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## ELECTRICAL SAFETY-SCIENCE FOLIO

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# ELECTRICAL SAFETY-SCIENCE FOLIO

### ELECTRICAL SAFETY-SCIENCE FOLIO

electrical
safety

project based learning

NAME: Chan Di En
CLASS: 3A6
YEAR: 2021
TEACHER: Pn. Chan Yoke Bee

Content Page

Project Based Learning

Causes of Short Circuits

-page 1&2

Causes of Electrical Accidents

-page 3~5

Safety Measures When Using Electrical
Appliances

-page 6~9

Steps to be Taken When An Electric
Shock Occurs

-page 10~15

CAUSES OF SHORT
CIRCUITS

Starting from the basic...

WHAT IS A SHORT
CIRCUIT AND WHY
DOES IT OCCUR?

It is a name given to a
particular electrical fault,

which happens when the
electric current does not pass
through all of the wiring, and

This happens because the electricity
always wants to go back into the ground,

and will take the most direct route,
including through a human being! By taking
a shorter route, more electricity will pass
through these wires, and may even flow

at unexpected places.

1

So...What causes
short circuit?

There are 3 main reasons:

Reason 1: A fault with
the insulation

If the circuit wire insulation is faulty, the current
can then pass to neutral wire, causing a surge in
electricity and a short circuit. The circuit wire
insulation can be negatively effected by age and
use, as well as screws and animals like rats.

Reason 2: A fault with
the connections

A circuit needs strong connectors to keep the
current flowing. If the connector is loose,
electricity will be able to pass to either neutral
wire, or a grounded part of the circuit, causing a
short circuit.

Reason 3: A fault with
the appliances

When you plug an appliance into the circuit, it
becomes a circuit extension. And if the wiring is
faulty, this can short the whole circuit in your
property.

2

What are the causes of

electrical accidents?

Before that, let's look at the three main types of electrical accidents!

1. This occurs when an extremity such as a finger,
hand or arm is placed across an electric current.
Electric The body is a good conductor of electricity because
shock: it is mostly made up of water.

Mild Electric Shock Moderate Electric Shock Severe Electric Shock
It will leave a slight It will cause the muscles It will cause
tingling sensation. to contract and it may be respiratory or heart
difficult to pull away failure
from the electric current.

Electrical shock

2. Electrical burn

Electrical This occurs when severe electric shock causes tissue to
burn: burn. Electrical burns can be external or internal.
Internal burns occur when the electric current takes a
place through bone and burns deep tissue.

3. Electrical fires

Electrical This occurs when severe electric current ignites
fires: flammable materials. Electrical fires are extremely
dangerous because putting them out with water may
expose a person to a higher risk of electric shock.

3

ELECTRICAL
ACCIDENT CAUSES

Old
wiring

Beware! Electric
cords that
Loose run under
connectors carpeting

Beware!

Poor wiring Flammable
such as materials left
near exposed
substandard electrical wiring
wiring in the workplace

Beware! 4

MORE ELECTRICAL
ACCIDENT CAUSES

Is what I'm Read, refer and obey the
doing procedure!

correct? Disobey isolation procedure

is not isolation

competent

Beware!

Poor Presence Beware!
maintenance of GFCI

Non No GFCI at home
insulated
Lack of preventive
wire devices such as the

Ground Fault 5
Circuit Interrupter

Beware!

safety measures when using
electrical appliances

Number 1
Avoid water at all times when working with
electricity. Never touch or try repairing any
electrical equipment or circuits with wet
hands. It increases the conductivity of electric
current.

Number 2

Always be observant of warning signs such as
"Shock Risk" and follow the safety rules
established by the electrical code followed by the
country you’re in.

Number 3

If you are working on any receptacle at your Please do not switch
home, then always turn off the mains on the service panel!
beforehand. It is a good idea to put up a sign Thank you.
on the service panel so that nobody turns the
main switch ON by accident.

Electrical tester

Number 4

When an electric tester touches a Never try repairing energized equipment.
live or hot wire, the bulb inside the Always check that it is de-energized first by
tester lights up showing that an using a tester. Check all the wires, the outer
electrical current is flowing through metallic covering of the service panel and any
the respective wire. other hanging wires with an electrical tester

6

Number 5 How to solve this problem? Insulated gloves

Working outside with underground You can dig at the cable
cabling can be dangerous. The damp soil by hand while wearing
around the cable is a good conductor of insulated gloves as using a
electricity and ground faults are quite spade to dig at the cable
common in the case of underground can damage the wiring
cabling. easily.

Number 6

Never use equipment with
frayed cords, damaged
insulation or broken plugs

Oapnplyliaunsceeeslewchtriicchalare in
good condition!

Number 7

Know the wire code of

Examples of insulated tools

Number 8

Always use insulated tools
while working.

Number 9 Do not use steel or
Never use an aluminium or steel ladder if you
are working on any receptacle at height in your Use bamboo,
home. An electrical surge will ground you and wooden or a
the whole electric current will pass through fibreglass ladder
your body. Use a bamboo, wooden or a

7

To prevent from Number 10
getting burnt
Always take care while soldering your circuit
boards. Wear goggles and keep yourself away
from the fumes. Keep the solder iron in its
stand when not in use; it can get extremely hot
and can easily cause burns.

Number 11 Ground Fault
Circuit Interrupter
Always check all your GFCI’s once a month. A GFCI
(Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter) is a RCD (Residual
Current Device). They have become very common in
modern homes, especially damp areas like the bathroom
and kitchen, as they help avoid electrical shock hazards.
It is designed to disconnect quickly enough to avoid any
injury caused by over current or short circuit faults.

aHpcpiorrwcouptirotibasrteeelaefckutesrea?nor Number 12

Ns1ca5huco0ocrrrr%umetrnacaotiltfrleyictsluhyfsoieebtrslnee,pfocaorrtormfeeutdeasb.celCutciryaioarilntncceuugadil!gtaoatfeinst Always use a circuit breaker or fuse with
the appropriate current rating. Circuit
breakers and fuses are protection devices
that automatically disconnect the live wire
when a condition of short circuit or over
current occurs.

8

Electrical Accidents
Basic Preventions

Replacing old and
damaged wiring
Hiring a qualified
electrician
outlets
Not using frayed or
damaged electric cords

Using the proper wattage
light bulbs in light fixtures

Installing ground fault
circuit interrupters

9

STEPS TO BE TAKEN
WHEN AN ELECTRIC
OCCURS
SHOCK

1. Call 911 2. Separate the 3. Do CPR, if
person from the the necessary

current's source

4. Wait for 911 5. Follow up
to arrive
10

DETAILS OF THE STEPS

1. Call 911

Electrical shocks always need emergency
medical attention-even if the person seems to
be fine afterwards

2. Separate the Person From
Current's Source

To turn off power:
try unplugging the appliance if the plug is undamaged or shut
off power via circuit breaker, fuse box, or outside switcher

If you can't turn off power:
stand on something dry and
non-conductive, such as dry
newspapers, telephone book
or wooden board
Try to separate the person
from current using non-
conductive objects, such as
dry newspapers, telephone
book or rubber doormat

11

In other cases:

If high voltage lines are involved:
The local power company must shut them off.
Do not try to separate the person from current if you
feel a tingling sensation in your legs and lower body.
Hop on one foot to a safe place where you can wait for
lines to be disconnected.
If a power line falls on a car, instruct the passengers to
stay inside unless explosion or fire threatens.

2. Do Cardiopulmonary
Resuscitation (CPR), if necessary

When you can safely touch the person, do CPR if the person is not
breathing or does not have a pulse.

For a child, start CPR for children.

3. Check for other injuries

If the person is bleeding, apply pressure and elevate the wound if it's
in an arm or leg.
There may be a fracture if the shock caused the person to fall.
For burns, keep it cool and do not apply oil.

12

Following steps:

4. Wait for 911 to Arrive

Dial 911 for emergency help
and wait patiently at home.

A doctor will check the person for burns, fractures, dislocations and other
injuries.
An Electrocardiogram (ECG), blood tests, urine tests, Computed Tomography
(CT) scan or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) maybe necessary.
The person may be admitted to the hospital or a burn center.

Computed Tomography scan (CT) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

13

FSihrsotcAkiVdifcotrimElsectric

1 Don't touch
them!

Unplug the appliance or turn off 2
the power at the control panel.

If you can't turn off the power, use a

3 piece of wood, like a broom handle, dry
rope or dry clothing to separate the
victim from the power source.

Do not try to move a victim 4
touching a high voltage wire.
Call for emergency help.

Do not move the victim if there is a Should I
try moving
5 suspicion of neck or spine injuries
unless absolutely necessary. him?
Mouth resuscitation

reCsaursdciiotaptuilomno(nCaPryR) If the victim is not breathing, apply mouth-
mouth resuscitation. If the victim has no pulse,
begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). 14

6Then, cover the victim with a blanket to

maintain body heat, keep the victim's head
low and get medical attention.

FIRST AID KNOWLEDGE

First Aid for Electrical
Burn Victims

ELECTRICAL BURNS VARY IN SEVERITY DEPENDING ON:

1. How long the body is in contact with the electric current
2. The strength of the current
3. The type of the current
4. The direction the current takes through the body

STEPS DETAILS:

If a person has received an electrical burn,
check for shock and injuries.

If the person is conscious and there are no signs of
shock (such as being cold, clammy, pale and having

a rapid pulse), begin treating the burned area.

Do not apply grease or oil to the burn. Cover
the burn with a dry and sterile dressing, but do

not cool the burn.

Keep the victim from getting chilled. Seek
medical attention as soon as possible.

15

~The END~