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Published by soedito, 2018-07-12 16:57:05

13macam-INTEGRASI-TP

13macam-INTEGRASI-TP

INTEGRASI
TANAMAN PANGAN DG

PETERNAKAN

Tujuan Instruksional Khuhsus

Mahasiswa dapat menjelaskan
rincian integrasi peternakan
dalam pertanian tanaman
pangan pada berbagai model
integrasi.

Isi Pokok Bahasan

Digambarkan model intergrasi
antar sistem pertanian (tanaman
pangan) dan peternakan hasil
konferensi Bellagio 1978, yang
disposonsori oleh The Rokefeler
Foundation. Sebelas model inte
grasi tersebut adalah 1) Sweden

farming system in Asia, low integrated of

Crop and Animal, 2) Hunid-upland faraming

system in Asia 3) Low land rice system in

asia, 4) Tree-crop farming system Humid-

upland farming system in Asia,

5) Rain-fed agriculture of semi arid
tropics of India , 6) Honduras system, 7)
Savanna system , 8) Central American
highland, 9) Rio Negro central
highland, 10), Highlands of Ethiopia
dan 11) Rudimentary sedentary
agriculture.

PERANAN/KEDUDUKAN TERNAK
DALAM SISTEM PERTANIAN DAN

PETERNAKAN RAKYAT

(A Bellagio Conference, 1978. Integrated Crop and
Animal Production. The Rockerfeller Foundation, 1980)

1. Di samping menanam tanaman
pangan, sebagian besar perta
nian juga memelihara ternak.
Hampir di semua negara ber
kembang 85% atau lebih rumi
nansia (kerbau, sapi, kambing,
domba) dan juga kuda berada
di pertanian /peternakan
rakyat.

1

PERANAN/KEDUDUKAN TERNAK
DALAM SISTEM PERTANIAN DAN

PETERNAKAN RAKYAT

(A Bellagio Conference, 1978. Integrated Crop and
Animal Production. The Rockerfeller Foundation, 1980)

2. Ternak memegang peranan ekonomik dan
non-ekonomic dalam system pertanian
/peternakan rakyat (small-farm-system).
Penda patan dapat diperoleh dari, kotoran
/pupuk, tenaga kerja, pengangkutan,
transportasi, investasi, bahan bakar, by
product/ limbah, kulit, susu, telur, dan
daging. Pendapat dari peternakan dapat
sangat membantu/ berarti, tetapi masing
sering dilupakan atau tidak mendapat
perha tian yang wajar.

1

PERANAN/KEDUDUKAN TERNAK
DALAM SISTEM PERTANIAN DAN

PETERNAKAN RAKYAT

(A Bellagio Conference, 1978. Integrated Crop and
Animal Production. The Rockerfeller Foundation, 1980)

3. Ternak dalam suatu kelompok buda
ya/masyarakat tertentu juga dapat
merupakan suatu tali penghubung
persaudaraan. Ternak merupakan
sum ber Identitas dan prestise
atau status sosial seseorang /ke
luarga.
Ternak juga dapat sebagai teman
yang paling setia.

2

PERANAN/KEDUDUKAN TERNAK
DALAM SISTEM PERTANIAN DAN

PETERNAKAN RAKYAT

(A Bellagio Conference, 1978. Integrated Crop and
Animal Production. The Rockerfeller Foundation, 1980)

4. Integrasi antara tanaman
pangan dan usaha peternakan
dapat mening katkan total
produktivitas sumber daya
pertanian /peternakan rakyat
dan meningkatkan kesejah
teraan.

2

PERANAN/KEDUDUKAN TERNAK
DALAM SISTEM PERTANIAN DAN

PETERNAKAN RAKYAT

(A Bellagio Conference, 1978. Integrated Crop and
Animal Production. The Rockerfeller Foundation, 1980)

5. Kurang lebih 60 % protein dapat
dicerna dan 64 % nitrogen dan
protein dapat dicerna yang
dihasilkan, hanya mempunyai
nilai nutrisi rendah kalau bahan
tersebut tidak dilewatkan ternak.

2

PERANAN/KEDUDUKAN TERNAK
DALAM SISTEM PERTANIAN DAN

PETERNAKAN RAKYAT

(A Bellagio Conference, 1978. Integrated Crop and
Animal Production. The Rockerfeller Foundation, 1980)

6. Integrasi ternak dan tanaman
pa ngan akan menjamin
kelanggeng an dan stabilitas
produksi di dalam hampir
semua ekosistem

23

PERANAN/KEDUDUKAN TERNAK
DALAM SISTEM PERTANIAN DAN

PETERNAKAN RAKYAT

(A Bellagio Conference, 1978. Integrated Crop and
Animal Production. The Rockerfeller Foundation, 1980)

7. Ternak akan meningkatkan efi
siensi sistem pertanian apabila
ternak dapat meningkat kan
kegunaan sumber daya dalam
sistem, yang berupa tenaga, ma
terial, dan modal.

32

PASAR

const. mat FUEL RUMAH LABOR
LABOR TANGGA food
CROPS PETANI
COMPLEX TERNAK
MIXTURE FOOD FOOD SWINE
RITUAL RITUAL POULTRY
const. mat GOATS
SHEEP
MULCH FEED
MANURE FEED

FERTILITY On Farm: Fallow
wild-animal Off Farm: Forest

Gab 1. Swidden farming system in Asia, shifting agriculture
low integrated of crops and animals (animals free
rowing or tethered

PASAR

FUEL RUMAH LABOR
LABOR TANGGA feed
fertility PETANI

FOOD FOOD
Transport
CROPS TERNAK
MULCH FEED com
Wheat, Rice BEDDING post SWINE
Maize, POULTRY
Cassava, Manure CATTLE
Beans, Power BUFFALO
Sorghum Transport

FERTILITY On Farm: Fallow FEED

Off Farm: Forest

Gab 2. Humid-upland faraming system in Asia, permanent
cropping, moderate of integration crop and animals
(animal tethered or herded)

PASAR

FUEL RUMAH LABOR
LABOR TANGGA feed
fertility PETANI
TERNAK
FOOD FOOD
RITUAL SWINE
DUCK
CROPS MULCH FEED CHICKENS
Rice, CATTLE
Vegetables Manure BUFFALO
Peas Power GEESE
Mung-Beans Transport
FEED
On Farm:
Field borders

Off Farm:

Gab 3. Lowland rice system in Asia, permanent cropping
cropping, high integration of crop and anim als
(animal confined)

PASAR

FUEL RUMAH LABOR
LABOR TANGGA
PETANI TERNAK
CATTLE
RAW PRO FOOD GOATS
DUCTS for SWINE
CROPS PROCESSING

COCONUTS FEED
OIL PALM
RUBBER Trans
GRASS port

On Farm:

Off Farm: Forest

Gab 4 Tree-crop farming system in Asia, long-term cropping,
low to moderate integration of crops and animals
(animals tethered or roving)

PASAR

FUEL RUMAH LABOR
LABOR TANGGA Feed
PETANI

CROPS FOOD fFFcooouroencdsl ht,.eMMeislak.t TERNAK
Cons.MAT
Sorghum, Cotton Cattle, Poultry
Millat, Sisal FEED
Wheat, Castor oil BUFFALO
Rice, Gourndnuts Manure GOATS
Kemaf Power SWINE
Transport SHEEP
FERTILITY
On Farm: field border, FEED
fallow

Off Farm: Forest

Gab 5 Rain-fed agriculture of semiarid tropics of India,
permanent cropping, high-level integration of crops
and animals (animals confine or herdielded)

PASAR

FUEL RUMAH LABOR
LABOR TANGGA Feed
PETANI

FOOD Food,
Milk for --
CROPS processing TERNAK
Transport
MAIZE CATTLE
BEANS FEED HORSE
SORGHUM SWINE
Manure POULTRY
FERTILITY Power
Transport FEED

On Farm: fallow

Off Farm: Forest, SEEDING
Natural, Pasture

Gab 6 Honduras Sysytem (Central America), long trerm
cropping, high-level integration of crops
and livestock (animals herded or roving)

PASAR

Building FUEL RUMAH
& fencing LABOR TANGGA
material PETANI

LABOR

FOOD FOOD
Transport

CROPS TERNAK

MINOR CATTLE
FOOD CROP HORSES/
MULES

MANURE

On Farm: Natural FEED

pasture
Off Farm: Forest

Gab 7 Savana system (Central and south America),
extensive commercial livestock (>100 ha)

PASAR

FUEL RUMAH LABOR
LABOR TANGGA
PETANI

CROPS FOOD FOOD TERNAK
Const. Mat fiber
Maize, Ritual Transport SWINE
Beans, SHEEP
Wheat MULCH FEED com CATTLE
Potatoes CONST.MAT post HORSE
Squash
BEDDING FEED
FERTILITY
Manure
Power
Transport

On Farm: Natural
Pasture, Borers

Off Farm: Forest

Gab 8 Central American highlands, permanent cropping,
high-level integration of crops and animals
(animals herded or confined)

PASAR

FUEL RUMAH LABOR
LABOR TANGGA
PETANI

FOOD MILK
MULCH
CROPS TERNAK

POTATOES DAIRY COW
BEANS
MAIZE
VEGETABLES

On Farm: FEED
Field borders

Gab 9 Rio Negro (central highlands of Columbia,
specialized area, permanent cropping, almost no
integration of crops and livestock

PASAR

FUEL RUMAH LABOR
LABOR TANGGA Feed
PETANI

FOOD Food,
const. mat Fiber for --
processing
CROPS Fuel TERNAK
CATTLE
WHEAT, TEFF MULCH FEED com SHEEP
CHICK-PEAS Manure post GOATS
LENTILS Power DONKEY
COWPEAS Transport
RED PEPPER FEED

On Farm: Swampland
Grazing

Off Farm: Forest,
Natural, Pasture

Gab 10 Highlands of Ethiopia, permanent cropping,
high-level integration of crops and livestock
(animals confined or herded)

PASAR

const. mat FUEL RUMAH LABOR
TANGGA FEED
CROPS FAMILY PETANI
Groundnuts LABOR TERNAK
Millet
Rice, Cassava FOOD FOOD SWINE
Sorghum Const. Mat RITUAL SHEEP, GOATS
Maize RAW PROD WOOL CATTLE
POULTRY
FEED HORSE

Manure FEED
Power
Transport

FERTILITY On Farm:

Off Farm: Fallow, Woodland

Gab 11 Rudimentary sedentary agriculture in West Africa,
sihifting agriculture, moderate integration of crop
and livestock (animals herded or tethered)

An Integrated mixed farming system in the
home plot


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