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Published by roja1406, 2021-12-30 11:27:41

Module myDLP SPS

How can I apply

Scientific Skills in


an Experiment?





























Clear Explanation


Answering Technique


Enrichment Practice
WRITTEN BY,


RAJATHI D/O

RAMAYAH


SK GOPENG JALAN

ILMU






1

INTRODUCTION






Science process skills are described as the ability used by scientists used
during their work, and the competencies displayed in solving scientific
problems. Scientists work by testing ideas with evidence through scientific

methods and involving the efficient use of the SPSs.

The purpose of science education is to enable individuals to use scientific

process skills; in other words, to be able to define the problems around
them, to observe, to analyse, to hypothesize, to experiment, to conclude, to
generalize, and to apply the information they have with the necessary
skills. This book guides the students on how to apply Scientific process

skills (SPS) include skills that every individual could use in each step of
his/her daily life by being scientifically literate and increasing the quality

and standard of life by comprehending the nature of science. At the same
time, the SPS are a necessary tool to produce and use scientific
information, to perform scientific research, and to solve problems.


Scientific attitudes here are honesty, collaboration, discipline,
responsibility, open-mindedness. Scientific process skills here are:
classifying, making a question, identifying and controlling variables,

measuring, and inferring.

The scientific method is best suited to solving problems without direct or
simple answers. For example, a light bulb that burns out may simply need

to be replaced.






















2

3

4

5

Basic





















Defining

Operationally


Interpreting Controlling
Data Variables













Hypothesising
Experimenting





















6

7

OBSERVING
















































Teacher Raji : Aina, what do you observe?


Aina : Teacher, I observed a plant is growing.


Teacher Raji : How do you define that the plant is growing?


Aina : The height of plant is increases day by day.


Teacher Raji : Do the plant has flower and fruit?


Aina : The plant has no flower but has a fruit.


Teacher Raji : How do you know that?


Aina : I use my sense of sight to see that.

Teacher Raji : Very Good !







8

CLASSIFYING































Teacher Raji : Amir, how many plants are there?


Amir : I observed there are two different plants.


Teacher Raji : Is the two plants have the same characteristics?


Amir : No. Both plants have different characteristics.


Teacher Raji : Do the plant can classify into same group?


Amir : No. The plants classify into different group. I

can classify the plants according the type of leaf, root ,
flowering or non-flowering and woody stem or non-woody stem.


Plants



Netted Vein Parallel Vein






Hibiscus Plants Banana tree 9

MEASURING AND

USING NUMBERS































Teacher Raji : Amir and Aina what you both are doing?


Amir : We are measuring the plant.


Teacher Raji : Measuring the plant? What do you mean by that?


Aina : Ooppss.. Measuring the height of the plant.


Teacher Raji : Okie. What is the tool do you use to measure


the height of the plant?


Amir : We are using ruler to measure the height of the


plant.


Teacher Raji : Good. What is the height of the plant?


Aina : The height of the plant is 7 cm.


Teacher Raji : Good Job.











10

MAKING INFERENCE






































Teacher Raji : Fakhira, what do you observe?


Fakhira : The plant kept inside a closed box is wilt and dead.


Teacher Raji : Can you make inference why do the plant is dead?


Fakhira : The plant is wilt and dead because the plant not


get enough sunlight.


Teacher Raji : Why do the plant cannot get the sunlight?


Fakhira : Because the plant is kept inside a closed box and


the sunlight can’t get into the box.


Teacher Raji : Very Good.













11

PREDICTING






































Teacher Raji : Rayyan, what do you observe?

Rayyan : A boy is watering the plants.


Teacher Raji : Can you predict the condition of the plant after a


few days?


Rayyan : The plant will grow taller and healthily.


Teacher Raji : How do you ensure that the plant will grow


healthily?


Rayyan : The plant gets enough basic needs such as water,


sunlight and air.


Teacher Raji : Very Good.










12

COMMUNICATING




























Day 3 Day 5 Day 7 Day 9


Teacher Raji : Abi, how do you describe or express the ideas in

the diagram to the entire class?


Abi : No problem teacher. I will express my ideas in many

forms such as orally, sketches, in writing or with graphs and

combine the forms.


Teacher Raji : Okie. You may explain to your friends.


Abi : I will use graph and writing form to explain about

the diagram.



6 5 The height of plant change over
HEIGHT OF PLANT 4 3 2 The plant growing taller.

time.





0 1
3 5 7 9
DAY

Teacher Raji : Well done Abi.







13

CONTROLLING VARIABLES








Before
Experiment













During
Experiment








After
Experiment





Teacher Raji : Auni, what are the variables do you define in an

experiment?


Auni : There are 3 variables which are constant variable,

manipulated variable and responding variable.


Teacher Raji : Yes correct. Can you specify the constant variable

from the diagram?


Auni : The constant variable is identical pots. Same type
of pots are using in both investigation.


Teacher Raji : Can you specify the manipulated variable from the

diagram?









14

CONTROLLING VARIABLES











Teacher Raji : Can you specify the manipulated variable from the

diagram?


Auni : The manipulated variable is presence of fertilizer.
There is add fertilizer in the experiment pot meanwhile no


fertilizer added in the test pot.

Teacher Raji : Yes that’s right. Usually manipulated variable is

shown not same. Can you specify the responding variable from the

diagram?


Auni : The responding variable is the plant growth. This is

the result of the experiment. The plant in the pot added fertilizer

grow healthily and flowering meanwhile the other pot does not

grow healthily.



























15

DEFINING OPERATIONALLY




































Teacher Raji : Amar, what do you observed in the experiment?


Amar : The plant grow taller and produce flower.


Teacher Raji : What is change in the investigation?


Amar : The height of plant.


Teacher Raji : What do you define when observe the plant grow


taller?


Amar : The plant gets sufficient water, air, sunlight and


fertilizer for grow.


Teacher Raji : Good.


Amar : Plant growth is a process that shown by the height


of plant.








16

FORMULATING HYPOTHESIS



































Teacher Raji : Harleen, what do you observe in the diagram?


Harleen : The plant U is kept in a box.

Teacher Raji : What do you think will happen to the plant T and


U after 2 weeks?


Harleen : The plant T will grow healthily meanwhile plant U


will wilt and die.


Teacher Raji : Why this condition is happen?


Harleen : The plant T gets enough sunlight meanwhile plant


U not get sunlight because it kept in a box.


Teacher Raji : Good Harleen.











17

INTERPRETING DATA
























DAY 3 5 7 9 11
WITH FERTILIZER 2 8 10 12 15
WITHOUT
FERTILIZER 1 3 5 6 8




Teacher Raji : Amsyar, what do you obeserved in the diagram?


Amsyar : The plant height increases while day increases with


using fertilizer.


Teacher Raji : How do you interpret the following data?


Amsyar : I will show the data in graph form. This is my answer.



Plant Growth

20
Height of Plant 10 5
15





0
3 5 7 9 11
Day


WITH FERTILIZER WITHOUT FERTILIZER







18

Using Space and Time


Relationship





































Teacher Raji : Dhivya, what do you observe in the diagram?


Dhivya : The plant grow taller and release oxygen.


Teacher Raji : What do you think will happen after two weeks?


Dhivya : The plant release oxygen in big quantity while it


grow taller day by day.

Teacher Raji : Why do you think this condition is happen?


Dhivya : The plant T gets enough air, water and sunlight to


continue alive.


Teacher Raji : Good Dhivya.













19

EXPERIMENTING





































Teacher Raji : Amir, what do you observe in the diagram?


Amir : A plant in different condition.


Teacher Raji : What do you think will happen after a week?

Amir : The plant has water and sunlight will grow healthily


meanwhile the plant has lack of water and sunlight


will wilt and die.


Teacher Raji : What the basic needs should need by a plant to


grow healthily?


Amir : A plant need air, water and sunlight to continue


alive.


Teacher Raji : Good Amir.







20

21

Purpose / State the Problem:

Clearly state what your problem is

Background / Observation:

1. What do you already know about the topic from textbook and research?
2. What observation have you made that relate to the topic? It could even be a
behaviour that you have observed but do not understand.

Formulate a Hypothesis:


If independent variable, Then dependent variable…

Design the experiment. Must Include!...

1. Constants
2. Independent variable. – Can it be reasonably tested?
3. Dependent variable
4. Control group
5. Experimental group
6. Sample size – Bigger is better
7. Steps of procedure
8. Verification
9. Possible sources of error

Data Table / Graph

1. Number / Title
2. Units
3. Graph – Label / Axes !



Conclusion:


Was your hypothesis right? EXPLAIN based on your data














22

23

24

25

An experiment was conducted to test in which jar the cockroach is still alive
after 3 days. The same size two jars have same type animal. Answer the

following questions based on the diagram.


























1. What do you observe after 3 days from the investigation?
Observe that cockroach in Jar A still alive meanwhile cockroach
in Jar B is die.


2. State the variables in the investigation.
2.1 Constant Variable – Size of jar, type of animal
2.2 Manipulated variable - Hole on jar top
2.3 Responding Variable - Condition of the cockroach


3. What is the inference for your answer in (1)?
Because the cockroach in Jar A gets air and it can breathe air
through holes.



4. Write a conclusion based on the investigation.

All living things need air to breathe and continue alive.








26

27

1. What is the aim of this investigation?
The aim is to observe number of butterflies landing on flowers
affected by the size of the flowers.


2. State the variables in the investigation.
2.1 Constant variable - Type of flower and sugar water level
2.2 Manipulated variable - Size of flower
2.3 Responding variable - Number of butterflies landing on

Flowers



3. Based on observation, in which flower more butterflies landing after
3 hours?

Flower J

4. What is the inference for your answer in (3)?
Because the size of flower is bigger.


5. What is the relationship between dependent and interdependent
variables?
The number of butterflies landing on flowers is increases while
the size of flower is increases.


6. Draw a bar chart using the observation record.

Number of butterflies landing on flower with Size of
Flower

12
Number of butterflies 8
10


6
4
2
0
J K L M
Type of Flower

number of butterflies landing on flower 1st hour
number of butterflies landing on flower 2nd hour

number of butterflies landing on flower 3rd hour





28

The diagram below shows the condition of the sea water.

1. State the inference from the situation.

People throw rubbishes everywhere and this causing water pollution.




2. What is your prediction based on the diagram above?

Living things in the sea will die.




3. What is the hypothesis in this investigation?

The number of living things death increases when number of

rubbishes increases day by day.













29

1. The table below shows Sharmilah’s chest movement during some activities.








a. What is the aim of this investigation?

_______________________________________________________________________________________
b. Give a reason for Sharmilah’s chest movement during running.

________________________________________________________________________________________

c. State:
i. What is change (manipulated variable):________________________

ii. What is observe (responding variable): ________________________

iii. What is kept the same (constant variable):_____________________


d. What is the chest movement?


____________________________________________________________________________________
e. Which activity need more energy?


____________________________________________________________________________________
f. What can you observe about chest movement before and after the
activities?

____________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________











30

2. Diagram shows an experiment that was carried out by Irfan. He fixed the
position of the torch and the screen. A ball is placed between the torch and

the screen.




















a. What is the aim of this experiment?

____________________________________________________________________________________


b. Make observations for the following activities.
i. When the ball was moved nearer to the torch.

_____________________________________________________________________________

ii. When the ball was moved further from the torch.

_____________________________________________________________________________
c. State the relationship between the distance between the object and
the torch and the size of the shadow.


____________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________

d. Based on the following experiment, state the following:
i. What is kept the same: ______________________________
ii. What is change: ______________________________________

iii. What is measure : ___________________________________











31

3. Diagram shows an investigation carried out by Azizah. The temperature of a
beaker of boiled water is recorded every 5 minutes.





















Table shows the result of this investigation.


Time (minute) 0 5 10 15 20
Temperature of the water 100 90 80 70 60



a. What is the purpose of this investigation.

____________________________________________________________________________________


b. What is the trend the temperature of the water.

____________________________________________________________________________________


c. State the relationship between the time and the temperature of the
water.

____________________________________________________________________________________


d. Predict the temperature of the water at 30 minutes.

___________________________________________________________________________________


e. State the following :
i. What is changed: ___________________________________

ii. What is measured: _________________________________




32

4. Diagram shows an investigation that is carried out by Deepa. Air is pumped

into a balloon using an air pump.






















Table shows the circumference of the balloon after a few pumps.

Number of pumps 1 2 3 4 5

The circumference of the balloon 4 8 12 16 20



a. What can you say about the circumference of the balloon based on the

result in the table above?



__________________________________________________________________________________

b. What is measured in this investigation?




__________________________________________________________________________________

c. Make a conclusion for this investigation.



____________________________________________________________________________________












33

5. The table below shows two different ways used by two pupils, Akmal and
Firdaus to move a box weighing 25 KG to a higher floor.





























Akmal Firdaus


a. State the difference in effort used by pupils.

____________________________________________________________________________________

b. What is the importance of a pulley based on the answer (a).


____________________________________________________________________________________

c. Predict what will happen if the pulley had not been invented.


____________________________________________________________________________________























34


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