline due
the infectious nature of the disease and effects of COVID-19. Poor urban to a 30-50 per cent decline in livestock
threatens to overwhelm the healthcare households, IDPs and pastoralists are exports. At the same time, movement
system. In the early phases of the amongst those who continue to be restrictions inadvertently led to job and
pandemic, the Jubaland healthcare system most affected by the pandemic. This income losses for numerous households
was strained following the infection of 20 has largely been occasioned up to 50% and led to disruptions in supply chains,
health workers with limited availability of decline in annual external remittances, affecting the ability to produce and supply
Personal Protective Equipments (PPEs). lower labour demand and above average goods and services.
27In an effort to curb the spread of the food prices. 28In Jubaland, cases of forced
virus, the Federal Government of Somalia

27Somalia: COVID-19 Impact update No. 6, OCHA. 9
28Somalia food security outlook, January 2020-January 2021. FSNAU.

The Federal Government and member through distribution of posters at food million to respond to the socioeconomic
states with the support of development distribution points, translation of SOPs and humanitarian impact of COVID-19.
partners are leading efforts to mitigate on social distancing/radio messages, and WHO,UNICEF and IOM have contributed
the impact ofCOVID-19. The Federal distributed pamphlets to refugees, asylum approximately US$ 2.1 million towards
Ministry of Health (FMoH) developed seekers and host communities. NGOs support for COVID-19 responses while
the national preparedness and response continue to support FMoH on screening the Somalia Humanitarian Fund (SHF) has
plan to COVID-19 and also set up a activities at various ports of entry contributed US$ 2.57 million.In May 2020,
COVID-19 dashboard for real-time including in Kismayo.WHO has deployed The World Bank approved a $137.7m
data monitoring. At the same time, health workers throughout Somalia for grant to help Somalia to respond to and
the Federal Government of Somalia’s active case management and contact recover from the ongoing crises including
Country Preparedness and Response tracing and has also supported the COVID-19. 29The African Development
Plan (CPRP) for Covid-19 was developed recruitment of health staff for an isolation Bank issued a grant of US$ 25 million to
with the support of the UN and partner facility in Jubaland. There are several bolster Somalia’s COVID-19 responses.
agencies and launched in March 2020. other interventions being spearheaded While these does not reflect all the
Risk Communication and Community by partners who are tirelessly working to funding commitments secured thus far,
Engagement (RCCE) activities are mitigate the impact of the pandemic. they reflect the observed responses from
spearheaded by local and international Funding commitments have been secured other governments to support Somalia’s
NGOs including Care, World Vision, from development partners but there efforts.
WFP, UNHCR, among others. This is is still a gap.The CPRP seeks US$ 689

Table 5: Likely impact of COVID-19 on humanitarian operations

4.1.4. Desert locusts

The current desert locust planted crops at the milking stage. In parts of Somalia due to aerial control
outbreak is the worst in 25 years. Jubaland, Doolow was reported as one operations, 31there are threats that
The breeding was initially confined to the of the most affected areas. 30The true new immature swarms in northeast
rangelands in the northern and central extent of damage is unknown according Ethiopia could still migrate into southern
regions of Somalia with unprecedented to due to logistical constraints that Somalia including parts of Jubaland. 32This
damage to crop and pastureland. In have impeded surveillance. However, southward migration is expected to
early 2019, immature swarms migrated Government-led control operations coincide with period when the swarms
southwards to Hirshabelle, Jubaland have made good progress to contain the are at their most destructive stage. In
and South West states. This migration spread and damage due to the infestation, Jubaland, the greatest threat remains
coincided with the end of the Deyr but the situation remains critical. While the degradation of pasture especially in
agricultural season and affected late there are initial signs of improvement in southern Inland Pastoral livelihood zone

29Press release No. 2020/118/AFR, The World Bank
30Desert locust emergency in Somalia, Update 02 of 2019. FAO, 2019
31Desert locust situation update, 18 September 2020. FAO. Accessed here
32Desert locust situation update, 29 September 2020. FAO. Accessed


of Gedo. Estimates by the Jubaland State measures should also be transboundary. the European Union contributed EUR
Ministry of Livestock indicate that 470 FAO is closely working with Ministries 15 million to support FAO and partner
km2 of pastureland in 7 districts of the of Agriculture and partner organizations agencies to fight the upsurge of desert
Gedo region and 80 km 2 in the Lower on surveillance and control efforts in locusts in east Africa, including Somalia.
Juba region have been afflicted by the the north (Somaliland and Puntland) to This follows an initial EUR 11 million
ravenous pests. Additionally, preliminary prevent spread to the south.This includes that was contributed in February 2020.
estimates indicate the overall Gu 2020 facilitated surveys and training of ministry The Somalia crisis recovery project
season crop harvest could be 10 to 15 of agriculture staff on the application includes a US$ 30 million component
percent lower compared to the long- of bio pesticide. A desert locust unit to among others, address the procuring
term average due to the impact of desert has been established in Hargeisa of biopesticides for future ground and aerial
locusts. Production decline is estimated Somaliland and Garowe of Puntland and spraying operations to help control
at 20-30 percent below the long-term has been carried out control operations the desert locust population, impact
average when considering the likely using Metarhizium acridum targeting. assessments, and surveillance. The fact
combined impacts of Desert Locust, Due to the importance of Somalia as a that locust plagues develop intermittently
flooding and extended dry spell since breeding ground, an additional eLocust3 with the current plague affecting up to 8
mid-May 2020. unit has been provided for use by countries means that control operations
Desert Locusts are transboundary the Ministry of Agriculture to collect and preparedness should be sustained
pests with the ability to spread over data. In total, Somalia now has five and intensified.
large areas meaning that containment operational eLocust3 units. In July 2020,

4.1.5. Conflict and internal displacement

Conflict remains the major (approximately 56,000 people) were conflict and insecurity. The displacements
cause of humanitarian crisis displaced in Gedo,Jubaland State following have further strained the limited
in Jubaland. While this situation is this stand-off. resources and absorption capacity of
replicated across most regions of Somalia, The effects of the conflict have been host communities with most of the IDPs
the conflict in Jubaland is heightened by devastating to livelihoods. Overall, it living in rural areas or living in informal
geopolitical factors. Recently, the main is estimated that Jubaland hosts an settlements . While the humanitarian
source of conflict has been the political estimated 352,000 IDPs. Most of these crisis affects all regions of Somalia, the
tensions between the national federal IDPs are largely drawn to areas with internally displaced persons (IDPs) and
government and some representatives of thriving economic activities including the host communities bear the most
Jubaland State. As a direct consequence, Gedo which is the busiest and most substantial burden. On -going struggle
hostilities have escalated in Gedo important seaport in the region. Between over limited resources and access to aid
region near the Somalia-Kenya border January and July 2020, a total of 101,920 has contributed to conflict between host
between the Somalia National Army people departed from Jubaland with communities and the IDPs. This situation
(SNA) and Jubaland forces, resulting in 107,930 internally displaced persons is further exacerbated by the COVID- 19
several casualties, injuries, and large- arriving in Jubaland over the same period. pandemic.
scale displacement of civilians. Estimates Of these, a total of 21,520 departures and
show that up to 9,000 households 23500 arrivals were directly as a result of

4.1.6. Monsoons

Climate data suggest that east Somali upwelling system is considered dependent populations of Jubaland.
African currents, most probably to be the fifth largest upwelling system Estimates of landing fish catch indicates
forced by the easterly winds in of the global ocean and the strongest in a reduction in overall quantities as a
the southern hemisphere, tend the Indian Ocean.40 Upwelling along the result of monsoons with fish value chain
to cross the equator at the start Somali coast while limited to the early actors (Producers –Fishermen-, Fisheries
of the month of May and flow phase of the summer monsoon it shows cooperatives,fish processing factories,fish
northwards along the Somali dominated flows in the northern and retail outlets, and consumers) adversely
coast39. This drives Somali upwelling some extent in the southern part of the affected economically or in other ways,
system during northern summer and coast. Effects of monsoons and resultant including; bodily injury, loss of life and or
is believed to be the largest upwelling upwelling have not gone without severe property.
region in the Indian Ocean. In fact, impacts especially among blue economy

33USAID East Africa Desert Locusts fact sheet 6, 2020
36CCCM Cluster Somalia Overview 2020
37PRMN, July 2020.
38FSNAU Technical brief, February 2019


April 16984 38 1182 11501 00 268 4844

May8 10 38901 25 02 00 0

Jun 73817 06 3500 00 0

Jul1 70 7440 1480 01 30

Aug9 82 3710 1100 0 3917

Total 11041 6149 1657 14081 20 268 8891

Figure 6: Estimated Jubaland fish catch for the period April-August 2020. Source: Ministry of fisheries & Marine resources-Jubaland

“More often, fishermen experience unprecedented strong winds, with waves
as high as 6 to 8 meters. The same fishermen have to then navigate the sea
without life jackets or even GPS gadgets – this is how we end up losing lives when
these kinds of things happen. You know the ministry does not have speedboat
ambulance to save fishermen in distress at sea, which makes the matter even

worse. Something definitely needs to be done…”
~ Director General - Kismayo


This prioritization section identifies ease of access to certain risk affected resources to balance out prevailing
high priority interventions that reflect areas. For example, action for recovery political dynamics. In principle recovery
the local contexts. These priorities are in liberated districts will likely save entry actions should appreciate differences
then further categorised as either short, costs as contrasted with newly liberated between regions emerging from conflict
medium or long-term. Highlights include: districts with increased propensity for and previous unintended exclusion from
Productive sectors (agriculture; livestock; high friction costs. Unliberated and newly services especially if they experience
fisheries) and Physical sectors (water; liberated areas also present the challenge similar shocks. This section highlights
transport; environment and natural of prolonged buy-in processes either interventions for prioritization to
resource management) investments.41 due to suspicion or purely inaccessibility. support sustainable economic recovery
Contextualizing priorities will be key This CRRP should hence consider for the populations in Jubaland affected
to implementing this CRRP given the disaggregating recovery approaches by by drought, floods, locusts, Covid-19 and
realities of varied levels of liberation and governance types and allocate sufficient monsoons.

5.1. Agriculture from waters of Shabelle and Jubba rivers commercial crops; Fruits including Citrus,
or from collected rain water. While Mango, Papaya, bananas and sesame, are
Livestock and crops remain the main subsistence crops corn, sorghum, beans, majorly grown on irrigated land along the
sources of economic activity, employment and vegetables are cultivated mainly two rivers.
and export in Jubaland. Somalis have through a mix of water access methods,
traditionally engaged in rain-fed dry-
land farming complemented by irrigation

“In this district, we consider livestock as the major livelihood/economic activity,
though the district has fertile land for farming, fewer people are doing land
cultivation compared to those practicing animal husbandries. Afmadow district
has two main markets; suuqaNabada and suuq yare but the town hoststhe largest

livestock market in the southern part of Somalia…”
~ Key Informant – Afmadow

Moreover, livestock exports remain by exports fell significantly in 2016 and 2017 and diversifying primary production
far the largest contributor of foreign and recovery has been slow. Effects of presents an opportunity for recovery as
income among agricultural products. prevalent droughts, ravaging floods and captured in the aspirations of some of the
However, given the cyclic drought emerging impacts of DL are projected to community informants:
incidences and renewed import ban by compound negative recovery outcomes.
Saudi Arabia, the volume of livestock Nevertheless, strengthening markets

39Dynamic response of the Indian ocean to onset of the southwest monsoon, (1969) 12
40Annihilation of the Somali upwelling system during summer monsoon
41Somalia Recovery and Resilience Framework (June, 2018)

“Agriculture potential in this state has been limited by prolonged conflict,

shortage of rainfall, the destruction of agricultural equipment and infrastructure.
The community relies almost entirely on fruits and vegetables from the middle
Jubba and Garissa in Kenya. There are small scale farmers that grow tomatoes,
watermelon, maize and beans that are locally used in the district. These crops
move fast in the market and farmers get quick profits.”
~ Community Elder – Afmadow

5.1.1. Agriculture Sector Investment Analysis

Conversations with community members fused with documented facts summarizes the inhibiting contexts, costs and possible
priority areas as shown in the table below.

Inhibiting Context Welfare Cost Possible Priority Investment for Recovery

Severely deteriorated Infrastructure to 1. Water related diseases and death  Technology for water harvesting, drilling and irrigation
harness river water and extract ground 2. Low livestock survival rates during se-  Regulation of deforestation and rangeland grazing
water since the outbreak of civil war in 3. vere drought  Provision of water as a public good
the southern regions1 Dependency on costly, often unafford-
able privately owned water tankers
4. Reduced total area under cultivation.

Weak government institutions, and 1. Lost production opportunity: Armed  Strengthening governance systems through enhanced sup-
the absence of effective community militias from central regions clans port from federal state and development partners
organizations with limited farming skills continue to  Efforts to cut revenue channels for non-state actors
occupy prime farmland in the lower  Private sector-led value addition and processing of both
Shabelle region. animal and plant products
2. Risky, costly and unprofitable access
to farms and markets outlets.
3. Fragmented and inefficient policy en-
4. Severe deforestation and soil erosion
from unregulated human activities
5. Stifled external support

Vagaries of weather and climate- 1. Loss of live, livelihoods and property  Mainstreaming early warning, preparedness and early actions
prevalent and cyclic droughts and 2. Displacement and increased poverty activities in state planning
 Precision agriculture, backed by scientific advisory and tech-
nology buffers like weather index insurance

 Building capacity for forecasting and preparedness
 Strengthening response efforts and resources

Emerging risks-Climate change, DL 1. Lost harvests  Support for environmental conservation and climate smart
and Covid-19 2. Sub-optimal production due to dis- production

ruptions in supply chains  Investment in surveillance, monitoring and early prevention
protocols for both DL and Covid-19

Poor infrastructure and market sup- 1. Loss or sub optimal gains from  Renovations and rehabilitation of rural access infrastructure
port systems production (including roads, power lines, telecommunication networks
2. Lost economic opportunities and jobs etc
3. Exacerbated inequality  Strengthening and mainstreaming market systems develop-

Prevalence of crop and animal 1. Lost harvest  Support government led-animal and plant health programs-
diseases 2. Loss of animal stock, incomes and building strong capacities along productive value chains

livelihoods  Support for surveillance, prevention and control initiatives
3. Increased cost of production  Developing quarantine routing and zonation to curb spread of
4. Households pushed into poverty
livestock diseases during outbreaks

42Rebuilding resilient and sustainable agriculture in Somalia


5.2. Infrastructure Investment Analysis

Since the collapse of Somali Government need for water tankers to sustain held of poor infrastructure. However,
In December 1990, there has been almost livestock numbers and help address investment in alternative sources of
zero major repairs on flood control, water supply needs. Security challenges water and strengthening efforts for
irrigation and, road infrastructure. Road especially in the rural Jubaland posed by establishing alternative markets in the
networks is essential in transporting presence of non-state actors (Al-Shabaab regions, closer the rural populations has
agricultural produce from the rural areas militia), poor drainage and sewerage a latent potential for recovery. Probable
of Jubaland to the markets at its largest services in the urban areas and cyclic investment in infrastructure is provided
town of Kismayo.The 2016-2017 drought vagaries of weather are expected to in table 6.
worsened water scarcity heightened the present major challenges in the recovery

Table 8: Infrastructure Investment Matrix

Inhibiting Context Welfare Cost Possible Priority Investment for Recovery

Insecurity- presence of Al- 1. Unprofitable production due to illegal taxes by  Rehabilitation of non-functional boreholes;
Shabaab militia in the rural the militia;  Security institutional strengthening to limit militia
areas1 operations;
2. Risky and costly access to facilities; health,  Initiating urban rural sanitation (drainage,sewage,solid
market, waste management) programs;

3. Forced displacement to safer areas;  Explore long term interventions such as construction of
renewable energy plants like hydro-electric plant in Juba
river to provide affordable energy.
4. Lost opportunity for productive livelihoods;

5. Fear and suspicion among neighbors exacer-
bating mistrust and hence cost of doing busi-

Weak systemic structures to 1. Lost opportunity for local residents’ employ-  Enlist local consultants for jobs to improve their capacity
capture registration of engi- ment;  Strengthen government systems to facilitate the regis-
neers and consultants in the tration of local engineers
areas as well as guide public 2. Low confidence in government civil work ef-  Strengthening public/state procurement
procurement forts

3. Lost business with the government

Cyclic droughts and floods 1. Loss of property and livelihoods  Rehabilitate poor roads to make them passable
destroy existing infrastructure  Repair destroyed bridges
hinder maintenance, repairs 2. Increased cost of transportation  Involve local youth in major works on roads to give
and constructionof new ones. short term employment and livelihoods2
3. Unaffordable retail rates of produce and farm  Government to consider cutting down taxes on trans-
products port to reduce cost of products

4. Increased inequality  Prioritize giving opportunity to local private sector
where possible to improve capacity3

5. Increased poverty levels

Lack of adequate incentives to 1. Loss of economic opportunity  Government led negotiation with regional or interna-
develop local ports tional investors to develop the port of Kismayo
2. Loss of livelihoods  Revive fish farming and establish post-harvest loss man-
agement to make fish farming viable
3. Non-existent balance of trade and payments  Initiate the rehabilitation of existing water supply proj-
ects to enable easier access to water to tame conflicts
caused by water scarcity.

43Somali Drought Impact & Needs Assessment ,2020 14
44World Bank and IPSOS. 2017. Somalia Drought Impact and Needs Assessment (DINA)
45Masterplan for Juba Valley Development, April 1990

5.3. Health and Nutrition Investment Analysis

Jubaland, just like most regions of Somalia affected households together with low extend the limited range of promotive
ranks among the weakest regions in the access to safe water,further aggravates the and preventive health services among
world in terms of health outcomes with negative health situation. Improvement communities. Jubaland could leverage
immunization levels being among the in living standards, implementing WASH such an initiative to promote good
lowest. Overall life expectancy at birth initiatives, strengthening quality of health while at the same time providing
is very low compared to the rest of the healthcare, IDP and vulnerable groups recovery packages to the most vulnerable
Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) region. Health re-settlement, nutrition and patient safety households.Table 6 provides an overview
related issues are compounded by a are key ingredients to bolstering positive of possible investment in health for crisis
very high total fertility rate that has been health outcomes. For example, the female recovery
increasing overtime46. Deplorable living community health workers (marwo
conditions of the IDPs and other crisis caafimaad) concept has given impetus to

Table 9: Health and nutrition investment

Inhibiting Context Welfare Cost Possible Priority Investment for recovery

Absence of balanced, motivated, 1. Loss of productive hours in seeking  Non-state actors led Improvementof stewardship and gover-
well distributed and well-man- health care; nance capacities of ministry of health;
aged health workforce with  Employing essential technologies to enhance access and
appropriate skill mix; 2. Higher infant mortality rate; rational use of medicines;
 Private sector championed effective case management
3. Low vaccination rates for children under  Capacity building to reduce high health worker to patient
5 years and treatment for malaria and ratio.
other diseases preventable diseases

Absence of national surveys and 1. Low case detection rates of communica-  Establishing of efficient and reliable records of births and
census, weak births and deaths 2. ble disease such as TB; deaths to new borns;
registration, limited operational 3. More chronic malnourished children
research and disease surveil- below 5 years;  establishing health management information systems, im-
lance; Increase in poverty and hunger due to proving civil registration and vital statistics;
increased out-of-pocket health expen-
4. ditures  Initiating active disease surveillance and early warning
Food insecurity due to over expenditure system;
in health
 Provision of basic nutrition service to prevent and treat acute

Inadequateprocurement/supply 1. Prevalence of HIV/AIDS;  Preposition medical supplies and kits to enhance coordinated
system and irrational use of 2. Loss of life and livelihoods; rapid response;
essential medicines; 3. Poor health outcomes
 Activating collaboration efforts between ministry of health
and non-state actors to enhance drug supply in hard to reach

 Conducting health promotions and community mobilizations
and sensitization

Limited and unequal access to es- 1. Increased cost of care;  Promoting participation in improving public health at the
sential health services and poor 2. Loss of life; community level;
quality and safety of services 3. High infant mortality
across all levels of care  Establishing emergency response services;
 Building capacity of community health volunteers to distrib-

ute essential medicines and commodities
 Engaging the public in promoting public health practices

such as environmental hygiene, food safety and safe drinking
water and waste disposal.

Inadequate, unpredictable and 1. Impoverized household due to cata-  Increasing cholera treatment centers in all regions
unsustainable level of financing 2. strophic out-of-pocket health expendi-  Introducing standardized rapid diagnostic technologies for
with reliance on out-of-pocket ture;
health financing1. Outbreak of communicable illnesses like prevalent communicable diseases;
cholera and AWD  Private-sector led enrollment into health insurance schemes
 Investment by federal government on measures towards

universal coverage.

Poor infrastructure in terms of 1. Poor health-seeking behaviour  Supporting establishment of mobile and fixed clinics and
road network coverage and water Loss of livelihoods; nutrition rehabilitation vans;
supply2, Sub-optimal production due to loss of
2. productive hours  Renovating and repair bridges
 Rehabilitating borehole and shallow wells
3.  Enhancing community health capacity to tackle emerging

health issues.

46Strategic review of the Somali health sector: Challenges and Prioritized actions: Report of the WHO mission to Somalia 11–17
September 2015
47Strategic review of the Somali health sector: Challenges and Prioritized actions: Report of the WHO mission to Somalia 11–17
September 2015


5.4. Education Investment Analysis

The education system in Somalia at characterized by poor quality, insufficient estimated average of about 41 students
the primary and secondary has been numbers of qualified teachers, and per teacher.The ratio further varies from
destroyed over the years due to decades inadequate resources. In Jubaland, the region to region and in different locality
of conflict and this has since been pupil to teacher ratio is high with an as shown in table 8.

Table 10: Pupil- teacher ratio by region and locality (Rural vs Urban) in Jubaland

Region Urban Pupil Teacher Ratio (PTR) by Locality Total
47.8 Rural 47.8
Lower Juba 37.6 0.0 38.8
Gedo 41.4 40.9
Total 40.8

It is also important to note that gender and 80 percent of skilled professionals Inadequate capacity across the education
discrimination has resulted in a massively emigrated (Lindley,2005). In the absence sector is a big threat to crisis recovery
skewed teaching pool. National Education of government supported education plans as it fuels insecurity, youth
Management Information System (EMIS) institutions, community and privately participation in non-state sanctioned
2017 data indicates that over 90% of supported schools emerged throughout activities, inter-clan conflicts and general
primary and secondary teachers are male. the country offering degree programs disenfranchisement. Furthermore,
This skews the teaching pool, negatively to various areas including livestock, cyclic droughts have hampered school
impacting girls’ literacy, learning, and fisheries and economic studies. Despite enrollment and children education.
retention. these efforts, Jubaland suffers from Moreover, most schools and universities
Data further indicates that most pre- acute shortage of skilled technicians and are located in large urban centers in
war technical schools and universities professionals including in agricultural and Southern Somalia leaving the rural areas
were destroyed in the Somalia civil war health sectors. with limited services.

Table 11: Education investment analysis

Inhibiting Context Welfare Cost Possible Priority Investment for recovery

Lack of educational infrastructure 1. Delayed cognitive development;  Strong education system to augment community edu-
meaning low number of children 2. Increased gender gap and inequality; cation committees(CEC)
taught in any given year 3. Food insecurity  Building classrooms to improve education infrastruc-
4. Participation in crime and terrorist ture while taking into consideration environmental
Insufficient number of teachers and activities sensitivity and sustainability
lack of learning materials and sup- 5. Difficulty in breaking out the vicious cycle  Construction of temporary and semi-permanent struc-
plies in rural areas. of poverty tures to improve infrastructure
6. Child labour  Rehabilitate schools and provide school vouchers
Poorly aligned curriculum to cultural  Implement mobile schooling initiatives
and economic needs of most nomad-
ic and pastoral communities 1. Limited education assets and opportuni-  Regionally focused education sector coordination sup-
ties port and data tracking costs;
Long distance to schools  Provision of consumables and teacher incentives in
2. Low participation on economic activities schools especially during crisis areas;
 Improved food storage to reduce waste
3. Low education coverage  Enhance skills training and placement for teachers
 Develop learning materials based on national curricu-
lum framework
 Offer support for teacher

1. Large number of childrenmissing school  Education policies that take into consideration needs of
2. Cycle of poverty pastoral communities
3. Loss of opportunities
4. Instability and conflicts  Strengthen community support in order to limit school

 Support women in business as a means of economic
empowerment and

5. Entrenched Clannism

6. High drop outs  Improvement of infrastructure in rural areas
1. Risky and costly education  Enhance supply of consumables to schools andteacher

2. Loss of productive hours incentive to teachers

Fewer government institutions offer- 1. Costly education  Innovative investment in education and vocational
ing degree programs training
2. Few graduates hence less labour force  Private sector should supplement government invest-
ment in education and skills development
3. Uneducated youth make it easier target  Private sector to should provide scholarships to en-
for militia hance the numbers acquiring higher education


5.5 Investment for IDP Recovery and Restoration

Failedlast Gu and Deyr raining seasons been an alarming humanitarian situation shortages and as a result forced to move
has prompted drought effects claiming in some regions especially in Kismayo to Kismayo city and settle in the already
domestic animals and negatively city and its environments.The population overcrowded IDP camps.
impacting crop harvests. The result has affected are facing acute water and food

“We recently came from an area controlled by AS because conditions there

became bad, the groups believed our wives were working with the government
and our children are forced to join the groups and so many people were forced to

flee for fear of bad things happening”
~ IDP representative

IDPs are consistently vulnerable and have a lower standard of IDP camps live in poverty and the internally displaced account
living than host communities. Nine out of ten people living in for more than two-thirds (68%) of those in crisis and emergency.

Table 12: IDP Investment matrix

Inhibiting Context Welfare Cost Possible Priority Investment for recovery

Constant and large influx 1. Poor living conditions  Initiate social cohesion programs to promote effective integration of
of IDPS 2. Land related conflicts IDPs and hosts
3. Spatial resource constraints
IDPS camps set up on pri- 4. Low health outcomes  Enhance emergency preparedness and response capacity in and around
vately-owned land thus risk 5. Increased poverty camps
of evictions and difficulty in 1. Poor waste management/WASH
providing durable solutions 2. Inadequate shelter  Site planning and upgrading settlement for internally displaced and
where IDPs are 3. Risk of infectious diseases returnees
4. Lost production opportunity
5. Lost livelihoods  Healthcare initiatives targeting vulnerable groups
 Rapid Crisis response to enhance recovery in-situ
Insecurity in the rural areas 1. Loss of lives  Develop future resettlement plan
and IDP camps Loss of livelihoods  Rehabilitate borehole to provide sustainable water supply
Fear and mistrust  Support federal government to fast track resettlement at Dalxiska area
2. Low agricultural output
Gender based violence to reduce congestion in the camp
3. Women and youth exclusion  Rehabilitate roads to make them passable to and from the city
Loss of lives  Develop basic site selection criteria to help IDPs in site selection
4. Loss of production time  promote land tenure security through policies and frameworks, includ-
Increased child mortality rates
5. Low health outcomes ing improved land use planning.
 Offer non-formal and formal vocational training to the youth to enhance
Outbreak of epidemic prone 6.
diseases such as Acute 1. youth empowerment
Water Diarrhoea\choler- 2.  Construct more educational facilities at the district/village
a,malaria and measles 3.  Provision of shelter and sanitation facilities for returnees and IDPs
 Provide short-term employment to returnees to improve their liveli-

 Restoration centers for GBV victims
 Laws to empower youth and women- to e.g own property and be able to

transact at the market place

 Increased number of health professionals and facilities
 Initiate effective case management and active case searches
 Intense household sanitation and hygiene campaign
 Improved access to safe water
 Support mass cholera vaccine


5.7. Investment for Women Inclusion

Somalia’s patriarchal society is organized public decision-making for a Gender Based any crisis as negative effects not only
and managed along the clan system Violence (GBV) for instance, presents impact them, but they also have to bear
with entrenched discriminatory social a challenge to ensuring maximum gains the costs of such effects on their children.
structures perpetuating gender inequality. from recovery efforts, especially among Women’s disadvantaged positions in
Despite the dynamic role women have women. Key drivers of GBV include Somali communities motivates the need
historically played in Somali society pervasive social norms that perpetuate for gender sensitive crisis response if
as community mobilizers and peace- gender inequalities and gender power inclusiveness is to be achieved for gainful
builders, the clan system ascribes women imbalances in both the public and private restoration. An analysis of possible
with inferior social status and contributes spaces. Women as the home care givers, investment priorities for women inclusion
to women’s exclusion from political and tend to bear disproportionate brunt of is provided in table 9.


Table 13: Women inclusion investment

Inhibiting Context Welfare Cost Possible Priority Investment for recovery

The politicization of clan 1. Women inclusion in economic activities  strengthen structural and institutional reforms to help grow
identity (clannism) more enabling and inclusive institutions;
2. Women exclusion in leadership  Women leadership training and mentorship initiatives,
 Supporting transformative gender norm change initiatives
3. Early marriages to girls and young wom-  Strategic engagement with clan and religious leaders and

en scaling up girls’ education
 Establish gender violence courts and punishment for perpe-
4. Gender inequality trators

5. GBV

6. Poverty and insecurity

Lack or little education and 1. Limited participation of women in lead-  Offering scholarship to girls
training opportunities for girls ership  Women empowerment through bottom-up initiatives like
and young women 2. Low literacy levels among women
3. Lack of empowerment for women VSLAs, Cash for work etc
4. Early marriages  Strengthen regulatory environment aimed at achieving

gender parity
 Support women with capital investment to increase resil-

ience on ventures such as milk trade,

Limited support for women al- 1. Increased gender inequality  Strengthen women resilience through solidarity, self-support
ready working in Government Reduced number of women in leader- and training
2. Low gender progression  Initiate merit-based employment and promotion in both
public and private sectors.
 promoting grassroots awareness-raising for women on their
political and social rights;

Punitive cultural norms 1. Gender based Violence  Initiate support for social cohesion
that hold back women from 2. Family separations  Strengthen initiatives that promote women empowerment
other leadership positions and 3. Children remain vulnerable  Initiate dialogue towards a change in cultural norms with the
offered lower places in the
society religious leaders and elders in the village

Pursuant to the identified sector specific priority areas and the for interventions likely to stem crisis effects and fast-track
accompanying investment analysis, this plan provides proposals recovery for specific crisis types.

Table 14: Proposed Crisis/Dynamic specific intervention

Short term interventions Medium Term interventions Long Term interventions

Dynamic/Timelines 12 months 12-24 24- 48 months Locations
Drought 1. Cash for work for rehabili-
1. Capacity building for 1. Demarcate Community
tating water infrastructure line ministries and DRR managed pasture
2. Emergency provision of committees reserves for dry seasons.
2. Building additional water 2. Train producers on
water fodder, feed and sources and installing beneficial stocking and
food to curb migration capacity for Water restocking rotations to
3. Water treatment, distribu- harvesting limit losses
tion and Beneficial access 3. Cash for work for 3. Strengthening
rationing coupled with rehabilitating water community level DRR
hygiene promotion infrastructure and response practices
4. Coordinate with MoH for 4. Improve harvest storage 4. Coordination network
Treatment of acute malnu- technologies with other states for
trition 5. Rehabilitation of degraded emergency resource
5. Support and strength- rangeland sharing or support
en Feeding programs in 6. Strengthen Community 5. Strengthen line
schools capacity for destocking, ministries forecasting,
6. Protection and regulation restocking & carrying preparedness and
of water points access capacity monitoring response capacity
and use to avoid drought services 6. Develop a state and
instigated conflicts 7. Emergency Animal community fodder banks
7. Rapid nutrition support, vaccination and treatment for emergency use
Supplies and response per- support 7. Strengthening of water
sonnel capacity strength- 8. Train pastoralists on committees/community
ening Fodder production and level water management

storage technologies systems
9. CAHWs system & Value 8. Formulation of Water
addition for livestock Policy reviews and
production Strategy for re-use and


Floods 1. Coordinate with Ministry of 1. Repair damaged roads and 1. Construction of flood Region: Lower Juba
health for Rapid control of bridges deviation and water
communicable diseases 2. Control of plant and embarkments Districts: Kismayu and
2. Immediate Psychosocial livestock diseases Construction better roads Jamame
and cash support to the 3. Construct canals within and bridges to withstand
most vulnerable among the outskirts of flood effects of floods Towns and villages:

flood displaced HHs prone areas of 3. Coordination network Kismayo; Gobweyn,
3. Provide WASH support 4. Rehabilitation with other states QaamQaam, Yontooy,
4. Cash for work on building infrastructure Buulagaduud
gabions and reclaiming 5. Develop and implement
washed of soils/lands a water harvesting and Jamame:Wirkoy,
5. Input support, Training irrigation plan Singaleyr,
& diversification to re- 6. Develop a flood Baarsanguni,
establish agricultural management plan Kamsuuma, Bandar
production 7. Coordinate inter-agency Jadiid

6. Supply building materials collaboration for quick Region: Middle Juba
and other NFIs response
8. Rehabilitation and Districts:Jilib and
maintenance of irrigation Bu’ale
9. Resettlement of flood Region: Gedo

affected HHs on higher D i s t r i c t s : D o l o w,
grounds Luq and Bardhere,


Towns and villages:

D o l o w : G a r b o o l o w,
Dhagaxley, Qansaxley,
Unsi, Miskiinow

Luq:Luuq town,
G a r b a l o w,
Buulomusley, Abow

Bardhere: Markabley,
salagle, Mugdiile

Buurdhuubo: Bakal,
Huuure, Tuulaaminey,

M a r k a a r i y e y,
TuulaAmiin, Carabo,

Desert Locust 1. Train Early Warning and 1. Strengthen ministry’s 1. Coordination network
DRR committees on basic capacity on locust with other states
locust control skills surveillance and reporting (Jubbaland and
2. Provide Cash for Work for system Hirshabelle states)
farmers on controlling 2. Develop agile locust 2. Instal locust task force at
Locust invasion and spread. movement and breeding all state affected regions
3. Provide supplementary maps and provide enabling
feeds and food to 3. Coordination network with resources
vulnerable households other states (Jubbaland 3. Review action plans as
4. Conduct damage/impact and Hirshabelle states) new technology becomes
assessment for risk 4. Coordination network with available
reduction other non-state support
5. Strengthen ministry’s agencies- LNGOs, INGOs,
capacity on locust SomRep, UN agencies.
surveillance and reporting
6. Conduct surveillance on
locust outbreak
7. Provide Agricultural
Advisory detailing locust
movements and breeding
8. Support ground bio-
pesticide treatment


Covid-19 1. Providing hand sanitizers 1. Disease surveillance and 1. Affordable and equitable
for the public equipping facilities access to health care for
2. Health Management the majority
2. Provide PEP for medical Information Systems 2. Review of existing
and essential staff (HMIS) installation at all health policies and
key health service outlets their implementation
3. Formation of Isolation 3. Support Improvement of to strengthen future
clinicsfor management of referral systems within the emergency response
the infected state health system 3. Routine Immunization
4. Skilled health workers at drive for preventable
4. Eencourage working from village and district levels diseases, Water,
home 5. Support Rural Mobile sanitation and hygiene
health clinics for mass facilities
5. Initiate contact tracing testing 4. Strengthening state All Jubaland State
& quarantine support 6. Routine Immunization and ministry of health Regions
drive for preventable capacity for surveillance
6. Discouraging groupings diseases, Water, sanitation and prevention
7. Continuous monitoring and hygiene facilities. 5. Coordination network
8. Support WASH in schools with other states on
(WINS) programs once
learning resumes
9. Nutrition sensitization for
immunity development
10. Routine Immunization
drive for preventable
diseases, Water, sanitation
and hygiene facilities.

Monsoons 1. Training fisherfolks on 1. Procurement of speed 1. Strengthen forecasting
upwelling timelines and boat ambulances for capacity for ministry of
safety strategies distress response fisheries
2. Provide safe fishing gear 2. Building infrastructure for 2. Coordination network
3. Economic diversification deep sea communication with other states
training 3. Strengthen emergency 3. Revamp and repackage
4. Provide life jackets and GPS response capacity of the the fishing industry to
gadgets fisheries ministry and attract FDI and Private
5. Provide satellite emergency response state capital
communication gadgets agencies
6. Training on deep sea 4. Develop insurance/
survival skills compensation
mechanisms against losses

Conflict and Insecu- 1. Continuous Needs 1. Awareness and capacity 1. Amnesty, peace and
rity assessment for conflict building for local peace reconciliation strategies
committees while assuring justice for
prevention and security 2. Review and the conflict victims
services contextualizing land 2. Abolishment of clan
2. Continuous monitoring of access, use and ownership classification by influence
magnitudes and direction 3. Recovery and re-building and stereotypes
of conflict promoting support services for 3. Land policy/
dividers. conflict affected HHs regulations reviews and
3. Encourage patriotism in 4. Plan and implement Youth implementation
place of clannism. focused employment 4. Strengthening state
4. Engraining do-no- creation. capacity for land conflict
harm requirement for 5. Resettlement of IDPs and arbitration
development partners and Displacement affected 5. Support the state in
state actors households structuring peace
5. Support Community building and justice
integration and Do No systems
Harm assessments
6. Support state physical
protection for IDPs,
marginalised clans and
other vulnerable groups
7. Provide Returnee & IDP
recovery cash and NFIs


Women Inclusion 1. Women leadership training 1. Supporting transformative 1. Strengthen structural
and mentorship initiatives gender norm change and institutional reforms
2. Strategic engagement initiatives to help grow more
with clan and religious 2. Offering scholarship to enabling and inclusive
leaders and scaling up girls’ girls institutions;
education 3. Initiate merit-based 2. Establish gender violence
3. Women empowerment employment and courts and punishment
through bottom-up promotion in both public for GBV perpetrators
initiatives like VSLAs and and private sectors in 3. Strengthen regulatory
Cash for work Jubaland environment aimed at
4. Support women with 4. Promoting grassroots achieving gender parity
capital investment to awareness-raising for 4. State Deliberate effort
increase resilience on women on their political to strengthen initiatives
ventures such as milk and social rights; that promote women
trade, 5. Initiate dialogue towards empowermente.g girl
5. Strengthen women a change in cultural norms child education and
resilience through with the religious leaders ownership of property
solidarity, self-support and and elders in the village 5. Initiate dialogue towards All Jubaland State
training Regions
a change in cultural
6. Initiate support for social norms with the religious
cohesion leaders and elders in the


Humanitarian responses in This trend has given new urgency to the agreed measurable result or impact
Jubaland State should be long-standing discussion around better in reducing people’s needs, risks and
coordinated, integrated and connectivity between humanitarian and vulnerabilities and increasing their
leverage efforts by other development efforts. Strengthening the resilience, requiring the combined effort
partners. The severity of the need humanitarian-development nexus was of different actors.For this,we have placed
means that no single actor, state or identified by stakeholders as a top priority the target beneficiaries and communities
region can act on its own. It will be at the World Humanitarian Summit at the core of the plan by allowing them
essential to work and coordinate with (WHS), including donors, NGOs, crisis- to identify their own needs, the severity
multiple partners in building appropriate affected States and others, and it received of these needs and their proposed
responses. An integrated response more commitments at the WHS than any solutions to overcome these needs. The
approach would lead to more strategic other area. The New Way of Working role of humanitarian agencies, as such, is
use of limited resources, value for money (NWOW) represents an approach to to support and facilitate the realisation
and enhanced coordination among put this plan into practice.The New Way of these solutions with complementary
partners. of Working involves working towards efforts from several actors. Second, this
The development of this plan achieving collective outcomes that plan covers a multi-year period from
is based upon the foundations reduce need, risk and vulnerability, over 2020 to 2024.The objective is to; analyse,
establishedinthe“Humanitarian- multiple years, based on the comparative strategize, plan and finance operations
Development Nexus” and “New advantage of a diverse range of actors.The that build over several years to achieve
Way of Working” approaches notion of “collective outcomes” has been context-specific and, at times, dynamic
50. The volume, cost and length of placed at the center of the commitment targets. Finally, the comparative advantage
humanitarian assistance over the past to the New Way of Working. across all partners is also acknowledged in
10 years has grown dramatically, mainly This plan reflects the three key the plan. Every partner and humanitarian
due to the protracted nature of crises concepts of the New Way of actor bring unique, demonstrated
and scarce development action in many Working. First, it seeks to achieve capacity and expertise. Emphasis is on
contexts where vulnerability is highest. collective outcomes. That is; commonly collaboration.

6.1. Response Structures and Action Trigger Levels

This plan envisages a four- Cooperation (MOPIC) of Jubaland overall national supervision. The steering
tier intervention response and and representatives of SomReP. committees at all levels will be made up
recovery structure led by a This committee will be responsible of line ministries, state level recovery
recovery steering committee for national coordination, partners actors and technical working groups on-
chaired by the Ministry of identification and on-boarding, resource boarded on a need and or case basis.
Planning and International mobilization and devolvement and The committees will then be supported

50New way of working, OCHA 2017.


strategically by regional coordination centers will rely on data from continuous specific crisis levels and magnitudes and
centers at each region through regional supervision and assessment by the district relaying real time data to the regions.
supervision, resource distribution, disaster recovery committees instituted This plan shall define in simple workable
management and routine reviews and at each district. The core responsibility terms the action trigger levels for all of
recovery alignment with prevailing of district recovery committees will the leadership strata. Response structure
contexts. The regional coordination be continuous assessment of context is summarized in table 13.

Table 15: Proposed implementation structure

Leadership Composition Roles Person(s) Account- Action trigger Data Source
Strata able level of risk*
MOPIC and Line ministries and key National Risk recovery coordination Early warning
SomRep strategic national partners Partner identification Minister in charge of 4 partners
Resource mobilization humanitarian develop-
Regional Coordi- Regional governors Devolvement of resources ment 3 Humanitarian
nation commit- Implementing NGOs and Bi-annual reviews partners
tees partners at the regional Policy directions Assisted by representa-
level Regional coordination tives of other line minis- Regional reviews
Regional line Ministry rep- Supervision of districts under the re- tries and partners
resentatives gion District context
Resource distribution and manage- Governor assessments
ment Regional partners repre-
Quarterly strategic reviews and con- sentative District situational
textualization Implementing NGOs assessments
Partner humanitari-
an reports
District recovery su-
pervision report

Updates and new plans

District risk recov- District steering commit- Supervision of district action plans District commissioner 2 Early warning sys-
ery management tee members tems and partners
committees Line ministry representa- District situation assessment Partner representative
tive Monthly action reviews District head of recovery Community action
Representatives of district Identification of district specific supervision supervision and
partners emerging needs monitoring briefs

Humanitarian part-
ner reports
Adjustment of plan to optimize risk

Report progress to the regional lead-
ership strata

* 1= None or minimal, 2=Stress or moderate, 3= Severe, 4= Extreme

In Implementing the CRRP strategy, This plan reflects the three key In mobilizing resources necessary to
Humanitarian responses in concepts of the New Way of implement the CRRP, Jubaland state’s
Jubaland State should be Working. First, it seeks to achieve role will be to offer continued
coordinated, integrated and collective outcomes leadership in establishing state
leverage efforts by other This plan envisages a four- investment priorities, provision
partners tier intervention response and of fiscal policy direction in
recovery structure led by a matters fiscal policy and internal
The development of this plan recovery steering committee lobbying
is based upon the foundations chaired by the Ministry of
establishedinthe“Humanitarian- Planning and International
Development Nexus” and “New Cooperation (MOPIC) of
Way of Working” approaches. Jubaland and representatives of


6.2. Resource Mobilization

Jubaland state’s role will be funding. At the same time, it is important The SCRP includes a $20.5
to offer continued leadership to reach out to new partners and donors. million emergency investment
in identification of state New strategic partnerships, including in COVID response. Immediate
investment priorities, provision private sector, will be critical to building prevention and containment measures
of fiscal policy direction and sustainable capacities through knowledge planned include risk communication,
internal lobbying. For example, it transfers and technical advisory support. surveillance, and contact tracing, together
is expected that the state will lobby the Gaps in core government competencies with the procurement of medical
federal government for a fair share of in key economic and infrastructure areas, equipment and supplies. The Project will
the highlighted recently approved world high feasibility opportunities for blended also support national capacity for severe
bank funding mechanism for covid-19, finance and options for realistic new case management, enhanced laboratory
drought and other disasters. It would strategic partnerships will be identified. testing capacity, and an Integrated Disease
then coordinate (with the partners) the Together with possible new partners and Surveillance and Response System. This
most efficient humanitarian interventions the proposed relevant case by case Pillar adds up to a holistic multi-ministerial
that would yield the greatest positive Working Groups, new opportunities will government-led approach to prevention
impact. However, financing of the cost be reviewed and adopted as necessary. and treatment. The crises’ response
of unmet recovery and resilience needs For instance, the plan could explore such steering committee can strategically place
is expected, to the extent possible, to funding avenues as; the Development Jubaland in a position to benefit from
be achieved through the alignment or Finance Institutions (DFIs), Private this emergency investment to bolster its
reprogramming of existing and future Infrastructure Development Group health sector crisis outlay
government and partner funds/programs (PIDG), Public-Private Infrastructure In 2019, the World Bank and the
(humanitarian and development). On the Advisory Facility (PPIAF), World Bank Federal Government of Somalia
same note, it would be unreasonable to Global Infrastructure Facility (GIF), (FGS) initiated a joint exercise
expect perfect alignment between high African Investment Facility (AIF), and to rapidly assess the losses and
priority needs and existing or planned Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank damages caused by the floods
funds/programs and, therefore, it must (AIIB) etc.) . and to develop a strategy for
be assumed that some level of additional immediate recovery and longer-
funding will be needed . In May 2020, the World Bank term resilience building. The result
Equally probable is the likelihood of future Board approved a $137.5 million is the Somalia Rapid Flood Impact and
recovery financing outstripping available International Development Needs Assessment (FINA).The FINA is a
government and official development Association (IDA) grant to help government-led assessment of damages,
assistance (ODA) funding. This calls Somalia respond to and recover losses, and needs across multiple sectors,
for concerted efforts in identification from multiple, ongoing, and harmonizing support and information
of alternate sources of financing while overlapping crises.The Somalia Crisis from the World Bank, United Nations,
leveraging traditional funding modalities Response Project (SCRP) is expected to and other international and national
including local or government resources provide immediate support to the areas actors. The FINA was completed at the
and traditional donors, new blended hardest hit by repeated cycles of flooding end of January 2020, and estimates overall
finance and alternative models should be and drought, desert locusts and the damages and losses arising from the 2019
sort.The proposed NewWays ofWorking COVID-19 pandemic by supporting the floods of more than US$260 million and
approach assumes two important recovery of livelihoods and infrastructure recovery needs of around US$350 million.
benchmarks, that is Funding to Finance in the affected areas as well as strengthen Economic losses are assessed to be
(F2F) and Maximizing Financing for the Government’s systems and capacity US$72.0 million in the year immediately
Development (MFD). Such an approach for disaster preparedness. The Project’s following the floods,US$39.0 million in
adopts close collaboration between immediate response is expected to benefit the second year, US$35.1 million in the
governments (Jubaland) and the private up to 1.7 million Somalis – particularly third year, US$31.6 million in the fourth
sector; Official Development Assistance the most vulnerable populations, farming year, andUS$28.4 million in the fifth year.
(ODA) providers; non-governmental communities, Internally Displaced Losses are expected to endure beyond
organizations;and banks.This plan entrusts Peoples, rural and urban communities, the first five years following the floods
the MOPIC to lobby both internally and and host communities with a strong focus until the damages to the transportation
externally while fostering partnerships on female-headed households – affected sector and to crop production are fully
with private players to ensure needed by locusts and flooding. The Project will restored. While these are Somalia wide
resources are secured and appropriately provide basic services and livelihood estimates, quantified Jubaland specific
invested for disaster recovery. support, including:establishing a cash-for- status will be key in responding to crisis
Continuing to reach out to work scheme for vulnerable households; and optimally allocating resources
traditional donors. The CRRP will controlling the desert locust population
continue to mostly rely on traditional through ground and aerial spraying
financing using existing coordination operations and surveillance;restoring
mechanisms. It aims to build on existing and protecting farmers’ capacity for
coordination mechanisms to engage agricultural production; and promoting
traditional donors, leveraging the household hygiene and methods of
government-led,bottom-up,and evidence- treatment. This presents an opportunity
based rationale to inform and advocate for for Jubaland state to lobby for a portion
of this support through the federal state.

51 Somalia Resilience and Recovery Framework (2018)
52Somalia Resilience and Recovery Framework (2018)


6.3. Programmatic coordination

At the national level, coordination Fishery, Water, Public works etc) at warning systems and humanitarian needs
will be through the Ministries and Federal and State levels. assessments and coordinate disaster
technical agencies outlined in the In addition to these, The MOPIC of management with other government
Disaster Management Agency Jubaland will also work closely with agencies.
Establishment Law (2016) of the the Disaster Management Agencies In essence, role of the MOPIC of Jubaland
Federal Government of Somalia to coordinate and streamline crisis will not only be coordination per se,but as
(FGS) and the Prime Minister’s management. Notably, MoHADMA has has already been alluded to, will traverse
Office which has the overall the legal mandate to deliver the vision recovery leadership, prioritization,
responsibility for providing of the FGS’ disaster management vision continuous capacity assessments and
leadership and political space by working with all relevant government, building, development of systems,
for comprehensive disaster non-government and international advocacy, providing policy direction,
management.The Ministry of Planning agencies to: mitigate the impact of creation of enabling environment and
and International Cooperation of the disasters and support recovery; prepare leading resources mobilization efforts.
state will work closely with the MOPIC short and long-term disaster response Summary Implementation arrangements
of Federal Government, line ministries action plans; establish disaster response by state, regional and district steering
(such as Ministries of National Ministry centres manned with teams capable committees is as in table 14.
of Humanitarian Affairs and Disaster of mounting responses; develop early
Management, Agriculture, Livestock,

Table 16: Implementation arrangements

Governance and Institutional Implementation Arrangements

Strategy and Approach for Implementation
a) State Humanitarian and Crisis Management Committee
The Minister will convene and chair a decision-making state level; multi-agency committee
bringing together MOPIC, relevant line ministries, UN agencies and INGOs to:
1. Formulate disaster prevention and preparedness strategy and plans.
2. Receive and manage all resources from domestic and foreign sources for humanitarian affairs and disaster management.
3. Conduct research on the causes of disasters and response mechanisms.
4. Establish and manage a state-level early warning system.
5. Mobilize experts (local and foreign) to achieve the necessary capacity for humanitarian affairs and disaster management
6. Organize and conduct capacity building for sector actors.
7. Coordinate the division of tasks among actors in response to humanitarian crises and disasters.
8. Coordinate and supervise humanitarian and disaster response activities.
9. Compile reports on state level humanitarian affairs and disaster management activities.
10. Carry out all other activities towards attainment of its objectives.


b) Regional Humanitarian and Crisis Management Committees

The Director-General will convene and chair regional multi-agency committee bringing together regional governors,
technical regional staff, line ministries and partners to:

1. Coordinate humanitarian affairs and emergency response in respective regions.
2. Operate the disaster early warning system at the regional level.
3. Carry out regional needs assessment to inform state level plans.
4. Formulate regional disaster contingency strategies and plans.
5. Administer regional disaster management funds.
6. Carry out regional level capacity building for humanitarian affairs and disaster management.
7. Collect and analyze data for disaster management activities in the regions.
8. Coordinate and conduct public awareness about humanitarian crises and disasters in th regions.
The Director General might delegate the regional level officials to convene and chair the regional multi-agency committee
meetings in the event accessibility to the regional centers becomes untenable.

c) District Humanitarian and Crisis Management Committees

The Director for the Department of Disaster Management will convene and chair district level multi-agency committee bring-
ing together district administrators, technical staff, line ministries and partners to:

1. Collect and disseminate early warning information to region-level organs.
2. Mobilize communities to respond to humanitarian crises and disasters using indigenous knowledge and systems.
3. Relay information from regional-level organs to communities on humanitarian crises and disaster management.
The Director for the Department of Disaster Management might delegate the regional level officials to convene and chair the
regional multi-agency committee meetings in the event accessibility to the regional centers becomes untenable.

Carefully timed support that for fishing communities to safely store cost of USD 400,000 thereby saving a
is enabled by early warning their nets ahead of an impending flood, potential USD 44 million. FAO’s focus on
systems is key. Globally, expanding to livestock treatments for herders as pastoralists’ animals was encouraged by
needs, competing priorities and limited a drought intensifies, or flood defenses the cost effectiveness of keeping livestock
resources mean that new tools are for farmers before a severe rainy season. alive compared to restocking. In Somalia,
essential to make interventions as wise As such, early warning systems provide it costs approximately USD 0.4 to
and effective as possible, to ensure the evidence to trigger action without provide supportive veterinary treatment
that the impacts of crises are limited waiting for the full extent of a crisis to as opposed to USD 40 to buy a goat .
before they can grow into even more become obvious.
costly humanitarian disasters. Investing The significance of such systems is While data Indicates existence of
in Early Warning Early Action approach demonstrated by a FAO report that strong early warning partnerships and
monitorsrisk information systems and shows how a famine alert issued by outcomes (as In the FAO Illustration),
translates warnings into anticipatory an early warning system triggered the according to government stakeholders,
actions. Early actions are varied and treatment of 1 million livestock at a the weak link in translation of projection
flexible, ranging from cash transfers data into action remains the capacity of


government. Essentially, for an effective Cluster level coordination, Jubaland services delivery packages are offered
early warning early action planning, there could leverage the existing infrastructure after extensive consultations with
is need to support capacity building of while simultaneously developing a longer- community members and through the
JubalandGovernment on Early Warning term Government-led structure. As a locally-led community action plans.These
systems. This would ostensibly include countervailing measure, Jubaland will basic services are mapped according
training and on-boarding relevant facilitate the timely submission of data to: (a) Ministry of Health, Ministry of
personnel and providing needed capital to the existing early warning system to Education, ministry of water and other
and management resources. provide support for the timely response relevant ministries capacity (b) existing
Significant efforts have been to humanitarian needs. Fundamentally, service providers and what capacities
made to improve the linkages the state should ensure that the right can be leveraged, and (c) sustainability
between early warning and early indicators and thresholds are used. of services.The results are basic services
action related to famine. The The use of a single threshold across packages that are adaptable to context
early warning-early action dashboard in localized contexts can be problematic. and inclusive of WASH, education and
Somalia is a multi-partner effort mandated To the extent possible, the Jubalanddata integrated health and nutrition. If services
to trigger rapid and timely response. in the dashboard should be gender- are being provided by an existing entity
The main objective is to facilitate disaggregated to enable gender analysis of or infrastructure, the area assessment
decision making for early action based the dashboard’s findings to support more analyze the delivery modalities, the scope
on the identification and monitoring gender-sensitive humanitarian activities. of the services, the satisfaction of clients
of a consistent set of key early warning This analysis should include weighting and non-clients. The program has built
indicators. indicators to ensure those most relevant its interventions around the service,
Currently hosted by FSNAU, the Early to vulnerable groups such as women, girls either focusing on demand creation,
Warning-Early Action (EW-EA) database and the youth are prioritized. or reduction of barriers to access, and
and dashboard serves as a platform for when possible completing the range of
accessing data on a broad range of multi- The Somalia Protection services delivered.Water related services
sector key early warning indicators Monitoring System (SPMS) is the also take local dynamics into account,
to facilitate monitoring, prioritization, systematic and regular collection including the environmental impact and
consensus building and coherent decision and analysis of information over livestock migration routes.
making. It uses five sets of indicators an extended period to identify The Ministry of Health and
monitored at the district level, color- trends and patterns of violations Human Services of the Federal
coded to reflect a comparison between of rights and protection risks for Government of Somalia has
current and reference values representing populations of concern to inform developed a national response
thresholds for each indicator:The Climate effective programming and advocacy. The plan for Covid-19. The objective
dashboard displays monthly amounts SPMS is designed to: provide evidence of the plan is to prevent, rapidly detect
of rainfall, vegetation cover/NDVI, river for more efficient advocacy; inform and effectively respond to the Covid-19
levels,and water prices since January 2015; programming to address protection outbreak to reduce morbidity and
the market dashboard displays monthly concerns at community level; trigger mortality in Somalia. The government
prices of staple cereals (maize, sorghum further research components as has also initiated a comprehensive risk
and imported rice), monthly wage labour, specified in the Protection Information communications strategy and community
monthly goat prices, monthly terms of Management Matrix (for example, engagement approach to empower
trade (wage labour to cereals and local protection assessments) when the need is households to implement measures
goat to cereals); the health dashboard identified.The SPMS’s Roll out is planned aimed at curbing the spread of the disease.
displays monthly number of reported throughout 2020 and Jubaland could Note must be taken that Jubaland
cases (and deaths) of acute watery leverage this through proper alignments. has a dichotomy of liberated and
diarrhea (AWD), measles, and malaria; unliberated/recently liberated
the nutrition dashboard displays monthly The Protection and Return districts. While recovery activities are
number of children (new admissions) that Monitoring network (PRMN) is universally presented, it will be useful
have been admitted to treatment centers a UNHCR-led project which acts as a to consider that high friction costs
and lastly, the population displacement platform for identifying and reporting (feasibility studies, access issues, need to
movement dashboard displays monthly on displacements (including returns) use third parties like private companies
number of displaced people (both arrivals of populations in Somalia as well as or local NGOs) in implementation in
and departures). protection incidents underlying such non-liberated districts will likely be
To complement the early warning movements. The level of geographic incurred. The present practice includes
systems in place, Jubaland coverage for displacement tracking and humanitarian organizations use of private
should facilitate the timely protection monitoring within regions will companies to deliver support and or local
transmission of data. Currently, depend on the local security situation and NGOs to undertake needs assessments.
the Government has little capacity to access, and the numbers of partners and Whereas similar efforts can be adopted
conduct crisis assessments or provide of local field staff. in the short term, this plan encourages
timely early warning. As highlighted strengthening public private partnerships
above, multi-sectoral assessments are Area Based Integrated programs in Jubaland to reduce access and recovery
conducted by different clusters. While are in place to ensure community activities implementation costs in non-
there is no formally agreed government ownership of services, empower liberated areas in the long run.
membership or representation at the local providers (including private
for-profit providers) where
possible and avoid duplication
of services at area-level. Basic



7.1. Governance and monitoring framework

The governance structure and coherence between humanitarian and Where several actors are involved, it is
comprises of three interlinked development actors must be done in a often easy for implementation or action
layers, thus; the state central way that respects humanitarian principles. to be delayed or be ineffective if there is
command level, the regional While joint analysis should always be no clarity of roles, where coordination
coordination centres and the undertaken, in complex emergencies is not strong or when communication
district focal points and crises separate humanitarian plans or between actors is not effective. The
recovery centres. The joined-up coordination and governance structures steering committee should hence strive
approach defines the highest state may be required to enable lifesaving and to define specific actor roles in an effort
governance level as the core hub for protection assistance to reach those to achieve collective outcomes in an
disaster recovery response reviews and most in need. That notwithstanding, efficient manner.
accountability as well as general high-level humanitarian actors should increasingly This plan recognizes these
coordination. At the state level, the plan engage with other actors, including changing contexts and has put in
will be routinely reviewed and adapted. development partners, to leverage their place a governance framework
At the regional governance level, the main comparative advantages for better results that allow responses to remain
task will be regional coordination and for people. agile and responsive to changes
strategic operations.They will collaborate The emphasis on a more in context. The governance
and advice the district on a regular basis. coherent approach offers many framework also enables capacity-sharing
These pieces of advice will largely be opportunities. Meeting immediate and collaboration between humanitarian,
informed by district specific feedback, needs at the same time as ensuring longer- development and peace actors. The
learning points, prevailing needs and crisis term investment addressing the systemic governance structure recognises
situations and will be documented into causes of conflict and vulnerability thatwhile leadership is critical, the nexus
a quarterly outlook report. The district has a better chance of reducing the cannot ‘belong’ to any one actor or
recovery and assistance centres will be impact of cyclical or recurrent shocks individual– and complementarity and
responsible for recovery supervision and stresses and supporting the peace equality is essential.As such, the approach
and will provide situational report on a that is essential for development to be also requires humility, mutual respect and
monthly basis. sustainable. However, along with such compromise. This cannot be a top-down
The approach in this plan is opportunities, this framework also brings approach but a joined-up approach that
highly context specific. The New potential challenges. Notably, there is a is based on top-down strategic direction
Way of Working recognizes that greater risk that immediate humanitarian needs and bottoms-up implementation and
governance, collaboration, coordination do not receive adequate responses. communication.

7.2. Monitoring, evaluation, and continuous assessment

Effective implementation towards the objectives of the plan, while surveys or raw data and therefore
requires that progress against considering the diversity of the affected tracking progress against targets proved
milestones and outputs population and their perspectives of the problematic54. While collaboration and
indicators and the management response. partnerships are a key pillar to this plan,
and institutional capacity Besides benefitting from observed Jubaland will consider tracking progress
underpinning this delivery are data gaps and lessons from monitoring data that it can access and control for
continuously monitored. Detailed the drought recovery plan, this CRRP ease of recovery evaluation.
assessment of progress against the plan will adopt and leverage the national One way to do this will be to adopt the
is not always feasible due to a number approaches to evidence based learning M&E mitigating principles established for
of reasons. For instance, several baseline and adjustments. For instance, such the NDP-9 including; limiting baseline
and milestone indicators may not have surveys as consumer price index, social data and targets to metrics endorsed by
been specified or the data may not be statistics, household budget surveys, the state, limiting initial M&E framework
available. Pragmatically, the nature of labour force survey, agriculture census to a small number of targets linked to high
humanitarian work often requires agility among others, will be vital tools for level objectives and entrench institutional
to respond to new and emerging crisis guiding case prioritization and investment. strengthening as a key component of
that might not have been anticipated at Additionally,lessons learned in completing the M&E plan. The custodian of M&E
the time of developing the plan/baseline. mid-term reviews of NDP-8 present an framework will be the MOPIC as the
Even with these challenges, a continuous opportunity for stop gap measures for chair or the leader of the various
process that records the aid delivered this CRRP’s M&E activities. steering committees and will be charged
to an affected population as well as the The major risks identified were associated with developing baseline indicators, plan
achieved results against the objectives set with including baseline metrics provided targets and milestones and defining data
out in this plan will always be undertaken. (and collected) by development partners. frequency as well as reporting by the
It will track the inputs, and the outputs The challenge was that the Government three governance levels.
resulting from interventions to affected had no access or control over the
populations; chart the outcomes of
cluster activities; and measures progress

54Somalia National Development Plan 2020-2024. 27

Annex 1: CRRP sample M&E

# Indicator type Performance Definition and unit of measurement Frequency Source Target
Indicator of data 80%
Impact: Economic Recovery from crisis- Improved household Food security, Incomeand Health assess-
1. Impact Percent of Food Security: - Means all people at all Bi-annually
households with times have physical, social and economic
improved food access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food
security that meets their dietary needs foe an active
and healthy life (UN Def.)

Household is considered food as having
improved food security if they increase in
any of the following

2. Impact Percentage of · Food consumption score (by a factor Annual Impact as- 70%
3. Impact households re- of 0.2) Annual sessment
porting Increase in Impact as- 50%
income · Dietary diversity score (by a factor of sessment

· Reduction in Coping strategy index
Income: Gains from an economic activity.

A household will have increased income if
there is an increase in the following;

· Income from gainful employment
· Income from sales of farm produce/


Percentage of Access to healthcare services: Means re-
households report- duced distance to a healthcare facility i.e A
ing improved access geographical availability
to health services A household will be deemed to have im-
proved access to health services if:

· Reduced distances to health facility
· Reduced cost of health services

1.0 Outcome: Increased land productivity (investment for drought, DL)

1.1 Outcome Increased harvest Harvest: Meanstotal farm output per unit Bi-annually Outcome 80%
per Hectare area. assess-
1.2 Outcome Increased area Increased harvest denotes marginal in- Annually
1.3 Outcome under irrigation crease per unit production area Annually Outcome
Increased livestock Area under irrigation will be considered assess-
productivity increased if total irrigated area increases by ment
a factor of 0.1 from baseline Outcome
Increase in tropical livestock units and live- assess-
stock products ment
1.1.1 Output Number of DL sur- Surveillance sessions means tracking of Monthly
1.1.2 Output veillance sessions locusts’ swarms and recording breeding weekly Spraying
1.1.3 Output conducted points Quarterly trackers
Numbers of DL Chemical repellent application session Process
chemical repellent means; spraying farms to kill or repel desert monitor-
application sessions locusts from farms ing
Number of DL train- Training workshop mean: capacity building Process
ing workshop held on desert locust control and management monitor-
1.1.4 Output Number of wa- Rehabilitated/constructed water infrastruc- Annually
2.0 ter infrastructure ture means- refurbished or improved water
rehabilitated/con- access infrastructure

Outcome: Increased household income (investment for employment or income creation)


2.1 Outcome Increased sales val- Increase in farm output sales value by a Bi-annually Outcome 50%
2.1.1 Output ue of products and factor of 0.1 Annually assess-
produce Cash for work: - means initiatives/programs ment
Number of HH providing cash pay for work done Outcome
members employed assess-
through cash for ment &
work initiatives program

3.0 Outcome: Improved access to health care services (investment for improved health)
Outcome Reduced incidences Flood instigated diseases means: water Annually Hospital
3.1.1 of flood instigated borne diseases e.g, AWD, cholera, dysen- Annually records
diseases tery etc Process
Output Number of flood Resettled HH means; households moved to ing
displaced house- and resettled in safer grounds
holds resettled



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