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Practice Makes Perfect_ Basic English, Premium Third Edition ( PDFDrive )

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Published by norazlinasnin, 2021-07-25 21:16:54

Practice Makes Perfect_ Basic English, Premium Third Edition ( PDFDrive )

Practice Makes Perfect_ Basic English, Premium Third Edition ( PDFDrive )

·36· Prepositions:
From and Of

Use from as a preposition to: measure between points
I work from 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.
indicate a starting point of indicate the source
a movement She got the information from John.
We drove from Montreal to Toronto.
indicate belonging
indicate a starting point of an action I met the queen of England.
My husband called me from work. describe a characteristic of
a person
Use of as a preposition to: He is a man of great courage.

indicate the cause or reason of
an action
He died of a heart attack.


indicate the contents
I drank two cups of coffee this morning.

EXERCISE U se your dictionary to find the meaning of the new vocabulary words
needed for this exercise before you begin. Write the words in your
36·1 language in the space provided.

talent             beyond            
bouquet             value            
Rewrite the following sentences correctly by choosing from or of.
1. We gave her a beautiful bouquet (from, of ) flowers.

2. I got a toothbrush (from, of ) my dentist.

142

3. He is a member (from, of ) the hockey hall (from, of ) fame.
4. She sent me a postcard (from, of ) Canada.
5. Peter is a man (from, of ) many talents.
6. We heard voices (from, of ) beyond the bushes.
7. He called me (from, of ) a pay phone.
8. I need a cup (from, of ) sugar for this recipe.
9. Is that guy (from, of ) Mexico?
10. I work (from, of ) Monday to Thursday. I don’t work Friday.
11. Do you want a glass (from, of ) beer?
12. She is a woman (from, of ) value in our company.
13. The cat jumped (from, of ) the couch to the window.
14. Open the gift (from, of ) me.

Prepositions: From and Of 143

EXERCISE

36·2

Use your dictionary to find the meaning of the new vocabulary words needed for this
exercise before you begin. Write the words in your language in the space provided.

monthly              decade             

mouthful              spoonful             

herd              popcorn             

seventy              litter             

odor              theater             

century              catalog             

Complete the following sentences with from or of.

1. She brought a basket        fruit for us.
2. He is a man        experience.
3. We receive checks monthly        the insurance company.
4. The little girl has a mouthful        milk.
5. Are you        Montreal?
6. Put this box        books in the basement.
7. Do you want a cup        tea?
8. The odor is coming        the fridge.
9. I have a picture        you.
10. Take out a sheet        paper        your binder.
11. Do you want to play a game        cards?
12. My cat had a litter        kittens last night.
13. We get vitamins        food.
14. I bought a bag        popcorn at the theater.
15. She counted        one to seventy in French.
16. I borrowed it        my cousin.
17. What is the special        the day?
18. My uncle died        cancer.
19. I have a closet full        old shoes.
20. I just got home        school.
21. Who is the woman        the decade?
22. She moved        her apartment to a retirement home.
23. We just came back        Italy.

144 practice makes perfect Basic English   

24. She works        her home office.
25. I ate a bowl        chicken soup for lunch.
26. We got a call        your teacher.
27. I need a spoonful        honey.
28. You have a message        Tom.
29. We picked fresh tomatoes        our garden.
30. Thank you for the box        chocolates.
31. There is a herd        horses in the field.
32. The gorilla escaped        the zoo.
33. Where is the jar        pickles?
34. I received a long e-mail        my aunt.
35. We drank a bottle        wine with dinner.
36. She ordered it        the new catalog.
37. Who is the person        the century?
38. I got the results        my doctor.

Prepositions: From and Of 145

·37· Will: Future Tense

Use will to create the future tense for all persons. The simple form of the verb
always follows will.

I will → I will hold → I will hold your books.
you will → you will hold → You will hold the baby.
he will → he will hold → He will hold my hand.
she will → she will hold → She will hold her doll.
it will → it will hold → It will hold the ball.
we will → we will hold → We will hold our fishing rods.
they will → they will hold → They will hold the ladder.

EXERCISE U se your dictionary to find the meaning of the following verbs and
vocabulary words needed for this exercise before you begin. Write the
37·1 words in your language in the space provided.

to flip            to reduce           
to enlarge           
to ship            to become           
to pamper           
to hug            to envy           
to grant           
to ban           

to introduce           

to gather           

fairy            author           

top            famous           

tax            cherry           

brain            several           

rich            blueberry           

government            raspberry           

lighthouse            tobacco           

swordfish            friendship           

146

Rewrite the following sentences in the future tense by using will and the simple form of the verb in
parentheses.
1. I (to climb) to the top of the lighthouse to see the ships.

2. You (to become) a rich and famous author.
3. The government (to reduce) taxes next year.
4. The fairy (to grant) you several wishes.
5. My mother (to make) a cherry pie.
6. We (to study) the brain in my science class.
7. They (to enlarge) the picture of the swordfish that they caught.
8. We (to gather) blueberries, strawberries, and raspberries to make jam.
9. He (to hug) and kiss you when he sees you.
10. Brad (to introduce) me to his parents tomorrow night.
11. We (to ship) the package to you this afternoon.

Will: Future Tense 147

12. Mary (to envy) your friendship with Paul.
13. The government (to ban) tobacco in all public places.

14. She (to pamper) her new baby.
15. I (to flip) the pancakes now.

EXERCISE

37·2

Use your dictionary to find the meaning of the following verbs and vocabulary words
needed for this exercise before you begin. Write the words in your language in the space
provided.

to donate             to concentrate            
to inform             to stimulate            
to tame             to postpone            
to wonder             to nod            
to cause             to last            
to develop             to miss            
to continue             to calculate            
to balance             to bake            

budget             muscle            

bake sale             career            

music             pay            

organ             drum            

speeding             once            

taste bud             outcome            

wonderful             public transportation            

fine (n)             circus            

only             twice            

lion             why            

148 practice makes perfect Basic English   

Complete the sentences using will and the simple form of the verb in parentheses to create the future tense.
1. Brian                (to calculate) his pay.
2. We                (to balance) our budget.
3. Denis                (to develop) his muscles at the gym.
4. They                (to concentrate) on their careers.
5. It                (to last) a long time.
6. We                (to postpone) the meeting.
7. He                (to learn) to play the drums.
8. They                (to tame) the lions for the circus.
9. I                (to tell) you only once.
10. They                (to wonder) why we left.
11. We                (to order) a pizza for supper.
12. The neighbors                (to move) next month.
13. I                (to miss) you.
14. She                (to bake) cookies for the bake sale.
15. Ricky Martin                (to continue) to make wonderful music.
16. It                (to be) cold tomorrow.
17. He                (to nod) his head twice.
18. We                (to use) public transportation.
19. You                (to get) a fine for speeding.
20. It                (to stimulate) your taste buds.
21. You                (to cause) a serious accident.
22. She                (to donate) her organs.
23. He                (to inform) us of the outcome.
24. Jim and Scott                (to share) the expenses.

Will: Future Tense 149

·38· Will: Future Tense:
Negative Form

Place not after will to create the negative form of the future tense. The simple form
of the verb always follows will not.

I will → I will not → I will not be there.
you will → you will not → You will not say that.
he will → he will not → He will not pay me.
she will → she will not → She will not see you.
it will → it will not → It will not eat.
we will → we will not → We will not borrow money.
they will → they will not → They will not drive to New York.
The negative form of the future tense with will can be expressed with the
contraction won’t.
I will not → I won’t → I won’t go.
you will not → you won’t → You won’t convince her.
he will not → he won’t → He won’t know.
she will not → she won’t → She won’t sleep late.
it will not → it won’t → It won’t bite you.
we will not → we won’t → We won’t spend a lot.
they will not → they won’t → They won’t help us.

EXERCISE U se your dictionary to find the meaning of the following verbs and
vocabulary words needed for this exercise before you begin. Write the
38·1 words in your language in the space provided.

to recognize           to allow          
to pawn          
to celebrate           to declare          
to stay          
to confess          

to trim          

sideburns           overnight          
blind date
bankruptcy           murder          
guitar
          New Year’s Eve          

          bush          

150

Rewrite the following sentences to create the negative form of the future tense. Write your answer once with
will not and once with the contraction won’t.
1. He will declare bankruptcy. 

2. My neighbor will trim his bushes. 
3. John will trim his sideburns. 
4. Anna will go on a blind date. 
5. You will recognize me with my wig. 
6. They will allow you to stay overnight. 
7. We will celebrate on New Year’s Eve. 
8. The man will confess to the murder. 
9. I will pawn my guitar. 

Will: Future Tense: Negative Form 151

EXERCISE

38·2

Use your dictionary to find the meaning of the following verbs and vocabulary words
needed for this exercise before you begin. Write the words in your language in the space
provided.

to delay              to operate             
to issue             
to betray              to benefit             
to guess             
to hand              to purchase             
to clog             
to tolerate              to attempt             
to compensate             
to pierce             

to cure             

to improve             

to ruin             

tool              drain             

soap              guilty             

job              weight             

flight              hell             

heaven              spine             

breast              custody             

suit              rundown             

tongue              jet             

newsletter              will (n)             

product              wisdom teeth             

loss              reputation             

agreement              insurance policy             

Complete the following sentences by using the contraction won’t and the simple form of the verb in
parentheses.

1. You                (to ruin) your reputation.
2. It                (to clog) the drain.
3. My company                (to issue) the newsletter.
4. We                (to improve) our products this year.
5. I                (to guess) your weight.
6. They                (to discuss) heaven and hell.
7. We                (to benefit) from this insurance policy.

152 practice makes perfect Basic English   

8. It                (to delay) our flight.
9. They                (to compensate) us for our loss.
10. She                (to allow) me to pierce my tongue.
11. The treatment                (to cure) breast cancer.
12. He                (to purchase) new tools for his job.
13. The students                (to listen) to their teacher.
14. The pilot                (to attempt) to fly the jet.
15. He                (to wear) his black suit.
16. They                (to sign) the agreement.
17. My aunt                (to make) a will.
18. The doctors                (to operate) on my spine.
19. We                (to betray) you.
20. My dentist                (to remove) my wisdom teeth.
21. She                (to have) custody of the children.
22. They                (to live) in a rundown building.
23. It                (to mean) that he is guilty.
24. I                (to tolerate) this behavior.
25. Louise                (to hand) me the soap.
26. You                (to fail) your exam.

Will: Future Tense: Negative Form 153

·39· Will: Future Tense:
Question Form

Place will before the subject to create questions in the future tense. The simple
form of the verb is always used when forming questions with will.

I will → will I like → Will I like it?
you will → will you call → Will you call me?
he will → will he write → Will he write a book?
she will → will she join → Will she join us for dinner?
it will → will it annoy → Will it annoy you?
we will → will we need → Will we need a new car?
they will → will they worry → Will they worry about me?

EXERCISE U se your dictionary to find the meaning of the following verbs and
vocabulary words needed for this exercise before you begin. Write the
39·1 words in your language in the space provided.

to travel            to punish           
to spray            to disappear           
to rescue            to mention           
to kick            to partake           
to accuse            to show           
to poison            to measure           

fang            island           

wasp            pajamas           

bee            writing           

muscle            eagle           

toaster            ironing board           

poison            tape measure           

brand-new            foreman           

competition            last name           

154

Rewrite the following sentences to create the question form of the future tense by placing will before the
subject. Don’t forget to include a question mark (?) in your answer.
1. The snow will disappear in the spring.

2. Your mother will punish you for that.
3. The police will accuse Sara.
4. You will spell your last name for me.
5. She will throw her old pajamas in the garbage.

6. He will measure it with his brand-new tape measure.

7. Bobby will show the judges his muscles.

8. It will poison you with its fangs.
9. They will mention it to their foreman.
10. The gardener will spray the wasps and bees with poison.

11. They will rescue the eagles on the island.

12. Your boyfriend will partake in the writing competition.

13. We will travel a lot next year.

Will: Future Tense: Question Form 155

14. It will kick me.
15. She will buy a new ironing board and toaster for her apartment.

EXERCISE

39·2

Use your dictionary to find the meaning of the following verbs and vocabulary words
needed for this exercise before you begin. Write the words in your language in the space
provided.

to grind              to publish             
to require             
to produce              to regret             
to pause             
to sag              to arrive             
to expand             
to respond             

to blame             

to trade             

stitch              magnet             
rush hour              painting             
mouth              on time             
ivory              trailer             

Rewrite the following sentences to create questions in the future tense by placing will before the subject.
Don’t forget to include a question mark (?) in your answer.

1. It will arrive on time. 

2. He will publish his report. 

3. They will blame me. 

4. We will be in rush hour traffic. 

5. Our country will ban the sale of ivory. 

156 practice makes perfect Basic English   

6. Sheila will stick the magnet on the fridge. 
7. You will close your mouth when you eat. 
8. We will produce a lot of corn this year. 
9. Our company will expand next year. 
10. It will rain tomorrow. 
11. We will trade our trailer for a boat. 
12. He will pause the movie for a few minutes. 
13. I will regret it. 
14. It will grind the coffee beans. 
15. You will require stitches in your knee. 
16. The roof will sag with all the snow on it. 
17. They will bid on the famous painting. 
18. I will gain weight if I eat this. 
19. He will respond. 
20. I will have enough time. 

Will: Future Tense: Question Form 157

·40· Be Going To: Future Tense

The future tense can also be expressed by using be going to. Use the correct form
of the verb to be for each person. The simple form of the verb always follows be
going to.

I am going to → I am going to explain → I am going to explain it to
you again.
you are going to → you are going to need → You are going to need a
hammer.
he is going to → he is going to answer → He is going to answer the
question.
she is going to → she is going to have → She is going to have a baby.
it is going to → it is going to be → It is going to be expensive.
we are going to → we are going to prove → We are going to prove it
to you.
they are going to → they are going to meet → They are going to meet
downtown.

EXERCISE U se your dictionary to find the meaning of the following verbs and
vocabulary words needed for this exercise before you begin. Write the
40·1 words in your language in the space provided.

to lift             to spread            
to injure            
to dirty             to vomit            
to create            
to shine             to applaud            
to surprise            
to check            

to hurry            

to remove            

sun             lobby            
end             schedule            
deep             too much            
upset             manager            

158

shallow             audience            
muddy             waterbed            
Rewrite the following sentences in the future tense using be going to. Use the correct form of the verb
to be and the simple form of the verb in parentheses.
1. I (be) going to (to hurry) because I don’t want to miss my bus.
2. He drank too much, and now he (be) going to (to vomit).
3. You (be) going to (to dirty) my floor with your muddy shoes.
4. The sun (be) going to (to shine) all day today.
5. I (be) going to (to wait) for you in the lobby downstairs.
6. We (be) going to (to sell) our waterbed in our garage sale.
7. The kids (be) going to (to swim) in the shallow end of the pool.
8. The adults (be) going to (to dive) in the deep end of the pool.
9. You (be) going to (to injure) your back if you lift that heavy box.

Be Going To: Future Tense 159

10. It (be) going to (to create) problems in the office.
11. I (be) going to (to spread) the jam on my toast.
12. My manager (be) going to (to check) his schedule for next week.
13. You (be) going to (to be) upset if the audience doesn’t applaud.
14. He (be) going to (to surprise) her with a diamond ring.
15. She (be) going to (to remove) your name from the list.

EXERCISE

40·2

Use your dictionary to find the meaning of the following verbs and vocabulary words
needed for this exercise before you begin. Write the words in your language in the space
provided.

to tighten              to commute             

to assume              to admit             

to skip              to suggest             

to remind              to clip             

to tap              to vanish             

to seem              to charge             

sample              hairspray             
dawn              someday             
partner              interest             
receipt              turnip             

160 practice makes perfect Basic English   

shallot              leash             
innocent              noon             
proud              at first             
difficult              painful             
Complete the sentences using the correct form of the verb to be and the simple form of the verb in
parentheses to create the future tense with be going to.
1. We         going to            (to assume) that he is innocent.
2. He         going to            (to suggest) something better at

the meeting.
3. She         going to            (to tighten) the leash on the dog.
4. I         going to            (to clip) the receipts together.
5. We         going to            (to observe) the students in the

cafeteria at noon.
6. I         going to            (to give) you a sample.
7. It         going to            (to seem) difficult at first.
8. We         going to            (to remind) you in the morning.
9. We         going to            (to admit) the truth.
10. It         going to            (to be) very painful.
11. He         going to            (to ask) his partner.
12. I         going to            (to tap) him on the shoulder.
13. The students         going to            (to commute) by train.
14. The boys         going to            (to skip) school this

afternoon.
15. I         going to            (to put) shallots and turnips in

the stew.
16. She         going to            (to marry) Edward someday.
17. It         going to            (to occur) at dawn.
18. They         going to            (to charge) us interest.
19. This car         going to            (to belong) to me someday.
20. The fog         going to            (to vanish) soon.
21. I         going to            (to buy) a can of hairspray.
22. You         going to            (to be) very proud.

Be Going To: Future Tense 161

·41· Be Going To: Future Tense:
Negative Form

Place not after the verb to be to create the negative form of the future tense with
be going to. The simple form of the verb always follows the negative form of be
going to.

I am going to → I am not going to → I am not going to lose.
you are going to → you are not going to → You are not going to win.
he is going to → he is not going to → He is not going to be there.
she is going to → she is not going to → She is not going to eat it.
it is going to → it is not going to → It is not going to run.
we are going to → we are not going to → We are not going to leave.
they are going to → they are not going to → They are not going to talk.

The negative form of the future tense with be going to can also be expressed
with the contraction isn’t or aren’t. There is no contraction for am not.

I am not going to → → I am not going to drive.
you are not going to → you aren’t going to → You aren’t going to forget.
he is not going to → he isn’t going to → He isn’t going to play.
she is not going to → she isn’t going to → She isn’t going to study.
it is not going to → it isn’t going to → It isn’t going to rain.
we are not going to → we aren’t going to → We aren’t going to try it.
they are not going to → they aren’t going to → They aren’t going to like it.

EXERCISE U se your dictionary to find the meaning of the following verbs and
vocabulary words needed for this exercise before you begin. Write the
41·1 words in your language in the space provided.

to haunt           to submit          

to chill           to invest          

to withdraw           to announce          

to reuse           to divorce          

funds           report          
life           ostrich          
rest           cutbacks          
experience           stock market          

162

Rewrite the following sentences to create the negative form of the future tense of be going to. Write your
answer once with am not, is not, or are not and once with the contraction isn’t or aren’t.
1. My company is going to announce cutbacks for the new year. 

2. We are going to submit the report in the morning. 
3. I am going to withdraw all my money. 
4. They are going to invest the funds in the stock market. 
5. This experience is going to haunt me for the rest of my life. 
6. Annie is going to chill the wine before she serves it. 
7. The ostrich is going to attack you. 
8. You are going to reuse the bags. 
9. He is going to divorce his wife. 

Be Going To: Future Tense: Negative Form 163

EXERCISE

41·2

Use your dictionary to find the meaning of the following verbs and vocabulary words
needed for this exercise before you begin. Write the words in your language in the space
provided.

to judge              to wrestle             

to steer              to quarrel             

to pry              to trick             

to curse              to care             

to lessen              to leap             

to empty              to trap             

to label              to ensure             

to respect              to can             

checkers              safety             

subpoena              January             

February              March             

April              May             

June              beet             

pain              bailiff             

Complete the following sentences using am not or the contraction isn’t or aren’t to create the negative
form of the future tense of be going to.

1. We            going to trick you again.
2. She            going to circle the right answer.
3. We            going to respect his decision.
4. They            going to ensure our safety.
5. You            going to curse in my class.
6. She            going to empty her purse.
7. I            going to label all the items in the store.
8. We            going to can beets this year.
9. She            going to care about that.
10. We            going to send the subpoena by bailiff.
11. It            going to snow in June.
12. I            going to be twenty-five years old in January.
13. She            going to visit me in March.

164 practice makes perfect Basic English   

14. You            going to have another operation.
15. They            going to play checkers all night.
16. I            going to bake a cake.
17. Nancy            going to place the names in a hat.
18. We            going to judge you.
19. It            going to lessen the pain.
20. The frog            going to leap on you.
21. They            going to quarrel again.
22. He            going to pry the door open.
23. Sidney            going to steer the boat.
24. The boys            going to wrestle in the living room.
25. We            going to be in Tokyo in April.
26. He            going to start his new job in May.
27. It            going to open in February.
28. We            going to trap beavers.

Be Going To: Future Tense: Negative Form 165

·42· Be Going To: Future Tense:
Question Form

Place the verb to be before the subject to create questions in the future tense of be
going to. The simple form of the verb is always used when forming questions with
be going to.

I am going to → am I going to → Am I going to see you?
you are going to → are you going to → Are you going to visit me?
he is going to → is he going to → Is he going to believe you?
she is going to → is she going to → Is she going to be here?
it is going to → is it going to → Is it going to start soon?
we are going to → are we going to → Are we going to agree?
they are going to → are they going to → Are they going to park there?

EXERCISE U se your dictionary to find the meaning of the following verbs and
vocabulary words needed for this exercise before you begin. Write the
42·1 words in your language in the space provided.

to dip            to store           

to graze            to apply           

to turn            to scrub           

to drain            to immigrate           

to cooperate            to process           

to supply            to provide           

July            August           
September            October           
November            December           
peace            United States           
supplies            explanation           
parents            knowledge           
war            immigration           
bathtub            snowblower           

166

Rewrite the following sentences to create the question form of the future tense of be going to by placing
the verb to be before the subject. Don’t forget to include a question mark (?) in your answer.
1. He is going to share this knowledge with the world.

2. She is going to cooperate with us.
3. You are going to provide me with a good explanation.
4. They are going to immigrate to the United States in August.
5. It is going to turn green when I put it in water.
6. The immigration office is going to process my file in July.
7. My parents are going to supply me with my school supplies in September.
8. I am going to drain the vegetables with this.
9. They are going to complete the project in November or December.
10. She is going to apply for a new job in October.
11. You are going to scrub the bathtub now.

Be Going To: Future Tense: Question Form 167

12. The cows and horses are going to graze in the field.
13. You are going to dip the apple in honey.
14. We are going to store the snowblower in the garage during the summer.
15. The teacher is going to talk about war and peace in history class today.

EXERCISE

42·2

Use your dictionary to find the meaning of the following verbs and vocabulary words
needed for this exercise before you begin. Write the words in your language in the space
provided.

to compete              to tidy             
to assess             
to promise              to whistle             
to sort             
to rest             

to wish             

second              sunny             
werewolf              customs             
icicle              oven mitts             
shrimp              interview             

Rewrite the following sentences to create questions in the future tense of be going to by placing the verb
to be before the subject. Don’t forget to include a question mark (?) in your answer.

1. He is going to promise to be good.

2. You are going to wish for a car again.

3. I am going to compete with you.

168 practice makes perfect Basic English   

4. She is going to rest on the couch.
5. You are going to fake that you are sick.
6. He is going to break the icicles with the shovel.
7. Sonia is going to buy new oven mitts.
8. The insurance company is going to assess the damage.

9. You are going to cry.
10. It is going to be sunny tomorrow.
11. I am going to have a second interview.
12. We are going to wait a long time at customs.
13. She is going to sort the dirty laundry.
14. Bobby is going to tidy his room.
15. We are going to watch the scary movie about the werewolf.

16. They are going to whistle the song.
17. They are going to bring shrimp to the party tomorrow night.

18. It is going to be good.

Be Going To: Future Tense: Question Form 169

·43· The Indefinite Articles:
A and An

The indefinite articles a and an are used with singular nouns. Use a before most
nouns or adjectives that begin with a consonant. Use an before most nouns or
adjectives that begin with a vowel.

a cup a ball a class a bug
an empty cup an orange ball an English class an ugly bug

an egg an idea an owl an accident
a brown egg a good idea a white owl a bad accident

Use a before nouns or adjectives that begin with a pronounced h, but use an
before nouns or adjectives when the h is not pronounced.

a house a horse a hammer a hurricane
an honor an hour an heir an honest mistake

Use a before nouns or adjectives if the vowel is pronounced as a consonant.
The following words are pronounced with a y sound.

a union a university a uniform a utensil

The following words are pronounced with a w sound.

a one-hour class a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity

EXERCISE R ewrite the following sentences correctly by choosing a or an.

43·1

1. We saw (a, an) horrible accident this morning. 

2. This is (a, an) one-way street. 

3. My uncle has (a, an) ostrich on his farm. 

4. He is (a, an) American citizen. 

170

5. I wear (a, an) uniform to work.
6. There was (a, an) earthquake last night. 
7. You are (a, an) excellent student. 
8. I need (a, an) hammer to fix the roof. 
9. It was (a, an) useful tool. 
10. I have (a, an) red apple in my lunch bag. 
11. We bought (a, an) oil painting at the market. 

12. This is (a, an) busy airport. 
13. Give me (a, an) example, please. 
14. We played the game for (a, an) hour and (a, an) half. 

EXERCISE

43·2

Complete the following sentences with a or an.

1. I ate       orange,       banana, and       peach today.
2. There is       wild ostrich in the field.
3. I want to live on       island for       month.
4. Give her       application, please.
5. There is       spider,       ant, and       fly in the kitchen.
6. You made       excellent effort.
7. Do you want       oatmeal cookie?

The Indefinite Articles: A and An 171

8. We have       union at work.
9. Do you have       horse?
10. I had       egg sandwich for lunch.
11. She married       wealthy American.
12. We made       apple cake,       salad, and       onion dip for the

picnic.
13. Do you have       yellow umbrella?
14. I saw       owl,       tiger,       eagle,       zebra, and

      elephant at the zoo.
15. She has       blue eye and       green eye.
16. Do you have       appointment?
17. She is       heir to the estate.
18. I have       idea.
19. He drew       picture of       unicorn.
20. We had       ice storm and       hurricane last year.
21. I prefer to wear       one-piece bathing suit to the beach.
22. It is       honor to meet you.
23. Is there       university in your city?
24. That is       honest opinion.
25. I want       ice cube and       cherry in my drink.
26. We had       easy test at school.
27. I need       cup of olive oil.
28. There is       oil lamp in the living room.
29. We saw       dead octopus on the beach.
30. I found       old sock under the bed.
31. It was       expensive ring.
32. There is       pen,       pencil, and       eraser on the table.
33. You are       hero.
34. You need       envelope and       stamp if you want to send      

letter.
35. My sister had       baby; now I am       aunt.
36. Is there       elevator in the building?
37. It has       long nose.

172 practice makes perfect Basic English   

38. We have       uncle in Germany.
39. I want       second opinion.
40. Do you want       ice-cream cone?

The Indefinite Articles: A and An 173

·44· Irregular Verbs Table

Study and learn the past participles of the following irregular verbs.

SIMPLE SIMPLE PAST

FORM PAST PARTICIPLE

awake awoke awoken
be was/were been
beat beat beaten
become became become
begin began begun
bend bent bent
bet bet bet
bite bit bitten
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break broke broken
bring brought brought
broadcast broadcast broadcast
build built built
burn burned/burnt burned/burnt
burst burst burst
buy bought bought
cast cast cast
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
come came come
cost cost cost
creep crept crept
cut cut cut
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
dive dived/dove dived/dove
do did done
draw drew drawn
dream dreamed/dreamt dreamed/dreamt
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed

174

SIMPLE SIMPLE PAST

FORM PAST PARTICIPLE

feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
fit fit fit
flee fled fled
fly flew flown
forbid forbade forbidden
forget forgot forgotten
forgive forgave forgiven
freeze froze frozen
get got got/gotten
give gave given
go went gone
grind ground ground
grow grew grown
hang hung hung
have had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
kneel knelt knelt
knit knitted/knit knitted/knit
know knew known
lay (to place, put down) laid laid
lead led led
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie (to lie down) lay lain
light lit lit
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
mistake mistook mistaken
pay paid paid
prove proved proved/proven
put put put
quit quit quit
read read read
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
say said said

Irregular Verbs Table 175

SIMPLE SIMPLE PAST

FORM PAST PARTICIPLE

see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
sew sewed sewed/sewn
shake shook shaken
shave shaved shaved/shaven
shear sheared sheared/shorn
shed shed shed
shine shined/shone shined/shone
shoot shot shot
show showed shown
shrink shrank shrunk
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sink sank sunk
sit sat sat
sleep slept slept
slide slid slid
speak spoke spoken
spend spent spent
spill spilled/spilt spilled/spilt
spin spun spun
spit spit/spat spit/spat
split split split
spread spread spread
spring sprang sprung
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
strike struck struck
swear swore sworn
sweep swept swept
swell swelled swelled/swollen
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
understand understood understood
upset upset upset
wake woke woken

176 practice makes perfect Basic English   

SIMPLE SIMPLE PAST

FORM PAST PARTICIPLE

wear wore worn
weep wept wept
win won won
write wrote written

Irregular Verbs Table 177

·45· The Present
Perfect Tense

The present perfect tense is used when the time of a past activity is not important
or is not known in the sentence. Use has or have and the past participle of the verb
with both regular and irregular verbs to form the present perfect tense.

Contractions can also be used with the pronouns to create the present per-
fect tense.

Regular SIMPLE PAST PRESENT PERFECT CONTRACTION

SIMPLE PRESENT I worked I have worked I’ve worked
you worked you have worked you’ve worked
I work he worked he has worked he’s worked
you work she worked she has worked she’s worked
he works it worked it has worked it’s worked
she works we worked we have worked we’ve worked
it works they worked they have worked they’ve worked
we work
they work

Irregular SIMPLE PAST PRESENT PERFECT CONTRACTION

SIMPLE PRESENT I took I have taken I’ve taken
you took you have taken you’ve taken
I take he took he has taken he’s taken
you take she took she has taken she’s taken
he takes it took it has taken it’s taken
she takes we took we have taken we’ve taken
it takes they took they have taken they’ve taken
we take
they take

The past participle of all regular verbs is the same as the simple past tense
form (add -ed).

INFINITIVE SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE

to borrow borrowed borrowed
to cheat cheated cheated
to try tried tried
to offend offended offended
to work worked worked

178

The past participle of all irregular verbs has a different form and must be studied and learned.
Refer to Lesson 44.

INFINITIVE SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE

to grow grew grown
to teach taught taught
to be was/were been
to hear heard heard
to take took taken

It takes a lot of practice to be able to correctly use the present perfect tense. Learn the past
participles of all the irregular verbs by heart, and you will quickly be able to use this tense
proficiently.

EXERCISE

45·1

Rewrite the following sentences to create the present perfect tense using has or have and
the past participle of the verb in parentheses. Use the two preceding verb lists to complete
this exercise. You have already learned these verbs in previous exercises.

1. They (to work) in Japan.

2. William (to grow) a lot since the last time I saw him.

3. My parents (to be) together for twenty years.

4. They (to borrow) a lot of money from their friends.

5. She (to teach) English in many different schools.

6. You (to offend) everybody in the office.
7. I (to hear) that noise in my car several times.
8. He (to cheat) on every one of his tests.

The Present Perfect Tense 179

9. We (to try) to help them.
10. It (to take) a long time.

EXERCISE

45·2

Complete the sentences that follow to create the present perfect tense. Use the contracted
pronoun and the past participle of the verb in parentheses. You have already learned these
verbs in previous exercises.

Regular SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE

INFINITIVE offered offered
climbed climbed
to offer used used
to climb discussed discussed
to use warned warned
to discuss accused accused
to warn suffered suffered
to accuse helped helped
to suffer started started
to help thanked thanked
to start
to thank SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE

Irregular forgave forgiven
bit bitten
INFINITIVE made made
sang sung
to forgive saw seen
to bite tore torn
to make chose chosen
to sing knew known
to see broke broken
to tear flew flown
to choose
to know
to break
to fly

1. He                (to break) the law many times.
2. I                (to use) this product before.
3. We                (to see) that movie several times.
4. He                (to make) many mistakes in his life.
5. It                (to bite) a few people.
6. You                (to offer) to help.
7. I                (to fly) many times.

180 practice makes perfect Basic English   

8. They                (to suffer) enough.
9. You                (to tear) all the clothes I lent you.
10. She                (to forgive) you many times.
11. I                (to know) Mary since high school.
12. He                (to accuse) me of that before.
13. It                (to start).
14. We                (to discuss) this many times.
15. I                (to warn) you about that.
16. It                (to help) me to be a better person.
17. We                (to choose) to live in the city.
18. She                (to sing) that song before.
19. They                (to thank) us ten times.
20. He                (to climb) many mountains.

The Present Perfect Tense 181

·46· The Present Perfect Tense:
Negative Form

Place not after has or have to create the negative form of the present perfect tense.
Use the past participle of the verb in the negative form.

I have been → I have not been → I have not been to Paris.
you have been → you have not been → You have not been there.
he has been → he has not been → He has not been nice.
she has been → she has not been → She has not been happy.
it has been → it has not been → It has not been cold.
we have been → we have not been → We have not been busy.
they have been → they have not been → They have not been on a boat.

The negative form of the present perfect tense can also be expressed with the
contraction hasn’t or haven’t.

I have not seen → I haven’t seen → I haven’t seen it.
you have not seen → you haven’t seen → You haven’t seen the play.
he has not seen → he hasn’t seen → He hasn’t seen his sister.
she has not seen → she hasn’t seen → She hasn’t seen her brother.
it has not seen → it hasn’t seen → It hasn’t seen me.
we have not seen → we haven’t seen → We haven’t seen the movie.
they have not seen → they haven’t seen → They haven’t seen Sara.

The past participle of all regular verbs is the same as the simple past tense
form (add -ed).

INFINITIVE SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE

to attract attracted attracted
to wait waited waited
to accept accepted accepted
to invent invented invented

The past participle of all irregular verbs has a different form and must be
studied and learned. Refer to Lesson 44.

INFINITIVE SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE

to find found found
to become became become
to write wrote written

182

EXERCISE

46·1

Rewrite the following sentences to create the negative form of the present perfect tense.
Write your answer once with has not or have not and once with the contraction hasn’t or
haven’t. Use the past participle of the verb in parentheses. You have already learned these
verbs in previous exercises.

1. My teacher (to write) two books. 

2. I (to accept) the offer. 

3. They (to invent) many fun games. 

4. The light (to attract) all the bugs. 

5. Joe and Lynn (to become) rich and famous. 

6. We (to find) that he works very hard. 

7. Cassandra (to wait) a long time for the news. 

The Present Perfect Tense: Negative Form 183

EXERCISE

46·2

Use your dictionary to find the meaning of the new vocabulary words needed for this
exercise before you begin. Write the words in your language in the space provided.

chore               chance              
prisoner               feelings              
tattoo               Italy              
team               secret              

Complete the sentences that follow by using the contraction hasn’t or haven’t and the past participle
of the verb in parentheses. You have already learned these verbs in previous exercises.

Regular SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE

INFINITIVE solved solved
wasted wasted
to solve expressed expressed
to waste convinced convinced
to express noticed noticed
to convince
to notice escaped escaped
asked asked
to escape
to ask SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE

Irregular gave given
had had
INFINITIVE kept kept
built built
to give went gone
to have fell fallen
to keep beat beaten
to build did done
to go forgot forgotten
to fall
to beat
to do
to forget

1. We                        (to keep) it a secret.
2. She                        (to notice) your new tattoo.
3. They                        (to go) to Italy.
4. Laura                        (to convince) me.
5. Mr. Lawrence                        (to build) three houses.
6. I                        (to do) all my chores.
7. Cindy                        (to express) her feelings.
8. You                        (to waste) my time.
9. You                        (to give) it a chance.
10. I                        (to solve) the mystery.

184 practice makes perfect Basic English   

11. Jarrod                        (to have) his vacation.
12. I                        (to ask) for a raise twice.
13. My team                        (to beat) their team.
14. The prisoners                        (to escape) from jail.
15. It                        (to fall) asleep.
16. She                        (to forget) that it’s your birthday.

The Present Perfect Tense: Negative Form 185

·47· The Present Perfect Tense:
Question Form

Place has or have before the subject to create questions with the present perfect
tense. The past participle of the verb is used when forming questions with the
present perfect tense.

I have begun → have I begun → Have I begun to sing better?
you have begun → have you begun → Have you begun your course?
he has begun → has he begun → Has he begun to realize it?
she has begun → has she begun → Has she begun to understand?
it has begun → has it begun → Has it begun to melt?
we have begun → have we begun → Have we begun to eat right?
they have begun → have they begun → Have they begun to worry?

The past participle of all regular verbs is the same as the simple past tense
form (add -ed).

INFINITIVE SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE

to apologize apologized apologized
to benefit benefited benefited
to chew chewed chewed
to follow followed followed
to correct corrected corrected
to wrap wrapped wrapped

The past participle of all irregular verbs has a different form and must be
studied and learned. Refer to Lesson 44.

INFINITIVE SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE

to rise rose risen
to hide hid hidden
to show showed shown
to bring brought brought
to awake awoke awoken
to pay paid paid
to draw drew drawn
to blow blew blown

186

EXERCISE

47·1

Rewrite the following sentences to create the question form of the present perfect tense by
placing has or have before the subject. Use the past participle of the verb in parentheses.
You have already learned these verbs in previous exercises. Don’t forget to include a
question mark (?) in your answer.

1. You (to show) your report card to your parents. 

2. The teacher (to correct) all the exams. 

3. I (to bring) enough for everybody. 

4. My dog (to chew) all the furniture. 

5. It (to follow) me to school often. 

6. We (to wrap) all the gifts. 

7. She (to blow) out all the candles on the cake. 

8. They (to apologize) many times. 

9. He (to draw) many beautiful pictures for her. 

10. We (to benefit) from that. 

11. It (to hide) the peanuts. 

12. I (to pay) all the bills. 

13. The sun (to rise). 

14. I (to awake) the baby again. 

The Present Perfect Tense: Question Form 187

EXERCISE

47·2

Rewrite the sentences that follow to create questions in the present perfect tense. Place has
or have before the subject, and use the past participle of the verb in parentheses. You have
already learned these verbs in previous exercises. Don’t forget to include a question mark (?)
in your answer.

Regular SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE

INFINITIVE invested invested
occurred occurred
to invest ironed ironed
to occur answered answered
to iron parked parked
to answer disappeared disappeared
to park managed managed
to disappear
to manage SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE

Irregular left left
read read
INFINITIVE drove driven
met met
to leave slept slept
to read lost lost
to drive fed fed
to meet
to sleep
to lose
to feed

1. You (to iron) the clothes. 

2. He (to drive) many miles. 

3. Leora (to answer) all the questions. 

4. They (to feed) the animals. 

5. It (to occur) a few times. 

6. I (to read) that book before. 

7. We (to invest) all our money. 

8. I (to park) here before. 

188 practice makes perfect Basic English   

9. You (to lose) a lot of weight. 
10. He (to manage) the company alone. 
11. Elvis (to leave) the building. 
12. It (to disappear). 
13. Robin (to meet) many famous people. 
14. George (to sleep) late many times. 

The Present Perfect Tense: Question Form 189

·48· The Past Perfect Tense

The past perfect tense is used to describe a past action that occurred before another
past action. For example, one past action occurred at 8:00 p.m., and the previous
past action occurred at 7:00 p.m. Use had for all persons and the past participle of
the verb to create the past perfect tense.

I have heard → I had heard → I had heard the news.
you have heard → you had heard → You had heard the guitar.
he has heard → he had heard → He had heard you scream.
she has heard → she had heard → She had heard the song.
it has heard → it had heard → It had heard the noise.
we have heard → we had heard → We had heard everything.
they have heard → they had heard → They had heard nothing.

The contraction ’d is often used with the pronouns when using the past per-
fect tense.

I had learned → I’d learned → I’d learned my lesson.
you had learned → you’d learned → You’d learned how to do it.
he had learned → he’d learned → He’d learned the rules.
she had learned → she’d learned → She’d learned our names.
it had learned → it’d learned → It’d learned how to speak.
we had learned → we’d learned → We’d learned to add.
they had learned → they’d learned → They’d learned to spell.

The past participle of all regular verbs is the same as the simple past tense
form (add -ed).

INFINITIVE SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE

to stop stopped stopped
to expect expected expected
to pass passed passed
to explain explained explained
to die died died
to decide decided decided

The past participle of all irregular verbs has a different form and must be
studied and learned. Refer to Lesson 44.

INFINITIVE SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE

to sell sold sold
to see saw seen
to have had had
to do did done

190

EXERCISE

48·1

Rewrite the following sentences to create the past perfect tense. Use had and the past
participle of the verb in parentheses. You have already learned these verbs in previous
exercises.

1. We (to decide) to stay home when they asked us to go out for dinner.

2. They (to sell) their boat when they bought the motorcycle.

3. He (to expect) to see you before you left.
4. I (to have) supper, so I only ate the dessert.
5. My grandmother (to die) when I was born.
6. The rain (to stop), so we went for a walk.
7. I (to do) the laundry when he brought me his dirty clothes.

8. She (to see) the movie before, so she went to bed.

9. The teacher (to explain) the lesson twice, but we didn’t understand.

10. We (to pass) all our exams, so we celebrated all night.

The Past Perfect Tense 191


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