DMRDepartment of Mineral Resources
Geology for People
RMDsecruoseR lareniM fo tnemtrapeD
elpoeP rof ygoloeG
Contents 1 Administration
2 Information and Communication Technology
4 Geological Survey
6 Environmental Geology
8 Geological Conservation
12 Geological Museum
14 Mineral Management
16 Geological Technology
18 Research and Development
DMR’s headquarters in the old days.
The Department of Mineral Resources (DMR) was established on 1 January 1891 by King Chulalongkorn the Great
(King Rama V) under the name “The Royal Department of Mines and Geology”. Throughout its history, DMR has
been under several different offices due to changes in governmental policies. In 1941 its name was changed to “The
Royal Department of Mines”. Three decades later, the department was transferred to the Ministry of Industry under
the current name “The Department of Mineral Resources”.
DMR was again transferred to the newly established Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment as a
result of the bureaucratic system reform on 3 October 2002. Under this new office, DMR’s primary scopes of
services include geological surveillance and research as well as the provision of geoscientific information to the Thai
Government and the public.
To be the key geological organization that is reliable in
geological resources management through people’s participation.
“Manage issues in geology, geological resources, paleontology, environmental geology
and geohazard by means of preservation, conservation and restoration approaches.”
Geological Resources Management
Inspector Director-General Senior Expert
Deputy Director-General Central office
The Department of Mineral Resources (DMR) is one of the many organizations under the Ministry of Natural
Resources and Environment (MONRE). The ministry is accountable for monitoring the consumption of natural
resources of the entire nation. As mineral and geological resources are non-renewable natural resources, it is the main
responsibility of the department to eventually create an environmentally sustainable society. Besides monitoring the
use of natural resources, DMR’s major task also include the innovation of geotechnology to prevent catastrophe in the
event of geohazards.
There are seven divisions in DMR which are responsible for all geological concerns of the country. Offices of Mineral
Resources (OMR) have been established in four regions of the country. Each OMR resembles DMR head office in
duty and goal, however they are not involved in policy making.
The distribution of each OMR throughout the four regions of the
country enables prompt governmental response and assistance
to unforeseen geological problems such as geohazards.
through People’s Participation.
Information and Communication Technology
The website www.dmr.go.th was established with the aim of disseminating geological data and information
and enables two way communication between users. The bilingual website is accessible worldwide through a
computer, iPad and all smart phones. Users can find DMR’s basic information, services it offers, upcoming activities,
publications, and learn about the geological characteristics of Thailand upon visit to the site.
The department also created many mobile applications for use in many branches of geology. From applications that
warn users of potential geohazards to applications for the promotion of geological tourism and conservation.
The bilingual website,
is accessible worldwide
through a computer, iPad
and all smart phones.
Geological resources are vital in the develop
Photo and video-sharing social networking services e.g. Facebook and Instagram, and application for instant
communications on electronic devices (LINE@) are also used to connect DMR to its worldwide customers.
The applications even have games which users can learn about the country’s geology and win bonuses and prizes.
The DMR library is an information service section which allows users to borrow documents free of charge. DMR’s
ELIB Web Gateway allows users to search among the 38,000 bibliographies available. Some of these full text
documents can also be downloaded in .pdf format through the website of the department.
DMR’s ELIB Web Gateway allows
users to search among the 38,000
pment of ICT which makes our world smaller.
Geological maps of Thailand, in hard copy and digital formats with 4 main scales of 1:50,000,
1:250,000, 1:1,000,000 and 1:2,500,000 as well as provincial geological maps covering the whole
country and area approach geological maps
missions. Some of these maps are available have been made to serve all the geological related
All the geological maps are systematically for free download through the website www.dmr.go.th.
of Thailand. updated to ensure the most accurate representation
The Lexicon of Stratigraphic Names of Thailand was firstly published in
1992 and later updated in 2013. In the last 20 years,
numerous technical reports and research papers have been
written on the geology of Thailand. Over the years many
new geological formations and members are added and
old out-dated ones are amended or removed. The lexicon
is thus an up to date compilation of documented geological
units that were published between 1989 and 2012 in order
to keep geoscientists informed of the most current status of
The present lexicon contains 603 stratigraphic
names, of which 290 are new entries.
An important mission of the department is to promote public
involvement in the study and conservation of our resources. It is
crucial that a systematic and standardized approach to sample collection,
preservation, and study is maintained to ensure the most accurate data is
acquired. Samples are classified and stored at the Research Center of Rocks
and Minerals in Rayong province.
The research center exhibits a range of
geological samples from Minerals to Fossils to
aid in research and development by scientists
as well as the general public.
is a science that affects all life on earth.
Environmental Geology at
Resting on active tectonic plates coupled with having
temperate high humidity climate, many areas in
Thailand experience a high rate of geological erosion.
These circumstances put the North and the West zones
risk for earthquakes and landslides. Areas primarily made
of limestone are at risk for sinkhole formations while the
coastlines undergo coastal erosion. Furthermore, coastlines
on the Andaman Sea side are prone to damage from a Tsunami.
However, since the formation of the “Geohazard Early Warning
Network” by the Department of Mineral resources, risks to these
geohazards are reduced to a manageable level.
Risks to geohazards are reduced to a
manageable level, since the formation of the
“Geohazard Early Warning Network”.
The members of the Geohazard Early Warning Network
collaborate mainly via the department’s website. Each
member is well-trained with on-location experience and are
equipped in handling geohazards such as earthquakes, land
slides, sinkholes, and coastal erosion. Emergency scenarios,
demonstrations, and drills are periodically conducted to ensure
preparedness in actual events.
Coastal erosion is currently a critical problem in the
country. It has led to the loss of fertile lands, reduction
in tourism, and destruction of areas of historical significance.
Thus it is crucial that the Department of
Mineral Resources maintain an up to date
database on geological changes along
the coastlines to minimize impact
on local communities. Changes
in sea level and climate are
studied using underwater
geophysical survey methods
in combination with the
analysis of sediment
composition and movement characteristics.
Serves and Saves People.
There are numerous beautiful natural wonders scattered throughout all regions of Thailand. Whether they may
be important research sites or world class tourist attractions, these natural wonders deserve to be taken care
of and protected. A majority of them are safe from human damage and situated in protected National Park zones.
Nevertheless, the best way to conserve these sites is through education for the community to truly appreciate the
value of these natural wonders.
The Department of Mineral resources encourages
educational tourism by establishing geosites and
geoparks, where visitors and local communities can learn
about the significance of each site and how to protect
them. The establishment planning of these sites is modeled
after UNESCO’s sites and involves the integration of efforts
from the government as well as private sectors and non-
governmental organizations. DMR aims to establish a
National Geopark in every region of the country.
DMR aims to set up
National Geological Parks
in every region of the country.
Geological Conservation Sustains
On 8 November 2016, the government reached a resolution to propose that Satun Geopark be endorsed by UNESCO
as a Global Geopark as suggested by the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. After much
consideration, Satun Geopark was officially endorsed by the UNESCO executive board on 17 April 2018 at its 204th session.
Satun UNESCO Global Geopark is also known as “The Land of Paleozoic Fossils,” due
to the variety and completeness of its fossil assemblages. Fossils include trilobites,
brachiopods, stromatolites, graptolites, tentaculites and nautiloids. The area surrounding the
Geopark is also peacefully inhabited by people of all race and religious backgrounds.
Satun UNESCO Global Geopark
“The Land of Paleozoic Fossils”
Natural Resources for the People.
Fossils have been found in Thailand for centuries, among them,
“Posidonomya becheri siamensis” found in Phatthalung province
in 1920 was the first to have been scientifically named.
A systematic paleontological exploration and research was
conducted a few decades later which lead to the discovery of
more fossils from geological surveys and mining activities.
Paleontological exploration and research is an important mission of DMR. This ongoing mission is continually
expanding as more and more fossil sites and species are discovered.
Many of these new finds are recognized by locals
indicating that the people already have
knowledge in basic paleontology.
DMR currently follows the protocols in accordance with the Fossil
Act B.E. 2551 (2008) in the exploration, research, conservation,
and management of fossils. The Act mandates the registration of
significant fossil samples, significant fossil sites and the area for survey
and educational research for the fossil sites and fossils. The Fossil Act
also mandates the creation of Fossil
Management Fund to aid researchers
and academics in the exploration,
conservation, and development of
fossils and fossil sites.
Amajority of the Thai public is aware of the existence of the many kinds of fossils from animals, plants, footprints,
and trace fossils. However, few are aware of their significance and of the passing of the Fossil Act a decade earlier.
It is another duty of DMR to promote the education of the people
and local officials to ensure appropriate procedures
are followed in the event of new discoveries.
Paleontology: the Study of Ancient Life.
• Fossil Geology and Natural Science Museum, .LAMPANG
Lampang is a complete learning center situated in
the North. The museum offers services to youths,
students, as well as the public and tourists.
• The National Geological Museum, located ..PATHUM THANI
in Pathum Thani province, was established BANGKOK
to commemorate His Late Majesty King
Bhumibol Adulyadej’s Golden Jubilee and
serves as a learning center. The museum
features the prehistoric world, mineral
resources, fossil exhibitions and dinosaur
models with multimedia and lighting
Until not so long ago, Thailand only had one geological museum.
The Rocks and Minerals Museum was established
at the Department of Mineral Resources in 1942.
After the discovery of various dinosaur fossils in the .SURAT THANI
northeastern region of the country, DMR called for
the establishment of 2 additional modern museums as
well as the establishment of geological museums in all
regions of the country to promote educational tourism and
conservation. All the Regional Offices of Mineral Resources
are currently responsible for the management of 6 regional
geological research centers and museums.
A museum can be viewed as
. .KHON KAEN KALASIN • Phu Wiang Fossil Research Center and Dinosaur Museum
is the first dinosaur museum built in situ around the first
dinosaur fossil found in Thailand, located at Phu Wiang
National Park, Khon Kaen province.
• Sirindhorn Museum, named in honor of Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri
Sirindhorn who has an avid interest in paleontology, is the largest fossil research center,
located in Kalasin province. The museum exhibits the largest dinosaur excavated pit
with the most complete sauropod fossil “Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae” in Thailand.
• Rayong Rocks and Minerals Research Center presents
both outdoor and indoor exhibitions. The outdoor section
displays large rock and mineral samples collected from all
over the country in a prehistoric park. The indoor section
presents permanent exhibitions on historical geology,
minerals and rocks, natural fuels, groundwater, evolution
of life, and applied geology.
• Fossil Geology and Natural Science Museum, Surat Thani
is a complete learning center situated in the South. The
museum offers services to youths, students, as well as the
public and tourists.
a microcosm of our universe.
The use of mineral resources is necessary for everyday life. However, the development in mining for raw materials
for the industrial sector can have a negative impact on the environment and health of the people in the area.
This has led to many objections against mining development.
The government assigned the Ministry of Natural
Resources and Environment the role of implementing
long-term management policies on the mining and
production of minerals of the entire country. The National
Committee for Mineral Management Policy was created with
the Prime Minister as the chairman and DMR as secretariat
under the Mineral Act B.E. 2560 (2017) replacing the
outdated Mineral Act B.E. 2510 (1967). The primary focus
of this act is to promote responsible mining to maximize
production and benefits while minimizing negative impact to
the people and the environment.
Thailand Green and Smart Mining
creates environmentally friendly
sustainable mining operations.
Although recycling can be an effective method to reduce
cost while simultaneously reducing environmental
impact, the mining for new materials is nevertheless
necessary. DMR launched Thailand Green and Smart Mining
initiative in collaboration with the Department of Primary
Industries and Mines to create environmentally friendly
sustainable mining operations.
Mineral Management towards
DMR and associated agencies also promote the use of the United Nations
Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources
2009 by making a Thai version of document available to all interested parties.
To promote economic growth of the country, DMR assists
the industrial sectors in evaluating potential mining sites for
major types of minerals exploited in Thailand such as
feldspars, cassiterite, lead, manganese and
iron. DMR also evaluate potential sites for
construction material, as well as sites for
radioactive and rare earth elements for
future large scale development plans.
Nationwide Mineral Resources and Min-
eral Potential Maps and Provincial Mineral Maps are
available for free download through www.dmr.go.th
Sustainable Green and Smart Mining.
Every one of DMR’s public duties requires geoscientific data for proper assessments and evaluations. Underground
geophysical and chemical data analyzes can paint a picture of the current state of the lands we live on.
The Thai nationwide airborne magnetic and radiometric surveys, conducted
between 1984 and 1988, provided essential geophysical data for mineral
resources development and geologically related projects and activities. .
The Thai nationwide airborne magnetic and radiometric
surveys also collected airborne VLF–EM and
frequency–domain electromagnetic data.
Geophysical surveys are routinely conducted to identify problems before
they become unmanageable. The most commonly used geophysical survey
methods involve the detection and analysis of magnetic and gravitational fields
using ground penetrating radar and electrical resistivity imaging. These
methods are also used to identify resource areas for quartz, potash, gold and other
rare earth elements for potential future large scale public development projects.
Regional gravity surveys have been already conducted in the central region
and parts of northeastern region. The regional Bouguer gravity map of
Thailand will be complete in the year 2021.
Exploration and evaluation of active tectonic plate
boundaries are done to locate Earthquake sources and
measure their intensity using seismological detectors.
Unravels Geological Problems.
Research and Development
The Mineral Resources Analysis and Identification Division collaborates with
every division in research and development with the intent of serving the public
with the statement “Geology for people” in mind. The progressives of the programs
are published in DMR Research News Letters.
An important example where R & D helped locate mineral and ore deposits
involved using applied bio-geochemical survey methods such as geo-botanical
prospecting. In Chiang Rai, studies indicate that areas where the plant Thai croton
throve can indicate sources of gold deposits.
Another example where R & D had help local farmers improve their
crop yields is the desalination of soil in the northeastern part of
Thailand. The process involve leaching out salt from the soil by flooding
the rice fields with water and drain, filling up the area with clay and
trapping the saline groundwater with an impermeable film of bentonite.
The nutrients in the soil can be further improved by adding natural and
organic fertilizers and manure. To maximize yields, saline tolerant plants
such as Khao Dawk Mali 105 or RD6 rice is encouraged for planting.
Geological R & D Lead to All Other Developments.
The Department of Mineral Resources
manages issues in geology, geological resources,
paleontology, environmental geology and geohazard
by means of preservation, conservation
and restoration approaches.
Let’s visit the Department of Mineral Resources
The Department of Mineral Resources
manages geological issues and geological
resources through people's participation
for the benefit and happiness
of the whole society.
Department of Mineral Resources
75/10 Rama VI Road, Ratchathewi,
Bangkok 10400, THAILAND