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SPECTRUM is the first international student magazine in the field of Materials Science & Engineering published annually by Material Advantage Suez University Student Chapter. SPECTRUM contains many interesting sections like interviews with steel industry leaders worldwide, researches by academics, new technologies, industry news and chapter news. SPECTRUM will make you on the top of MS&E field.

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Published by materialadvantagesu, 2019-12-05 15:11:12


SPECTRUM is the first international student magazine in the field of Materials Science & Engineering published annually by Material Advantage Suez University Student Chapter. SPECTRUM contains many interesting sections like interviews with steel industry leaders worldwide, researches by academics, new technologies, industry news and chapter news. SPECTRUM will make you on the top of MS&E field.

APRIL 2017

Chapter of Excellence
Interview with Dr. William E. Frazier
FASM President
Interview with Mr. Sami Mahmoud
General Manager Danieli Egypt

The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society

Take Advantage of: Scholarship and Financial Awards
Career Connections
Networking Opportunities
Professional Development

And become a member of all four partner societies for one price: US$30!

US $ 30 See a full list of Material Advantage benefits and student chapters at:

Join Today!



Ahmed Alaa Elshahd
Ahmed Abd-Elaleem


Interview with Dr. William E. Frazier

FASM President


Friction Stir Welding of AISI 1018 Steel and 2024-T4
Aluminum Alloy

Mohammed Shaheen


Danieli New Technologies in Steel Rebar Production

Mohamed Mahmoud Hariedy


Energy Assessment as a Validation Technique for Slit Rolling

Islam Ibrahim El Gammal


Chapter News


Approaching the know how for manufacturing of metal products in
the Egyptian industries

PROF. Adel A. Nofa and Abdelrahman Abdelmotagaly


The Story of Composites from the Beginning to the End

Arslan Ayaz



Interview with Mr.Samy Mahmoud

General Manager, Danieli Egypt


Ahmed Alaa Elshahd Wherever You Go, Leave a Trail Worth Following
President MA SC SU
Whether your life is valuable or worthless, this can be measured in two ways. The
first way is the number of years you live till your death. If this is your belief, what
makes you differ from any living being on Earth? A turtle lives two times more than
you do, so its life is more valuable than yours!
The second way is; how far can you leave your impact on people and the environ-
ment around you? You can die and still affecting people by your legacy. Do you want
to live and die without anyone remembering you? Or prefer affecting and inspiring
people wherever you exist? “Your life is not important except in the impact you have
on others”. But, how can you « just one person» change others’ lives for the better?
Get rid of frustration as it is your first enemy. A psychologist made an experiment
to prove this. He put a dog in a box, one-half is a metal while the other half is wood.
He conducted the box with electricity, so, the dog ran away to the wooden part. He
repeated the experiment, but this time, he tied the dog on the metallic part. The dog
tried to run to the wooden part but in vain. After a while, It frustrated and stopped
even trying. The psychologist then released the dog and repeated the experiment.
Here is the surprise, the dog did not move to the wooden part, although it had the
ability to do so. The point is, frustration can stop you from reaching your goal when
you are so close to achieving it.
«Be an example and lead from the front». SPECTRUM is a real example for this. It is
the first international technical magazine in Egypt and the Middle East, which is spe-
cialized in material science and made by students. It is considered a window on the
outside world for those who are interested in the material field to be up to date with
the latest industrial news in the world. It contains suitable sections for professional
engineers as well as normal students.
To be the person who is leading and inspiring others with his actions, you have to
start with yourself and change your own life. You can begin with small things and
continue to change your entire lifestyle, like replacing the wasted time during your
day with more meaningful exercises. You also can develop yourself by learning new
skills. Know that seeing somebody making a big change in his life can be very inspir-
ing for others.
Step out of your comfort zone to broaden your horizons and gain confidence and be-
lief in your own capabilities. You will find out things about yourself that you did not
know. For me, participating in founding Material Advantage chapter in our university
was getting out of my comfort zone. Although my responsibilities increased, I had to
manage my time, and leave some routine exercises to save time for my study. On the
other hand, I gained more experience from difficult situations. I learned how to work
under pressure and how to be a leader.
Finally, I need to thank all MA SU SC members for their great work during the last
two seasons. They are participating in affecting all members in our university by
delivering them all the benefits offered by MA program. They want to be an example
for upcoming students who will find this great program available once they enter the
university. Our winning of a “chapter of excellence” award for our first season is a
true evidence that we are here to affect, inspire and change others to the best.



The Power of Persistence

Undoubtedly, we are living in a world full of daily challenges that require talented and Ahmed Abd ElAleem Mossad
skillful persons. The challenge and competence configure our life. So, I personally won- Vice President MA SC SU
dered what if the person is fully talented and genius, Is he/she capable of being success-
ful? I found the answer in this ubiquitous quote by Calvin Coolidge which aptly sums up
the quality of persistence. “Nothing in the world can take the place of Persistence. Talent
will not; nothing is more common than unsuccessful men with talent. Genius will not;
unrewarded genius is almost a proverb. Education will not; the world is full of educated
derelicts. Persistence and determination alone are omnipotent. The slogan ‘Press On’
has solved and always will solve the problems of the human race”. - Calvin Coolidge.

Actually, no significant feat has ever been accomplished without the trials and tribula-
tions that go along with it. So, knowing and accepting that there will be obstacles and
setbacks; then prepare for them is something beyond doubt. Nothing important was
ever accomplished without adversity, setbacks, and difficulties to contend with along
the way.

Here is Henry Ford, a role model in persistence, went bankrupt three times before he
managed to design his first automobile. As we all know and are grateful for, he subse-
quently succeeded to become one of the richest men in the world. He said: “Failure is
merely an opportunity to more intelligently begin again.” This strongly proves that per-
sistence is definitely the difference between a successful outcome and a failed one due
to giving up.

And by the virtue of persistence, we are here today to introduce ourselves to you as MA
SC SU Co-founders. The startup of our chapter wasn’t an easy part and required a strong
belief in what we were intending to establish. The idea of creating such entity started
two years ago, I was completely contented with the role that it would play to upgrade
students and raise their professional competence in both educational and technical as-
pects. So, I decided to take part in executing chapter’s initial steps for its first factual
existence in Egypt and The Middle East.

We were strong believers of what we were doing and always refused to give up until
we got our target accomplished and we were awarded as Chapter Of Excellence as well.
And now, we are celebrating launching our annual International Magazine “Spectrum”
for its second edition. It’s really great feeling to conquer your adversities and enjoy your

In fact, courageous persistence is the one quality more than any other that can guaran-
tee success. In that case, it behooves us to develop the vital quality of persistence. Let’s
make our slogan is ‘Press On’ in any challenge we face. I always believe in this simple
quote ‘There are no hopeless situations, there are only people who think hopelessly’.

So, don’t ever underestimate your abilities and always seek to make a change because as
long as you are persisting making a change, you always never get conquered easily. You
live only one life so, give yourself something worthy!



Dr. William E. Frazier, FASM
Chief Scientist, Air Vehicle Engineering
Naval Air Systems Command
Patuxent River, MD

Dr. William E. Frazier has been an active member of ASM
International joining the society as a student in 1977. He
received his BS, MS, and Ph.D. degrees in Materials Engi-
neering from Drexel University in 1981, 1984, and 1987
respectively. He is a graduate of the Naval Aviation Ex-
ecutive Institutes Senior Executive Management Devel-
opment Program and the Defense Systems Management
College›s Advanced Program Management Curriculum.

Dr. Frazier is a Navy executive with 35 years of experi-
ence in naval aviation materials science and engineer-
ing. His position is that of the Navy Senior Scientist for
Materials Engineering and serves as the Chief Scientist
of the Air Vehicle Engineering Department at the Na-
val Air Systems Command. In that capacity, he provides
technical direction and develops strategic plans for the
research, development, and transition of naval aviation

William E. Frazier Dr. Frazier has also been the technical architect and
FASM President (2016-2017) driving force behind several thrust areas. He developed
cross-disciplinary, multi-organizational program and R&D
Additive Manufacturing: A Disruptive roadmaps in the following areas: (1) Additive Manufac-
Technology turing (AM) of Structurally Critical Metallic Components,
(2) Nano-materials and Meta-materials Technology,
ASTM defines additive manufacturing (AM), also known as (3) Durable Aircraft Materials and Structures, (4) Corro-
3D printing, as ‘‘a process of joining materials to make ob- sion Resistant Alloy Development, (5) Erosion Resistant
jects from 3D model data, usually layer upon layer, as op- Rotor Blade Materials, and (6) Integrated Structural
posed to subtractive manufacturing methodologies. Syn- Health Management.
onyms: additive fabrication, additive processes, additive
techniques, additive layer manufacturing, layer manufactur- Dr. Frazier is a recognized expert in (i) materials selec-
ing, and freeform fabrication.’’ tion, qualification, and certification, (ii) failure analysis,
This presentation reviews the state-of-the-art of this rapidly (iii) light alloy development, (iv) materials processing
emerging technology which has the potential to revolution- and manufacturing technology.
ize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. He has authored more than 90 technical publications,
It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions edited 6 books, and holds two U.S. Patents.
of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce
cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. He was inducted as an ASM Fellow in 1996 and served as
This brief explores the material science, processes, and busi- a Trustee of ASM from 2003 thru 2007. He has served on
ness consideration associated with achieving these perfor- numerous committees including the AeroMat Commit-
mance gains. tee and the Emerging Technologies Awareness Commit-
tee. Currently, he serves as an Associate Editor for the
Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, and
a Key Reader for Materials Transaction A.



Materials Advantage Suez University
(Interview Questions and Responses) 

1. To be a president of ASM Internation- Personally, I like this type of direct connectivi- Emerging flexible electronic displays utilize Na-
al, it needs a real struggle, what is your ty between science, engineering, technology, no-Mets. Many sensors used in modern automo-
advice for those who want to follow and performance. biles utilize the unique characteristics of metama-
your footsteps? terial to improve performance. Nano-Mets are
4. As your effects in developing a lot of rapidly emerging technology and it is one that I
The president of ASM International is the soci- technologies in material field inspire expect to continue to grow in importance.
ety’s chief volunteer. It is important to remem- us, please tell us briefly about your
ber that ASM is a society of professionalism who contribution in corrosion resistant al- 6. As a partner of Material Advantage pro-
have come together to accomplish great work for loy development. gram, are you satisfied with the results
the common good that cannot be achieved inde- that the program achieved in preparing
pendently. I would be quick to remind him/her Working in the area of corrosion can be very students in the material field to be qual-
that our shared values of transparency, integrity, humbling. The physics and thermodynamics ified for future challenges?
technical excellence, diversity, and constancy of of corrosion are clearly not on one’s side. The
purpose are the great enablers. Further, it is these lower free energy state of the corroded prod- ASM is a strong supporter of Material Advantage.
core values that must guide our decision making uct works relentlessly and inexorably against It benefits student participants in a number of
allowing us to maximize our value to all of the protective corrosion measures. For decades, ways. It provides a peer forum for students to
society by working at the intersection of design- we have struggled to make wise material gain experience working in a chapter for their
ing/engineering, manufacturing, and materials. I choices, protect corrosion susceptible alloys, common professional good. It provides students
would also emphasize that volunteering to be the and inhibit the kinetic pathways of corrosion. access to ASM (and our sister societies) content.
president or a trustee of ASM is signing oneself up Our efforts have met with incremental im- I would, however, like to see a greater number of
for a lot of hard work. If one is not willing to work provement but have not resulted in corrosion students converting to full ASM members upon
assiduously on behalf of the Society, he should free products. graduation and joining one of the society’s pro-
not step up. I believe that in addition to pursuing improved fessional chapters. MA chapter members should
coatings, paints, and sealants, we need to look know that ASM’s professional chapters welcome
2. “The development of the engineering at the system as a whole: as an electrochemi- student participation and engagement with chap-
industry in any country is based on their cal system. Three advances in technology are ter committees. My recommendation to MA
knowledge about materials.” How far required. 1. New inherent corrosion resistant members is to seek out an ASM professional chap-
do you agree with this statement? alloys need to be developed. 2. Modeling and ter and take advantage of the opportunity to be
simulation tools need to be developed that mentored by seasoned professionals.
Everything is made of materials. It is impossible to can predict the electrochemical response of
design and build safe, efficient, and effective de- the entire suit of material used in a system. 7. Finally, what is your advice for us (MA
vices without a fundamental knowledge of mate- 3. New, structural materials and coatings that Suez University)? especially that we
rials engineering and science. In order to develop have designed in electrical properties, e.g., a won chapter of excellence award last
structurally efficient designs, one must fully un- dielectric coating allowing current to flow in year?
derstand the attributes and vulnerabilities of the one direction but not another or materials
material systems being contemplated for usage. It that allow EMI to pass while inhibiting direct Firstly, congratulations on winning the chapter of
is also incumbent upon the materials engineer to current flow. Working in these areas could be excellence award: that is quite a testimonial to
understand design requirements. Consequently, exciting and rewarding. your enthusiasm, hard work, and dedication. I am
the materials engineer must be well rounded and reminded of a TED talk on innovation which dis-
have a broad understanding of other engineering 5.Nano-materials and meta-materials cussed the “Golden Circle.” The Golden Circle is
disciplines. technology attract the world’s atten- actually three concentric circles. The center circle
tion nowadays. In your point of view, asks, why? The outer two circles are “what?” and
3. As an Associate Editor for the journal can this technology make an industrial “how?” respectively. The essence of the talk was
of “Materials Engineering and Perfor- revolution? that companies that fail often focus on the “what”
mance”, what makes the journal special and the “how” vice the “why”. The “why” provide
to those who are interested in the ma- Stated simply, Nano and meta-materials (Na- us with direction and helps us set priorities.
terial field? no-Mets) are at the heart of an industrial This takes me back to the way I answered the first
revolution. Super hydrophobic coatings are question. I believe ASM International is a soci-
JMEP is a very special journal. The manuscripts being developed and used. Your cell phone ety of professionalism who have come together
published therein fall at the intersection of mate- may have been treated with this Nano-Met to accomplish great works for the common good
rials science, materials engineering, and perfor- technology. Graphene holds huge benefits that cannot be achieved independently. We share
mance. That is the journal’s focus is at the in- in electronic devices such as batteries and common values. We seek to make the world a
tersection of discovery, application, and effective capacitors. Nano lithium technology has al- better place for all. We work at the intersection
performance. The journal publishes manuscripts ready improved the energy density of battery of design/engineering, manufacturing, and mate-
which apply material science and engineering systems. Carbon nanotubes are being used rials in order to maximize our value to society. So,
principles in order to enhance the performance of in a variety of composite application in order my answer to your question is to be guided by the
new or existing products, and thus, JMEP provides to improve strength, toughness, and provide “why,” hold fast to our common core values and
high value to society. conductive pathways. continue to work in areas which maximize value
to society.


Friction Stir Welding of AISI 1018 Steel and 2024-T4 Aluminum


Mohamed Shahin
NDT Section Head and Quality Control Engineer
Energya for steel fabrication company

The use of light-weight materials for The tensile tests were performed at Fig.3&4 show the optical microscopy
industrial applications is a driving a rate of 0.1 mm/s by using a Tinius showed the steel fragments distributed at
force for the development of joining Olsen (H10KT). It is followed by Frac- Al due to the stirring action of the tool pin
techniques. Friction stir welding in- ture morphologies of the failure. and the photograph of aluminum weld zone
spired joints of dissimilar materials showing different size and shape of grains at
because it does not involve bulk melt- Then the Vickers hardness test on the stirred zone, TMAZ, and HAZ.
ing of the basic components. This is cross-sectional plane of the welds was
a feasibility study to butt-weld dis- carried out using an HWVD 75 Low Load SEM proved the optical microscopy results
similar 4mm thick 2024-T4 aluminum Digital Vicker hardness tester according as the stir zone reveals a fine recrystallized
alloy sheets to AISI 1018 steel sheets to the ASTM: E384-11 this test is applied grains of steel. Combined influence of tem-
by friction stir welding. The effects of to 2000 of a load for 15 s. perature and plastic deformation induced by
various process parameters such as the stirring action which causes the dynam-
pin rotation speed, traverse speed Fig.1 shows the surface appearance ically recrystallized structure and the initial
at constant + 0.2 mm offset in ad- of the welds at all conditions showed grains of the base materials are converted to
vancing side on the joint properties that all welds were successfully joined a new equiaxed fine grain structure smaller
were investigated as shown in Table without porosity or defects except at than that in the base materials.
1. Butt-welding of 2024-T4 aluminum 250rpm&50mm/min there is a lack of Al
alloy sheet to a 1018 low carbon beside the keyhole and except at 300rp- The grain structure within (TMAZ) is evident
steel sheet was successfully achieved m&50mm/min, there are micro cracks from microscopy observations as elongated
by FSW. observed near to the end of the joint, grains and exhibits considerable distortions
the top surface of the welds is smooth due to the mechanical action of the welding
After welding, each welded material with few flashes observed on both sides tool. Furthermore, the grain size increases
was cut by wire cutting machine ac- and the joint interface can be less ob- from the Al/Fe interface to BM due to a de-
cording to the ASTM E 8M-04 stan- served at 75mm/min&250rpm and at crease in deformation strain rates imposed
dard code into 2 tensile specimens 50mm/min&200rpm. by the tool as shown in Fig.5.
perpendicular to the weld interface,
the area between the tensile test Fig.2 shows the optical micrographs of Fig.1 The surface appearances of the welds with different
specimens was used for SEM, EDS that material flows from the two sides rotational speed and different traverse speed
and EDS line scan investigations then, were clearly visible in the weld nugget,
one specimen was roughly cut from it can be seen that both materials are Table 1 FSW conditions
each welded material for performing sufficiently stirred in the weld zone,
optical scanner, optical microscopy, where Al on the RS moves to the AS
and hardness test. near the upper surface, while steel on
the AS moves to the RS near the lower
The specimens for the optical scan- surface. There is a relation between the
ner, optical microscopy SEM, EDS, size of the weld nugget zone and the
and EDS line scan observation were welding speed which slightly decreased
prepared. First, grinding with abra- as the welding speed increased because
sive paper up to 2500 grits, followed a lower welding speed resulted in a
by the final mechanical polish with larger welding time and consequently
2ml 0.05µm Al2O3 suspensions and the weld nugget zone received more
then the polished steel specimens plastic deformation.
were chemically etched 2% Nital
solution for 8 s.


Fig.2 The macro-graphs of the surface at different rotational speed It was also observed that the strength Fig.5 Micro-structure analysis of a)-the stirred zone, b)-the stirred
and at different traverse speed increases with increasing the traverse zone and TMAZ, c)-the HAZ and d)-the steel BS
speed from 25 to 75 mm/min as the
EDS analysis and SEM were conducted to heat input amount decreases with in- Fig.6 SEM images of the joint interface at different tool Rotational speeds
examine whether intermetallic compounds creasing the traverse speed. Under these and constant traverse speed 50mm/min; (a) at 200rpm, (b) at 250rpm, (c)
were formed or not at both the interface and welding conditions, 75mm/min was the
at Al side, as shown in Fig.6, 7 and 8 higher condition that gave the maximum ten- 300 rpm
traverses and lower rotational speed don’t sile strength of 202MPa, at 25 mm/min Fig.7 SEM images of the joint interface at different tool traverse speeds
produce IMCs at the interface and also pro- a large amount of heat input leads to and constant rotational speed 250rpm; (a) at 25 mm/min, (b) at 50 mm/
duce large amount of steel fragments in Al, the formation of the continuous layer of
and at lower travel speed there is large ten- Al-rich IMCs FeAl3 at the joint interface min, (c) 75 mm/min
dency of formation of continuous layer of which leads to a formation of cracks and
IMC at the Fe/Al interface. facilitates crack propagation. Fig.8 EDS spectrum at the interface and marked positions EDS with related
Fig.9 shows EDS line analysis of Fe and Al ele- The fractured samples of conditions quantitative analysis (at %)
ments corresponding to the central region for which produce maximum and minimum
200rpm&50mm/min and 250rpm&25mm/ tensile strength are submitted to frac- Fig.9 SEM images and line analysis of Fe and Al around the interface between
min were investigated and proved that no tography examinations in order to assess steel and aluminum alloy at these conditions a)250rpm&25mm/min and b)
IMCs were formed at 200rpm&50mm/min at the origin of the specimen failure and
the interface. However, IMCs are formed at also to determine which fracture mech- 200rpm&50mm/min
250rpm&25mm/min with chemical compo- anisms occurred. At the both conditions Fig.10 The variation of tensile strength with the rotational and traverse speed
sition 66.5%Al, 33.23%Fe and 0.27%Cu. judg- the specimens were fractured by the and the relation with the amount of heat input, related IMCs, IMCs thickness
ing from Fe-Al phase diagram, these IMCs are combination of brittle and ductile frac-
FeAl3. ture mechanism far from the joint inter- and fracture position
Fig.10 It was observed that increasing the ro- face characterized by cleavage pattern Fig.11 The SEM images of the fracture surface of the tensile specimens at a)
tational speed decreases the strength as the and dimples on the fracture surfaces as
heat input amount increases which leads to shown in Fig.11 and EDS analysis reveals 200rpm&50mm/min and b) 250rpm&25mm/min
softening of Al side. Although in all conditions that the fracture completely occurs in Al
there are large fragments of steel in Al, so the side and indicate the presence of small
controlling factors are the IMCs formed and Al-rich IMCs with composition 94.4%Al,
the amount of heat input produced during 1.66%Fe, 0.77%Cu only at 25mm/min
welding which increases with increasing while at 200rpm there is no IMCs de-
the rotational speed. Under these welding tected at the fracture surface, and from
conditions, 200 rpm was the condition that Fe_Al phase diagram these IMCs are Fe-
gave the maximum tensile strength of 231 4Al13. So that the formation of Al-rich
Mpa which represents 124% of that of the IMCs facilitate fracture.
AA2024-T4 alloy tensile strength which equal Fig.12 shows the average hardness of
to 185MPa, at 250rpm the joint strength de- the base Al alloy and steel is found to
creases due to the microcracks formation at be 137 HV and 109 HV respectively. At
the steel side at the stirred zone. all conditions the hardness value of Al at
the SZ, TMAZ, and HAZ is lower than the
Fig. 3 Optical micro-graphs show the distribution of base that due to FSW creates a softened
steel fragments at Al side region around the weld, It was suggested
that such a softening is caused by coars-
ening and dissolution of strengthening
precipitates during the thermal cycle
of the FSW and the zigzag shape is due
to the presence of IMCs and steel frag-
ments in Al side, so that tensile failure
can take place at these softened regions.
At the steel side, the hardness is higher
than that of the base steel, probably
due to the strain hardening effect cre-
ated by the stirring action of tool pin at
low temperatures.

Fig. 4 Optical micro-graphs of a) stirred zone and TMAZ , b) Fig.12 The hardness profiles across the joint interface at the middle in
HAZ and c)steel base metal thickness direction at different rotational speed and different traverse speed

Fig.5 Micro-structure analysis of a)-the stirred zone, b)-the | SPECTRUM ISSUE No. 2 © MA SUEZ 9
stirred zone and TMAZ, c)-the HAZ and d)-the steel BS

Danieli New Technologies in Steel Rebar Production

MicroMill for Continuous Casting and Rolling production of Bars

Mohamed Mahmoud Hariedy
Senior Key Account Manager
Danieli Egypt
The conventional process to produce steel rebar was (for decades) is to perform Hot Rolling Process on pre-
viously produced steel billets. This process involves the melting of steel scrap or DRI, casting of the molten
steel into steel billets and cutting of these steel billets. Then, storing these billets leaving them to cool down.
Afterward, the previously casted billets are to be reheated again to the hot rolling temperatures (around
1200 C). This process was relatively high energy consuming. A considerable amount of energy used to be lost
in the intermediate stage between billet casting and hot rolling (billets cool down losing heat). Then another
amount of energy is consumed again to reheat the casted billets to be suitable for hot rolling. These steps of
the conventional process are shown in figure 1.

Billet Casting Cooled Billets Hot Rolling Final Products
Figure.1 - Steps of steel rebar production (conventional process)

Another characteristic of the conventional casting and Figure. 2 - Schematic diagram for the endless
rolling process is the loss of material; when steel billets rolling process
are left to be cooled and then reheated again, about
1-1.5% of its weight is lost in the form of scale formation
(oxidation of iron). Another source of material loss in case
of conventional process is the necessity to cut a part of
the billet front and end (head and tail) during the hot roll-
The hot rolling of steel billets previously casted and re-
heated involves the risk of having “cobble” or miss rolling
when the head of a new billet enters to any rolling stand.
As a result of the continuous R&D in Danieli to improve
both Capex and Opex of the production process, a new
technology involves the direct rolling of the steel billets
without cutting them or letting them cool down (Endless
Rolling). This technology is called Danieli MicroMill (MI-
DA). Figure 2 shows a schematic diagram for this new
technology while figure 3 shows the production steps.


The application of this new technology in steel re- Figure.3 - MI-DA rebar production steps
bar production results in many advantages, among
them: | SPECTRUM ISSUE No. 2 © MA SUEZ 11
• Saving in overall energy consumption by an aver-
age of 30% as there is no heat loss; the billets enter
in the hot rolling line while it is still hot.

• Improving the material yield; the scale formation
due to reheating furnace has been eliminated, saving
about 1% of the material. There are no billet head
and tail cutting (only the first billet). Also, no short
bars like the case when individual billets are used.

• The possibility to produce hot rolled steel wire rod
coil in any required weight while in the convention-
al process the coil weight was limited to the billet

• Increasing the production line availability (less cob-
bles); it may increase the productivity of the rolling
mill line between 5-8%.
• Increase the life of rolls and guides. In endless roll-
ing, the steel is being rolled continuously without
any intermediate gaps (no billet heads hitting).

• Only two hours from the steel scrap till the final
product which means faster return of working cap-

• Lower capital cost as the required building for MI-
DA is smaller than the conventional building. Also,
no reheating furnace is needed, which means less
equipment cost.

This technology has been applied worldwide and in
Egypt too (Egyptian steel). From actual production
results, one ton of steel rebar consumed on aver-
age about 320 KW of electric energy compared with
about 480 KW for the one ton of steel rebar pro-
duced using conventional process.


Energy Assessment as a Validation Technique for Slit Rolling
Models in a Simulation Aided Optimization

Islam Ibrahim El Gammal
Ezz Steel Plant (EFS), Soukhna, Egypt

The versatility of using Slit rolling pass in both the Multi-Slit Rolling Technology (MSR) and in the breakdown sequence
of Flange-rolling processes represents a motivation to uncover its complexities and to optimize its performance. One
of the main aspects of its versatility is the energy saving. For example, the insertion of the slit rolling intermediate se-
quence in EZZ Steel mill plant had decreased the rolling energy consumption by 17.4 %, during the production of size
16 mm steel rebars [1].

Establishing a Finite Element (FE) simulation model for such passes paves the way to optimize its performance through
providing a competing source of knowledge and data in relative to the real physical experiments [2 ]. Validation of such
simulation models is the only guarantee to rely on its extracted data [3]. During the Seeking for the global optimum
solution, the iterative nature of remodeling and running the FE simulations call for the need of both a fast simulation
run and a fast validation technique of its results, as shown in figure 1. However, rolling simulations may require large
computational time [2]. Consequently, the mass scaling technique is popularly used for reducing it [4, 5]. Unfortunately,
mass scaling is reported to degrade the accuracy of output results, despite its large computation time savings [6].
This work discusses a fast validation technique, by which the output results are assessed from the energy point of view.
Not only that would increase the model reliability, but also it will detect the inaccuracies that accompanied using mass
scaling as a speed up technique for the computation running time. In general, validation of a FE model requires achiev-
ing comparable results with the available measured physical data. In addition, it must comply with the basic principles
of both the momentum and energy conservation laws.

The explicit analysis itself depends on the law of momen-
tum conservation [4, 6]. Using the energy assessment for
the established explicit model, in order to validate the law
of energy conservation, would extend the validation ac-
curacy beyond the available physical data.
Throughout the simulation, the rolling external work
‘WK’ should be transformed into internal strain energy
‘IE’ (plastic deformation) ,wherease the kinetic energy
‘KE’ (acquired by the rolled strip) should not exceed a
small fraction (typically 5% to 10%) of its internal energy
throughout the process.

Also, the total energy must be conserved, i.e. having a
constant value with an error of less than 1%. This can be
seen by plotting ETOTAL, the total energy of the system,
together with ‘WK’ versus rolling time. In addition, it is
recommended to guarantee that the artificial strain ener-
gy ‘AE’ (the energy that ‘ABAQUS code’ builds up to pre-
vent uncontrolled deformation in the used element type)
to not exceed 10% of the internal strain energy [4].


• Method
The FEM implemented two 3D models simulating the ‘dog-
bone’ slit rolling pass, during the production of 12 mm steel
rebar. one model with mass scaling factor equal to 5000
and the second without mass scaling. For both models, the
strip was 100 mm long and 24.5 mm wide; discretized to
mesh density of 17600 element/strip, where the element
size is equal to 1.5 mm and of the type ‘C2D8R’, as shown in
Figure (2). The material behavior was based on elastic-plas-
tic deformation model of the Egyptian steel grade B400B
at temperature of 1100°C. The boundary conditions were
based on a full part modeling as shown in Figure (2). The
plastic parameters are determined from the shida’s equa-
tion. The contact friction coefficient was set to 0.4. The
strip was set to enter between the rotating rolls at an entry
speed of 1500 mm/sec, where the roll diameter = 335 mm,
with rotating angular velocity of 54.4 rad/sec.

Figure.3 - Plot of the Etot and the accumulated rolling work
along strip rolling (100 mm).

Figure.2 - shows the full model assembly before and after Figure 3. Shows a very high accumulated rolling work
partial deformation of the 100 mm long strip. with mass scaling, which goes mostly in a raised up strip’s
kinetic energy rather than in its plastic deformation. On
• Results and Discussion: the other hand, the total energy (ETOT) remained con-
As can be seen from Table 1, the ‘IE’ is almost the same stant through the simulation process, but with a higher
for both models; representing almost the same induced datum value in the mass scaled model.
deformation in the strip, as a result of the closed pass na- • Conclusion:
ture of dogbone pass. The artificial energy was improved The energy assessment showed the location of deficien-
slightly with mass scaling, where the Ratio of AE / IE (%) cy in the mass scaled model, i.e. jump of kinetic energy.
was reduced from 7.9% to 5.7%. On the other hand the The latter jump in kinetic energy shows the need for the
kinetic energy was increased by nearly 360% when the careful or restricted use of mass scaling during such high
strip mass was scaled up. speed rolling applications and its associated kinetic ener-
gy acquisition.
Table 2- The accumulated energies, in (KJ), during rolling In addition, the assessment provided a fast validation
the 100 mm strips technique, which could be conducted if the rolling model
was modified or remodeled during the optimization cycle.
• References
[1] Danieli manuals, EZZSTEEL bar mill contract (2010).
[2] P. M. Dixit, and U. S. Dixit, Modeling of Metal Forming
and Machining Processes, Optimization (2008).
[3] A. E. Tekkaya, A guide for validation of FE-simulations
in bulk metal forming. The Arabian Journal for Science
and Engineering, (2005), 30(1), 113–136.
[4] Abaqus Version 6.13.1, Documentation.
[5] Nilsson, A. (1998). FE simulations of camber in hot
strip rolling. Journal of Materials Processing Technology,
81, 325–329.
[6] Islam Ibrahim Elgammal (2016), Measuring The Effect
of Mass Scaling of a Rolled Strip during The Production of
Steel Rebar, Spectrum, 1, 18-19.



You all know that the previous season was
our startup season in Material Advantage pro-
gram, but this was not a problem for us to win
“Chapters Of Excellence” award after our first
season as a reward for our big work during the
SPECTRUM was one of our projects last sea-
son. This great technical magazine, which is
made with a great effort. And yes, we could
make such a project during our first season.
For this and more, we were ranked second be-
tween all Material Advantage chapters around
the world and achieved “Chapters Of Excel-
lence” award last season.

This program aims to link between students and pro- As a result of our partnership with this leading com-
fessionals for a period of time to give students the pany in oil & gas industry worldwide “Schlumberg-
ability to gain enough experience to help them after er”, we managed to hold a day in one of its field sites
graduation. in Egypt.
After the success of the program in the first year The day starts with a seminar about safety measures
and due to our belief in the importance of the value and `we took a free tour in the field to test these mea-
which this program provides to students, we estab- sures by ourselves. We had the ability to talk with all
lished stage two with more mentors to make sure employees at the site about how safe they feel during
that the value reaches a lot of students. their work period and all their comments were very
The mentors this year are with many specializations positive. After that, we discussed about what we had
to give students the chance to choose the mentor seen and every one of us made his statement about
they want in the major they desire. the safety measures in the company.

Through that Event, we managed to make Material
Science easier to study. Students began to under-
stand it very well. The event aims to:
• Establish some basics in metallurgy for material
science students in order to make studying details
easier by making seminars for students to explain
metallurgy from the beginning.
• Helping students in studying material science by
making sessions to illustrate some points to help
them pass the exams.


As a continuance of our collaboration with Injaz Egypt, we hold
a distinctive event called “develop your idea”.
During the event, university students gather to collaboratively
address a specific business challenge and come up with ideas to
solve the challenge using leadership, critical-thinking and team-
work skills. The program is an enriching experience for students
as they are introduced to the Business Model Canvas and are
divided into teams that compete against each other in a busi-
ness challenge. This challenge requires students to propose a
solution within a very limited time frame, given access to specif-
ic tools, information and resources. Throughout the program,
students develop their interpersonal as well as problem-solv-
ing skills and learn to work under very tight deadlines using the
available market resources innovatively.

After the great effect which the program left in
high school “k12” students, it was a must to con- CDC is the biggest students made conferences that dis-
tinue holding this event to give the k12 students cussed the difference between the academic and the real
enough knowledge about Material Science and life work, and show you the skills you need to close that
Engineering field. gap between them.
This year, we hold the iMetallurgist in many Many leading companies participated with us in the con-
schools differ from those we reached last year ference like Schlumberger, Halliburton, Capital drilling,
with a different program to encourage students Baker Hughes.
to take Material Science field as their major. We There were several topics during the conference to gath-
could do this by showing students the importance er all students’ needs like CV writing skills, interviewing
of materials and their contributions in our daily skills, time management.
lives. This event discussed different paths that a graduate can
have after graduation and introduce the graduates to the
MATERIAL ENGINEERING CAREER GUIDING skills needed to be professional at their work.
As Material Science and Engineering Field contain
many branches, many fresh graduates face a real con-
fusion to choose the way to start their career.
`In order to make all available destinations for a Mate-
rial Science engineer very clear for him to choose the
way he sees suitable, we hold this event which con-
• General Introduction about all available specifica-
tions in Material Science field.
• The awareness of the market requirements at the
• How to prepare yourself to get a job quickly?
• The required training courses needed to make you
qualified to get the job you want.



Approaching the know how for manufacturing of metal products
in the Egyptian industries

Professor of Metal Casting at Central Metallurgical Research
and Development Institute (CMRDI)

Abdelrahman Abdelmotagaly
Casting Technology Lab
Central Metallurgical Research and Development
Institute (CMRDI)

Most industrial sectors in Egypt depend, in some cas- • Shortage of hard currency required to import the
es, on local supplies of spare parts; a process which needed parts.
very often leads to real problems as those locally sup- • Unavailability of the part of the international mar-
plied parts frequently lack the rational and scientific ket, as the equipment may be too old to find its prop-
approaches to select the proper alloys to manufac- er components on the market.
ture parts subjected to rather aggressive operating • Monopoly of the parts by the equipment supplier,
conditions. This situation leads to a higher depend- who very often asks for too high prices.
ence on imports to make the suitable components To achieve the objectives of the project, the project
available. However, importing is not always an easy activities may be categorized into four main groups
option due to economic issues as well as availability of tasks:-
on the market considerations, in addition to the rath- • Specification of the currently used spare parts,
er long supply times, which may lead to productivity with special emphasis on the imported ones. A man-
losses and negative economic indicators of the pro- ual of spare parts used in the partner companies will
duction process. be prepared, including materials & production tech-
CMRDI has realized this situation of spare parts prob- niques.
lems in different sectors of the Egyptian industry and • Local production of selected parts using reverse
established its own production facilities, represented engineering of the imported components. Alterna-
in the experimental foundry and related workshops tive materials as well as production techniques will
early in the eighties of the past century. That foundry be suggested, which may lead to performance en-
has a considerable contribution in making high per- hancements of the selected parts.
formance spare parts available for more than 100 in- • Properties evaluation on the laboratory scale, fol-
dustrial and service organizations in Egypt. lowed by performance analysis under the actual ser-
The main objective is to produce a technology pack- vice condition to be conducted with comparison to
age required for the local production of spare parts the original imported ones.
needed by different industrial sectors of Egypt. • Technology transfer and supervision of mass pro-
Whereas the technology package will be transferred duction in the industrial partner foundries.
to commercial industrial plants wherever production The applied methodology starts with classification
of the components is needed. This will ultimately and specification of the currently used imported
lead to lower dependence of that industrial sector spare parts:
on import of spare parts. Also, it is necessary to de-
crease the idle times of the production lines in the
selected industry sector which may arise from:


To study the alloy type, production technology and • Research and Development:
main relevant properties needed in those parts, The main role of CMRDI as an R&D institute is to car-
the selected parts cover a wide range of the market ry out the investigative studie s exploiting the pilot
needs and represent castings operating under dif- facilities at CMRDI experimental foundry, heat treat-
ferent conditions of mechanical loading, abrasion, ment and machining shops, to link the recent scientif-
corrosion and other operating conditions. A special ic findings with the industry. The selected parts are
attention will be paid to select parts made from dif- to be comprehensively evaluated, e.g., alloy compo-
ferent alloys, e.g., carbon and alloyed steels, grey sition, mechanical testing, microstructure, hardness,
and ductile iron, Al and Cu alloys. The research team wear resistance, and other performance indicators
may recommend alternative alloys, which may lead to reach the optimum manufacturing process and
to enhanced operating performance of the selected materials providing the maximum attainable perfor-
parts. For example, ADI (Austempered Ductile Iron) mance.
for better combination of strength and abrasion re-

Some examples of the selected parts for the study:
Valves are vital components in every engine that must withstand high temperature working conditions. Dif-
ferent grades of ductile iron with its versatile properties will be investigated as a material for valve manu-

The air lock is a complex component consisting of several parts.
This part is used to separate air from the product, which is dis-
charged from a cyclone separator into pneumatic systems. It is in-
stalled underneath the cyclone separators and air filters. It works
with the negative pressure as well as an air seal against leakage.
The machining tolerance should be minimized as possible. The
CMRDI choice is to replace the air locks, currently produced from
heat treated steels and grey Iron with others manufactured from
ductile and Austempered Ductile Iron.

Part Name: valve casing
Part Material: alloyed Steel

Gears are essential components of almost all machinery used in dif-
ferent industrial sectors. A lot of locally manufactured gears are of-
ten used without the proper material selection to suit a specific ap-
plication with consequent unfortunate results. Frequent stoppages
of machinery lead to significant economic losses.
Exploiting the wide experience of CMRDI is regarding this specific
part, the selection was made with the intention to replace the gears,
currently produced from heat treated steels with other manufac-
tured from Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) due to its unique property
combination of structural integrity, bending fatigue, contact fatigue Part Name: Hot Air Lock
and wear resistance, machinability, noise and vibration damping, ca- Part Material: Grey Iron, Heat treated Steel

pacity together with lower weight and cost.

Part Name: Gears
Part Material: Heat treated Al-

loyed steel



The Story of Composites from the Beginning to the End

Arslan Ayaz
President of material Advantage student chapter
Institute of Space Technology (IST)

A composite is a type of materials that have yet to The ancient Egyptians used to place their mummies in
achieve their peak potential. With new research body shells made by layering linen in plaster or resin.
being conducted on different types of composites These shells were strong and were shaped laying out the
throughout the world, we have till now seen the linen wetted with the plaster in the required shape and
peak of the iceberg. Composites are a mixture of were decorated when dried. Later on, the linen was sub-
two different phases of similar or dissimilar mate- stituted with less valuable material like papyrus that gave
rials that have different properties that are evened similar properties.
out by their combination and have a combined ef- The one type of composite that had born throughout the
fect. One material acts as reinforcement while world at different points in time is Cobb, a mixture of mud
the other acts as a matrix and provide the rein- and straw or hay that was used to build stronger bricks,
forcement strength and shape. The development pottery and reinforce boats and walls. This material was
of different types of reinforcements has been the not only strong and easily made but was also fire proof.
breakthrough in the composite industry due to the The Mongols in the 1200 AD use the naturally acquired
reinforcements influencing properties of strength composites that were bones, horns, and wood and com-
and other important factors. bined them with other materials like silk and animal ten-
Composites are found all around in nature. Most if dons to construct a bow as shown in Fig.2, that was light,
not all living matter is made up of composites like flexible, strong, sturdy and reliable.
our bones, wood of the trees, shells of snails are
some to name. The first humans learn to use stone, Figure 2: Traditional Mongolian bow
a wood, bone and horn. Of course, these were used
because of their abundance and the ease to shape The Mongolian battle and tribal instincts combined with
them but it is only later when higher intelligence this technology made them feared the warriors of their
was developed that they started experimenting time. This bow remained the most feared weapon until
with them and using them together forming tools the invention of effective firearms in the 14th century.
and utilities. However, the examples of the first
man made composites are seen when civilization
began to form, humans, settled together in villages.

Though as everyFtighurien1:gPlyewolosdeshetehts.e inventions of differ- Concrete, another well-known material that is a Ceramic
ent types of composites was based on the geo- Matrix Composite (CMC) has been under human use since
graphical and cultural needs of the people. ancient times. The use of lime and mortar can be seen
In 3400 BC, ancient Mesopotamians invented ply- in many different civilizations, notably the civilizations
wood as shown in Fig.1 by gluing strips of wood in of Rome and Greece. Heinrich Schliemann, a German
different angles. This gave it strength in different di- archaeologist discovered concrete floors made of lime
rections, a property absent in natural wood. and pebbales in the royal palace of Tiryns, Greece, which
roughly dates to 1400 to 1200 BC. Around 300 BC, the Ro-
mans used a mixture made from their own recipe that in-
cluded a mixture of quicklime, pozzolana (a siliceous and
aluminous material) and pumice.


They discovered that by using this new material they can simply form the structure they
need and let it dry to form a strong solid mass rather than going through the difficulty of
using bricks. The arches, vaults, and domes constructed which are still there to see had
similar compressive strength as to modern concrete. However, it lacked tensile strength
which the modern concrete has due to reinforcements of steel rebar as shown in Fig.3.

This invention of reinforced concrete was brought by Joseph Monier in 1849. Now there Figure 3: Giant concrete structure with
exists a wide variety of different types of cement and concretes with different composi- steel reinforcements`
tions with the most common being Portland cement that was invented by Joseph Aspdin
in 1824.

Meanwhile, during the time the civilizations were maturing they were more inclined towards metals. As metals be-
cause of their properties and because more metal meant more strength for that kingdom and more weapons to fight
with; in short, better survival. The main concern was on metals and how to make better weapons using them. Different
sciences surrounding different subjects flourished. Synthetic polymers came into being in 1907. It was a thermosetting
phenol-formaldehyde resin called Bakelite. This led to research and development of many different types of synthetic
resins that would, later on, be used as matrices. 1932, Russell Games Slayter accidently discovered fiberglass as shown
in Fig. 4, by directing a jet of compressed air at a stream of molten glass, a discovery that would spark the interest of
the world in composites and in 1935, Owens Corning started manufacturing it as their patented “Fiberglas”. In 1936,
DuPont was the first to use a suitable resin with fiberglass to produce a composite material. Fiberglass composite
was lighter, stronger, was easier to shape and manufacture. This increased the military’s interest in the material and
the boom in the research for composites started. At about the mid-90s, fiberglass products became accessible to the
In 1947, an automobile with a complete composite body was made and tested which led
to the production of the 1953 Chevrolet Corvette C1 which was the first production and
sports car to be made from fiberglass. From the 1950s through the 1960s many different
types of manufacturing processes were developed such as compression molding, pul-
truding, vacuum bag molding and large-scale filament winding methods were developed.
These methods helped to produce such fiberglass products that would replace many do-
mestic and industrial metal products.

In 1964, Stephanie Kwolek, who was working at DuPont accidentally discovered Poly-para- Figure 4: Fiberglass sheet
phenyleneTerephthalamide or more commonly known as Kevlar as shown in Fig. 6. Kevlar
would be used to produce bulletproof vests, an invention that would save countless lives
in the time to come.
The invention of carbon fibers as shown in Fig.5 dates as back as 1860, however, the first
carbon fiber to contain 99% carbon was developed in 1960 Richard Millington of H.I.
Thompson Fiberglas Co. and was put into proper use in 1963. Carbon fibers due to their
light weight and strength and inertness are used in high-performance sports applications
and are also researched upon due to their electrical properties.

Figure 5: Carbon Fibers

The reinforcements aren’t just limited to being in fibrous form; rather they are produced in a verity of shapes and sizes
such as spheres, dots, and flakes. Likewise, the matrix isn’t limited to being just epoxy; rather there are ceramic ma-
trixes and metal matrixes. One notable development for the production of ceramic and metal matrix composite was
the Lanxide Process that has the ability to produce a composite of desired shape without or with very little machining.
Now sandwich composites are being produced with the middle layer being a hexagonal
cardboard like material that provides extra rigidity along with light weightiness. Compos-
ites are again taking over the industry by substituting metals in a household and industrial
uses and in automobiles, airborne and space vehicles. Humans are going back to the use
of composites as they did in the ancient times. In the future, composites will not only be
used as structures or parts but will be integrated into the working principles of sophis-
ticated systems. Many novel and innovative progress are being made in composites like
soft magnetic composites. With further research, there is no doubt that the world will
witness amazing materials in the time to come.

[Article by MAC SPECTRA, A team of students of Materials Advantage Chapter at Insti- Figure 6: Kevlar Fiber
tute Of Space Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.]



1- New technologies could slash the cost of steel production
A 150-year-old idea finally looks like working

Henry Bessemer, not only best known for developing a
way to mass-produce steel, but also a prolific British in-
ventor as well. In the 1850s in Sheffield, his converters
blasted air through molten iron to burn away impurities,
making steel the material of the industrial revolution. But
Bessemer knew he could do better, and in 1865, he filed a
patent to cast strips of steel directly, rather than as large
ingots which then had to be expensively reheated and
shaped by giant rolling machines.

Bessemer’s idea was to pour molten steel in between two
counter-rotating water-cooled rollers, which, like a man-
gle, would squeeze the metal into a sheet. It was an ele-
gant idea that, by dint of having fewer steps, would save
time and money. Yet it was tricky to pull off.

Efforts to commercialize the process were abandoned. Until now. Advances in production technology and materials
science, particularly for new types of high-tech steel, mean that Bessemer’s “twin-roll” idea is being taken up success-
fully. An alternative system that casts liquid steel directly onto a single horizontally moving belt is also being tried. Both
techniques could cut energy consumption—one of the biggest costs in steelmaking—by around 80%. Other savings in
operating and capital costs are also possible. If these new processes prove themselves, steelmaking could once again
be transformed.

2- New water-repellent coating can survive burning and scratching

A self-healing, water-repellent, spray-on coating devel-
oped at the University of Michigan (U-M) is hundreds of
times more durable than its counterparts.
This novel coating could be used to waterproof vehicles,
clothing, rooftops and countless other surfaces exposed
to conditions that are too harsh for current waterproof-
ing treatments. It could also lower the resistance of ship
hulls, a step that would reduce the fuel consumption of
the massive vessels that transport 90% of the world’s
cargo. The developers say the new concoction is a break-
through in a field where decades of research have failed
to produce a durable coating. While water-repellent fin-
ishes are available at present, they’re typically not strong
enough for applications like clothing or ship hulls. This
discovery changes that.

3- AK Steel Celebrates Opening of New Research Center

Saying that it would help cement the integrated steel-
maker as leader in innovation with the industry, AK
Steel Corp.

Ceremonially opened its US$36 million research fa-
cility, The company’s research team moved into the
135,000-square-foot facility in November 2016, but
held a ribbon-cutting ceremony on Friday to mark the
completion of the project. More than 100 people at-


According to the Indian Steel Association, steel mills in India are set to churn out metal at a rapid pace over the
next decade and a half with output forecast to more than double bolstered by a growing economy and increas-
ing urbanization.

5- Composite Material Certified for Aircraft Use

TeXtreme composite material has reportedly been certi-
fied for use in commercial aero applications and qualified
by an aircraft manufacturer.
Haeco, a provider of aircraft maintenance, repair and
overhaul (MRO) services used TeXtreme to help improve
its current seat design for weight, while still maintaining
mechanical properties. TeXtreme used calculation, simu-
lation and manufacturing support to help Haeco reduce
the weight of the aircraft seat by almost 20%.

6- Failure not an option for steel with microstructure

Now, together with colleagues in Japan and Germany, re-
searchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
have found a way to greatly reduce the effects of fatigue
in steel by incorporating a laminated nanostructure. This
layered structuring gives the steel a kind of bone-like
resilience, allowing it to deform without promoting the
spread of microcracks that can lead to fatigue failure.

7- New Technique May Lead to Materials More Resistant to Hydrogen Embrittlement

A team of European and Australian researchers has developed a new lab technique that could yield better
strategies for combating hydrodgen embrittlement and, in turn, lead to advancements in hydrodgen fuel cells,
corrosion prevention and catalysis.

In a paper published in the 17 March edition of the journal Science, the team describes how it was able to spot
hydrogen atoms in carbide precipitates. It’s a significant development because it is difficult to measure hydro-
gen in metals. That has hindered the development of new materials that resist hydrogen embrittlement.

But the team’s method, which combines advanced Cryo electron microscopy techniques along with others,
overcomes the problem.

8- 1-D gets easy: Simple technique effortlessly converts bulk materials into oxide nanowires

Now, researchers at Georgia Institute of Technology (Atlan-
ta, Ga.) have developed a technique that may put ceramic
separators at the forefront of the next generation of saf-
er, improved batteries. The team devised a simple method
to transform bulk alloy materials into oxide nanowires at
room temperature and pressure, without the use of cata-
lysts, toxic chemicals, or expensive processes.
The technique is so simple and inexpensive that the au-
thors think it could propel incorporation of oxide nanowire
materials into a variety of technologies, including next-gen
batteries, lightweight structural composites, advanced sen-
sors, and electronic devices.



Interview with “Mr. Sami Mahmoud” General Manager
Danieli Egypt

Material Advantage student chapter
Suez university has the honor to have
an interview with one of the industry
leaders in Egypt, Mr.Sami Mahmoud.

Mr. Samy graduated in 1972, Faculty of
Engineering, Cairo University, metallurgi-
cal engineering.

Started with the Egyptian Iron and the
steel Company (HadiSolb) in 1972, as a 8
production engineer, Passing through dif-
ferent jobs in the public sector, private
sector and multi-national groups, Today
the General Manager of Danieli group
representative office in Egypt.

Mr. Sami Mahmoud 2- How do you see the role of Danieli in serv-
General Manager ing the steel industry?

1- Being the G.M. Of Danieli Egypt, could you As slightly mentioned above, Danieli started to im-
tell us how your journey with the company prove steel industry in Egypt, in production quality, low
has started, and what is the impacts for your costs, creating hundreds of experienced technicians
experience? and engineers, in addition to productivity wise, which
Danieli production lines are sharing 65% of total steel
I have started with Danieli in October 1989 (about 27 production quantity.
years ago). The the mission was to study the market and
to put the necessary plans to establish a good market All big players of steel industry in Egypt are Danieli cus-
share based on state-of-the-art technology by Danieli, tomers, such as Ezz Steel, Beshay Steel,
which was very important to improve the steel produc- Suez Steel and Egyptian Steel groups.
tion technology (quality wise, smooth mass production
wise, lower production costs wise, …), not only, but
also providing training of hundreds of specialists and
engineers, in addition to some good jobs. With services,
honesty and hard work; together with my colleagues,
we got a local market share of about 65%. I2 was always
enjoying the job, even with its difficulties, when selling
and constructing production lines with tens of thousand,
hundreds of thousands, and even Millions of dollars. It
was always a pleasure to me.

3- As the GM of Danieli Egypt, how do you My advice to students is:
see the future of iron and steel technology in • Try to look for a job which you like and enjoy to do,
Egypt? and not any job to gain money, maybe just for a while,
till you find the job you like.
The iron and steel technology in Egypt is on the track to • To listen carefully to the advice of their parents and
improve in the near future, because of the continuous teachers and think about them. Then, to wisely choose
improvement in the suppliers’ technologies, which are and take what is suitable to him.
always introduced to the Egyptian market. Also, there is • To be reasonably serious in his job and practical life.
an increase in the trained crews. • Always to face the problems and solve them, instead
Quality wise shall be also increased considerably due to to escape away.
increase of demand, following the increase of popula- • To avoid smoking.
tion and planned mega and big-size construction proj-
ects, being already under execution. 7- Reaching our last question, would you like
to share any thoughts with our readers, espe-
4- After this long experience in industry, what cially since we are 2016 Material Advantage
are you still doing to keep yourself interested, Chapter of Excellence worldwide?
updated and inspired?
Yes; as for readers of new generations:
Still working, enjoying the hard job, and trying to assist • Be ambitious, insistent and do not give up easily, be-
in creating well-trained young people in our main activ- cause that difficulty makes strong men.
ity and related activities. • Do not dream of easy life without effort.
• Be loyal, reliable and trustworthy.
5- In your opinion, what are the challenges • Finally, be positive, optimistic and avoid pessimism as
that face Egypt today to be on the right track far as you can.
in industrial field?
Danieli is a leading company in the manufacture of
Main challenges are: steelmaking plants and operates in an international
context characterized by high competitiveness that
•Modest local and direct foreign investment, mainly requires increasingly higher quality standards. It has
due to comparatively non-stability in last years, because produced and exported top level technology and in-
of the two revolutions, terrorism, wars in most of sur- novation worldwide for more than 100 years.
rounding countries.
•Low parameters economy, made by the present gen- Some achievements in the 21th century:
eration, due to accumulated problems and mismanage- • World first drawing line for flat and squares up to
ment of the economy in last 40-50 years. 140 mpm.
•The modest level of education in general and accord- • World first thin slab casting of 80-mm-thick slab cast
ingly modest level of graduated people. at 8 mpm.
•Considerable portion of the new generations pre- • World largest conticaster for 750 mm round bloom
fers easy jobs, easy life, as they see what is apparently producing 60 tph per strand.
shown in the media. • World largest EAF: 420 t twin electrode DC furnace.
Less loyalty to almost everything in general. •First Diamond cold rolling mill, for Nikkei Siam Alu-
Other several reasons. minium, Thailand.
• Mtpy World’s largest Direct Reduction module with
6- As a student, what were your interests, and Zero Reformer.
what is your advice to students to be on the right • 450,000 tpy high-tech seamless pipe plant in the
track? USA.
As a student a long time ago, I remember that I was al- • The first Steckel Mill for Titanium, Nickel, Copper-Zr
ways looking for a career matching with what I like to Alloys and Stainless Steel, at Chinalco Shenyang in
do. This is the guarantee for a successful practical life. China.
• The first T-WIN aluminium extrusion press.


Ahmed Talat Ahmed Alaa Elshahd

Ahmed Eneaba Hossam Ayman Gamal Eldien Tarek
Editor in Chief Designer Designer

Baher Shehab Eldin Ahmed Gharib Omar Hesham
Editor Editor Editor




The Iron & Steel Technology Conference and Exposition

8–11 May 2017 I Nashville, Tenn., USA I Music City Center

Register Now!




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