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Published by info.sonyvision, 2022-01-12 07:48:36

SPELLING OF WORDS

SPELLING OF WORDS

SUCCESS MIRROR By VinayYadav sir

2. SPELLING OF WORDS

Rule 1. Words ending in a consonant preceded by two vowels do not double the final consonant
before a suffix beginning with a vowel; as—

boor + ish = boorish meet + ing = meeting

cook + ing = cooking repeat + able = repeatable

cool + ing = cooling shout + ed = shouted

look + ing = looking teem + ing = teeming

Rule. 2 Words ending in silent E usually drop the silent E before addding vowel suffix

(e.g., -ing, -able, -ous); as—

Drop - e

admire + ation = admiration desire + ous = desirous

admire + able = admirable divide + ing = dividing

allure + ing = alluring dine + ing = dining

arrange + ing = arranging explore + ation = exploration

arrive + ing = arriving fame + ous = famous

become + ing = becoming give + ing = giving

care + ing = caring hope + ing = hoping

come + ing = coming imagine + ary = imaginary

compare + able = comparable imagine + able = imaginable

deplore + able = deplorable live + ing = living

love + able = lovable name + ing = naming

lose + ing = losing note + ed = noted

move + able = movable

• The e is retained when a suffix beginning with a consonant letter (e.g., -ment, -ful) is added.

Retain -e

arrange + ment = arrangement hate + ful = hateful

care + ful + careful like + ness = likeness

extreme + ly = extremely lone + ly = lonely

force + ful = forceful move + ment = movement

• After c or g, if the suffix begins with a or o, the e is retained to indicate the soft sound of c or g.
(e.g., -ous, -able)

Retain -e

advantage + ous = advantageous outrage + ous = outrageous

change + able = changeble peace + able = peaceable

courage + ous = courageous service + able = serviceable

manage + able = manageable trace + able = traceable

Rule 3.Words ending with ee or oo add suffixes without change; as

Agree + able = agreeable glee + ful = gleeful

Coo + ing = cooing see + ing = seeing

Add- Chatra :- Gudri Bazar, Chatra, Hazaribag :- Near Ananda College, Hazaribag
Mobile No.-9155998888, 7050738888

SUCCESS MIRROR By VinayYadav sir

Flee + ing = fleeing woo + ing = wooing

Rule 4. When a suffix that begins with a consonant is added to a word that ends in silent e, the e is,

with a few exceptions, retained; as—

• When the suffix -ly is added to an adjective that ends in silent e, the e is usually retained.

entire + ly = entirely nice + ly = nicely

false + ly = falsely polite + ly = politely

fine + ly = finely safe + ly = safely

late + ly = lately sure + ly = surely

• Exceptions to the retention of e when -ly is added:

true + ly = truly whole + ly = wholly

• If the adjective ends in -le, the -le is dropped when the suffix -ly is added.

gentle + ly = gently; noble + ly = nobly; idle + ly = idly

• The -le is also dropped from adjectives ending in -able and ible when the suffix -ly is added.

comfortable + ly = comfortably pleasurable + ly = pleasurably

fashionable + ly = fashionably sensible + ly = sensibly

forcible + ly = forcibly honourable + ly = honourably

• When the suffix - tion is used to form a noun from a verb ending in silent e after t, the letters te
are dropped.

associate + tion = association create + tion = creation

celebrate + tion = celebration dictate + tion = dictation

communicate + tion = communication frustrate + tion = frustration

complete + tion = tion completion pollute + tion = pollution

• When the suffix is added to a noun ending in silent e to make an adjective, the e is dropped.

bone + y = bony smoke +y = smoky

ease + y = easy snake +y = snaky

ice + y = icy stone +y = stony

noise +y = noisy taste + y = tasty

• When the suffixes - ful, -hood, -less and -ment are added, the e is retained.

hope + ful = hopeful wire + less = wireless

use + ful = useful advertise + ment = advertisement

false + hood = falsehood amaze + ment = amazement

care + less = careless amuse + ment = amusement

home + less = homeless announce + ment = announcement

hope + less = hopeless tire + less = tireless

excite + ment = excitement use + less = useless

Note– When ment is added to judge, acknowledge and abridge two spelling are generally accepted:

judge + ment = judgment, or judgement

acknowledge + ment = acknowledgment or acknowledgement

abridge + ment = abridgment or abridgement

Rule 5. Words ending in two or more consonants usually remain unchanged when a suffix is added;
as—

call + ed = called roll + ing = rolling

till + ed = tilled will + ed = willed

Add- Chatra :- Gudri Bazar, Chatra, Hazaribag :- Near Ananda College, Hazaribag
Mobile No.-9155998888, 7050738888

SUCCESS MIRROR By VinayYadav sir

pull + ed = pulled thrill + ing = thrilling

shell + ed = shelled toll + ing = tolling

Rule 6. When a word of one syllable ends in a single vowel and a single consonant, the consonant

is usually doubled when a suffix with a vowel is added; as—

• Comparative and superlative suffixes, -er, and -est

big bigger biggest sad sadder saddest

hot hotter hottest thin thinner thinnest

• The suffix -er, meaning ‘person or thing that does something’

cut + er = cutter run + er = runner

hit + er = hitter sin + er = sineer

rub + er = rubber swim + er = swimmer

• The suffix -ing, present participle and gerund

bid bidding drag dragging

brag bragging get getting

cram cramming plan planning

cut cutting run running

dig digging sin sinning

din dinning sit sitting

• The suffix -ed, past tense and past participle

beg begged map mapped

drag dragged rag ragged

drop dropped rub rubbed

fit fitted sin sinned

hop hopped strap strapped

• The suffix -y, making adjective from nouns

fog foggy mud muddy

fun funny sun sunny

Rule7. In a word of one syllable, the final consonant is not doubled before a suffix beginning with
a consonant; as—

fat fatness man manhood

fit fitful sad sadness

glad gladness sin sinful

Rule 8. • Words of more than one syllable, ending in a single consonant preceded by a single

vowel, if accented on the last syllable, usually double the final consonant before adding a vowel suffix;

as—

admit admitted admitting admittance

control controlled controlling controller

regret regretted regretting regrettable

forbid forbidden forbidding

forget forgotten forgetting

prefer preferred preferring

prefer preferred preferring

Add- Chatra :- Gudri Bazar, Chatra, Hazaribag :- Near Ananda College, Hazaribag
Mobile No.-9155998888, 7050738888

SUCCESS MIRROR By VinayYadav sir

• When adding a suffix in words of more than one syllable, the accent is shifted to a preceding
infer
syllable, the foregoing rule does not apply.

inference combat combative

excel, excellence, excellent

• In words of more than one syllable, the final consonant is not doubled before a suffix beginning
with a consonant; as—

equip equipment profit profitless

regret regretful unfit unfitness

• The final consonant is not doubled if the stress in on the first syllable and if the verb ends in -en
or -er, as—

happen happened happening

listen listened listener

open opened opener

offer offered offering

• The final consonant is doubled if the stress in on the first syllable of the verb ... if it ends in -al,

-el or -il; as—

cancel cancelled cancellation

equal equalled equalling

level levelled leveller

pedal pedalled pedalling

travel travelled traveller

parallel paralleled

• If the stress is on the first syllable, and if the verb ends in -ap or -ip, the final consonant is
doubled; as—

kidnap kidnapped kidnapper

worship worshipped worshipper

Rule 9. Words of more than one syllable, ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel
if not accented on the last syllable, usually do not double the final consonant before a suffix beginning

with a vowel; as as —

bigot – bigoted; despot – despotic – despotic; redden — reddened; rivet – riveted.

handicap – handicapped; outfit – outfitted

Rule 10. When a verb ends in y with a consonant preceding it, the y becomes i before the suffixes -es
and -ed. They y remains unchanged before the suffix-ing; as—

bury buries buried burying

carry carries carried carrying

copy copies copied copying

defy defies defied defying

deny denies denied denying

hurry hurries hurried hurrying

marry marries married marrying

multiply multiplies multiplied multiplying

pity pities pitied pitying

rely relies relied relying

Add- Chatra :- Gudri Bazar, Chatra, Hazaribag :- Near Ananda College, Hazaribag
Mobile No.-9155998888, 7050738888

SUCCESS MIRROR By VinayYadav sir

reply replies replied replying

satisfy satisfies satisfied satisfying

study studies studied studying

try tries tried trying

Rule 11. If a verb ends in y with a vowel preceding, the y generally remains unchanged before the
ending -s, ed and -ing; as—

annoy annoys annoyed annoying

destroy destroys destroyed destroying

enjoy enjoys enjoyed enjoying

obey obeys obeyed obeying

play plays played playing

pray prays prayed praying

stay stays stayed staying

lay lays laid laying

pay pays paid paying

say says said saying

Rule 12. If the suffix -ing is added to verbs ending in ie, the i becomes y and the e is omitted; as—

die dies died dying

lie lies lied lying

tie ties tied tying

Rule 13. When a noun or adjective ends in y with a consonant preceding the y usually becomes i

when a suffix is added ; as—

dry, drier, driest, drily; happy, happier, happiest, happily, happiness; pity, pitiful, pitiless; plenty, plentiful;
plentiful; tidy, tidier, tidiest, tidily, tidiness; twenty, twentieth.

Rule 14. Words ending in y preceded by a consonant use i instead of y before additions other than

those beginning with i; as—

beauty beautiful happy happiness

deny denial justify justifies

fly flier study studious

Rule 15. Words ending in n do not drop the n before adding the suffix -ness; as—

clean cleanness green greenness

Rule 16. If the adjective ends in l, the adverb formed by adding ly will contain two l’s immediately
before the y; as—

cool coolly final finally

formal formally hopeful hopefully

real really useful usefully

Rule 17. If the adjective does not end in l, the adverb formed by adding ly will contain only one l

immediately before the y; as—

evident evidently grim grimly

fluent fluently quick quickly

Rule 18. Word ending in ll usually drop one l when compounded; as—

all + most = almost dis + till = distil

all + ready = already doubt + full = doubtful

Add- Chatra :- Gudri Bazar, Chatra, Hazaribag :- Near Ananda College, Hazaribag
Mobile No.-9155998888, 7050738888

SUCCESS MIRROR By VinayYadav sir

all + thought = although use + full = useful

all + together = altogether un + till = until

all + ways = always well + come = welcome

Rule 19. In words with ie or ei when the sound is long ee, use i before e except after c; as—

achieve chief niece shield

belief cashier piece shriek

believe field pierce siege

brief fierce priest thief

besiege grief relieve wield

Add- Chatra :- Gudri Bazar, Chatra, Hazaribag :- Near Ananda College, Hazaribag
Mobile No.-9155998888, 7050738888


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