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Published by soedito, 2017-09-19 23:02:42

EB_WAJAHKU_SEKARANG_Y

EB_WAJAHKU_SEKARANG_Y

WAJAHKU SEKARANG

AKU PUNYA
BANYAK WAJAH
YANG BERBEDA

3 1 0 2

IM 4 2 Deductive reasoning
EM Argument analysis
BD 2 5 Hypothesis testing
KB Uses of probability
KF 6 Decision making
MK Problem solving
BM
DM Critical thinking
KT
KB
KM
D

SIAPA AKU Which Thinking skill s
Will get you to your goal

23 Atribut soft skills AKU = f(FUNGSI KEBERADAANKU)

A= akhlak 0 Expert (doing sience in 2
A= amal thingking)
A= akal
A= awak, sehat Core of thingking skills

Ke arifan adalah modalku Focusing

Keteguhan hatiku adalah Information gathering
perbendaharaanku
Remembering
Ketabahan adalah pakaianku
Kerelaan sasaranku Organizing

Kekayaan hati kebanggaanku 1 Analyzing C=constructive
Keyakinan makananku Generating C=critical
Kejujuran perantaraku
Ketaatan ukuranku Integrating

Hiburanku adalah dalam solatku Evaluating
Dimensi iman dan ketauhidtanku
adalah sumber dimensi kreativitasku
Akal pikir adalah sumber agamaku R = read
Cinta kasih adalah dasar kehidupanku R = write
Rindu adalah kendaraanku R = arithmetic
Berdikir kepada Allah adalah kawan
dekatku
Duka adalah sahabatku
Menahan diri pekerjaanku E = emotional
Jihad menjadi perangaiku I = imagination
Ilmu adalah senjataku C = creativity
Hati nuraniku sumber kebenaranku
Doa adalah otak ibadahku

Expert (doing sience in thingking) 2
Core of thingking skills
AKU
Focusing
Information gathering
Remembering
Organizing
Analyzing
Generating
Integrating

Evaluating

MM
TN

MT = ma'rifatullah
MN = ma'rifatunnafsi

DATA C
V
CAPTURING ARRANGING C
D
SUMMARIZING S
R
VERIFYING CARA MENGUBAH CALCULATING R
CLASSIFYING MENJADI C
INFORMASI RETRIEVING S
A
DISSEMINATING
A
STORING REPRODUCING P
T
ACCURACY QUANTIFIABLE C
A
PRECISION VERIFIABLE C
F
TIMELY INFORMASI ACCESSIBLE A
V
CLARITY FREEDOM FROM BIAS Q

APPROPRIATE COMPREHENSIP

ATRIBUT INFORMASI

(Adjisoedarmo, 2000. Materi Sim. MM Unsoed Purwokerto)

23 ATRIBUT SOFT SKILL

BERDASARKAN PRIORITAS
3 KEPENTINGAN DI DUNIA KERJA

• I NISIATIF • M ANAJEMEN DIRI

• E TIKA/INTEGRITAS • M ENYELESAIKAN PERSOALAN

• B ERFIKIR KRITIS • D APAT MERINGKAS

• K EMAUAN BELAJAR • B ERKOOPERASI

• K OMITMEN • F LEKSIBEL

• M OTIVASI • K ERJA DALAM TIM

• B ERSEMANGAT • M ANDIRI P= project 4
• D APAT DIANDALKAN • M ENDENGARKAN R= reasonable
• K OMUNIKASI LISAN A= applicable
• K REATIF • T ANGGUH P= possible
• K EMAMPUAN ANALITIS A= acceptable
• B ERARGUMENTASI LOGIS P= produce able
• M ANAJEMEN WAKTU M= marketable
S= sustainable

• D APAT MENGATASI STRES

P= project 4 ROLE 5 Sa= system approach
R= reasonable
A= applicable I= interpersonal P= preparation effort
P= possible F= figure head D= definition effort
A= acceptable L= leader S= solution effort
P= produce able L= liaison
M= marketable
S= sustainable I= informational Vi= view the firm as a system
M= monitor Re= recognize the environment
D= disseminator Id= identify the sub system
S= spokesman
Pr= proceed from system to subsystem
D= decisional Al= analysis element of sub system
E= entrepreneur
D= disturbance handler Id= identify alternative solution
R= resource locator Ev= evaluate alternative solution
N= negotiator Sb= select the best solution
Is= implement the solution
Fs= follow up

MANAGER Mj= manajemen diri
F= function S= hidup seimbang
P= planning M= memahami diri sendiri
O= organizing
C= command M= memimpin diri sendiri
C= coordinating
C= control E= efektif dan efisien

B= bergaul dengan benar
P= berfikir positif

6 T = togetherness
E = empathy
Fb =function before form, A = accuracy
S =scope, M= maturity
P =problem is a set of
W = willingness
problems O = organizing
A =alternatif solution, R = religious
R =reassessment K = competency

M = memerikan L = landasan kepribadian
J = menjelaskan P = penguasaan pengetahuan dan ktrpln
T = mengembangakan K = kemampuan berkarya
S = sikap dlm berkarya
teori K = p kaidah hidup bersama
P = memprediksi
M = mengontrol

Lk = learning to know
Ld = learning to do
Lb = learning to be
Ll = learning to live

PENDEKATAN MANUSIAWI

JATI DIRI MANUSIA KEGIATAN HASIL MANFAAT

PEKERJAAN S = STRENGTH PEMBOROSAN DAN ATAU
KEBODOHAN
RELASI W= WEAKNESS
KUALITAS
LINGKUNGAN O = OPPORTUNITY SUMBER DAYA
T = TREATH INSANI
AKHLAK
AMAL KESEHATAN PESAING
AKAL KEBAHAGIAAN FUSTRASI
AWAK KESEJAHTERAAN KONFLIK
BIROKRASI
MALAS

LEMAH IMAN



PENDEKATAN ANALITIK

MANUSIA TUGAS/ JIWA KEMAM KEGIA HASIL
FUNGSI RAGA PUAN TAN
BENAR
CIPTAAN HAMBA/ IMAN 120 K P IMAN DIPERCAYA
TUHAN SURUHAN TAQWA IBADAH TERBUKTI
Pengalaman dan AMAL ILM
PEWARIS AKHLAK Ide TAQWA EFEKTIVE
AMAL EFISIEN
PEMIMPIN AKAL
AWAK KUALITAS
MAKHLUK PALING IBADAH COGNITIVE KESERAS— KUANTITAS
MULIA MUAMALAH INGAT AFFECTIVE BIROKRAT WAKTU
SEMPURNA MATI PSYKO MOT PAKAR DANA
BODOH AMAL PELAKSANA
SALIH CREATIV DANA QA
MAKHLUK PALING IMAGINATIV
MISTERIUS SPIRITUAL/E REASONABLE
APPLICABLE
ACEPTABLE

INDIVIDUAL HABLUM 50 BILIUN SEL QUANTUM POSSIBLE
SOSIAL MINALLAH TUBUH BRAIN PRODUCEABL
BERKETUHANAN MARKETABL
MINANAAS 10 BILIUN SUSTAINABL

MINAL ALAM NEURON

AKU= f(KEBARADAANKU) =WAKTU =

WAKTU X  N KEGIATAN BERMAKNA

PENDEKATAN ANALITIK

MANUSIA TUGAS/ JIWA KEMAM KEGIA HASIL
FUNGSI RAGA PUAN TAN
CIPTAAN BENAR
TUHAN HAMBA/ IMAN 120 K P IMAN DIPERCAYA
SURUHAN TAQWA IBADAH TERBUKTI
MAKHLUK PALING PEWARIS Pengalaman dan AMAL ILM
MULIA PEMIMPIN AKHLAK Ide TAQWA EFEKTIVE
SEMPURNA AMAL EFISIEN
BODOH IBADAH AKAL COGNITIVE KESERAS—
MAKHLUK PALING MUAMALAH AWAK AFFECTIVE BIROKRAT KUALITAS
MISTERIUS PSYKO MOT PAKAR KUANTITAS
AMAL INGAT PELAKSANA WAKTU
INDIVIDUAL SALIH MATI CREATIV DANA DANA
SOSIAL IMAGINATIV
BERKETUHANAN SPIRITUAL/E REASONABLE QA
APPLICABLE
ACEPTABLE

HABLUM 50 BILIUN SEL QUANTUM POSSIBLE
MINALLAH TUBUH BRAIN PRODUCEABL
MARKETABL
MINANAAS 10 BILIUN SUSTAINABL

MINAL ALAM NEURON

AKU= f(KEBARADAANKU) =WAKTU =

WAKTU X  N KEGIATAN BERMAKNA

PENDEKATAN ANALITIK

MANUSIA TUGAS/ JIWA KEMAM KEGIA HASIL
FUNGSI RAGA PUAN TAN
CIPTAAN BENAR
TUHAN HAMBA/ IMAN 120 K P IMAN DIPERCAYA
SURUHAN TAQWA IBADAH TERBUKTI
MAKHLUK PALING PEWARIS Pengalaman dan AMAL ILM
MULIA PEMIMPIN AKHLAK Ide TAQWA EFEKTIVE
SEMPURNA AMAL EFISIEN
BODOH IBADAH AKAL COGNITIVE KESERAS—
MAKHLUK PALING MUAMALAH AWAK AFFECTIVE BIROKRAT KUALITAS
MISTERIUS PSYKO MOT PAKAR KUANTITAS
AMAL INGAT PELAKSANA WAKTU
INDIVIDUAL SALIH MATI CREATIV DANA DANA
SOSIAL IMAGINATIV
BERKETUHANAN SPIRITUAL/E REASONABLE QA
APPLICABLE
ACEPTABLE

HABLUM 50 BILIUN SEL QUANTUM POSSIBLE
MINALLAH TUBUH BRAIN PRODUCEABL
MARKETABL
MINANAAS 10 BILIUN SUSTAINABL

MINAL ALAM NEURON

AKU= f(KEBARADAANKU) =WAKTU =

WAKTU X  N KEGIATAN BERMAKNA

PENDEKATAN ANALITIK

MANUSIA TUGAS/ JIWA KEMAM KEGIA HASIL
FUNGSI RAGA PUAN TAN
CIPTAAN BENAR
TUHAN HAMBA/ IMAN 120 K P IMAN DIPERCAYA
SURUHAN TAQWA IBADAH TERBUKTI
MAKHLUK PALING PEWARIS Pengalaman dan AMAL ILM
MULIA PEMIMPIN AKHLAK Ide TAQWA EFEKTIVE
SEMPURNA AMAL EFISIEN
BODOH IBADAH AKAL COGNITIVE KESERAS—
MAKHLUK PALING MUAMALAH AWAK AFFECTIVE BIROKRAT KUALITAS
MISTERIUS PSYKO MOT PAKAR KUANTITAS
AMAL INGAT PELAKSANA WAKTU
INDIVIDUAL SALIH MATI CREATIV DANA DANA
SOSIAL IMAGINATIV
BERKETUHANAN SPIRITUAL/E REASONABLE QA
APPLICABLE
ACEPTABLE

HABLUM 50 BILIUN SEL QUANTUM POSSIBLE
MINALLAH TUBUH BRAIN PRODUCEABL
MARKETABL
MINANAAS 10 BILIUN SUSTAINABL

MINAL ALAM NEURON

AKU= f(KEBARADAANKU) =WAKTU =

WAKTU X  N KEGIATAN BERMAKNA

PENDEKATAN ANALITIK

MANUSIA TUGAS/ JIWA KEMAM KEGIA HASIL
FUNGSI RAGA PUAN TAN
CIPTAAN BENAR
TUHAN HAMBA/ IMAN 120 K P IMAN DIPERCAYA
SURUHAN TAQWA IBADAH TERBUKTI
MAKHLUK PALING PEWARIS Pengalaman dan AMAL ILM
MULIA PEMIMPIN AKHLAK Ide TAQWA EFEKTIVE
SEMPURNA AMAL EFISIEN
BODOH IBADAH AKAL COGNITIVE KESERAS—
MAKHLUK PALING MUAMALAH AWAK AFFECTIVE BIROKRAT KUALITAS
MISTERIUS PSYKO MOT PAKAR KUANTITAS
AMAL INGAT PELAKSANA WAKTU
INDIVIDUAL SALIH MATI CREATIV DANA DANA
SOSIAL IMAGINATIV
BERKETUHANAN SPIRITUAL/E REASONABLE QA
APPLICABLE
ACEPTABLE

HABLUM 50 BILIUN SEL QUANTUM POSSIBLE
MINALLAH TUBUH BRAIN PRODUCEABL
MARKETABL
MINANAAS 10 BILIUN SUSTAINABL

MINAL ALAM NEURON

AKU= f(KEBARADAANKU) =WAKTU =

WAKTU X  N KEGIATAN BERMAKNA

PENDEKATAN ANALITIK

MANUSIA TUGAS/ JIWA KEMAM KEGIA HASIL
FUNGSI RAGA PUAN TAN
CIPTAAN BENAR
TUHAN HAMBA/ IMAN 120 K P IMAN DIPERCAYA
SURUHAN TAQWA IBADAH TERBUKTI
MAKHLUK PALING PEWARIS Pengalaman dan AMAL ILM
MULIA PEMIMPIN AKHLAK Ide TAQWA EFEKTIVE
SEMPURNA AMAL EFISIEN
BODOH IBADAH AKAL COGNITIVE KESERAS—
MAKHLUK PALING MUAMALAH AWAK AFFECTIVE BIROKRAT KUALITAS
MISTERIUS PSYKO MOT PAKAR KUANTITAS
AMAL INGAT PELAKSANA WAKTU
INDIVIDUAL SALIH MATI CREATIV DANA DANA
SOSIAL IMAGINATIV
BERKETUHANAN SPIRITUAL/E REASONABLE QA
APPLICABLE
ACEPTABLE

HABLUM 50 BILIUN SEL QUANTUM POSSIBLE
MINALLAH TUBUH BRAIN PRODUCEABL
MARKETABL
MINANAAS 10 BILIUN SUSTAINABL

MINAL ALAM NEURON

AKU= f(KEBARADAANKU) =WAKTU =

WAKTU X  N KEGIATAN BERMAKNA

OPPORTUNITIES CREATED BY
TECHNOLOGY

• Enhancing communication

• Redefining presence
• Connecting more directly with clients
• Leveraging existing activities
• Reducing bureaucratic friction
• Developing data, knowledge, and

wisdom

The Higher Education Academy

Critical thinking

Medicine, Dentistry and Veterinary
Medicine

Defining the concept promoting the 17
practice
Dr. Susan Jamieson Faculty of Medicine
University of Glasgow
www.medev.ac.uk

Barnett (1997):
defining concept of Western University

The Scottish Doctor' (2000):

'critical thinking' is a level

3' learning outcome

GMC Medical Education Conference (2005):

"...we want... [students] ... to be critical
thinkers" (P. McCrorie, p15)
420 hits on Glasgow University website!

[20.03.07]

18

Definitions (i)

"As an intellectual virtue” it includes skills and
understanding - including but not restricted to:
an ability to formulate and assess arguments,
sensitivity to language, a sense for the importance
of context, and

an ability to apply and also critically reflect on the
appropriate criteria of judgment.

As a virtue of character it includes the habit of
critical reflection on one's own and others'
problematic assumptions and the valuing of
reasoned support for beliefs and actions".

Blair, in Fisher. 1988 (p25)

19

Definitions (ii)

Critical thinking is the consideration of
alternative arguments in light of their
evidence.

Missimer. 1995. p 108

An argument is "a combination of two
forms of statement:
a conclusion and the reasons allegedly
supporting it”.

20

Browne & Keeiey, 2007, p26

Definitions (iii)

"Learning to think critically means:

Learning how to question, when to

question and what questions to ask

Learning how to reason, when to use
reasoning and what reasoning
methods to use.“

Fisher, 2006. p53 21

Common elements in definitions
Critical thinking requires:

 a questioning mind

 a willingness to question one's own

views and beliefs

 an ability to reason
 an ability to detect strengths and flaws in

arguments (including one's own)
 an ability to make judgments about

statements, evidence, arguments, using

specific criteria 22

Common elements 12 aspects ct
In definitions
1. M
1. Q 2. A
2. W 3. C
3. R 4. F
4. D 5. A
5. J 6. S
7. R
8. W
9. I
10. A
11. A
12. A

23

12 Aspects of critical thinking (Ennis)
1. Grasping the meaning of a statement
2. Judging whether there is ambiguity in

reasoning

3. Judging whether statements contradict

each other

4. Judging whether a conclusion follows

necessarily

5. Judging whether a statement applies a

principle

6. Judging whether a statement is specific

enough

Ennis. 1962 (cited by Fisher. 2006. p55-56)
24

12 Aspects of critical thinking (Ennis)

7. Judging whether an observation

statement is reliable

8. Judging whether an inductive

conclusion is warranted

9. Judging whether the problem has been

identified

10. Judging whether something is an

assumption
11. Judging whether a definition is adequate

12. Judging whether a statement taken on

authority is acceptable

Ennis. 1962 (cited by Fisher. 2006. p55-56)
25

Paul & Elder's "Intellectual standards“

1. Clarity 26
2. Accuracy
3. Precision Paul & Elder. 2004
4. Relevance
5. Depth
6. Breadth
7. Logic
8. Significance
F9. airness (KEADILAN)

BLOOM’S TAXONOMY OF COGNITIVE GOALS

Evaluation

Synthesis

Analysis

Application
Comprehension

Knowledge

27

How can we promote critical thinking
ability?

1. Encourage the habit of (self-) questioning
2. Provide teaching and learning activities

that call for critical thinking/higher
cognitive skills
3. Encourage the use of criteria that may be
used to form judgments about the merit of
statements, evidence, arguments
4. Encourage a 'safe' environment
5. Be a role model

28

Promoting critical thinking: asking
questions

I keep six honest serving men
(They taught me all I knew);

Their names are What and Why and
When
And HoW and Where and Who.

Rudyard Kipling29

ACTIVITY 3:

Ask questions employing intellectual standards –
Exemplars

Clarity Will you elaborate, please?
Accuracy How can we check if that's true?

Precision Could you give me more details?
RelevanceHow does that relate to the

question?

Depth What are the underlying issues, here?

Breadth Is there another perspective?

Logic Does that follow from your first point?
Significance Which is the most important

aspect?

Fairness Do you have a conflict of interest 30

here? www.niGdev.ac.uk
Paul & Elder. 2004

Questioning

• Socratic approach

-Focus on asking students questions

• Pause!

• Index card technique/'deck of cards'

'engaged lecture'

involves all students

combine with active listening

• Pyramid teaching

-Involves all students

• Critical reflection

-Self-questioning

• Demonstrations or other stimuli 31

Learning activities to promote critical
thinking/higher cognitive skills

• Study questions
• Pre-Quiz
• Charts
• Discussion objects
• Role play/argue opponent's view
• Creating order (biochemical

pathways, clinical procedures)
• False analogies

32

Creating a framework for critical
thinking

• gives students ownership
• may be used for critical appraisal of

literature

• may be used for students' self-
assessment of their work

• may be used to generate criteria for
• Summative assessment of students'

work

33

Frameworks for
critical thinking (i)

1. Purpose

2. Information

3. Inferences/conclusions

4. Concepts

5. Assumptions

6. Implications/consequences

7. Points of view

8. Questions 34

Paul & Elder. 2004

Frameworks for critical thinking (ii)

SEADS:

What is the source?
What is the evidence?
What assumptions are being made or

implied?

What definitions of key terms are being used?
What is that slant, bias, or special interest

reflected in the statement?

Barell. 2003

35

Frameworks for critical thinking (iii)

What is the issue and the conclusion?
What are the reasons?
What words or phrases are ambiguous?
What are the value conflicts and
assumptions?
What are the descriptive assumptions?
Are there any fallacies in the reasoning?
How good is the evidence?
Are there rival causes?
Are the statistics deceptive?
What significant information is omitted?
What reasonable conclusions are possible?

Browne & Keeley, 2007

36

How can we promote
critical thinking ability?

Encourage a 'safe'
environment
Be a role model !!!!

37

Selected References
Barell. J. (2003) Developing more curious minds. Virginia: Association for Supervision &
Curriculum Development.
Barnett, R. (1997) Higher education: a critical business. Bucks: Open University Press.
Blair, J.A. (1988) Current issues in informal logic and critical thinking. In Fisher, A. (Ed.)
Critical
thinking: Proceedings of the first British conference on informal logic and critical
thinking
(pp15-29). University of East Anglia. Bloom. B.S. et al (1956) Taxonomy of educational
objectives, handbook I: Cognitive domain.
New York: David MacKay.
Browne. M.N. & Keeley, S.M (2007) Asking the right questions. New Jersey: Pearson
Prentice
Hall. Cottrell, S (2005) Critical thinking skills: Developing effective analysis and
argument.
Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
Fisher. R. (2006) Teaching children to think. 2nd. Ed. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes
Publishers.
McCrorie, P. (2005) In From here to where: GMC Medical Education Conference.
http://www.amc-uk.org/education/med ed/9 mav 2005 education conference.pdf
[accessed 20.03.07]
Missimer, C.A. (1995). Good arguments: An introduction to critical thinking. 3rd edition.
New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Paul, R. & Elder. L. (2004) The miniature guide to critical thinking: Tools and concepts.
California: The Critical Thinking Foundation. ill, R. & Elder. L. (2006) How to improve
student learning: 30 practical ideas. California: mLti^ Critical Thinking Foundation.

38


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