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Published by PIRAVEEN RAMES, 2021-10-29 05:23:26




Vishnu is one of the three main gods in Hinduism.
Vaishnavas believe that Vishnu is the highest
God. Vishnu is the preserver god, which means
he protects the earth from being destroyed and
keeps it going, according to this religion, and he
has come to earth in nine forms (called avatars)
so far, with one yet to come. His most famous
forms are Rama and Krishna. Vishnu's wife is
Lakshmi, the Hindu goddess of fortune.

Vishnu is usually shown with light blue skin and
four arms. He holds a lotus, mace (gada), conch
(shankha) and disc (chakra) in each of four hand


The Puranas mention that AdiPurush refers to the first
incarnation of Lord Vishnu, who is regarded as the
creator of the universe. It is believed that after creating
the universe, He took his first incarnation as the pre-
eminent man and is referred to as the first man of this
universe, hence he is known as Adipurush. He is
regarded as supreme and the epitome of goodness
and righteousness. Over the years, He is believed to
have taken various forms in order to kill evil and protect
the universe


The Kumaras are four sages (rishis) from the Puranic texts of
Hinduism who roam the universe as children,generally named
Sanaka kumara, Sanatana kumara, Sanandana kumara and
Sanat kumara. They are described as the first mind-born
creations and sons of the creator-god Brahma. Born from
Brahma's mind, the four Kumaras undertook lifelong vows of
celibacy (brahmacharya) against the wishes of their father. They
are said to wander throughout the materialistic and spiritualistic
universe without any desire but with purpose to teach. All four
brothers studied Vedas from their childhood, and always travelled
togetherhe group is known by various names: "Kumaras" (the
boys/male children/young boys), "Chatursana" or "Chatuh Sana"
(the four with names starting with Sana) and "Sanakadi" (Sanaka
and the others).[6] Individual names usually include Sanaka
(Ancient), Sanatana (Eternal), Sanandana (Ever Joyful) and
Sanatkumara (Ever Young).Sometimes, Sanatana is replaced by
Sanatsujata. A fifth Kumara named Ribhu is sometimes added.
Sometimes, the Kumaras are enumerated as six with Sana and
Ribhu or Sanatsujata added


Narad Muni, is a god-sage, famous in Hindu traditions as a travelling musician and
storyteller, who carries news and enlightening wisdom. He is one of mind-created
children of Brahma, the creator. He appears in a number of Hindu texts, notably the
Mahabharata, telling Yudhishtira the story of Prahlada and the Ramayana as well as in
the Puranas Once God decided that it was time for Him to descend to earth to set
matters right, most lesser Gods came down to like someone or the other to aid and
enjoy a ringside view of epochal events. He is also referred to as Rishiraj, meaning the
king of all sages or rishis. He was gifted with the boon of knowledge, past, present and

In Indian texts, Narada travels to distant worlds and realms (Sanskrit: lokas). He is
depicted carrying a khartal (musical instrument) and veena with the name Mahathi and
is generally regarded as one of the great masters of the ancient musical instrument.
This instrument is known by the name "mahathi" which he uses to accompany his
singing of hymns, prayers and mantras. In the Vaishnavism tradition of Hinduism, he is
presented as a sage with devotion to Lord Vishnu. Narada is described as both wise
and mischievous in some humorous tales. Vaishnav enthusiasts depict him as a pure,
elevated soul who glorifies Vishnu through his devotional songs, singing the names Hari
and Narayana, and therein demonstrating bhakti yoga. The Narada Bhakti Sutra is
attributed to him. He would usually make his entrance vocally chanting Narayana,



Kapila is a given name of different individuals in
ancient and medieval Indian texts, of which the most
well known is a person mentioned in Vedic texts and
traditionally regarded as the founder of the Samkhya
school of Hindu philosophy.Rishi Kapila is credited
with authoring the influential Samkhya-sutra, in
which aphoristic sutras present the dualistic
philosophy of Samkhya.Kapila's influence on
Buddha and Buddhism have long been the subject
of scholarly studies


Dattatraya is a paradigmatic Sannyasi (monk) and one of the lords of
Yoga, venerated as a Hindu god.In Maharashtra, Goa, Andhra Pradesh,
Telangana, Karnataka, Gujarat, and Madhya Pradesh he is a syncretic
deity, considered to be an avatar of the three Hindu gods Brahma,
Vishnu and Shiva, collectively known as Trimurti. In other regions, and
some versions of texts such as Garuda Purana, Brahma Purana and
Sattvata Samhita, he is an avatar of Lord Vishnu. Several Upanishads
are dedicated to him, as are texts of the Vedanta-Yoga tradition in
Hinduism. One of the most important texts of Hinduism, namely
Avadhuta Gita (literally, "song of the free soul") is attributed to
Dattatreya.Over time, Dattatreya has inspired many monastic
movements in Shaivism, Vaishnavism and Shaktism, particularly in the
Deccan region of India, south India, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh,
Rajasthan and Himalayan regions where Shiva tradition has been
strong. His pursuit of simple life, kindness to all, sharing of his
knowledge and the meaning of life during his travels is reverentially
mentioned in the poems by Tukaram, a saint-poet of the Bhakti


Yajna rituals-related texts have been called the Karma-kanda
(ritual works) portion of the Vedic literature, in contrast to Jnana-
kanda (knowledge) portion contained in the Vedic Upanishads.
The proper completion of Yajna-like rituals was the focus of
Mimansa school of Hindu philosophy. Yajna have continued to play
a central role in a Hindu's rites of passage, such as weddings.
Modern major Hindu temple ceremonies, Hindu community
celebrations, or monastic initiations may also include Vedic Yajna
rites, or alternatively be based on Agamic rituals.


In Hinduism, Rishabha is one of the twenty four avatars of Vishnu in
the Bhagavata Purana. Some scholars state that this avatar is same
as the first Tirthankara of Jainism. Shaiva texts like Linga Purana
appropriated Tirthankar Rishabhdeva as an avatar of lord Shiva.
Rishabha is also found in Vedic literature, where it means the "bull"
and is an epithet for Rudra (Shiva).

According to John E. Cort and other scholars, there is a considerable
overlap between Jain and Hindu Vaishnava traditions in western parts
of India, with Hindus adopting Jain sacred figures in Hindu texts like
Rishabha and his son Bharata.


scriptures of ancient India. According to Hindu
Hindu History, he is an Avatar (incarnation) of
the preserver god—Vishnu. He is also called
Pruthu, Prithi and Prithu Vainya, literally,
Prithu — the son of Vena. Prithu is "celebrated
as the first consecrated king, from whom the
earth received her (Sanskrit) name Prithvi." He
is mainly associated with the legend of his
chasing the earth goddess, Prithvi, who fled in
the form of a cow and eventually agreed to yield
her milk as the world's grain and vegetation. The
epic Mahabharata, Vishnu Purana, Shrimad
Bhagvata Purana describes him as a part Avatar
(incarnation) of Vishnu.


Dhanvantari is the Hindu god of medicine
and an avatar of Lord Vishnu. He was the
king of Varanasi. He is mentioned in the
Puranas as the god of Ayurveda. He,
during the Samudramanthan arose from
the Ocean of Milk with the nectar of
immortality. It is a common practice in
Hinduism for worshipers to pray to
Dhanvantari seeking his blessings for
sound health for themselves and/or others,
especially on Dhanteras or Dhanwantari
Trayodashi ("National Ayurveda Day")


portrayed as a femme fatale, an enchantress, who maddens lovers and demons,
sometimes leading them to their doom. Mohini is introduced into the Hindu
mythology in the narrative epic of the Mahabharata. Here, she appears as a
form of Vishnu, acquires the pot of Amrita (an elixir of immortality) from the
thieving asuras (demons), and gives it back to the devas (gods), helping them
retain their immortality.

Many different legends tell of her various exploits and marriages, including
union with the god Shiva. These tales relate, among other things, the birth of the
god Shasta and the destruction of Bhasmasura, the ash-demon. Mohini's main
modus operandi is to trick or beguile those she encounters. She is worshipped
throughout Indian culture, but mainly in Western India, where temples are
devoted to her depicted as Mahalasa, the consort of Khandoba, a regional
avatar of Shiva


Hayagriva is an avatar of the god Vishnu. He is worshipped as
the god of knowledge and wisdom, with a human body and a
horse's head, brilliant white in color, with white garments and
seated on a white lotus. Symbolically, the story represents the
triumph of pure knowledge, guided by the hand of Divinity,
over the demonic forces of passion and darknessHe has four
hands, with one in the mode of bestowing knowledge; another
holds books of wisdom, and the other two hold the Conch and
Discus. His beauty, like fresh cut crystal, is an auspicious
brilliance that never decays. May this Lord of speech who
showers such cooling rays of grace on me be forever manifest
in my heart


Hindus traditionally hold that Vyasa categorized
the primordial single Veda into three canonical
collections, and that the fourth one, known as
Atharvaveda, was recognized as Veda only very
much later. Hence he was called Veda Vyasa,
or "Splitter of the Vedas," the splitting being a
feat that allowed people to understand the
divine knowledge of the Veda.

The Vishnu Purana elaborates on the role of
Vyasa in Hindu chronology.[8] The Hindu view
of the universe is that of a cyclic phenomenon
that comes into existence and dissolves
repeatedly. Each kalpa cycle is presided over by
a number of Manus, one for each manvantara,
and each manvantara has a number of Yuga
Cycles, each with four yuga ages of declining
virtues. The Dvapara Yuga is the third yuga.
The Vishnu Purana (Book 3, Ch 3) says:


Matsya, (Sanskrit: “Fish”) one of the 10 avatars (incarnations) of the Hindu god
Vishnu. In this appearance Vishnu saved the world from a great flood. Manu, the
first man, caught a little fish that grew to giant size. When the flood approached,
Manu saved himself by tying his boat to the horn on the fish’s head. Some early
accounts refer to the fish-saviour as Prajapati (whose identity is later merged with
that of Brahma). Later sources identified him as Vishnu.

Matsya may be depicted either in animal form or in a combined human-animal
form, with the man as the upper half and the fish as the lower half. Matsya is
generally represented with four hands—one holding the conch shell, one holding
the discus (chakra), one in the pose of conferring a boon (varada mudra), and one
in the protection-affording pose (abhaya mudra). According to the canons of
sculpture, the man-half should be shown as wearing all the ornaments usually
associated with Vishnu.


Kurma, (Sanskrit: “Tortoise”) one of the 10 avatars (incarnations) of the
Hindu god Vishnu. In this incarnation Vishnu is associated with the myth
of the churning of the ocean of milk. The gods and the asuras (demons,
or titans) cooperated in the churning to obtain amrita, the elixir of
immortality. The great serpent Vasuki offered himself as a rope, and
Mount Mandara was torn out for use as a churning stick. A firm foundation
was required to steady the mountain, so Vishnu took the form of a tortoise
and supported the churning stick on his back. An earlier reference to a
divine incarnation as a tortoise identifies the animal with Prajapati (the
god Brahma), who took that shape in order to create offspring.

The Kurma avatar of Vishnu is usually represented in painting and
sculpture in a mixed human-animal form. The human half, which is the
upper half, is depicted wearing the same ornaments and holding the
same weapons as in the usual images of Vishnu. Kurma is also
represented zoomorphically, as a tortoise.


is the avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu, in the form of a
boar. Varaha is generally listed as third in the
Dashavatara, the ten principal avatars of Vishnu.

Varaha is most commonly associated with the legend
of lifting the Earth (personified as the goddess
Bhudevi) out of the cosmic ocean. When the demon
Hiranyaksha stole the earth and hid her in the
primordial waters, Vishnu appeared as Varaha to
rescue her. Varaha slew the demon and retrieved the
Earth from the ocean, lifting it on his tusks, and
restored Bhudevi to her place in the universe.

Varaha may be depicted as completely a boar or in
an anthropomorphic form, with a boar's head and the
human body. His consort, Bhudevi, the earth, is often
depicted as a young woman, lifted by Varaha


Narasima is a fierce avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu, one who incarnates in the
form of part lion and part man to destroy evil and end religious persecution and
calamity on Earth, thereby restoring Dharma.

Narasimha iconography shows him with a human torso and lower body, with a
lion face and claws, typically with a demon Hiranyakashipu in his lap whom he
is in the process of defeating. The demon is the powerful brother of evil
Hiranyaksha who had been previously defeated by Vishnu, who hated Vishnu
for defeating his brother Hiranyakashipu gains special powers by which he
could not be killed during the day or night, inside or outside the house, any
place in the world i.e. neither in sky nor on land nor in heaven nor in pataala, by
any weapon, and by man, god, asura or animal. Endowed with new powers,
Hiranyakashipu creates chaos, persecutes all devotees of Vishnu including his
own son. Vishnu understands the demon's power, then creatively adapts into a
mixed avatar that is neither man nor animal and kills the demon at the junction
of day and night, inside and outside. Narasimha is known primarily as the 'Great
Protector' who specifically defends and protects his devotees from evil.[6] The
most popular Narasimha mythology is the legend that protects his devotee
Prahlada, and creatively destroys Prahlada's demonic father and tyrant


In the Rigveda, Vishnu took three strides, with which he measured out the
three worlds: earth, heaven, and the space between them. In later
mythology, the dwarf Vamana made his appearance when the demon king
Bali ruled the entire universe and the gods had lost their power. One day
Vamana visited the court of Bali and begged of him as much land as he
could step over in three paces. The king laughingly granted the request.
Assuming a gigantic form, Vamana with one step covered the whole earth,
and with the second step the midworld between earth and heaven. As
there was nowhere left to go, the demon king lowered his head and
suggested Vamana place his foot on it for the promised third step.
Vamana was pleased, and with the pressure of his foot sent Bali down
below to rule the netherworld. Vishnu in this form is often identified as
Trivikrama (“God of the Three Strides”).

The images of Vamana usually show him already grown to giant size, one
foot firmly planted on earth and the other lifted as if to take a stride. If
shown small in stature, the sculptures may depict him as a deformed
dwarf or as a brahmacharin (monastic student), dressed in the deerskin,
loincloth, and sacred thread of the student, and with the student’s tufted


also referred to as Rama Jamadagnya, Rama Bhargava and
Veerarama,is the sixth incarnation among the Dashavatar of the God
Vishnu in Hinduism. He is believed to be one of the Chiranjeevis (Long-
Lived Ones Or Immortal Ones), who will appear at the end of the Kali
Yuga to be the guru of Vishnu's tenth and last incarnation, Kalki. He
carried a number of traits, which included aggression, warfare and valor;
also, serenity, prudence and patience.

Born to Jamadagni and Renuka, Parashurama was foretold to appear at
a time when overwhelming evil prevailed on the earth. The Kshatriya
class, with weapons and power, had begun to abuse their power, take
what belonged to others by force and tyrannise people. He corrected the
cosmic equilibrium by destroying the Kshatriya warriors twenty-one times.
He is married to Dharani, an incarnation of Lakshmi, the wife of Vishnu.
He is also the Guru of Bhishma, Dronacharya and Karna.


Rama was born to Kaushalya and Dasharatha in Ayodhya, the
ruler of the Kingdom of Kosala. His siblings included
Lakshmana, Bharata, and Shatrughna. He married Sita. Though
born in a royal family, their life is described in the Hindu texts as
one challenged by unexpected changes such as an exile into
impoverished and difficult circumstances, ethical questions and
moral dilemmas.[8] Of all their travails, the most notable is the
kidnapping of Sita by demon-king Ravana, followed by the
determined and epic efforts of Rama and Lakshmana to gain
her freedom and destroy the evil Ravana against great odds.
The entire life story of Rama, Sita and their companions
allegorically discusses duties, rights and social responsibilities
of an individual. It illustrates dharma and dharmic living through
model characters.

Rama is especially important to Vaishnavism. He is the central
figure of the ancient Hindu epic Ramayana, a text historically
popular in the South Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. His
ancient legends have attracted bhasya (commentaries) and
extensive secondary literature and inspired performance arts.


Krishna, Sanskrit Kṛṣṇa, one of the most widely revered and most popular of all
Indian divinities, worshipped as the eighth incarnation (avatar, or avatara) of the
Hindu god Vishnu and also as a supreme god in his own right. Krishna became
the focus of numerous bhakti (devotional) cults, which have over the centuries
produced a wealth of religious poetry, music, and painting. The basic sources of
Krishna’s mythology are the epic Mahabharata and its 5th-century-CE appendix,
the Harivamsha, and the Puranas, particularly Books X and XI of the
Bhagavata-purana. They relate how Krishna (literally “black,” or “dark as a
cloud”) was born into the Yadava clan, the son of Vasudeva and Devaki, who
was the sister of Kamsa, the wicked king of Mathura (in modern Uttar Pradesh).
Kamsa, hearing a prophecy that he would be destroyed by Devaki’s child, tried
to slay her children, but Krishna was smuggled across the Yamuna River to
Gokula (or Vraja, modern Gokul), where he was raised by the leader of the
cowherds, Nanda, and his wife YashodaThe child Krishna was adored for his
mischievous pranks; he also performed many miracles and slew demons. As a
youth, the cowherd Krishna became renowned as a lover, the sound of his flute
prompting the gopis (wives and daughters of the cowherds) to leave their homes
to dance ecstatically with him


he Buddha has been a formative force in the origins of Hinduism. Regional Hindu
texts over the centuries have presented a spectrum of views on Buddhism,
possibly reflecting the competition between Buddhism and the Brahmanical
traditions.In the Vaishnavite sect of Hinduism, the historic Buddha or Gautama
Buddha, is the ninth avatar among the ten major avatars of the god Vishnu.In
contemporary Hinduism the Buddha is revered by Hindus who usually consider
"Buddhism to be another form of Hinduism". Similarly, other Hindus reject the
identification of Gautama Buddha as an avatar of Vishnu, referring to the texts of
the Puranas and identifying the two as different individuals.The Buddha was
integrated into Vaishnavism through its mythology in the Vaishnava Puranas,
where the Buddha is adopted as the ninth avatar of VishThe adoption of the
Buddha in texts relating to Hindu gods, and of Hindu gods in Buddhist texts, is
difficult to place chronologically. According to Doniger, the myth of the Buddha
avatar first appeared in the pre-Gupta period, when orthodox Brahminism was
threatened by the success of Buddhism and Jainism, and by foreign invaders.
According to Doniger, "Hindus came to regard the Buddha as an avatar of Vishnu
between and the sixth century," first appearing in the Vishnu Purana.] According
to John Holt, "The replacement of the Buddha as the "cosmic person" within the
mythic ideology of Indian kingship occurred at about the same time the Buddha
was incorporated and subordinated within the Brahmanical cult of Visnu.


Venkateswara literally means "Lord of Venkata".The word is a combination
of the words Venkata (the name of a hill in Andhra Pradesh) and isvara
("Lord"). According to the Brahmanda and Bhavishyottara Puranas, the
word "Venkata" means "destroyer of sins", deriving from the Sanskrit words
vem (sins) and kata (power of immunity).

It is also said that 'Venkata' is a combination of two words: 'ven' (keeps
away) and 'kata' (troubles). Being that said Venkata means 'who keeps
away troubles' or 'who takes away problems' or any other sentence in
similar context.There is a great legend behind this incarnation of Lord
Vishnu. Once, there was a ritual to be conducted. The sages and pontiffs for
the Yagya were in a dilemma as to which God to dedicate the ritual to. The
sages called upon Sage Bhrigu, one of the Saptarishis to suggest a solution.
To test the ideal God, Bhrigu did a test. He first went to King of Gods, Indra.
Indra did not acknowledge Bhrigu's presence but was busy in enjoying the
dance of apsaras in heaven. Bhrigu cursed Indra that he would only be
referred to as an egoistic soul all over the universe. He next visited Brahma.


Kalkin, also called Kalki, final avatar (incarnation) of the Hindu god Vishnu,
who is yet to appear. At the end of the present Kali yuga (age), when
virtue and dharma have disappeared and the world is ruled by the unjust,
Kalkin will appear to destroy the wicked and to usher in a new age. He will
be seated on a white horse with a naked sword in his hand, blazing like a
comet. He is less commonly represented in painting and sculpture than
the other avatars of Vishnu and is shown either on horseback or
accompanied by his horse. According to some legends of the end of the
world, Kalkin’s horse will stamp the earth with its right foot, causing the
tortoise which supports the world to drop into the deep. Then the gods will
restore the earth once again to its former purity.Kalki is described in the
Puranas as the avatar who rejuvenates existence by ending the darkest
and destructive period to remove adharma and ushering in the Satya
Yuga, while riding a white horse with a fiery sword. The description and
details of Kalki are different among various Puranas. Kalki is also found in
Buddhist texts: For example the Kalachakra-Tantra of Tibetan Buddhism.

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